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Promega mgcl2
Mgcl2, supplied by Promega, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 5456 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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Average 97 stars, based on 5456 article reviews
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mgcl2 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
97/100 stars

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Sequencing:

Article Title: TNFR1 single nucleotide polymorphisms are not associated with cervical HPV-induced pre-malignant lesion but regulate in situ cervical TNFR1 expression
Article Snippet: .. The Primer-BLAST tool from the NCBI database was used to design the specific primer of TNFR1 rs2234649 through its reference sequence (RefSeq) NG_007506.1: FW 5′-TTATTGCCCCTTGGTGTTTGGTTG-3′; RV 5′-TTGTGACGGAGTGAGAAGGGGAGG-3′ (Invitrogen® ); 100 mM of dNTP (Applied Biosystem® ); 25 mM of MgCl2 ; 2.5 µl of 5x buffer (Promega); 5U/µl of Taq DNA polymerase (Invitrogen® ). .. PCR was performed in Thermal Cycler (Applied Biosystems).

Concentration Assay:

Article Title: A Novel Target Pathogen Identification and Tracking System Using Capillary Electrophoresis-Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA
Article Snippet: .. The reaction mixture contained: primers (Supplementary Table ) at a 200 nM final concentration, 2 μl of 5× colorless buffer, 2.5 mM MgCl2 , 0.2 mM dNTP, 1 U of GoTaq DNA polymerase (Promega), 1 ng of plasmid DNA and enough ddH2 O for a total volume of 10 μl. .. The amplification program was as follows: 96 °C denaturing step for 2 min, then 30 cycles of 96 °C for 30 s, 68.7 °C for 15 s and 72 °C for 30 s. The PCR product was electrophoresis in TBE gel, and was visualization with SYBR Safe DNA dye staining.

Incubation:

Article Title: Molecular basis for the selective and ABA-independent inhibition of PP2CA by PYL13
Article Snippet: .. After incubation and equilibration in reaction buffer at 30 °C for 18 min (50 mM imidazole, pH 7.2, 5 mM MgCl2 , 0.2 mM EGTA and 0.1 mg/ml BSA), peptide substrate (supplied with the Promega kit) was added and allowed to react for 22 min, the reaction was stopped by adding 50 μl molybdate dye. .. The positive controls, i.e., the reactions with addition of BSA at the same molecular concentration as the indicated PYLs, were set as 100%.

Activity Assay:

Article Title: Structural explanation for the role of Mn2+ in the activity of ϕ6 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
Article Snippet: .. ϕ6 polymerase assay The replication activity of wt and E491Q polymerases was typically assayed in 10 μl reaction mixtures containing 50 mM HEPES–KOH, pH 7.5, 20 mM ammonium acetate, 6% (w/v) polyethylene glycol 4000, 5 mM MgCl2 , 2 mM MnCl2 , 0.1 mM EDTA, 0.1% Triton X-100, 0.2 mM UTP and CTP, 1 mM ATP and GTP, 0.8 U/μl RNasin (Promega) and 0.1 mCi/ml of [α-32 P]UTP (Amersham Biosciences, 3000 Ci/mmol). .. Reaction products were separated by standard agarose gel electrophoresis, dried on Whatman 3 filter paper followed by autoradiography and/or phosphoimaging (Fuji BAS1500 or FLA 5000) analysis of the product bands.

Polymerase Chain Reaction:

Article Title: Flor Yeast Diversity and Dynamics in Biologically Aged Wines
Article Snippet: .. PCR was performed in 40 μl of 1.5 mM MgCl2 , 0.2 mM dNTPs, 1 μM of each primer, 0.025 U of Taq polymerase (Promega Corp., Madison, WI, United States) and 100 ng of yeast DNA. .. A T100 thermal cycler (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, United States) was used with a program described elsewhere ( ).

