vascular endothelial growth factor vegf Search Results


  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 99
    Thermo Fisher gene exp vegfa hs00900055 m1
    Effect of silencing viral transcription in HBV transgenic mice on hypoxia target gene transcripts. HBV transgenic mice (n = 6 per group) were treated with liver directed siRNAs targeting the HBx region (siHBV) which is commonly shared by all viral RNAs or with a control siRNA (siCtrl). Seven days later we assessed the efficacy of siHBV silencing by quantifying: serum HBeAg levels ( a ), HBV RNAs in the liver and hypoxia target gene ( CAIX, <t>VEGFA,</t> GLUT1 and PHD2 ) RNAs ( b ). Hypoxia target genes values are expressed as ΔCt values by subtracting the Ct value of the housekeeping gene β-actin from Ct value of the gene of interest. Mann Whitney ( a ) or 2-way-ANOVA with Bonferroni correction ( b ) analyses were applied with p
    Gene Exp Vegfa Hs00900055 M1, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 976 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/gene exp vegfa hs00900055 m1/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 99 stars, based on 976 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    gene exp vegfa hs00900055 m1 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    96
    Millipore vegf a
    VASH1 inhibits angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis induced by <t>VEGF-A.</t> A: Pellets containing 160 ng of VEGF-A plus or minus 4 ng of VASH1 were inoculated into the mouse cornea. Fourteen days after the inoculation, the corneas were harvested and immunostained
    Vegf A, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 529 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/vegf a/product/Millipore
    Average 96 stars, based on 529 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    vegf a - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    96/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    92
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology vegf
    Effects of MEK-ERK inhibition on <t>VEGF-dependent</t> proliferation and differentiation. ( A ) Western blots of VEGF-induced phospho-ERK. E6 retinas were cultured with or without U0126 for 60 minutes before VEGF was added for 10 minutes. Blots were probed with phospho-ERK1/2 (top) and <t>α-tubulin</t> (bottom) antibodies.( B ) Quantification of optical densities of phospho-ERK signals were normalized against α-tubulin signals ( n =4). ( C ) RT-PCR detection of cyclin D1 transcripts in E6 retinas cultured for 24 hours in the presence or absence of VEGF. Ratios of cyclin D1 and GAPDH products are shown ( n =8). ( D-F ) Quantifications of U0126 effects on VEGF-dependent cell proliferation (D) or differentiation (E,F). E5 explants were cultured for 24 hours and BrdU labeled for the last 3 hours ( n =6; * P
    Vegf, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 5755 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/vegf/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
    Average 92 stars, based on 5755 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    vegf - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    92/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    vegf  (Abcam)
    94
    Abcam vegf
    IHC analysis of each tumor tissue collected from the OSCC nude mice model. (n=40) OSCC nude mice were treated by inhibition of <t>HIF-1</t> or NF-κB. A. HIF-1α expression. B. NF-κB expression. C. Ki67 expression. D. <t>VEGF</t> expression (×200).
    Vegf, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 3046 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/vegf/product/Abcam
    Average 94 stars, based on 3046 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    vegf - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Thermo Fisher vegf a
    YAP/TAZ suppress β-catenin– and NICD-mediated DLL4 induction. ( A – C ) YAP/TAZ siRNA sensitized HUVECs to Akt activation in response to 50 ng/mL <t>VEGF-A</t> ( A ) and 400 ng/mL Ang-1 ( B ), and 10% <t>FBS</t> ( C ) for 10 minutes. ( D and E ) DAPT (10 μM, 3 hours) or MK2206 (10 μM, 3 hours) abolished YAP/TAZ siRNA–induced mRNA ( D ) and protein ( E ) expression of DLL4. ( F and G ) DAPT (10 μM, 10 minutes pretreatment) or MK2206 (10 μM, 10 minutes pretreatment) attenuated mRNA ( F ) and protein ( G ) expression of DLL4 induced by Y27632 (10 μM, 3 hours). ( H and I ) β-Catenin siRNA abolished YAP/TAZ siRNA–induced mRNA ( H ) and protein ( I ) expression of DLL4. Data are mean ± SEM of triplicates. ** P
    Vegf A, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1173 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/vegf a/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 94 stars, based on 1173 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    vegf a - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology anti vegf
    Inhibition of <t>VEGF</t> affected the VEGF/p38/MMP-2 signaling pathway in PASMCs from rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension by attenuating the effects of miR-15a-5p inhibition. (A) Expression of VEGF, p-p38, MMP-2, Bax and <t>Bcl-2</t> proteins detected using western blot analysis. Quantification of (B) VEGF, (C) p-p38, (D) MMP-2, (E) Bax and (F) Bcl-2 protein expression. ## P
    Anti Vegf, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1796 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/anti vegf/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
    Average 93 stars, based on 1796 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    anti vegf - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    90
    Abcam anti vascular endothelial growth factor
    Reduced dermokine ( DMKN ) expression retards <t>growth</t> of xenograft tumors and inhibits tumor metastasis in vivo . (A) Xenograft tumor volume in GFP lentivirus ( NC ) and DMKN ‐sh RNA ( KD ) groups. (B) Comparison of tumor volume between NC and KD groups. (C) Expression of angiogenesis‐associated proteins in blank (non‐transfected), NC , and KD groups. VEGF , <t>vascular</t> <t>endothelial</t> growth <t>factor.</t> (D) Expression of angiogenesis‐associated mRNA in NC and KD groups. (E) Immunohistochemical staining for the vascular marker CD 31 in NC and KD xenograft tumor tissue samples. (G) Fluorescence intensity analysis indicated that reduced DMKN levels inhibit pancreatic cancer metastasis in vivo .
    Anti Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 51 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/anti vascular endothelial growth factor/product/Abcam
    Average 90 stars, based on 51 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    anti vascular endothelial growth factor - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    R&D Systems vegf
    Pleiotropic effects of <t>NGF</t> on HUVEC . (A) Growth assay. HUVEC cultured on standard culture plastic were treated with NGF (100 ng/ml), or <t>VEGF</t> (10 ng/ml) for 48 h. (B and C) Migration and invasion assay using Transwells. (D) Cord formation assay on matrigel-coated 24-well dishes. (E) Endothelial cell monolayer permeability assay. The kinetics of 70 kDa Dextran-FITC having passed through the monolayer of endothelial cells was determined by measurement of fluorescence in the lower chambers at different time points. A to D Student's t-test, *p
    Vegf, supplied by R&D Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 4694 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/vegf/product/R&D Systems
    Average 94 stars, based on 4694 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    vegf - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    R&D Systems human vegf
    Inhibition of <t>VEGF</t> and <t>NGF</t> by specific neutralizing antibodies significantly suppressed the effects of hDPSC transplantation on the MNCV ( a ) and SNCV ( b ). The neutralizing antibodies against VEGF and NGF were continuously administered using an osmotic pump. The pump was inserted on the day of hDPSC transplantation. The results are expressed as the mean ± SD ( n = 6). ** P
    Human Vegf, supplied by R&D Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 867 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/human vegf/product/R&D Systems
    Average 99 stars, based on 867 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    human vegf - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    91
    4Gene fms like tyrosine kinase 4 gene
    Inhibition of <t>VEGF</t> and <t>NGF</t> by specific neutralizing antibodies significantly suppressed the effects of hDPSC transplantation on the MNCV ( a ) and SNCV ( b ). The neutralizing antibodies against VEGF and NGF were continuously administered using an osmotic pump. The pump was inserted on the day of hDPSC transplantation. The results are expressed as the mean ± SD ( n = 6). ** P
    Fms Like Tyrosine Kinase 4 Gene, supplied by 4Gene, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 312 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/fms like tyrosine kinase 4 gene/product/4Gene
    Average 91 stars, based on 312 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    fms like tyrosine kinase 4 gene - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    91/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    R&D Systems recombinant human vegf a
    <t>VEGF</t> pellet implantation induces blood and lymphatic vessel formation In vivo observation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in a Prox1-GFP/Flk1::myr-mCherry mouse over 10 days following 150ng VEGF pellet implantation (left 3 columns) or control PBS pellet implantation (far right column). ( A-P ) SteREO Lumar microscopy images of GFP-expressing lymphatic vessels (green), mCherry-expressing blood vessels (red) and overlays (right two columns): ( A-D ) prior to implantation, ( E-H ) 3 days post-implantation, ( I-L ) 7 days post-implantation, and ( MP ) 10 days post-implantation. ( Q-T ) Confocal imaging of the same corneas on day 10. Scale bar: 500 μm in ( A-P ) and 200 μm in ( Q-T ). Arrows ( A ): regularly spaced lymphatic vessels penetrating the cornea in the uninjured eye; arrowheads ( E ): new lymphatic vessels budding from the cornea 3 days after VEGF pellet implantation; asterisk ( I ): one potential new lymphatic vessel budding from the cornea on day 7 after the initial phase; circle ( T ): outline of the implanted PBS control pellet.
    Recombinant Human Vegf A, supplied by R&D Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 279 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/recombinant human vegf a/product/R&D Systems
    Average 94 stars, based on 279 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    recombinant human vegf a - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Millipore mammalian cell lysis kit
    <t>VEGF</t> pellet implantation induces blood and lymphatic vessel formation In vivo observation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in a Prox1-GFP/Flk1::myr-mCherry mouse over 10 days following 150ng VEGF pellet implantation (left 3 columns) or control PBS pellet implantation (far right column). ( A-P ) SteREO Lumar microscopy images of GFP-expressing lymphatic vessels (green), mCherry-expressing blood vessels (red) and overlays (right two columns): ( A-D ) prior to implantation, ( E-H ) 3 days post-implantation, ( I-L ) 7 days post-implantation, and ( MP ) 10 days post-implantation. ( Q-T ) Confocal imaging of the same corneas on day 10. Scale bar: 500 μm in ( A-P ) and 200 μm in ( Q-T ). Arrows ( A ): regularly spaced lymphatic vessels penetrating the cornea in the uninjured eye; arrowheads ( E ): new lymphatic vessels budding from the cornea 3 days after VEGF pellet implantation; asterisk ( I ): one potential new lymphatic vessel budding from the cornea on day 7 after the initial phase; circle ( T ): outline of the implanted PBS control pellet.
    Mammalian Cell Lysis Kit, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 737 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/mammalian cell lysis kit/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 737 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    mammalian cell lysis kit - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Millipore vascular endothelial growth factor vegf
