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  • 99
    R&D Systems fgf2
    C3a induces proliferation and increases the number of retinal progenitors during chick retina regeneration. ( a ) BrdU incorporation shown in the anterior (A) and posterior (P) regions of the regenerating retina from the CM 3 and 7 days (d) PR, and after induction with C3a-p. (Please refer to the eye schematic in Supplementary Fig. S1a for localization of the anterior and posterior regions). The RPE and PE sometimes dissociate from the regenerating retina and from the CM, and for this reason, they are not visible in all images. The scale bar in the last panel represents 20 μm and applies to all panels. BrdU incorporation in the regenerating retina after treatment with <t>FGF2</t> is shown for comparison. ( b ) Quantitative analysis of the number of BrdU + cells shows that there are significantly more BrdU + cells in the posterior region of the regenerating retina in C3a-p-treated eyes than in FGF2-treated eyes ( P =0.03 at 3d PR and P =0.007 at 7d PR; n =5 different eyes). A two-tailed permutation test was used for statistical analysis. Error bars represent s.e.m. The mean number of BrdU + cells for each treatment is given in Supplementary Table S8 . ( c ) Immunohistochemical staining using antibodies against Pax-6 (green) and Chx-10 (red) shows the number of retinal progenitor cells present in the anterior region (A) of eyes treated with C3a-p at 3 and 7d PR. Co-expression of both Pax-6/Chx-10 is indicative of retinal progenitor cells (yellow). The number of progenitors in FGF2-treated eyes is shown for comparison. The scale bar in the last panel represents 20 μm and applies to all panels. ( d ) Quantitative analysis of ( c ) shows that there is a significant increase in the number of progenitors in the anterior region of the regenerated retina in eyes treated with C3a-p when compared with eyes treated with FGF2 at both time points ( P =0.008 at 3d PR and P =0.006 at 7d PR; n =5 different eyes). A two-tailed permutation test was used for statistical analysis. Error bars represent s.e.m. The mean number of Chx-10/Pax-6 immunopositive cells along, with s.e.m. and range is given in Supplementary Table S8 . * P
    Fgf2, supplied by R&D Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology vegf a
    Degree of hypoxia differentially regulated the adipose derived stem cell (ASC) paracrine factor profile. Expression levels of the vascular endothelial growth factor-A <t>(VEGF-A)</t> (A) , VEGF-C (B) , angiogenin (ANG) (D) , and interleukin-8 (IL-8) (E) were upregulated
    Vegf A, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    R&D Systems vegf
    Degree of hypoxia differentially regulated the adipose derived stem cell (ASC) paracrine factor profile. Expression levels of the vascular endothelial growth factor-A <t>(VEGF-A)</t> (A) , VEGF-C (B) , angiogenin (ANG) (D) , and interleukin-8 (IL-8) (E) were upregulated
    Vegf, supplied by R&D Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Cell Signaling Technology Inc vegfr2
    Deletion of p75 NTR preserved hypoxia-induced VEGF expression and <t>VEGFR2</t> activation. ( A ) Representative Western blotting and bar graph of retinal VEGF protein expression from WT and p75 NTR−/− pups exposed to OIR at p14. Two-way ANOVA showed significant effect of hypoxia increasing VEGF both in WT and p75 NTR−/− pups (*significant compared to WT normoxic group, p
    Vegfr2, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Anti Bovine VEGF A RABBIT Antibody 200 401 B74
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    N/A
    RayBio Porcine Immunoquantitative PCR Based VEGF A ELISA Kit for cell culture supernatants plasma and serum samples
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    Image Search Results