Plasmid Preparation:

Article Title: A Novel Target Pathogen Identification and Tracking System Using Capillary Electrophoresis-Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA
Article Snippet: .. The reaction mixture contained: primers (Supplementary Table ) at a 200 nM final concentration, 2 μl of 5× colorless buffer, 2.5 mM MgCl2 , 0.2 mM dNTP, 1 U of GoTaq DNA polymerase (Promega), 1 ng of plasmid DNA and enough ddH2 O for a total volume of 10 μl. .. The amplification program was as follows: 96 °C denaturing step for 2 min, then 30 cycles of 96 °C for 30 s, 68.7 °C for 15 s and 72 °C for 30 s. The PCR product was electrophoresis in TBE gel, and was visualization with SYBR Safe DNA dye staining.

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  • 93
    Promega atp levels
    RIP1 Δ , a novel RIP1 kinase-dead mutation, abolishes TNF-induced necroptosis in vitro . ( a ) MDFs from Rip1 K45A/K45A , Rip1 Δ/Δ and control wild-type mice were treated as indicated for 3 h with DMSO, mouse TNF- α (100 ng/ml)+Smac mimetic (1 μ M)+zVAD (20 μ M) or mouse TNF- α +Smac mimetic+zVAD+Necrostatin-1(30 μ M), respectively. Cell lysates were collected and subjected to western blot analysis of RIP1, p-RIP1 and β -actin levels. ( b ) Autophosphorylation of RIP1 requires its kinase activity. Over expression constructs of Flag, Flag-tagged RIP1, RIP1 K45A and RIP1 Δ were transfected into 293T cells. Cell lysates were subjected to western blot analysis using the anti-p-RIP1 (S166) antibody. ( c ) Wild-type, Rip1 Δ/Δ and Rip3 −/− BMDMs were treated with DMSO, TZ and TZN (T:20 ng/ml, Z:20 μ M, N:30 μ M) for 12 h. Cell viability was determined by measuring intracellular <t>ATP</t> levels with a Cell <t>Titer-Glo</t> Luminescent Cell Viability Assay kit. Data are represented as the mean±S.E.M. of three independent experiments. ** P
    Atp Levels, supplied by Promega, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 141 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 93 stars, based on 141 article reviews
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    89
    Promega rnase h buffer
    <t>RNase</t> H activation by LNA/DNA and 2′- O -methyl gapmers. (Top) Results of RNase H assay. Full-length VR1 mRNA was incubated with a 5-fold excess of oligonucleotides in the presence of RNase H for 7.5 min at 37°C. Substrate (S) and cleavage products (P1 + P2) were separated on a 1.5% agarose gel and stained with ethidium bromide. Lane 1, control; lane 2, DNA 1; lane 3, LNA 9; lane 4, LNA 12; lane 5, LNA 13; lane 6, LNA 14; lane 7, LNA 15; lane 8, OMe 1; Lane 9, OMe 2; lane 10, OMe 3. (Bottom) Quantitative evaluation of the gel. All values are averages and standard deviations of at least three independent experiments and were normalized.
    Rnase H Buffer, supplied by Promega, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 89 stars, based on 1 article reviews
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    88
    Promega total cellular atp levels
    Mitochondrial Aerobic Metabolism Is Defective in PTPMT1 -Depleted LSK Cells BM cells were freshly harvested from PTPMT1 fl/fl /Mx1-Cre + and PTPMT1 +/+ /Mx1-Cre + mice (n = 4 or 5/group) 4 weeks following pI-pC treatment. <t>HSCs</t> were sorted. (A) Total DNA was extracted. Mitochondrial number was estimated by comparing mtDNA (Cytochrome B) levels to genomic DNA levels by quantitative PCR. (B) Total cellular <t>ATP</t> levels were determined using an ATP assay kit. (C) BM cells were immunostained with the antibodies recognizing HSC markers. Cells were then loaded with 2′-7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) (5 μM) for 15 min. Mean fluorescence intensity in the gated HSC population was quantified by FACS to determine ROS (H 2 O 2 ) levels. (D and E) LSK cells were sorted from PTPMT1 fl/fl /Mx1-Cre + and PTPMT1 +/+ /Mx1-Cre + mice (n = 3 or 4/group) 4 weeks following pI-pC treatment. Oxygen consumption rates (OCR) (D) and extracellular acidification rates (ECAR) (E) of live LSK cells were measured in the presence of the mitochondrial inhibitor (oligomycin, 350 nM), the uncoupling agent (FCCP, 5 μM), and the respiratory chain inhibitor (rotenone, 1 μM). **p
    Total Cellular Atp Levels, supplied by Promega, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    RIP1 Δ , a novel RIP1 kinase-dead mutation, abolishes TNF-induced necroptosis in vitro . ( a ) MDFs from Rip1 K45A/K45A , Rip1 Δ/Δ and control wild-type mice were treated as indicated for 3 h with DMSO, mouse TNF- α (100 ng/ml)+Smac mimetic (1 μ M)+zVAD (20 μ M) or mouse TNF- α +Smac mimetic+zVAD+Necrostatin-1(30 μ M), respectively. Cell lysates were collected and subjected to western blot analysis of RIP1, p-RIP1 and β -actin levels. ( b ) Autophosphorylation of RIP1 requires its kinase activity. Over expression constructs of Flag, Flag-tagged RIP1, RIP1 K45A and RIP1 Δ were transfected into 293T cells. Cell lysates were subjected to western blot analysis using the anti-p-RIP1 (S166) antibody. ( c ) Wild-type, Rip1 Δ/Δ and Rip3 −/− BMDMs were treated with DMSO, TZ and TZN (T:20 ng/ml, Z:20 μ M, N:30 μ M) for 12 h. Cell viability was determined by measuring intracellular ATP levels with a Cell Titer-Glo Luminescent Cell Viability Assay kit. Data are represented as the mean±S.E.M. of three independent experiments. ** P