    Effect of high calorie environment towards oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status in rat strains. After the completion of feeding experiment, blood was collected; plasma was separated and estimated the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. ( A ) Interleukin 6; IL-6. ( B ) Tumor necrosis factor alpha; TNFα. ( C ) Interleukin 1 beta; IL-1β. ( D ) Macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha; MIP-1α. ( E ) Vascular endothelial growth factor; <t>VEGF.</t> ( F ) <t>IFN</t> gamma inducible protein 10; IP-10. ( G ) Monocyte chemotactic protein 1; MCP1 and anti -inflammatory cytokines such as ( H ) Interleukin 4; IL-4 and ( I ) Interleukin 10; IL-10. ( J ) TBARS assay was performed on liver tissue lysate to study oxidative stress. Data was presented as mean ± SEM (n = 6 per group). Diets: control; HF, high fat; HS, high sucrose; HFS, high fat sucrose. TBARS, Thio Barbituricacid Reactive Substances. *P
    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Vegf, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 513 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/vascular endothelial growth factor vegf/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 513 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    vascular endothelial growth factor vegf - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology vegfr 1
    ( A ) Low magnification images from CD31 stained cross-sections of semimembranosus muscles show CD31 positive cells in the muscle perimysium in all 1 × 10 9 vp animals. With the 1 × 10 10 vp dose, enlargement of capillaries is uniformly seen inside the muscle fascicles. Scalebar 200 µm. B. <t>VEGFR-1</t> staining is intense in the small capillaries, but reduced in the heavily enlarged capillaries. VEGFR-2 staining is more intense in the enlarged capillaries. Pictures are from AdVammin 1 × 10 10 vp treated muscle from areas of low, medium and high effect. Scalebar 50 µm. C. Diffuse VEGF-A staining is seen in 1 × 10 10 vp AdVEGF-A transduced muscles surrounding the capillaries especially in VEGF-A 165 muscles. The cells in the perimysium were strongly stained with VEGF-A also in AdVammin 1 × 10 9 vp transduced muscles suggesting that they may serve as a source of endogenous VEGF-A. VEGF-A is also detected around the highly enlarged capillaries in AdVammin 1 × 10 10 vp muscle. Scalebar 200 µM in the low magnification (40x) images and 50 µm in the high magnification (400x) images.
    Vegfr 1, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 335 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/vegfr 1/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
    Average 93 stars, based on 335 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    vegfr 1 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Millipore sunitinib malate
    Effects of STAT3 inhibitor on sorafenib- and <t>sunitinib-induced</t> cell growth inhibition. After pretreatment with Stattic (STAT3 inhibitor, 10 µM) or DMSO (solvent) for 20 min, HaCaT, Caki-1, and HepG2 cells were incubated in a medium that included sorafenib or sunitinib at the indicated concentrations for 48 h. Cell viability was determined by WST-8 colorimetric assay. *p
    Sunitinib Malate, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 42 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/sunitinib malate/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 42 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    sunitinib malate - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    Cell Signaling Technology Inc vegf
    Effect of miR-126-5p on HUVEC proliferation and downstream signaling pathways. ( A ) qRT-PCR results showing the expression of miR-126-5p in the different groups. ( B ) Representative western blot showing the expression of p-Akt, <t>VEGF,</t> eNOS and <t>CD31</t> in each group (normalized to the expression of β-tubulin). ( C ) Densitometry analyses of p-Akt, VEGF, eNOS and CD31 expression in each group normalized to the expression of t-Akt and β-tubulin. The error bars represent the ±SDs. *P
    Vegf, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 684 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/vegf/product/Cell Signaling Technology Inc
    Average 93 stars, based on 684 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    vegf - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    95
    R&D Systems mouse vegf r3 flt 4 antibody
    Effect of miR-126-5p on HUVEC proliferation and downstream signaling pathways. ( A ) qRT-PCR results showing the expression of miR-126-5p in the different groups. ( B ) Representative western blot showing the expression of p-Akt, <t>VEGF,</t> eNOS and <t>CD31</t> in each group (normalized to the expression of β-tubulin). ( C ) Densitometry analyses of p-Akt, VEGF, eNOS and CD31 expression in each group normalized to the expression of t-Akt and β-tubulin. The error bars represent the ±SDs. *P
    Mouse Vegf R3 Flt 4 Antibody, supplied by R&D Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 452 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/mouse vegf r3 flt 4 antibody/product/R&D Systems
    Average 95 stars, based on 452 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    mouse vegf r3 flt 4 antibody - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    95/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    91
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology rabbit anti vegf
    Endogenous neurogenesis was increased in the NSC-transplanted Tg2576 mice. ( a ) At 2.5 months after transplantation, endogenous neurogenesis was observed in the DG of hippocampus by immunohistochemisty using anti-DCX antibody. DCX-positive cells were calculated in mm 2 area of DG. Graph represents that endogenous neurogenesis was enhanced by NSC transplantation. ( b ) The levels of <t>PSA-NCAM</t> were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In Tg-NSC group, the levels of PSA-NCAM were increased compared with the Tg-sham group. Graph represents that PSA-NCAM was enhanced by NSC transplantation. ( c ) In Tg-NSC group, the levels of PSA-NCAM and <t>VEGF</t> were increased compared with the Tg-sham group. Quantitative analysis shows that NSC transplantation significantly increased the level of PSA-NCAM and VEGF expressions. * P
    Rabbit Anti Vegf, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 531 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/rabbit anti vegf/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
    Average 91 stars, based on 531 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    rabbit anti vegf - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    91/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    95
    R&D Systems recombinant vegf
    <t>SLPI</t> promotes proliferation of adult neural stem cells and induces cyclin D1 . A: Proliferation of rat neural stem cells after treatment with SLPI or <t>VEGF,</t> respectively. Cells were treated with indicated amounts of SLPI or VEGF for three days. Afterwards, they were pulsed with 10 μM BrdU. Proportion of BrdU-positive cells (+ std dev) was determined with the FITC BrdU Flow Kit. Presentation of a representative result of three experiments. *:p
    Recombinant Vegf, supplied by R&D Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 254 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/recombinant vegf/product/R&D Systems
    Average 95 stars, based on 254 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    recombinant vegf - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    95/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Thermo Fisher gene exp vegfa mm01281449 m1
    NMDA-Triggered Excitotoxicity Reduces VEGFD Expression in RGCs (A) qRT-PCR analysis of vegfd , vegfc , <t>vegfa</t> , flt4 , flt1 , and kdr expression in retinal homogenates after intravitreal injection of NMDA. Unpaired t test. n = 6. vegfd , p = 0.0085; vegfc , p = 0.2052; vegfa , p = 0.8524; flt4 , p = 0.9414; flt1 , p = 0.6074; kdr , p = 0.2016. (B) Representative images of human retinal whole mounts. Retinas were immunolabeled with antibodies against Brn3a (red) and VEGFD (green). Scale bars, 10 μm. Negative controls of human retinas were immunolabeled only with secondary antibodies. (C) Representative bands of VEGFD, VEGFA, and β-actin cDNA products following qRT-PCR analysis of human retinal extracts obtained from two donors (subject 1, subject 2). (D) Quantification of VEGFD protein levels in cells in the ganglion cell layer of retinas of mice injected as indicated. Unpaired t test. n = 3. PBS versus NMDA, p = 0.0192. (E) Representative images of mouse sagittal retina sections at d7 after intravitreal injections of NMDA or PBS. Retinas were immunolabeled for VEGFD (green). Nuclei were labeled with Hoechst (blue). GCL, ganglion cell layer. Scale bar, 20 μm. (F) qRT-PCR analysis of vegfd , vegfc , vegfa , and flt4 expression in brain ECs (b.END3) 24 h after 20 μM NMDA treatment. Unpaired t test. n = 3. vegfd , p = 0.1744; vegfc , p = 0.7598; vegfa , p = 0.8998; flt4 , p = 0.4457. (G) qRT-PCR analysis of vegfd , vegfc , vegfa , and flt4 expression in primary astrocytes 24 h after 20 μM NMDA treatment. Unpaired t test. n = 3. vegfd , p = 0.8716; vegfc , p = 0.4918; vegfa , p = 0.9902; flt4 , p = 0.9331. Bars represent mean ± SEM. Dots represent single values. **p
    Gene Exp Vegfa Mm01281449 M1, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 367 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/gene exp vegfa mm01281449 m1/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 99 stars, based on 367 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    gene exp vegfa mm01281449 m1 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Thermo Fisher gene exp vegfa mm00437304 m1
    DFP treatment decreases retinal markers of oxidative stress. Graph showing retinal isoprostane F2α-VI levels in the retinas of 9-month-old DKO mice treated with DFP for 5 months relative to untreated, age-matched DKO and WT mice ( A , n = 3 mice per group). DFP treatment significantly reduced Epo mRNA levels, as measured by qPCR, in the retinas of DKO mice treated for 6 months with DFP relative to untreated 9-month-old DKOs ( B , n = 3 mice per group). DFP did not change <t>Vegfa</t> mRNA levels in either neurosensory retina ( C ) or RPE/choroid ( D ), but it significantly reduced Cd68 mRNA levels in neurosensory retinas of treated DKO relative to untreated DKO controls ( E ) and showed a trend toward C3 mRNA level reduction in the RPE/choroid ( F ). *Significant difference ( P
    Gene Exp Vegfa Mm00437304 M1, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 290 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/gene exp vegfa mm00437304 m1/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 99 stars, based on 290 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    gene exp vegfa mm00437304 m1 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Effect of silencing viral transcription in HBV transgenic mice on hypoxia target gene transcripts. HBV transgenic mice (n = 6 per group) were treated with liver directed siRNAs targeting the HBx region (siHBV) which is commonly shared by all viral RNAs or with a control siRNA (siCtrl). Seven days later we assessed the efficacy of siHBV silencing by quantifying: serum HBeAg levels ( a ), HBV RNAs in the liver and hypoxia target gene ( CAIX, VEGFA, GLUT1 and PHD2 ) RNAs ( b ). Hypoxia target genes values are expressed as ΔCt values by subtracting the Ct value of the housekeeping gene β-actin from Ct value of the gene of interest. Mann Whitney ( a ) or 2-way-ANOVA with Bonferroni correction ( b ) analyses were applied with p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Hypoxic gene expression in chronic hepatitis B virus infected patients is not observed in state-of-the-art in vitro and mouse infection models