    C3a induces proliferation and increases the number of retinal progenitors during chick retina regeneration. ( a ) BrdU incorporation shown in the anterior (A) and posterior (P) regions of the regenerating retina from the CM 3 and 7 days (d) PR, and after induction with C3a-p. (Please refer to the eye schematic in Supplementary Fig. S1a for localization of the anterior and posterior regions). The RPE and PE sometimes dissociate from the regenerating retina and from the CM, and for this reason, they are not visible in all images. The scale bar in the last panel represents 20 μm and applies to all panels. BrdU incorporation in the regenerating retina after treatment with FGF2 is shown for comparison. ( b ) Quantitative analysis of the number of BrdU + cells shows that there are significantly more BrdU + cells in the posterior region of the regenerating retina in C3a-p-treated eyes than in FGF2-treated eyes ( P =0.03 at 3d PR and P =0.007 at 7d PR; n =5 different eyes). A two-tailed permutation test was used for statistical analysis. Error bars represent s.e.m. The mean number of BrdU + cells for each treatment is given in Supplementary Table S8 . ( c ) Immunohistochemical staining using antibodies against Pax-6 (green) and Chx-10 (red) shows the number of retinal progenitor cells present in the anterior region (A) of eyes treated with C3a-p at 3 and 7d PR. Co-expression of both Pax-6/Chx-10 is indicative of retinal progenitor cells (yellow). The number of progenitors in FGF2-treated eyes is shown for comparison. The scale bar in the last panel represents 20 μm and applies to all panels. ( d ) Quantitative analysis of ( c ) shows that there is a significant increase in the number of progenitors in the anterior region of the regenerated retina in eyes treated with C3a-p when compared with eyes treated with FGF2 at both time points ( P =0.008 at 3d PR and P =0.006 at 7d PR; n =5 different eyes). A two-tailed permutation test was used for statistical analysis. Error bars represent s.e.m. The mean number of Chx-10/Pax-6 immunopositive cells along, with s.e.m. and range is given in Supplementary Table S8 . * P

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Complement anaphylatoxin C3a is a potent inducer of embryonic chick retina regeneration

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms3312

    Figure Lengend Snippet: C3a induces proliferation and increases the number of retinal progenitors during chick retina regeneration. ( a ) BrdU incorporation shown in the anterior (A) and posterior (P) regions of the regenerating retina from the CM 3 and 7 days (d) PR, and after induction with C3a-p. (Please refer to the eye schematic in Supplementary Fig. S1a for localization of the anterior and posterior regions). The RPE and PE sometimes dissociate from the regenerating retina and from the CM, and for this reason, they are not visible in all images. The scale bar in the last panel represents 20 μm and applies to all panels. BrdU incorporation in the regenerating retina after treatment with FGF2 is shown for comparison. ( b ) Quantitative analysis of the number of BrdU + cells shows that there are significantly more BrdU + cells in the posterior region of the regenerating retina in C3a-p-treated eyes than in FGF2-treated eyes ( P =0.03 at 3d PR and P =0.007 at 7d PR; n =5 different eyes). A two-tailed permutation test was used for statistical analysis. Error bars represent s.e.m. The mean number of BrdU + cells for each treatment is given in Supplementary Table S8 . ( c ) Immunohistochemical staining using antibodies against Pax-6 (green) and Chx-10 (red) shows the number of retinal progenitor cells present in the anterior region (A) of eyes treated with C3a-p at 3 and 7d PR. Co-expression of both Pax-6/Chx-10 is indicative of retinal progenitor cells (yellow). The number of progenitors in FGF2-treated eyes is shown for comparison. The scale bar in the last panel represents 20 μm and applies to all panels. ( d ) Quantitative analysis of ( c ) shows that there is a significant increase in the number of progenitors in the anterior region of the regenerated retina in eyes treated with C3a-p when compared with eyes treated with FGF2 at both time points ( P =0.008 at 3d PR and P =0.006 at 7d PR; n =5 different eyes). A two-tailed permutation test was used for statistical analysis. Error bars represent s.e.m. The mean number of Chx-10/Pax-6 immunopositive cells along, with s.e.m. and range is given in Supplementary Table S8 . * P

    Article Snippet: For FGF2-treated eyes, heparin beads containing FGF2 were prepared by incubating 20 heparin beads in 25 ng of FGF2 (R & D Systems, Minneapolis, MN) for 1 h at 4 °C and then added to the vitreous chamber.