    Journal: Cell Death and Differentiation

    Article Title: RIP1 kinase activity-dependent roles in embryonic development of Fadd-deficient mice

    doi: 10.1038/cdd.2017.78

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RIP1 Δ , a novel RIP1 kinase-dead mutation, abolishes TNF-induced necroptosis in vitro . ( a ) MDFs from Rip1 K45A/K45A , Rip1 Δ/Δ and control wild-type mice were treated as indicated for 3 h with DMSO, mouse TNF- α (100 ng/ml)+Smac mimetic (1 μ M)+zVAD (20 μ M) or mouse TNF- α +Smac mimetic+zVAD+Necrostatin-1(30 μ M), respectively. Cell lysates were collected and subjected to western blot analysis of RIP1, p-RIP1 and β -actin levels. ( b ) Autophosphorylation of RIP1 requires its kinase activity. Over expression constructs of Flag, Flag-tagged RIP1, RIP1 K45A and RIP1 Δ were transfected into 293T cells. Cell lysates were subjected to western blot analysis using the anti-p-RIP1 (S166) antibody. ( c ) Wild-type, Rip1 Δ/Δ and Rip3 −/− BMDMs were treated with DMSO, TZ and TZN (T:20 ng/ml, Z:20 μ M, N:30 μ M) for 12 h. Cell viability was determined by measuring intracellular ATP levels with a Cell Titer-Glo Luminescent Cell Viability Assay kit. Data are represented as the mean±S.E.M. of three independent experiments. ** P

    Article Snippet: Cell viability was determined by measuring ATP levels using Cell Titer-Glo kit (Promega, Madison, WI, USA).

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, In Vitro, Mouse Assay, Western Blot, Activity Assay, Over Expression, Construct, Transfection, Cell Viability Assay

    Rip1 Δ/Δ MDFs are more resistant to necroptosis than Rip1 K45A/K45A cells, while RIP1 Δ promotes spontaneous cells death in FADD -deficient MEFs. ( a ) MEFs with indicated genotypes were treated with DMSO, TNF (30 ng/ml) +Smac mimetic (10 nM), TNF+Smac mimetic+zVAD (20 μ M), TNF+Smac mimetic+zVAD+Nec-1 (30 μ M), respectively, for 24 h. Cell viability was determined by measuring intracellular ATP levels with a Cell Titer-Glo Luminescent Cell Viability Assay kit. ** P