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-70865-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of silencing viral transcription in HBV transgenic mice on hypoxia target gene transcripts. HBV transgenic mice (n = 6 per group) were treated with liver directed siRNAs targeting the HBx region (siHBV) which is commonly shared by all viral RNAs or with a control siRNA (siCtrl). Seven days later we assessed the efficacy of siHBV silencing by quantifying: serum HBeAg levels ( a ), HBV RNAs in the liver and hypoxia target gene ( CAIX, VEGFA, GLUT1 and PHD2 ) RNAs ( b ). Hypoxia target genes values are expressed as ΔCt values by subtracting the Ct value of the housekeeping gene β-actin from Ct value of the gene of interest. Mann Whitney ( a ) or 2-way-ANOVA with Bonferroni correction ( b ) analyses were applied with p

    Article Snippet: HIF target genes were amplified using TaqMan® Gene Expression assays (CAIX [Hs00154208_m1]; VEGFA [Hs00900055_m1]; BNIP3 [Hs00969291_m1] and GLUT1 [Hs00892681_m1]) (Thermo Fisher) and amplified using a Taqman real-time PCR protocol (qPCRBIO probe, PCR Biosystems) using the same conditions as listed above.

    Techniques: Transgenic Assay, Mouse Assay, MANN-WHITNEY

    VASH1 inhibits angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis induced by VEGF-A. A: Pellets containing 160 ng of VEGF-A plus or minus 4 ng of VASH1 were inoculated into the mouse cornea. Fourteen days after the inoculation, the corneas were harvested and immunostained

    Journal: The American Journal of Pathology

    Article Title: Endogenous Angiogenesis Inhibitor Vasohibin1 Exhibits Broad-Spectrum Antilymphangiogenic Activity and Suppresses Lymph Node Metastasis

    doi: 10.2353/ajpath.2010.090829

    Figure Lengend Snippet: VASH1 inhibits angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis induced by VEGF-A. A: Pellets containing 160 ng of VEGF-A plus or minus 4 ng of VASH1 were inoculated into the mouse cornea. Fourteen days after the inoculation, the corneas were harvested and immunostained

    Article Snippet: Briefly, 4-week-old male BALB/c mice (Charles River Laboratories Japan, Inc., Yokohama, Japan) were deeply anesthetized, and 0.3 μg of poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEME) pellets (Sigma, St. Louis, Mo, USA) containing either vehicle or 160 ng of VEGF-A (VEGF165 , Sigma), 160 ng of VEGF-CCys156ser (R & D Systems, Inc., Minneapolis, MN), 12.5 ng or 80 ng of FGF2 (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA), or 80 ng of PDGF-BB (R & D Systems, Inc.) was implanted in the corneas.

    Techniques:

    Effects of MEK-ERK inhibition on VEGF-dependent proliferation and differentiation. ( A ) Western blots of VEGF-induced phospho-ERK. E6 retinas were cultured with or without U0126 for 60 minutes before VEGF was added for 10 minutes. Blots were probed with phospho-ERK1/2 (top) and α-tubulin (bottom) antibodies.( B ) Quantification of optical densities of phospho-ERK signals were normalized against α-tubulin signals ( n =4). ( C ) RT-PCR detection of cyclin D1 transcripts in E6 retinas cultured for 24 hours in the presence or absence of VEGF. Ratios of cyclin D1 and GAPDH products are shown ( n =8). ( D-F ) Quantifications of U0126 effects on VEGF-dependent cell proliferation (D) or differentiation (E,F). E5 explants were cultured for 24 hours and BrdU labeled for the last 3 hours ( n =6; * P

    Journal: Development (Cambridge, England)

    Article Title: VEGF activates divergent intracellular signaling components to regulate retinal progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation

    doi: 10.1242/dev.02385

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of MEK-ERK inhibition on VEGF-dependent proliferation and differentiation. ( A ) Western blots of VEGF-induced phospho-ERK. E6 retinas were cultured with or without U0126 for 60 minutes before VEGF was added for 10 minutes. Blots were probed with phospho-ERK1/2 (top) and α-tubulin (bottom) antibodies.( B ) Quantification of optical densities of phospho-ERK signals were normalized against α-tubulin signals ( n =4). ( C ) RT-PCR detection of cyclin D1 transcripts in E6 retinas cultured for 24 hours in the presence or absence of VEGF. Ratios of cyclin D1 and GAPDH products are shown ( n =8). ( D-F ) Quantifications of U0126 effects on VEGF-dependent cell proliferation (D) or differentiation (E,F). E5 explants were cultured for 24 hours and BrdU labeled for the last 3 hours ( n =6; * P

    Article Snippet: Blots were incubated with antibodies against AP (Zymed), VEGF (SantaCruz), FLAG (Sigma), GFP (Molecular Probe), α-tubulin (Sigma) or phospho-ERK1/2 (Cell Signaling), followed by secondary antibodies conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and detected by enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL plus, Amersham).

    Techniques: Inhibition, Western Blot, Cell Culture, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Labeling

    Influence of VEGF on retinal cell proliferation. ( A ) Effects of VEGF concentrations on BrdU incorporation in vitro. E5–E7 explants were labeled with BrdU for the last 6 hours ( n =4 or 5). ( B-D ) Western blots show sFLK1 (B), VEGF (C) or FLK1-DN (D) expression. Culture media of transfected HEK cells (B,C) or infected DF-1 cell extracts (D) were probed with antibodies against AP (B), VEGF (C) or FLAG tag (D). Controls used were CMV-AP (B,C) or RCAS-AP virus (D). Arrowheads indicate bands with expected molecular weights. ( E-G ) Immunostaining show effects of AP (E), sFLK1 (F) or VEGF (G) in E5–E7 explants on BrdU labeling for the last 3 hours. Scale bars: 50 μm. ( H ) Effects of sFLK1-and VEGF-producing cells on BrdU incorporation (3 hours)at E5 in vivo. Black and white bars represent implanted and the contralateral non-implanted eyes, respectively ( n =5 or 6; * P

    Journal: Development (Cambridge, England)

    Article Title: VEGF activates divergent intracellular signaling components to regulate retinal progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation

    doi: 10.1242/dev.02385

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Influence of VEGF on retinal cell proliferation. ( A ) Effects of VEGF concentrations on BrdU incorporation in vitro. E5–E7 explants were labeled with BrdU for the last 6 hours ( n =4 or 5). ( B-D ) Western blots show sFLK1 (B), VEGF (C) or FLK1-DN (D) expression. Culture media of transfected HEK cells (B,C) or infected DF-1 cell extracts (D) were probed with antibodies against AP (B), VEGF (C) or FLAG tag (D). Controls used were CMV-AP (B,C) or RCAS-AP virus (D). Arrowheads indicate bands with expected molecular weights. ( E-G ) Immunostaining show effects of AP (E), sFLK1 (F) or VEGF (G) in E5–E7 explants on BrdU labeling for the last 3 hours. Scale bars: 50 μm. ( H ) Effects of sFLK1-and VEGF-producing cells on BrdU incorporation (3 hours)at E5 in vivo. Black and white bars represent implanted and the contralateral non-implanted eyes, respectively ( n =5 or 6; * P

    Article Snippet: Blots were incubated with antibodies against AP (Zymed), VEGF (SantaCruz), FLAG (Sigma), GFP (Molecular Probe), α-tubulin (Sigma) or phospho-ERK1/2 (Cell Signaling), followed by secondary antibodies conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and detected by enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL plus, Amersham).

    Techniques: BrdU Incorporation Assay, In Vitro, Labeling, Western Blot, Expressing, Transfection, Infection, FLAG-tag, Immunostaining, In Vivo

    Requirements of HES1 in VEGF-dependent retinal proliferation and differentiation. E5 retinas were co-electroporated with dnHES1- and GFP-expressing constructs, and then cultured as explants ( A , B ) or dissociated cells in collagen gels ( C , D ). VEGF was added at 24 hours post transfection and BrdU was added for the last 3 hours. (A,B) Effects of dnHES1 on Brn3a + cells at E8 (A) or BrdU + cells at E7 (B) among transfected GFP + cells ( n =6; * P

    Journal: Development (Cambridge, England)

    Article Title: VEGF activates divergent intracellular signaling components to regulate retinal progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation

    doi: 10.1242/dev.02385

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Requirements of HES1 in VEGF-dependent retinal proliferation and differentiation. E5 retinas were co-electroporated with dnHES1- and GFP-expressing constructs, and then cultured as explants ( A , B ) or dissociated cells in collagen gels ( C , D ). VEGF was added at 24 hours post transfection and BrdU was added for the last 3 hours. (A,B) Effects of dnHES1 on Brn3a + cells at E8 (A) or BrdU + cells at E7 (B) among transfected GFP + cells ( n =6; * P

    Article Snippet: Blots were incubated with antibodies against AP (Zymed), VEGF (SantaCruz), FLAG (Sigma), GFP (Molecular Probe), α-tubulin (Sigma) or phospho-ERK1/2 (Cell Signaling), followed by secondary antibodies conjugated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and detected by enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL plus, Amersham).

    Techniques: Expressing, Construct, Cell Culture, Transfection

    Mechanical ventilation increased MMP-7, cyclin D1, and VEGF in the lung. Densitometry analysis of the active form (20 kDa) of MMP-7 was normalized to the inactive form (30 kDa) and then normalized to β-actin. Densitometry analysis (in graph) and representative gels correspond to three different experimental protocols: spontaneous breathing animals (controls, C), ventilated with low V T and ventilated with high V T . (*) p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Activation of the Wnt/?-Catenin Signaling Pathway by Mechanical Ventilation Is Associated with Ventilator-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in Healthy Lungs

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023914

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mechanical ventilation increased MMP-7, cyclin D1, and VEGF in the lung. Densitometry analysis of the active form (20 kDa) of MMP-7 was normalized to the inactive form (30 kDa) and then normalized to β-actin. Densitometry analysis (in graph) and representative gels correspond to three different experimental protocols: spontaneous breathing animals (controls, C), ventilated with low V T and ventilated with high V T . (*) p

    Article Snippet: Detection of WNT5A, AXIN2 (Abcam, Cambridge, UK), total β-catenin, MMP-7, cyclin D1, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA), non-phospho (Ser33/37/Thr41) β-catenin (Cell Signaling Technology, Massachusetts) were performed in random samples by Western blotting using rabbit polyclonal anti-WNT5A, anti-AXIN2, anti-β-catenin, anti-non-phospho (Ser33/37/Thr41) β-catenin, and anti-MMP-7 antibodies, and a goat anti-rabbit IgG-HRP as secondary antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA), mouse monoclonal antibody anti-cyclin D1 and a rabbit anti-mouse IgG-HRP as secondary antibody (Dako, Glostrup, Denmark), goat polyclonal anti-VEFG and a donkey anti-goat IgG-HRP (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA).

    Techniques:

    IHC analysis of each tumor tissue collected from the OSCC nude mice model. (n=40) OSCC nude mice were treated by inhibition of HIF-1 or NF-κB. A. HIF-1α expression. B. NF-κB expression. C. Ki67 expression. D. VEGF expression (×200).

    Journal: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology

    Article Title: Co-expression of HIF-1 and TLR3 is associated with poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: IHC analysis of each tumor tissue collected from the OSCC nude mice model. (n=40) OSCC nude mice were treated by inhibition of HIF-1 or NF-κB. A. HIF-1α expression. B. NF-κB expression. C. Ki67 expression. D. VEGF expression (×200).

    Article Snippet: DAKO was used with HIF-1α antibody (1:200, Abcam), TLR3 (1:100, Abcam), Ki67 (1:300, Abcam), VEGF (1:250, Abcam), NF-κB p65 (1:150, Cell Signaling Technology).