    Techniques: BrdU Incorporation Assay, Two Tailed Test, Immunohistochemistry, Staining, Expressing

    C3a-p regenerates a retina from the CM with all retinal cell types present. ( a ) Immunohistochemical staining using antibodies against cell-specific markers at 7 days (d) PR. Retinal cell types in a developmentally equivalent eye (E11) as well as retinal cell types regenerated in response to FGF2 are shown for comparison. Pax-6 (green) is a specific marker for ganglion (GC), amacrine (AC) and horizontal cells (HC); Chx-10 (red) is a specific marker for bipolar cells (BC). Napa-73 (red) is specific for ganglion cell axons and Brn-3a (green) is specific for GC. Vimentin is specific for Müller glia (MG) cells, AP-2 is specific for AC and visinin is specific for photoreceptors (PR). Images are sections from the posterior region of the eye (see Supplementary Fig. S1a for eye schematic). The scale bar in the last panel represents 20 μm and applies to all panels. ( b ) Statistical analysis of the number of each retinal cell type shows that there is a significant increase in AC ( P =0.01) and BC ( P =0.03) in the regenerated retina in C3a-p-treated eyes when compared with the FGF2-treated eyes. The number of GC was determined by counting Brn3a + cells; the number of AC was determined by counting the number of AP-2 + cells; the number of BC by Chx-10 staining; HC by Pax-6 and PR by visinin staining ( n =5 different eyes). A two-tailed permutation test was used for statistical analysis. Error bars represent s.e.m. The mean number of immunopositive cells, s.e.m. and range are given in Supplementary Table S8 . * P

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Complement anaphylatoxin C3a is a potent inducer of embryonic chick retina regeneration

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms3312

    Figure Lengend Snippet: C3a-p regenerates a retina from the CM with all retinal cell types present. ( a ) Immunohistochemical staining using antibodies against cell-specific markers at 7 days (d) PR. Retinal cell types in a developmentally equivalent eye (E11) as well as retinal cell types regenerated in response to FGF2 are shown for comparison. Pax-6 (green) is a specific marker for ganglion (GC), amacrine (AC) and horizontal cells (HC); Chx-10 (red) is a specific marker for bipolar cells (BC). Napa-73 (red) is specific for ganglion cell axons and Brn-3a (green) is specific for GC. Vimentin is specific for Müller glia (MG) cells, AP-2 is specific for AC and visinin is specific for photoreceptors (PR). Images are sections from the posterior region of the eye (see Supplementary Fig. S1a for eye schematic). The scale bar in the last panel represents 20 μm and applies to all panels. ( b ) Statistical analysis of the number of each retinal cell type shows that there is a significant increase in AC ( P =0.01) and BC ( P =0.03) in the regenerated retina in C3a-p-treated eyes when compared with the FGF2-treated eyes. The number of GC was determined by counting Brn3a + cells; the number of AC was determined by counting the number of AP-2 + cells; the number of BC by Chx-10 staining; HC by Pax-6 and PR by visinin staining ( n =5 different eyes). A two-tailed permutation test was used for statistical analysis. Error bars represent s.e.m. The mean number of immunopositive cells, s.e.m. and range are given in Supplementary Table S8 . * P

    Article Snippet: For FGF2-treated eyes, heparin beads containing FGF2 were prepared by incubating 20 heparin beads in 25 ng of FGF2 (R & D Systems, Minneapolis, MN) for 1 h at 4 °C and then added to the vitreous chamber.

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry, Staining, Marker, Two Tailed Test

    C3a-p activates STAT3 during chick retina regeneration. ( a ) Western blot analysis shows the level of phosphorylation of S727 STAT3 at 2 h PR in E4 developmental eyes (Dev), retinectomized eyes with no treatment (Ret), C3a-p-treated eyes and eyes treated with Scrambled C3a (Scr). P =0.03125 using the exact binomial test comparing C3a-p treatment and Scr treatment; n =5 biological samples. ( b ) Western analysis shows the level of phosphorylation of S727 STAT3 (pS727 STAT3) at 2 h PR in eyes treated with C3a-p+IgG and eyes treated with C3a-p+C3aR-Ab. P =0.03125 using the exact binomial test; n =5 biological samples. Error bars represent s.e.m. The mean ratio of pS727 STAT3 to actin, s.e.m., and range are provided in Supplementary Table S3 . ( c – f ) Histological analysis at 3 days (d) PR after treatment with either C3a-p+ Stattic ( c ), C3a-p+PD98059 ( d ), C3a-p+DMSO ( e ) or FGF2+PD98059 ( f ). ( g ) Quantification of the amount of regeneration at 3d PR shows that C3a-p-induced regeneration is significantly reduced in the presence of Stattic ( P =0.0054; n =10) and PD98059 ( P =0.0081; n =9) when compared with C3a-p+DMSO ( n =9). FGF2-induced regeneration is also significantly reduced in the presence of PD98059 ( n =5), P- value=0.0027 compared with FGF2-induced regeneration ( Fig. 1g ) * P