    Journal: Cell Death and Differentiation

    Article Title: RIP1 kinase activity-dependent roles in embryonic development of Fadd-deficient mice

    doi: 10.1038/cdd.2017.78

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Rip1 Δ/Δ MDFs are more resistant to necroptosis than Rip1 K45A/K45A cells, while RIP1 Δ promotes spontaneous cells death in FADD -deficient MEFs. ( a ) MEFs with indicated genotypes were treated with DMSO, TNF (30 ng/ml) +Smac mimetic (10 nM), TNF+Smac mimetic+zVAD (20 μ M), TNF+Smac mimetic+zVAD+Nec-1 (30 μ M), respectively, for 24 h. Cell viability was determined by measuring intracellular ATP levels with a Cell Titer-Glo Luminescent Cell Viability Assay kit. ** P

    Article Snippet: Cell viability was determined by measuring ATP levels using Cell Titer-Glo kit (Promega, Madison, WI, USA).

    Techniques: Cell Viability Assay

    Kaempferol rescues cells against BFA induced cell death. ( a ) Screening for cytoprotective compounds (50 µM) against BFA (1 µg/ml) induced ER stress in IMR32 cell line. Cells were plated and pre-incubated with the test compounds (90 min) and treated with ER stress inducer BFA, incubated for 24 h. Cell viability was estimated by MTT assay. BFA: Brefeldin A; Withan: Withanone; With A: Withanaloide A; With B: Withanaloide B; kaemp: kaempferol; kaempG: Kaempfeol-3-O-robinbioside-7-O-glucoside; Bacop I: Bacopaside I; PEA: Palmitoylethanolamide; PBA: Phenyl Butyric acid; Sal: Salubrinal. ( b ) Confirmation of cytoprotective activity of kaempferol by measuring cellular ATP level using CellTitre Glo reagent. ( c ) Phase contrast images of IMR32 cells after BFA treatment in presence or absence of kaempferol pre-incubation. ( d–f ) Cytoprotective activity of kaempferol against BFA induced cell death in multiple cell lines with incubation time of 24 hours. Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay. ( g ) Inhibition of caspase 3/7 activation by kaempferol against BFA and CDDO-Me induced caspase 3/7 activation in IMR32 cells. Data represents mean ± SEM of experiment performed in triplicate (n = 3). Note: *Represents the significance between cell death inducer alone treated condition compared to kaempferol pre-treated condition, at p ≤ 0.05 (one way ANOVA).

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Kaempferol mitigates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induced Cell Death by targeting caspase 3/7

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-20499-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Kaempferol rescues cells against BFA induced cell death. ( a ) Screening for cytoprotective compounds (50 µM) against BFA (1 µg/ml) induced ER stress in IMR32 cell line. Cells were plated and pre-incubated with the test compounds (90 min) and treated with ER stress inducer BFA, incubated for 24 h. Cell viability was estimated by MTT assay. BFA: Brefeldin A; Withan: Withanone; With A: Withanaloide A; With B: Withanaloide B; kaemp: kaempferol; kaempG: Kaempfeol-3-O-robinbioside-7-O-glucoside; Bacop I: Bacopaside I; PEA: Palmitoylethanolamide; PBA: Phenyl Butyric acid; Sal: Salubrinal. ( b ) Confirmation of cytoprotective activity of kaempferol by measuring cellular ATP level using CellTitre Glo reagent. ( c ) Phase contrast images of IMR32 cells after BFA treatment in presence or absence of kaempferol pre-incubation. ( d–f ) Cytoprotective activity of kaempferol against BFA induced cell death in multiple cell lines with incubation time of 24 hours. Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay. ( g ) Inhibition of caspase 3/7 activation by kaempferol against BFA and CDDO-Me induced caspase 3/7 activation in IMR32 cells. Data represents mean ± SEM of experiment performed in triplicate (n = 3). Note: *Represents the significance between cell death inducer alone treated condition compared to kaempferol pre-treated condition, at p ≤ 0.05 (one way ANOVA).