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry, Mouse Assay, Inhibition, Expressing

    YAP/TAZ suppress β-catenin– and NICD-mediated DLL4 induction. ( A – C ) YAP/TAZ siRNA sensitized HUVECs to Akt activation in response to 50 ng/mL VEGF-A ( A ) and 400 ng/mL Ang-1 ( B ), and 10% FBS ( C ) for 10 minutes. ( D and E ) DAPT (10 μM, 3 hours) or MK2206 (10 μM, 3 hours) abolished YAP/TAZ siRNA–induced mRNA ( D ) and protein ( E ) expression of DLL4. ( F and G ) DAPT (10 μM, 10 minutes pretreatment) or MK2206 (10 μM, 10 minutes pretreatment) attenuated mRNA ( F ) and protein ( G ) expression of DLL4 induced by Y27632 (10 μM, 3 hours). ( H and I ) β-Catenin siRNA abolished YAP/TAZ siRNA–induced mRNA ( H ) and protein ( I ) expression of DLL4. Data are mean ± SEM of triplicates. ** P

    Journal: The Journal of Clinical Investigation

    Article Title: Lysophosphatidic acid–induced YAP/TAZ activation promotes developmental angiogenesis by repressing Notch ligand Dll4

    doi: 10.1172/JCI121955

    Figure Lengend Snippet: YAP/TAZ suppress β-catenin– and NICD-mediated DLL4 induction. ( A – C ) YAP/TAZ siRNA sensitized HUVECs to Akt activation in response to 50 ng/mL VEGF-A ( A ) and 400 ng/mL Ang-1 ( B ), and 10% FBS ( C ) for 10 minutes. ( D and E ) DAPT (10 μM, 3 hours) or MK2206 (10 μM, 3 hours) abolished YAP/TAZ siRNA–induced mRNA ( D ) and protein ( E ) expression of DLL4. ( F and G ) DAPT (10 μM, 10 minutes pretreatment) or MK2206 (10 μM, 10 minutes pretreatment) attenuated mRNA ( F ) and protein ( G ) expression of DLL4 induced by Y27632 (10 μM, 3 hours). ( H and I ) β-Catenin siRNA abolished YAP/TAZ siRNA–induced mRNA ( H ) and protein ( I ) expression of DLL4. Data are mean ± SEM of triplicates. ** P

    Article Snippet: After 24 hours, the beads were washed with EGM-2 BulletKit 3 times and suspended in EGM-2 BulletKit containing 2% FBS, 2 mg/mL fibrinogen (Sigma-Aldrich), 0.15 U/mL aprotinin (Sigma-Aldrich), and 10 ng/mL VEGF-A (Invitrogen).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Expressing

    Early passage ASCs overexpress the neurotropic protein HGF but not VEGF nor the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1 β . ASCs at passage 3 that were cultured in serum-free conditions for 48 hours were compared to the control group of ASCs at passage 5. Both cells and medium were collected and analyzed at mRNA level and at protein level by qRT-PCR and by ELISA, respectively. (a) qRT-PCR analysis of HGF, VEGF, and IL-1 β . (b) ELISA for HGF protein levels. Each experiment was performed a minimum of 3 samples from 3 different patients. Each experiment was performed a minimum of 3 times.

    Journal: Stem Cells International

    Article Title: Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Migrate and Rescue RPE in the Setting of Oxidative Stress

    doi: 10.1155/2018/9682856

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Early passage ASCs overexpress the neurotropic protein HGF but not VEGF nor the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1 β . ASCs at passage 3 that were cultured in serum-free conditions for 48 hours were compared to the control group of ASCs at passage 5. Both cells and medium were collected and analyzed at mRNA level and at protein level by qRT-PCR and by ELISA, respectively. (a) qRT-PCR analysis of HGF, VEGF, and IL-1 β . (b) ELISA for HGF protein levels. Each experiment was performed a minimum of 3 samples from 3 different patients. Each experiment was performed a minimum of 3 times.

    Article Snippet: The mRNA expression levels of the growth factors, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), interleukin-1β (IL-1β ), stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), the chemokine receptor CXCR4, and normalizing housekeeping genes GUSB and RLP27 (see for sequence information) were measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (StepOnePlus, Applied Biosystems) using SYBR® Green qPCR Mastermix (Qiagen).

    Techniques: Cell Culture, Quantitative RT-PCR, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Inhibition of VEGF affected the VEGF/p38/MMP-2 signaling pathway in PASMCs from rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension by attenuating the effects of miR-15a-5p inhibition. (A) Expression of VEGF, p-p38, MMP-2, Bax and Bcl-2 proteins detected using western blot analysis. Quantification of (B) VEGF, (C) p-p38, (D) MMP-2, (E) Bax and (F) Bcl-2 protein expression. ## P

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Medicine

    Article Title: MicroRNA-15a-5p induces pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell apoptosis in a pulmonary arterial hypertension model via the VEGF/p38/MMP-2 signaling pathway

    doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2019.4434

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Inhibition of VEGF affected the VEGF/p38/MMP-2 signaling pathway in PASMCs from rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension by attenuating the effects of miR-15a-5p inhibition. (A) Expression of VEGF, p-p38, MMP-2, Bax and Bcl-2 proteins detected using western blot analysis. Quantification of (B) VEGF, (C) p-p38, (D) MMP-2, (E) Bax and (F) Bcl-2 protein expression. ## P

    Article Snippet: The membranes were blocked with 5% skimmed milk in 1X Tris-buffered saline with 0.1% Tween-20 (TBST) followed by incubation overnight at 4°C with the following primary antibodies: Anti-B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2; cat. no. sc-509; 1:1,000, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.), anti-Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax; cat. no. sc-20067; 1:1,000, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.), anti-VEGF (cat. no. sc-81670; 1:500, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.), anti-phosphorylated (p)-p38 MAPK (cat. no. sc-17852-R; 1:1,000, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.), anti-p38 MAPK (cat. no. 8690S; 1:1,000, Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.), anti-MMP-2 (cat. no. sc-53630; 1:1,000, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.) and anti-GAPDH (cat. no. sc-51631; 1:5,000, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.).

    Techniques: Inhibition, Expressing, Western Blot

    Upregulation of VEGF affected the VEGF/p38/MMP-2 signaling pathway in PASMCs from rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension by the effects of miR-15a-5p. (A) Results of the protein expression of VEGF, p38, MMP-2, Bax and Bcl-2 measured using western blot analysis. Protein expression of (B) VEGF, (C) p-p38, (D) MMP-2, (E) Bax and (F) Bcl-2. ## P

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Medicine

    Article Title: MicroRNA-15a-5p induces pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell apoptosis in a pulmonary arterial hypertension model via the VEGF/p38/MMP-2 signaling pathway

    doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2019.4434

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Upregulation of VEGF affected the VEGF/p38/MMP-2 signaling pathway in PASMCs from rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension by the effects of miR-15a-5p. (A) Results of the protein expression of VEGF, p38, MMP-2, Bax and Bcl-2 measured using western blot analysis. Protein expression of (B) VEGF, (C) p-p38, (D) MMP-2, (E) Bax and (F) Bcl-2. ## P

    Article Snippet: The membranes were blocked with 5% skimmed milk in 1X Tris-buffered saline with 0.1% Tween-20 (TBST) followed by incubation overnight at 4°C with the following primary antibodies: Anti-B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2; cat. no. sc-509; 1:1,000, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.), anti-Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax; cat. no. sc-20067; 1:1,000, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.), anti-VEGF (cat. no. sc-81670; 1:500, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.), anti-phosphorylated (p)-p38 MAPK (cat. no. sc-17852-R; 1:1,000, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.), anti-p38 MAPK (cat. no. 8690S; 1:1,000, Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.), anti-MMP-2 (cat. no. sc-53630; 1:1,000, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.) and anti-GAPDH (cat. no. sc-51631; 1:5,000, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.).

    Techniques: Expressing, Western Blot

    Western blot analysis of protein expression of IL-6, p-STAT3, survivin, STAT3, and VEGF. Protein levels of IL-6, Survivin, p-STAT3, STAT3, and VEGF in normal gastric and tumor tissue were determined using western blotting. Beta-actin was a loading control. Relative protein expression of IL-6 (A), VEGF (B), surviving (C), p-STAT3 (D) was normalized to of the corresponding beta-actin level. Positive immunoreactive bands were quantified densitometrically and expressed as IL-6, Survivin, p-STAT3, STAT3, and VEGF in optical density units, respectively. * P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Activation of STAT3 in Human Gastric Cancer Cells via Interleukin (IL)-6-Type Cytokine Signaling Correlates with Clinical Implications

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075788

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Western blot analysis of protein expression of IL-6, p-STAT3, survivin, STAT3, and VEGF. Protein levels of IL-6, Survivin, p-STAT3, STAT3, and VEGF in normal gastric and tumor tissue were determined using western blotting. Beta-actin was a loading control. Relative protein expression of IL-6 (A), VEGF (B), surviving (C), p-STAT3 (D) was normalized to of the corresponding beta-actin level. Positive immunoreactive bands were quantified densitometrically and expressed as IL-6, Survivin, p-STAT3, STAT3, and VEGF in optical density units, respectively. * P

    Article Snippet: The levels of VEGF, survivin, and IL-6 in the gastric samples were determined by an anti-VEGF antibody (1:100 dilution; Santa Cruz Biotechnology), an anti-survivin antibody (1:100 dilution; Santa Cruz Biotechnology), and an anti-IL-6 antibody (1:50 dilution; Santa Cruz Biotechnology), respectively.

    Techniques: Western Blot, Expressing

    Expression of STAT3 in human gastric cancer tissues. The expression and localization of STAT3, IL-6, VEGF, and survivin in gastric cancer cells were determined using immunohistochemical staining. There was weak or negative expression of STAT3 in adjacent normal mucosa. However, there was strong expression of phosphorylated STAT3 in gastric cancer tissues. The STAT3 staining was mainly localized in the nuclei of tumor epithelial cells, which was indicated by numerous yellowish granules. STAT3 overexpression was associated with with increased expression of IL-6, surviving, and VEGF as well as with increased vessel density (Original magnification of A1-A3 and B1-B3, ×400; A4 and B4, ×200)..

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Activation of STAT3 in Human Gastric Cancer Cells via Interleukin (IL)-6-Type Cytokine Signaling Correlates with Clinical Implications

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075788

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of STAT3 in human gastric cancer tissues. The expression and localization of STAT3, IL-6, VEGF, and survivin in gastric cancer cells were determined using immunohistochemical staining. There was weak or negative expression of STAT3 in adjacent normal mucosa. However, there was strong expression of phosphorylated STAT3 in gastric cancer tissues. The STAT3 staining was mainly localized in the nuclei of tumor epithelial cells, which was indicated by numerous yellowish granules. STAT3 overexpression was associated with with increased expression of IL-6, surviving, and VEGF as well as with increased vessel density (Original magnification of A1-A3 and B1-B3, ×400; A4 and B4, ×200)..