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Complement anaphylatoxin C3a is a potent inducer of embryonic chick retina regeneration

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms3312

    Figure Lengend Snippet: C3a-p activates STAT3 during chick retina regeneration. ( a ) Western blot analysis shows the level of phosphorylation of S727 STAT3 at 2 h PR in E4 developmental eyes (Dev), retinectomized eyes with no treatment (Ret), C3a-p-treated eyes and eyes treated with Scrambled C3a (Scr). P =0.03125 using the exact binomial test comparing C3a-p treatment and Scr treatment; n =5 biological samples. ( b ) Western analysis shows the level of phosphorylation of S727 STAT3 (pS727 STAT3) at 2 h PR in eyes treated with C3a-p+IgG and eyes treated with C3a-p+C3aR-Ab. P =0.03125 using the exact binomial test; n =5 biological samples. Error bars represent s.e.m. The mean ratio of pS727 STAT3 to actin, s.e.m., and range are provided in Supplementary Table S3 . ( c – f ) Histological analysis at 3 days (d) PR after treatment with either C3a-p+ Stattic ( c ), C3a-p+PD98059 ( d ), C3a-p+DMSO ( e ) or FGF2+PD98059 ( f ). ( g ) Quantification of the amount of regeneration at 3d PR shows that C3a-p-induced regeneration is significantly reduced in the presence of Stattic ( P =0.0054; n =10) and PD98059 ( P =0.0081; n =9) when compared with C3a-p+DMSO ( n =9). FGF2-induced regeneration is also significantly reduced in the presence of PD98059 ( n =5), P- value=0.0027 compared with FGF2-induced regeneration ( Fig. 1g ) * P

    Article Snippet: For FGF2-treated eyes, heparin beads containing FGF2 were prepared by incubating 20 heparin beads in 25 ng of FGF2 (R & D Systems, Minneapolis, MN) for 1 h at 4 °C and then added to the vitreous chamber.

    Techniques: Western Blot

    C3a-p induction of chick retina regeneration is independent of FGF2. ( a ) RT–qPCR shows the level of FGF2 expression stimulated by treatment with C3a-p in the CM at 2 h PR and 24 h PR. The level of FGF2 expression was normalized to the level expressed in the CM of eyes undergoing retinectomy without treatment. Error bars represent s.e.m. The mean ratio of FGF2 expression to GAPDH expression, together with the s.e.m. and range, is provided in Supplementary Table S5 . Significance was determined by comparing the expression of FGF2 in eyes treated with C3a-p to that in eyes treated with scrambled peptide (Scr). P- value=0.0003 using the Student’s t -test.; n =3 biological samples done in triplicate. *** P

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Complement anaphylatoxin C3a is a potent inducer of embryonic chick retina regeneration

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms3312

    Figure Lengend Snippet: C3a-p induction of chick retina regeneration is independent of FGF2. ( a ) RT–qPCR shows the level of FGF2 expression stimulated by treatment with C3a-p in the CM at 2 h PR and 24 h PR. The level of FGF2 expression was normalized to the level expressed in the CM of eyes undergoing retinectomy without treatment. Error bars represent s.e.m. The mean ratio of FGF2 expression to GAPDH expression, together with the s.e.m. and range, is provided in Supplementary Table S5 . Significance was determined by comparing the expression of FGF2 in eyes treated with C3a-p to that in eyes treated with scrambled peptide (Scr). P- value=0.0003 using the Student’s t -test.; n =3 biological samples done in triplicate. *** P

    Article Snippet: For FGF2-treated eyes, heparin beads containing FGF2 were prepared by incubating 20 heparin beads in 25 ng of FGF2 (R & D Systems, Minneapolis, MN) for 1 h at 4 °C and then added to the vitreous chamber.