    Article Snippet: The cytoprotective activity of kaempferol was confirmed by an orthogonal assay that measures the ATP level (CellTiter-Glo luminescent cell viability assay, Promega, India) and trypan blue dye exclusion assay as a surrogate for the cell viability (Fig. and Supplementary Figure 4a).

    Techniques: Incubation, MTT Assay, Activity Assay, Inhibition, Activation Assay

    RNase H activation by LNA/DNA and 2′- O -methyl gapmers. (Top) Results of RNase H assay. Full-length VR1 mRNA was incubated with a 5-fold excess of oligonucleotides in the presence of RNase H for 7.5 min at 37°C. Substrate (S) and cleavage products (P1 + P2) were separated on a 1.5% agarose gel and stained with ethidium bromide. Lane 1, control; lane 2, DNA 1; lane 3, LNA 9; lane 4, LNA 12; lane 5, LNA 13; lane 6, LNA 14; lane 7, LNA 15; lane 8, OMe 1; Lane 9, OMe 2; lane 10, OMe 3. (Bottom) Quantitative evaluation of the gel. All values are averages and standard deviations of at least three independent experiments and were normalized.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Design of antisense oligonucleotides stabilized by locked nucleic acids

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RNase H activation by LNA/DNA and 2′- O -methyl gapmers. (Top) Results of RNase H assay. Full-length VR1 mRNA was incubated with a 5-fold excess of oligonucleotides in the presence of RNase H for 7.5 min at 37°C. Substrate (S) and cleavage products (P1 + P2) were separated on a 1.5% agarose gel and stained with ethidium bromide. Lane 1, control; lane 2, DNA 1; lane 3, LNA 9; lane 4, LNA 12; lane 5, LNA 13; lane 6, LNA 14; lane 7, LNA 15; lane 8, OMe 1; Lane 9, OMe 2; lane 10, OMe 3. (Bottom) Quantitative evaluation of the gel. All values are averages and standard deviations of at least three independent experiments and were normalized.

    Article Snippet: The standard RNase H assay was performed as described previously ( ): 100 nM VR1 mRNA were incubated with a 5-fold excess of an antisense oligonucleotide in a total volume of 10 µl in RNase H buffer (40 mM Tris–HCl pH 7.2, 4 mM MgCl2 , 1 mM DTT, 150 mM NaCl and 1.25 U/µl RNasin; Promega, Madison, WI) for 7.5 min at 37°C in the presence of 0.4 U E.coli RNase H (Promega).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Rnase H Assay, Incubation, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Staining

    RNase H assays with a short RNA target. Lane 1, one base ladder produced by alkaline hydrolysis; lane 2, cleavage products after incubation with RNase T1; lane 3, 18mer RNA; lanes 4 and 5, products after incubation of target RNA with all DNA antisense oligonucleotide (DNA 1) in the presence of RNase H after 10 and 30 min, respectively; lanes 6 and 7, products after incubation of target RNA with end-block LNA/DNA/LNA oligonucleotide (LNA 17) in the presence of RNase H after 10 and 30 min; lanes 8 and 9, products after incubation of target RNA with LNA/DNA mixmer (LNA 9) in the presence of RNase H after 10 and 30 min; lanes 10 and 11, products after incubation of target RNA with phosphorothioate in the presence of RNase H after 10 and 30 min. For further details see text.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Design of antisense oligonucleotides stabilized by locked nucleic acids

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RNase H assays with a short RNA target. Lane 1, one base ladder produced by alkaline hydrolysis; lane 2, cleavage products after incubation with RNase T1; lane 3, 18mer RNA; lanes 4 and 5, products after incubation of target RNA with all DNA antisense oligonucleotide (DNA 1) in the presence of RNase H after 10 and 30 min, respectively; lanes 6 and 7, products after incubation of target RNA with end-block LNA/DNA/LNA oligonucleotide (LNA 17) in the presence of RNase H after 10 and 30 min; lanes 8 and 9, products after incubation of target RNA with LNA/DNA mixmer (LNA 9) in the presence of RNase H after 10 and 30 min; lanes 10 and 11, products after incubation of target RNA with phosphorothioate in the presence of RNase H after 10 and 30 min. For further details see text.