    Article Snippet: The levels of VEGF, survivin, and IL-6 in the gastric samples were determined by an anti-VEGF antibody (1:100 dilution; Santa Cruz Biotechnology), an anti-survivin antibody (1:100 dilution; Santa Cruz Biotechnology), and an anti-IL-6 antibody (1:50 dilution; Santa Cruz Biotechnology), respectively.

    Techniques: Expressing, Immunohistochemistry, Staining, Over Expression

    Reduced dermokine ( DMKN ) expression retards growth of xenograft tumors and inhibits tumor metastasis in vivo . (A) Xenograft tumor volume in GFP lentivirus ( NC ) and DMKN ‐sh RNA ( KD ) groups. (B) Comparison of tumor volume between NC and KD groups. (C) Expression of angiogenesis‐associated proteins in blank (non‐transfected), NC , and KD groups. VEGF , vascular endothelial growth factor. (D) Expression of angiogenesis‐associated mRNA in NC and KD groups. (E) Immunohistochemical staining for the vascular marker CD 31 in NC and KD xenograft tumor tissue samples. (G) Fluorescence intensity analysis indicated that reduced DMKN levels inhibit pancreatic cancer metastasis in vivo .

    Journal: Cancer Science

    Article Title: Dermokine contributes to epithelial–mesenchymal transition through increased activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in pancreatic cancer

    doi: 10.1111/cas.13347

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Reduced dermokine ( DMKN ) expression retards growth of xenograft tumors and inhibits tumor metastasis in vivo . (A) Xenograft tumor volume in GFP lentivirus ( NC ) and DMKN ‐sh RNA ( KD ) groups. (B) Comparison of tumor volume between NC and KD groups. (C) Expression of angiogenesis‐associated proteins in blank (non‐transfected), NC , and KD groups. VEGF , vascular endothelial growth factor. (D) Expression of angiogenesis‐associated mRNA in NC and KD groups. (E) Immunohistochemical staining for the vascular marker CD 31 in NC and KD xenograft tumor tissue samples. (G) Fluorescence intensity analysis indicated that reduced DMKN levels inhibit pancreatic cancer metastasis in vivo .

    Article Snippet: The following commercially available antibodies were used: anti‐GAPDH (Bioworld Technology, St. Louis Park, MN, USA), anti‐DMKN (Abcam, Cambridge, MA, USA), anti‐vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; Abcam), anti‐ERK1/2, anti‐phospho‐ERK1/2, anti‐AKT, anti‐phospho‐AKT, anti‐STAT3, anti‐phospho‐STAT3, anti‐E‐cadherin, anti‐N‐cadherin, anti‐Snail, anti‐vimentin, anti‐ MMP2, and anti‐MMP9 (all Cell Signaling Technology, Danvers, MA, USA).

    Techniques: Expressing, In Vivo, Transfection, Immunohistochemistry, Staining, Marker, Fluorescence

    Analysis of the oncogenic pathways regulated by dermokine ( DMKN ). (A) Expression of oncogenic pathway proteins in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells transfected with either DMKN ‐sh RNA ( KD ), GFP lentivirus ( NC ), or non‐transfected (blank) cells. (B) Expression of epithelial–mesenchymal transition ( EMT )‐associated and oncogenic pathway proteins in Patu‐8988 cells treated with U0126 ( MAPK / ERK kinase inhibitor), MK ‐2206 2 HCL ( AKT inhibitor), or STA ‐21 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 [ STAT 3] inhibitor). (C) EMT ‐associated proteins and oncogenic pathway proteins in PANC ‐1 cells treated with DMKN overexpressing plasmids. (D) Effect and mechanist model for elucidating the role of DMKN in oncogenic pathway. VEGF , vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Journal: Cancer Science

    Article Title: Dermokine contributes to epithelial–mesenchymal transition through increased activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in pancreatic cancer

    doi: 10.1111/cas.13347

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Analysis of the oncogenic pathways regulated by dermokine ( DMKN ). (A) Expression of oncogenic pathway proteins in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells transfected with either DMKN ‐sh RNA ( KD ), GFP lentivirus ( NC ), or non‐transfected (blank) cells. (B) Expression of epithelial–mesenchymal transition ( EMT )‐associated and oncogenic pathway proteins in Patu‐8988 cells treated with U0126 ( MAPK / ERK kinase inhibitor), MK ‐2206 2 HCL ( AKT inhibitor), or STA ‐21 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 [ STAT 3] inhibitor). (C) EMT ‐associated proteins and oncogenic pathway proteins in PANC ‐1 cells treated with DMKN overexpressing plasmids. (D) Effect and mechanist model for elucidating the role of DMKN in oncogenic pathway. VEGF , vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Article Snippet: The following commercially available antibodies were used: anti‐GAPDH (Bioworld Technology, St. Louis Park, MN, USA), anti‐DMKN (Abcam, Cambridge, MA, USA), anti‐vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; Abcam), anti‐ERK1/2, anti‐phospho‐ERK1/2, anti‐AKT, anti‐phospho‐AKT, anti‐STAT3, anti‐phospho‐STAT3, anti‐E‐cadherin, anti‐N‐cadherin, anti‐Snail, anti‐vimentin, anti‐ MMP2, and anti‐MMP9 (all Cell Signaling Technology, Danvers, MA, USA).

    Techniques: Expressing, Transfection

    Effect of YC-1 on 2-h ischemia-induced VEGF expression in neurons and astrocytes. The cellular distribution of VEGF was analyzed by immunostaining with NeuN (marker of neurons) or GFAP (marker of astrocytes) after 2-h MCAO. Double immunostain of VEGF (green) and NeuN (red) showed a good colocalization of VEGF and neurons and YC-1 treatment significantly decreased the proportion of VEGF-positive neurons (A) . Double immunostain of VEGF (green) and GFAP (red) showed no co-localization of VEGF and astrocytes (B) . After quantification, two-way ANNOVA showed an increased proportion of VEGF positive neurons and YC-1 significantly decreased this upregulation (C,D) . n = 3/group. Scale bar = 50 μm. n = 3/group. * P

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience

    Article Title: Inhibition of HIF-1α Reduced Blood Brain Barrier Damage by Regulating MMP-2 and VEGF During Acute Cerebral Ischemia

    doi: 10.3389/fncel.2018.00288

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of YC-1 on 2-h ischemia-induced VEGF expression in neurons and astrocytes. The cellular distribution of VEGF was analyzed by immunostaining with NeuN (marker of neurons) or GFAP (marker of astrocytes) after 2-h MCAO. Double immunostain of VEGF (green) and NeuN (red) showed a good colocalization of VEGF and neurons and YC-1 treatment significantly decreased the proportion of VEGF-positive neurons (A) . Double immunostain of VEGF (green) and GFAP (red) showed no co-localization of VEGF and astrocytes (B) . After quantification, two-way ANNOVA showed an increased proportion of VEGF positive neurons and YC-1 significantly decreased this upregulation (C,D) . n = 3/group. Scale bar = 50 μm. n = 3/group. * P

    Article Snippet: Then anti-VEGF antibody (1:200, Abcam), anti-NeuN (1:200, Millipore), anti-GFAP (1:2,000, Millipore) primary antibody were applied to the sections and incubated at 4°C overnight.

    Techniques: Expressing, Immunostaining, Marker

    Pleiotropic effects of NGF on HUVEC . (A) Growth assay. HUVEC cultured on standard culture plastic were treated with NGF (100 ng/ml), or VEGF (10 ng/ml) for 48 h. (B and C) Migration and invasion assay using Transwells. (D) Cord formation assay on matrigel-coated 24-well dishes. (E) Endothelial cell monolayer permeability assay. The kinetics of 70 kDa Dextran-FITC having passed through the monolayer of endothelial cells was determined by measurement of fluorescence in the lower chambers at different time points. A to D Student's t-test, *p

    Journal: Molecular Cancer

    Article Title: Nerve growth factor promotes breast cancer angiogenesis by activating multiple pathways

    doi: 10.1186/1476-4598-9-157

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pleiotropic effects of NGF on HUVEC . (A) Growth assay. HUVEC cultured on standard culture plastic were treated with NGF (100 ng/ml), or VEGF (10 ng/ml) for 48 h. (B and C) Migration and invasion assay using Transwells. (D) Cord formation assay on matrigel-coated 24-well dishes. (E) Endothelial cell monolayer permeability assay. The kinetics of 70 kDa Dextran-FITC having passed through the monolayer of endothelial cells was determined by measurement of fluorescence in the lower chambers at different time points. A to D Student's t-test, *p

    Article Snippet: Reagents Human recombinant NGF and VEGF, neutralizing antibodies against NGF, VEGF and the corresponding isotype control antibodies were purchased from R & D Systems.

    Techniques: Growth Assay, Cell Culture, Migration, Invasion Assay, Tube Formation Assay, Permeability, Fluorescence

    Involvement of the VEGF in NGF-stimulated angiogenesis . (A) ELISA quantification of VEGF in conditioned media from HUVEC and MDA-MB-231 cells. Cells were treated with NGF (100 ng/ml) for 6 h or 24 h, conditioned media were concentrated before ELISA assay, as described in materials and methods. (B) Invasion assay using Transwells. HUVEC were treated with NGF (100 ng/ml) or VEGF (10 ng/ml) in the presence of isotype control or anti-VEGF neutralizing antibodies (1 μg/ml) for 24 h. (C) In vivo angiogenesis assay. Matrigel containing a mixture of NGF and isotype control or anti-VEGF neutralizing antibodies (37.5 μg/ml) was subcutaneously injected into SCID mice (five mice per group) as described in materials and methods. Hemoglobin in Matrigel plugs was quantified by Drabkin method 7 days after injection. Results are the mean of three independent experiments. Student's t-test, *p

    Journal: Molecular Cancer

    Article Title: Nerve growth factor promotes breast cancer angiogenesis by activating multiple pathways

    doi: 10.1186/1476-4598-9-157

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Involvement of the VEGF in NGF-stimulated angiogenesis . (A) ELISA quantification of VEGF in conditioned media from HUVEC and MDA-MB-231 cells. Cells were treated with NGF (100 ng/ml) for 6 h or 24 h, conditioned media were concentrated before ELISA assay, as described in materials and methods. (B) Invasion assay using Transwells. HUVEC were treated with NGF (100 ng/ml) or VEGF (10 ng/ml) in the presence of isotype control or anti-VEGF neutralizing antibodies (1 μg/ml) for 24 h. (C) In vivo angiogenesis assay. Matrigel containing a mixture of NGF and isotype control or anti-VEGF neutralizing antibodies (37.5 μg/ml) was subcutaneously injected into SCID mice (five mice per group) as described in materials and methods. Hemoglobin in Matrigel plugs was quantified by Drabkin method 7 days after injection. Results are the mean of three independent experiments. Student's t-test, *p

    Article Snippet: Reagents Human recombinant NGF and VEGF, neutralizing antibodies against NGF, VEGF and the corresponding isotype control antibodies were purchased from R & D Systems.