    Techniques: Quantitative RT-PCR, Expressing

    C3a induces chick retina regeneration. ( a – d ) Histological analysis at 3 days (d) PR after treatment with either C3a ( a ), the carboxy terminus of C3a (C3a-p) ( b ), FGF2 ( c ) or a scrambled C3a fragment (Scr) ( d ). ( e , f ) Histological analysis at 7d PR after treatment with C3a-p ( e ) or FGF2 ( f ). Scale bar, 100 μm ( a – f ). Scale bar in f also applies to a – c and e . ( g ) Statistical analysis of the quantification of regeneration from the CM comparing C3a ( n =7 with 5/7 showing regeneration); C3a-p ( n =11 at 3d PR with 9 showing regeneration and n =12 at 7d PR with 8 showing regeneration) and FGF2 treatment ( n =10 at 3d PR with 10 showing regeneration and n =10 at 7d PR with 9 showing regeneration). The regeneration induced by the entire C3a fragment was significantly lower than that induced by FGF2 at 3d PR ( P =0.0045) using a two-tailed permutation test. Error bars represent s.e.m. ( h ) Statistical analysis of the quantification of regeneration comparing the regeneration from transdifferentation of the RPE in response to C3a-p and FGF2. Transdifferentiation in C3a-p-treated eyes was significantly less than that in FGF2-treated eyes at both 3d ( P =0.0012) and 7d PR ( P =0.0182) using a two-tailed permutation test. * P

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Complement anaphylatoxin C3a is a potent inducer of embryonic chick retina regeneration

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms3312

    Figure Lengend Snippet: C3a induces chick retina regeneration. ( a – d ) Histological analysis at 3 days (d) PR after treatment with either C3a ( a ), the carboxy terminus of C3a (C3a-p) ( b ), FGF2 ( c ) or a scrambled C3a fragment (Scr) ( d ). ( e , f ) Histological analysis at 7d PR after treatment with C3a-p ( e ) or FGF2 ( f ). Scale bar, 100 μm ( a – f ). Scale bar in f also applies to a – c and e . ( g ) Statistical analysis of the quantification of regeneration from the CM comparing C3a ( n =7 with 5/7 showing regeneration); C3a-p ( n =11 at 3d PR with 9 showing regeneration and n =12 at 7d PR with 8 showing regeneration) and FGF2 treatment ( n =10 at 3d PR with 10 showing regeneration and n =10 at 7d PR with 9 showing regeneration). The regeneration induced by the entire C3a fragment was significantly lower than that induced by FGF2 at 3d PR ( P =0.0045) using a two-tailed permutation test. Error bars represent s.e.m. ( h ) Statistical analysis of the quantification of regeneration comparing the regeneration from transdifferentation of the RPE in response to C3a-p and FGF2. Transdifferentiation in C3a-p-treated eyes was significantly less than that in FGF2-treated eyes at both 3d ( P =0.0012) and 7d PR ( P =0.0182) using a two-tailed permutation test. * P

    Article Snippet: For FGF2-treated eyes, heparin beads containing FGF2 were prepared by incubating 20 heparin beads in 25 ng of FGF2 (R & D Systems, Minneapolis, MN) for 1 h at 4 °C and then added to the vitreous chamber.

    Techniques: Two Tailed Test

    Degree of hypoxia differentially regulated the adipose derived stem cell (ASC) paracrine factor profile. Expression levels of the vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) (A) , VEGF-C (B) , angiogenin (ANG) (D) , and interleukin-8 (IL-8) (E) were upregulated

    Journal: Stem Cells and Development

    Article Title: Hypoxic Conditioning Enhances the Angiogenic Paracrine Activity of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    doi: 10.1089/scd.2012.0602

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Degree of hypoxia differentially regulated the adipose derived stem cell (ASC) paracrine factor profile. Expression levels of the vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) (A) , VEGF-C (B) , angiogenin (ANG) (D) , and interleukin-8 (IL-8) (E) were upregulated

    Article Snippet: To determine the contribution of VEGF-A and ANG in ASCCM -induced angiogenesis in vivo, neutralizing antibodies against the VEGF-A (30 μg/mL; Santa Cruz) and/or ANG (10 μg/mL; R & D Systems) were incubated with the hypoxic ASCCM for 2 h at 4°C with constant agitation.