    Article Snippet: The standard RNase H assay was performed as described previously ( ): 100 nM VR1 mRNA were incubated with a 5-fold excess of an antisense oligonucleotide in a total volume of 10 µl in RNase H buffer (40 mM Tris–HCl pH 7.2, 4 mM MgCl2 , 1 mM DTT, 150 mM NaCl and 1.25 U/µl RNasin; Promega, Madison, WI) for 7.5 min at 37°C in the presence of 0.4 U E.coli RNase H (Promega).

    Techniques: Produced, Incubation, Blocking Assay

    Mitochondrial Aerobic Metabolism Is Defective in PTPMT1 -Depleted LSK Cells BM cells were freshly harvested from PTPMT1 fl/fl /Mx1-Cre + and PTPMT1 +/+ /Mx1-Cre + mice (n = 4 or 5/group) 4 weeks following pI-pC treatment. HSCs were sorted. (A) Total DNA was extracted. Mitochondrial number was estimated by comparing mtDNA (Cytochrome B) levels to genomic DNA levels by quantitative PCR. (B) Total cellular ATP levels were determined using an ATP assay kit. (C) BM cells were immunostained with the antibodies recognizing HSC markers. Cells were then loaded with 2′-7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) (5 μM) for 15 min. Mean fluorescence intensity in the gated HSC population was quantified by FACS to determine ROS (H 2 O 2 ) levels. (D and E) LSK cells were sorted from PTPMT1 fl/fl /Mx1-Cre + and PTPMT1 +/+ /Mx1-Cre + mice (n = 3 or 4/group) 4 weeks following pI-pC treatment. Oxygen consumption rates (OCR) (D) and extracellular acidification rates (ECAR) (E) of live LSK cells were measured in the presence of the mitochondrial inhibitor (oligomycin, 350 nM), the uncoupling agent (FCCP, 5 μM), and the respiratory chain inhibitor (rotenone, 1 μM). **p

    Journal: Cell stem cell

    Article Title: Metabolic Regulation by the Mitochondrial Phosphatase PTPMT1 Is Required for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation

    doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2012.11.022

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mitochondrial Aerobic Metabolism Is Defective in PTPMT1 -Depleted LSK Cells BM cells were freshly harvested from PTPMT1 fl/fl /Mx1-Cre + and PTPMT1 +/+ /Mx1-Cre + mice (n = 4 or 5/group) 4 weeks following pI-pC treatment. HSCs were sorted. (A) Total DNA was extracted. Mitochondrial number was estimated by comparing mtDNA (Cytochrome B) levels to genomic DNA levels by quantitative PCR. (B) Total cellular ATP levels were determined using an ATP assay kit. (C) BM cells were immunostained with the antibodies recognizing HSC markers. Cells were then loaded with 2′-7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) (5 μM) for 15 min. Mean fluorescence intensity in the gated HSC population was quantified by FACS to determine ROS (H 2 O 2 ) levels. (D and E) LSK cells were sorted from PTPMT1 fl/fl /Mx1-Cre + and PTPMT1 +/+ /Mx1-Cre + mice (n = 3 or 4/group) 4 weeks following pI-pC treatment. Oxygen consumption rates (OCR) (D) and extracellular acidification rates (ECAR) (E) of live LSK cells were measured in the presence of the mitochondrial inhibitor (oligomycin, 350 nM), the uncoupling agent (FCCP, 5 μM), and the respiratory chain inhibitor (rotenone, 1 μM). **p

    Article Snippet: To determine total cellular ATP levels, live HSCs (Lineage− Sca-1+ c-Kit+ CD150+ CD48− ) were sorted into PBS and assessed using a CellTiter-Glo® Luminescent Cell Viability Assay kit (Promega Corporation, Madison, WI), which is a homogeneous method to determine the number of viable cells in culture based on quantitation of the ATP present.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, ATP Assay, Fluorescence, FACS