    Techniques: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Multiple Displacement Amplification, Invasion Assay, In Vivo, Angiogenesis Assay, Injection, Mouse Assay

    Angiogenesis assay using Matrigel plugs in SCID mice . Matrigel containing different reagents was subcutaneously injected into SCID mice as described in materials and methods. (A, B) Matrigel was mixed with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and isotype control or anti-NGF neutralizing antibodies (75 μg/ml); (C) Matrigel was mixed with proNGF (7.5 μg/ml), NGF (3.75 μg/ml), or VEGF (0.375 μg/ml). Angiogenesis was analyzed by quantification of hemoglobin (A, C) and microvessel density (B) as described in materials and methods. Five mice were used for each group and results are the mean of three independent experiments. Student's t-test, *p

    Journal: Molecular Cancer

    Article Title: Nerve growth factor promotes breast cancer angiogenesis by activating multiple pathways

    doi: 10.1186/1476-4598-9-157

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Angiogenesis assay using Matrigel plugs in SCID mice . Matrigel containing different reagents was subcutaneously injected into SCID mice as described in materials and methods. (A, B) Matrigel was mixed with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and isotype control or anti-NGF neutralizing antibodies (75 μg/ml); (C) Matrigel was mixed with proNGF (7.5 μg/ml), NGF (3.75 μg/ml), or VEGF (0.375 μg/ml). Angiogenesis was analyzed by quantification of hemoglobin (A, C) and microvessel density (B) as described in materials and methods. Five mice were used for each group and results are the mean of three independent experiments. Student's t-test, *p

    Article Snippet: Reagents Human recombinant NGF and VEGF, neutralizing antibodies against NGF, VEGF and the corresponding isotype control antibodies were purchased from R & D Systems.

    Techniques: Angiogenesis Assay, Mouse Assay, Injection, Multiple Displacement Amplification

    Inhibition of VEGF and NGF by specific neutralizing antibodies significantly suppressed the effects of hDPSC transplantation on the MNCV ( a ) and SNCV ( b ). The neutralizing antibodies against VEGF and NGF were continuously administered using an osmotic pump. The pump was inserted on the day of hDPSC transplantation. The results are expressed as the mean ± SD ( n = 6). ** P

    Journal: Stem Cell Research & Therapy

    Article Title: Transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells ameliorates diabetic polyneuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nude mice: the role of angiogenic and neurotrophic factors

    doi: 10.1186/s13287-020-01758-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Inhibition of VEGF and NGF by specific neutralizing antibodies significantly suppressed the effects of hDPSC transplantation on the MNCV ( a ) and SNCV ( b ). The neutralizing antibodies against VEGF and NGF were continuously administered using an osmotic pump. The pump was inserted on the day of hDPSC transplantation. The results are expressed as the mean ± SD ( n = 6). ** P

    Article Snippet: After 24 h of incubation, the culture media were collected, and the protein concentrations of human VEGF and human NGF in serum and hDPSC culture supernatants were measured by ELISA kits (R & D Systems and Bioscience, Thebarton, South Australia) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Transplantation Assay

    Localization of transplanted hDPSCs and expression of angiogenic and neurotrophic factors. a Four weeks after transplantation in the hindlimb skeletal muscles, the transplanted cells were stained with an antibody specific for human nuclei. Bar = 25 μm. b The mRNA expression of VEGF and NGF in the hindlimb skeletal muscles was assessed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction with human probes. The products were observed via agarose gel electrophoresis with ethidium bromide staining

    Journal: Stem Cell Research & Therapy

    Article Title: Transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells ameliorates diabetic polyneuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nude mice: the role of angiogenic and neurotrophic factors

    doi: 10.1186/s13287-020-01758-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Localization of transplanted hDPSCs and expression of angiogenic and neurotrophic factors. a Four weeks after transplantation in the hindlimb skeletal muscles, the transplanted cells were stained with an antibody specific for human nuclei. Bar = 25 μm. b The mRNA expression of VEGF and NGF in the hindlimb skeletal muscles was assessed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction with human probes. The products were observed via agarose gel electrophoresis with ethidium bromide staining

    Article Snippet: After 24 h of incubation, the culture media were collected, and the protein concentrations of human VEGF and human NGF in serum and hDPSC culture supernatants were measured by ELISA kits (R & D Systems and Bioscience, Thebarton, South Australia) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

    Techniques: Expressing, Transplantation Assay, Staining, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    VEGF pellet implantation induces blood and lymphatic vessel formation In vivo observation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in a Prox1-GFP/Flk1::myr-mCherry mouse over 10 days following 150ng VEGF pellet implantation (left 3 columns) or control PBS pellet implantation (far right column). ( A-P ) SteREO Lumar microscopy images of GFP-expressing lymphatic vessels (green), mCherry-expressing blood vessels (red) and overlays (right two columns): ( A-D ) prior to implantation, ( E-H ) 3 days post-implantation, ( I-L ) 7 days post-implantation, and ( MP ) 10 days post-implantation. ( Q-T ) Confocal imaging of the same corneas on day 10. Scale bar: 500 μm in ( A-P ) and 200 μm in ( Q-T ). Arrows ( A ): regularly spaced lymphatic vessels penetrating the cornea in the uninjured eye; arrowheads ( E ): new lymphatic vessels budding from the cornea 3 days after VEGF pellet implantation; asterisk ( I ): one potential new lymphatic vessel budding from the cornea on day 7 after the initial phase; circle ( T ): outline of the implanted PBS control pellet.

    Journal: The FEBS journal

    Article Title: Simultaneous in vivo imaging of blood and lymphatic vessel growth in Prox1-GFP/Flk1::myr-mCherry mice

    doi: 10.1111/febs.13234

    Figure Lengend Snippet: VEGF pellet implantation induces blood and lymphatic vessel formation In vivo observation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in a Prox1-GFP/Flk1::myr-mCherry mouse over 10 days following 150ng VEGF pellet implantation (left 3 columns) or control PBS pellet implantation (far right column). ( A-P ) SteREO Lumar microscopy images of GFP-expressing lymphatic vessels (green), mCherry-expressing blood vessels (red) and overlays (right two columns): ( A-D ) prior to implantation, ( E-H ) 3 days post-implantation, ( I-L ) 7 days post-implantation, and ( MP ) 10 days post-implantation. ( Q-T ) Confocal imaging of the same corneas on day 10. Scale bar: 500 μm in ( A-P ) and 200 μm in ( Q-T ). Arrows ( A ): regularly spaced lymphatic vessels penetrating the cornea in the uninjured eye; arrowheads ( E ): new lymphatic vessels budding from the cornea 3 days after VEGF pellet implantation; asterisk ( I ): one potential new lymphatic vessel budding from the cornea on day 7 after the initial phase; circle ( T ): outline of the implanted PBS control pellet.

    Article Snippet: Pellets contained 10% (w/v) sulfcralfate (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), 12% (w/v) poly-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA; Sigma-Aldrich) dissolved in absolute ethanol, and recombinant human VEGF-A (R & D Systems, Minneapolis, MN), bFGF, or PBS.

    Techniques: In Vivo, Microscopy, Expressing, Imaging

    Effect of high calorie environment towards oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status in rat strains. After the completion of feeding experiment, blood was collected; plasma was separated and estimated the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. ( A ) Interleukin 6; IL-6. ( B ) Tumor necrosis factor alpha; TNFα. ( C ) Interleukin 1 beta; IL-1β. ( D ) Macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha; MIP-1α. ( E ) Vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGF. ( F ) IFN gamma inducible protein 10; IP-10. ( G ) Monocyte chemotactic protein 1; MCP1 and anti -inflammatory cytokines such as ( H ) Interleukin 4; IL-4 and ( I ) Interleukin 10; IL-10. ( J ) TBARS assay was performed on liver tissue lysate to study oxidative stress. Data was presented as mean ± SEM (n = 6 per group). Diets: control; HF, high fat; HS, high sucrose; HFS, high fat sucrose. TBARS, Thio Barbituricacid Reactive Substances. *P

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Differential response of rat strains to obesogenic diets underlines the importance of genetic makeup of an individual towards obesity

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-09149-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of high calorie environment towards oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status in rat strains. After the completion of feeding experiment, blood was collected; plasma was separated and estimated the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. ( A ) Interleukin 6; IL-6. ( B ) Tumor necrosis factor alpha; TNFα. ( C ) Interleukin 1 beta; IL-1β. ( D ) Macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha; MIP-1α. ( E ) Vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGF. ( F ) IFN gamma inducible protein 10; IP-10. ( G ) Monocyte chemotactic protein 1; MCP1 and anti -inflammatory cytokines such as ( H ) Interleukin 4; IL-4 and ( I ) Interleukin 10; IL-10. ( J ) TBARS assay was performed on liver tissue lysate to study oxidative stress. Data was presented as mean ± SEM (n = 6 per group). Diets: control; HF, high fat; HS, high sucrose; HFS, high fat sucrose. TBARS, Thio Barbituricacid Reactive Substances. *P

    Article Snippet: Rat Cytokine/Chemokine Profile The adipocytokines such as leptin, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α, CCL3), interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), macrophage chemo attractant protein-1 (MCP-1, CCL2), IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10 (IP- 10, CXCL10), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were estimated both in circulation as well as in visceral adipose tissue by Milliplex Rat cytokine immunoassay kit (Millipore, USA) according to manufacturer’s instructions.