    Techniques: Derivative Assay, Expressing

    The hypoxic ASC CM promoted angiogenesis in vivo in a VEGF-A- and ANG-dependent manner. (A) The hypoxic ASC CM increased CD31-positive vessels grown into the sponges at 2 weeks postimplantation. Removal of the VEGF-A and/or ANG from the hypoxic ASC CM significantly

    Journal: Stem Cells and Development

    Article Title: Hypoxic Conditioning Enhances the Angiogenic Paracrine Activity of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    doi: 10.1089/scd.2012.0602

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The hypoxic ASC CM promoted angiogenesis in vivo in a VEGF-A- and ANG-dependent manner. (A) The hypoxic ASC CM increased CD31-positive vessels grown into the sponges at 2 weeks postimplantation. Removal of the VEGF-A and/or ANG from the hypoxic ASC CM significantly

    Article Snippet: To determine the contribution of VEGF-A and ANG in ASCCM -induced angiogenesis in vivo, neutralizing antibodies against the VEGF-A (30 μg/mL; Santa Cruz) and/or ANG (10 μg/mL; R & D Systems) were incubated with the hypoxic ASCCM for 2 h at 4°C with constant agitation.

    Techniques: In Vivo

    Hypoxia increased VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and ANG secretion from ASCs. Treatment of ASCs with

    Journal: Stem Cells and Development

    Article Title: Hypoxic Conditioning Enhances the Angiogenic Paracrine Activity of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    doi: 10.1089/scd.2012.0602

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Hypoxia increased VEGF-A, VEGF-C, and ANG secretion from ASCs. Treatment of ASCs with

    Article Snippet: To determine the contribution of VEGF-A and ANG in ASCCM -induced angiogenesis in vivo, neutralizing antibodies against the VEGF-A (30 μg/mL; Santa Cruz) and/or ANG (10 μg/mL; R & D Systems) were incubated with the hypoxic ASCCM for 2 h at 4°C with constant agitation.

    Techniques:

    Deletion of p75 NTR preserved hypoxia-induced VEGF expression and VEGFR2 activation. ( A ) Representative Western blotting and bar graph of retinal VEGF protein expression from WT and p75 NTR−/− pups exposed to OIR at p14. Two-way ANOVA showed significant effect of hypoxia increasing VEGF both in WT and p75 NTR−/− pups (*significant compared to WT normoxic group, p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Deletion of p75NTR prevents vaso-obliteration and retinal neovascularization via activation of Trk- A receptor in ischemic retinopathy model

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-30029-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Deletion of p75 NTR preserved hypoxia-induced VEGF expression and VEGFR2 activation. ( A ) Representative Western blotting and bar graph of retinal VEGF protein expression from WT and p75 NTR−/− pups exposed to OIR at p14. Two-way ANOVA showed significant effect of hypoxia increasing VEGF both in WT and p75 NTR−/− pups (*significant compared to WT normoxic group, p

    Article Snippet: Membranes were blocked with 5% milk or BSA in PBS-tween and incubated overnight in 4 °C with the following primary antibodies: p75NTR (kind gift from Dr. Bruce Carter, Department of Biochemistry, Vanderbilt University), Akt (#9272, Cell Signaling), p-Akt (#9275 S, Cell Signaling), cleaved-PARP (#5625, Cell Signaling), total PARP (#9532, Cell Signaling), cleaved caspase-3 (#9664, Cell Signaling), TrkA (#76291, Abcam), phospho-TrkA (#1445, Abcam), NGF (# AN-240, Alomone), proNGF (#ANT-005, Alomone), sortilin (#16640, Abcam), BDNF and proBDNF (SC-546, Santa Cruz), VEGF (#ABS82, Millipore), VEGFR2 (#2472, Cell Signaling), phopho-VEGFR2 (#2474, Cell Signaling), then re-probed with the primary antibodies for the house-keeping proteins; actin (#A5441, Sigma) or tubulin (#ab4074, Abcam) to confirm equal loading.

    Techniques: Expressing, Activation Assay, Western Blot