    Techniques: TBARS Assay

    ( A ) Low magnification images from CD31 stained cross-sections of semimembranosus muscles show CD31 positive cells in the muscle perimysium in all 1 × 10 9 vp animals. With the 1 × 10 10 vp dose, enlargement of capillaries is uniformly seen inside the muscle fascicles. Scalebar 200 µm. B. VEGFR-1 staining is intense in the small capillaries, but reduced in the heavily enlarged capillaries. VEGFR-2 staining is more intense in the enlarged capillaries. Pictures are from AdVammin 1 × 10 10 vp treated muscle from areas of low, medium and high effect. Scalebar 50 µm. C. Diffuse VEGF-A staining is seen in 1 × 10 10 vp AdVEGF-A transduced muscles surrounding the capillaries especially in VEGF-A 165 muscles. The cells in the perimysium were strongly stained with VEGF-A also in AdVammin 1 × 10 9 vp transduced muscles suggesting that they may serve as a source of endogenous VEGF-A. VEGF-A is also detected around the highly enlarged capillaries in AdVammin 1 × 10 10 vp muscle. Scalebar 200 µM in the low magnification (40x) images and 50 µm in the high magnification (400x) images.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Snake venom VEGF Vammin induces a highly efficient angiogenic response in skeletal muscle via VEGFR-2/NRP specific signaling

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-05876-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( A ) Low magnification images from CD31 stained cross-sections of semimembranosus muscles show CD31 positive cells in the muscle perimysium in all 1 × 10 9 vp animals. With the 1 × 10 10 vp dose, enlargement of capillaries is uniformly seen inside the muscle fascicles. Scalebar 200 µm. B. VEGFR-1 staining is intense in the small capillaries, but reduced in the heavily enlarged capillaries. VEGFR-2 staining is more intense in the enlarged capillaries. Pictures are from AdVammin 1 × 10 10 vp treated muscle from areas of low, medium and high effect. Scalebar 50 µm. C. Diffuse VEGF-A staining is seen in 1 × 10 10 vp AdVEGF-A transduced muscles surrounding the capillaries especially in VEGF-A 165 muscles. The cells in the perimysium were strongly stained with VEGF-A also in AdVammin 1 × 10 9 vp transduced muscles suggesting that they may serve as a source of endogenous VEGF-A. VEGF-A is also detected around the highly enlarged capillaries in AdVammin 1 × 10 10 vp muscle. Scalebar 200 µM in the low magnification (40x) images and 50 µm in the high magnification (400x) images.

    Article Snippet: Immunostainings were performed using the following antibodies: α-SMA (1:500, Sigma-Aldrich, Cat. no A5228), CD31 (1:50, Dako, Cat. no M0823), VEGFR-1 (1:250, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Cat no sc-31173), VEGFR-2 (1:250, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Cat. no sc-6251) and VEGF-A (1:500, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Cat no sc-7269).

    Techniques: Staining

    ( A ) Sequence alignment of recombinant VEGF-A and Vammin proteins. Basic amino acids are in blue and acidic in red background. The last four amino acids expected to be important for NRP-1 binding are in black boxes. ( B ) VEGFR-1 competition binding assay ( C ) VEGFR-2 competition binding assay ( D ) NRP-1 binding into VEGF coated plates the presence of heparin (solid lines) and without heparin (dotted lines) ( E ) Heparin binding in VEGF coated plates ( F ). BaF3-VEGFR-2 proliferation assay. In B to F the values are expressed as mean ± SD. ( G ) Binding of the two C-terminal amino acids into the NRP-1 binding pocket. RR and PR sequences are drawn based on VEGF-A 165 /NRP-1 and Tuftsin/NRP-1 complex structures. (PDB IDs 4DEQ and 2ORZ). RK sequence is modeled based on VEGF-A 165 /NRP-1 complex structure. Ligand amino acids are shown as sticks and NRP-1 as surface rendering colored by interpolated charge. ( H ) A model of location of the Vammin PRRK C-terminus. Vammin crystal structure (PDB ID 1 WQ8) was superimposed onto VEGF-C/VEGFR-2 complex crystal structure (PDB ID 2X1W). The two VEGFR-2 monomers are seen with the brown colors and the two antiparallel dimer forming Vammin chains with green and blue. The C-terminal Arg97 and Lys98 of Vammin projecting outward from the complex are shown as sticks.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Snake venom VEGF Vammin induces a highly efficient angiogenic response in skeletal muscle via VEGFR-2/NRP specific signaling

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-05876-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( A ) Sequence alignment of recombinant VEGF-A and Vammin proteins. Basic amino acids are in blue and acidic in red background. The last four amino acids expected to be important for NRP-1 binding are in black boxes. ( B ) VEGFR-1 competition binding assay ( C ) VEGFR-2 competition binding assay ( D ) NRP-1 binding into VEGF coated plates the presence of heparin (solid lines) and without heparin (dotted lines) ( E ) Heparin binding in VEGF coated plates ( F ). BaF3-VEGFR-2 proliferation assay. In B to F the values are expressed as mean ± SD. ( G ) Binding of the two C-terminal amino acids into the NRP-1 binding pocket. RR and PR sequences are drawn based on VEGF-A 165 /NRP-1 and Tuftsin/NRP-1 complex structures. (PDB IDs 4DEQ and 2ORZ). RK sequence is modeled based on VEGF-A 165 /NRP-1 complex structure. Ligand amino acids are shown as sticks and NRP-1 as surface rendering colored by interpolated charge. ( H ) A model of location of the Vammin PRRK C-terminus. Vammin crystal structure (PDB ID 1 WQ8) was superimposed onto VEGF-C/VEGFR-2 complex crystal structure (PDB ID 2X1W). The two VEGFR-2 monomers are seen with the brown colors and the two antiparallel dimer forming Vammin chains with green and blue. The C-terminal Arg97 and Lys98 of Vammin projecting outward from the complex are shown as sticks.

    Article Snippet: Immunostainings were performed using the following antibodies: α-SMA (1:500, Sigma-Aldrich, Cat. no A5228), CD31 (1:50, Dako, Cat. no M0823), VEGFR-1 (1:250, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Cat no sc-31173), VEGFR-2 (1:250, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Cat. no sc-6251) and VEGF-A (1:500, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Cat no sc-7269).

    Techniques: Sequencing, Recombinant, Binding Assay, Proliferation Assay

    Effects of STAT3 inhibitor on sorafenib- and sunitinib-induced cell growth inhibition. After pretreatment with Stattic (STAT3 inhibitor, 10 µM) or DMSO (solvent) for 20 min, HaCaT, Caki-1, and HepG2 cells were incubated in a medium that included sorafenib or sunitinib at the indicated concentrations for 48 h. Cell viability was determined by WST-8 colorimetric assay. *p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Association of Toxicity of Sorafenib and Sunitinib for Human Keratinocytes with Inhibition of Signal Transduction and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3)

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102110

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of STAT3 inhibitor on sorafenib- and sunitinib-induced cell growth inhibition. After pretreatment with Stattic (STAT3 inhibitor, 10 µM) or DMSO (solvent) for 20 min, HaCaT, Caki-1, and HepG2 cells were incubated in a medium that included sorafenib or sunitinib at the indicated concentrations for 48 h. Cell viability was determined by WST-8 colorimetric assay. *p

    Article Snippet: Sunitinib malate and Hoechst 33258 were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Chemical, Co. (St Louis, MO, US).

    Techniques: Inhibition, Incubation, Colorimetric Assay

    Effects of sorafenib and sunitinib on MAPK activation in HaCaT cells and effects of MAPK inhibitor on sorafenib and sunitinib-induced cell growth inhibition and signal transduction. (A) Alterations in MAPKs signal transduction. HaCaT cells were incubated in medium containing 1 µM sorafenib or sunitinib for the indicated times, followed by Western blot analysis using total cell lysates. (B) Effects of MAPK inhibitor on sorafenib- and sunitinib-induced cell growth inhibition. HaCaT cells were incubated with medium containing sorafenib at the indicated concentrations for 48 h after pretreatment with either U0126 (MEK1/2 inhibitor, 10 µM), SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor, 10 µM), or DMSO (solvent) for 2 h. Cell viability was determined by WST-8 colorimetric assay. *p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Association of Toxicity of Sorafenib and Sunitinib for Human Keratinocytes with Inhibition of Signal Transduction and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3)

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102110

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of sorafenib and sunitinib on MAPK activation in HaCaT cells and effects of MAPK inhibitor on sorafenib and sunitinib-induced cell growth inhibition and signal transduction. (A) Alterations in MAPKs signal transduction. HaCaT cells were incubated in medium containing 1 µM sorafenib or sunitinib for the indicated times, followed by Western blot analysis using total cell lysates. (B) Effects of MAPK inhibitor on sorafenib- and sunitinib-induced cell growth inhibition. HaCaT cells were incubated with medium containing sorafenib at the indicated concentrations for 48 h after pretreatment with either U0126 (MEK1/2 inhibitor, 10 µM), SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor, 10 µM), or DMSO (solvent) for 2 h. Cell viability was determined by WST-8 colorimetric assay. *p

    Article Snippet: Sunitinib malate and Hoechst 33258 were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Chemical, Co. (St Louis, MO, US).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Inhibition, Transduction, Incubation, Western Blot, Colorimetric Assay

    Effects of sorafenib and sunitinib on cellular apoptosis and the expression of apoptosis suppressors. (A) After pretreatment with 10 µM Stattic or DMSO for 20 min, HaCaT cells were incubated in medium containing sorafenib or sunitinib at the indicated concentrations for 24 h. Apoptotic cells were detected using FITC-labeled Annexin V/PI staining with the IN Cell Analyzer 2000. *p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Association of Toxicity of Sorafenib and Sunitinib for Human Keratinocytes with Inhibition of Signal Transduction and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3)

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102110

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of sorafenib and sunitinib on cellular apoptosis and the expression of apoptosis suppressors. (A) After pretreatment with 10 µM Stattic or DMSO for 20 min, HaCaT cells were incubated in medium containing sorafenib or sunitinib at the indicated concentrations for 24 h. Apoptotic cells were detected using FITC-labeled Annexin V/PI staining with the IN Cell Analyzer 2000. *p

    Article Snippet: Sunitinib malate and Hoechst 33258 were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Chemical, Co. (St Louis, MO, US).

    Techniques: Expressing, Incubation, Labeling, Staining

    Signal transduction alterations involved in STAT3 after treatment with sorafenib and sunitinib and effects of STAT3C on cytotoxicity of sorafenib and sunitinib. (A) HaCaT, Caki-1, and HepG2 cells were incubated with a medium that included sorafenib or sunitinib at the indicated concentrations for 2 h. Thereafter, Western blot analysis was performed using total cell lysates. (B) Immunostaining images. HaCaT cells were treated with sorafenib (10 µM), sunitinib (10 µM), or DMSO (Control; cont) for 2 h and were fixed and incubated with an anti-STAT3 antibody, followed by incubation with FITC-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG (green), and then visualized with the IN Cell Analyzer 2000. Nuclear translocation of STAT3 was determined with cell population analysis by determining the nucleus/cytoplasm intensity ratio of green fluorescence. Bar shows 50 µm. (C) Effects of STAT3C transfection on sorafenib- and sunitinib-induced cell growth inhibition. HaCaT cells transiently transfected with STAT3C or an empty vector were preincubated for 24 h, followed by incubation in medium containing sorafenib or sunitinib at the indicated concentrations for 48 h. Cell viability was determined by WST-8 colorimetric assay. *p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Association of Toxicity of Sorafenib and Sunitinib for Human Keratinocytes with Inhibition of Signal Transduction and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3)

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102110

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Signal transduction alterations involved in STAT3 after treatment with sorafenib and sunitinib and effects of STAT3C on cytotoxicity of sorafenib and sunitinib. (A) HaCaT, Caki-1, and HepG2 cells were incubated with a medium that included sorafenib or sunitinib at the indicated concentrations for 2 h. Thereafter, Western blot analysis was performed using total cell lysates. (B) Immunostaining images. HaCaT cells were treated with sorafenib (10 µM), sunitinib (10 µM), or DMSO (Control; cont) for 2 h and were fixed and incubated with an anti-STAT3 antibody, followed by incubation with FITC-conjugated anti-rabbit IgG (green), and then visualized with the IN Cell Analyzer 2000. Nuclear translocation of STAT3 was determined with cell population analysis by determining the nucleus/cytoplasm intensity ratio of green fluorescence. Bar shows 50 µm. (C) Effects of STAT3C transfection on sorafenib- and sunitinib-induced cell growth inhibition. HaCaT cells transiently transfected with STAT3C or an empty vector were preincubated for 24 h, followed by incubation in medium containing sorafenib or sunitinib at the indicated concentrations for 48 h. Cell viability was determined by WST-8 colorimetric assay. *p

    Article Snippet: Sunitinib malate and Hoechst 33258 were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Chemical, Co. (St Louis, MO, US).

    Techniques: Transduction, Incubation, Western Blot, Immunostaining, Translocation Assay, Fluorescence, Transfection, Inhibition, Plasmid Preparation, Colorimetric Assay

    Chemical structures of sorafenib and sunitinib.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Association of Toxicity of Sorafenib and Sunitinib for Human Keratinocytes with Inhibition of Signal Transduction and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3)

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102110

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Chemical structures of sorafenib and sunitinib.

    Article Snippet: Sunitinib malate and Hoechst 33258 were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Chemical, Co. (St Louis, MO, US).

    Techniques:

    Effect of miR-126-5p on HUVEC proliferation and downstream signaling pathways. ( A ) qRT-PCR results showing the expression of miR-126-5p in the different groups. ( B ) Representative western blot showing the expression of p-Akt, VEGF, eNOS and CD31 in each group (normalized to the expression of β-tubulin). ( C ) Densitometry analyses of p-Akt, VEGF, eNOS and CD31 expression in each group normalized to the expression of t-Akt and β-tubulin. The error bars represent the ±SDs. *P

    Journal: Aging (Albany NY)

    Article Title: Increasing the expression of microRNA-126-5p in the temporal muscle can promote angiogenesis in the chronically ischemic brains of rats subjected to two-vessel occlusion plus encephalo-myo-synangiosis

    doi: 10.18632/aging.103431

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of miR-126-5p on HUVEC proliferation and downstream signaling pathways. ( A ) qRT-PCR results showing the expression of miR-126-5p in the different groups. ( B ) Representative western blot showing the expression of p-Akt, VEGF, eNOS and CD31 in each group (normalized to the expression of β-tubulin). ( C ) Densitometry analyses of p-Akt, VEGF, eNOS and CD31 expression in each group normalized to the expression of t-Akt and β-tubulin. The error bars represent the ±SDs. *P

    Article Snippet: Subsequently, the fixed sections were washed and incubated for 1 h with primary antibodies against vWF (1:200; Cell Signaling Technology, Shanghai, China), VEGF (1:200; Cell Signaling Technology), CD31 (1:100; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX, USA), or eNOS (1:200; Cell Signaling Technology) overnight at 4°C.

    Techniques: Quantitative RT-PCR, Expressing, Western Blot

    Effectiveness of the 2VO+EMS model in promoting EC proliferation determined by immunofluorescence and western blot assays. ( A ) Brain samples from 2VO+EMS rats (the black arrow indicates the adhered TM tissue). ( B , C ) Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunofluorescence results showing that there was a significantly higher number of vWF(+) cells in the TM tissue on the EMS side than on the non-EMS side. Bar = 20 μm. ( D ) HE-stained slide of a brain from a 2VO+EMS rat. The two black frames indicate the portion of the brain tissue in contact with the TM and the brain tissue on the symmetrical part of the 2VO side. Bar = 1 mm. Enlarged image of the black frame on ( E ) the non-EMS side and ( F ) the EMS side. Bar = 200 μm. VEGF(+) immunofluorescence results for ( G ) the non-EMS side and ( H ) the EMS side. Bar = 200 μm. The yellow curve indicates the brain surface involved in EMS. Immunofluorescence ( I , J ) and western blot ( K , L ) results showing that there was significantly higher VEGF expression on the EMS side in the 2VO+EMS rat brains than on the non-EMS side. Bar = 20 μm. The error bars represent the ±SDs. VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor; EMS: encephalo-myo-synangiosis; EC: endothelial cell; vWF: von Willebrand factor.

    Journal: Aging (Albany NY)

    Article Title: Increasing the expression of microRNA-126-5p in the temporal muscle can promote angiogenesis in the chronically ischemic brains of rats subjected to two-vessel occlusion plus encephalo-myo-synangiosis

    doi: 10.18632/aging.103431

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effectiveness of the 2VO+EMS model in promoting EC proliferation determined by immunofluorescence and western blot assays. ( A ) Brain samples from 2VO+EMS rats (the black arrow indicates the adhered TM tissue). ( B , C ) Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunofluorescence results showing that there was a significantly higher number of vWF(+) cells in the TM tissue on the EMS side than on the non-EMS side. Bar = 20 μm. ( D ) HE-stained slide of a brain from a 2VO+EMS rat. The two black frames indicate the portion of the brain tissue in contact with the TM and the brain tissue on the symmetrical part of the 2VO side. Bar = 1 mm. Enlarged image of the black frame on ( E ) the non-EMS side and ( F ) the EMS side. Bar = 200 μm. VEGF(+) immunofluorescence results for ( G ) the non-EMS side and ( H ) the EMS side. Bar = 200 μm. The yellow curve indicates the brain surface involved in EMS. Immunofluorescence ( I , J ) and western blot ( K , L ) results showing that there was significantly higher VEGF expression on the EMS side in the 2VO+EMS rat brains than on the non-EMS side. Bar = 20 μm. The error bars represent the ±SDs. VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor; EMS: encephalo-myo-synangiosis; EC: endothelial cell; vWF: von Willebrand factor.

    Article Snippet: Subsequently, the fixed sections were washed and incubated for 1 h with primary antibodies against vWF (1:200; Cell Signaling Technology, Shanghai, China), VEGF (1:200; Cell Signaling Technology), CD31 (1:100; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX, USA), or eNOS (1:200; Cell Signaling Technology) overnight at 4°C.

    Techniques: Immunofluorescence, Western Blot, Staining, Expressing

    Western blot results showing the expression of relevant proteins in each group. ( A ) Representative western blot showing the expression of VEGF, CD31, eNOS and p-Akt in the ischemic brain tissue adjacent to the TM in each group (normalized to β-tubulin expression). ( B ) Densitometry analyses of VEGF, CD31, eNOS and p-Akt expression normalized to the expression of β-tubulin and t-Akt. The error bars represent the ±SDs. *P

    Journal: Aging (Albany NY)

    Article Title: Increasing the expression of microRNA-126-5p in the temporal muscle can promote angiogenesis in the chronically ischemic brains of rats subjected to two-vessel occlusion plus encephalo-myo-synangiosis

    doi: 10.18632/aging.103431

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Western blot results showing the expression of relevant proteins in each group. ( A ) Representative western blot showing the expression of VEGF, CD31, eNOS and p-Akt in the ischemic brain tissue adjacent to the TM in each group (normalized to β-tubulin expression). ( B ) Densitometry analyses of VEGF, CD31, eNOS and p-Akt expression normalized to the expression of β-tubulin and t-Akt. The error bars represent the ±SDs. *P

    Article Snippet: Subsequently, the fixed sections were washed and incubated for 1 h with primary antibodies against vWF (1:200; Cell Signaling Technology, Shanghai, China), VEGF (1:200; Cell Signaling Technology), CD31 (1:100; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX, USA), or eNOS (1:200; Cell Signaling Technology) overnight at 4°C.

    Techniques: Western Blot, Expressing

    Expression of CD31 and VEGF in TM tissues from each group. ( A ) HE and immunofluorescence results showing CD31 and VEGF expression in TM tissues from each group. Bar = 20 μm. ( B ) Quantification of CD31(+), VEGF(+), and CD31/VEGF(+) cells in TM tissue. The data are reported as the means ± SDs. n = 8. VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Journal: Aging (Albany NY)

    Article Title: Increasing the expression of microRNA-126-5p in the temporal muscle can promote angiogenesis in the chronically ischemic brains of rats subjected to two-vessel occlusion plus encephalo-myo-synangiosis

    doi: 10.18632/aging.103431

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of CD31 and VEGF in TM tissues from each group. ( A ) HE and immunofluorescence results showing CD31 and VEGF expression in TM tissues from each group. Bar = 20 μm. ( B ) Quantification of CD31(+), VEGF(+), and CD31/VEGF(+) cells in TM tissue. The data are reported as the means ± SDs. n = 8. VEGF: vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Article Snippet: Subsequently, the fixed sections were washed and incubated for 1 h with primary antibodies against vWF (1:200; Cell Signaling Technology, Shanghai, China), VEGF (1:200; Cell Signaling Technology), CD31 (1:100; Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Dallas, TX, USA), or eNOS (1:200; Cell Signaling Technology) overnight at 4°C.

    Techniques: Expressing, Immunofluorescence

    Endogenous neurogenesis was increased in the NSC-transplanted Tg2576 mice. ( a ) At 2.5 months after transplantation, endogenous neurogenesis was observed in the DG of hippocampus by immunohistochemisty using anti-DCX antibody. DCX-positive cells were calculated in mm 2 area of DG. Graph represents that endogenous neurogenesis was enhanced by NSC transplantation. ( b ) The levels of PSA-NCAM were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In Tg-NSC group, the levels of PSA-NCAM were increased compared with the Tg-sham group. Graph represents that PSA-NCAM was enhanced by NSC transplantation. ( c ) In Tg-NSC group, the levels of PSA-NCAM and VEGF were increased compared with the Tg-sham group. Quantitative analysis shows that NSC transplantation significantly increased the level of PSA-NCAM and VEGF expressions. * P

    Journal: Cell Death & Disease

    Article Title: Neural stem cell transplantation at critical period improves learning and memory through restoring synaptic impairment in Alzheimer's disease mouse model

    doi: 10.1038/cddis.2015.138

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Endogenous neurogenesis was increased in the NSC-transplanted Tg2576 mice. ( a ) At 2.5 months after transplantation, endogenous neurogenesis was observed in the DG of hippocampus by immunohistochemisty using anti-DCX antibody. DCX-positive cells were calculated in mm 2 area of DG. Graph represents that endogenous neurogenesis was enhanced by NSC transplantation. ( b ) The levels of PSA-NCAM were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. In Tg-NSC group, the levels of PSA-NCAM were increased compared with the Tg-sham group. Graph represents that PSA-NCAM was enhanced by NSC transplantation. ( c ) In Tg-NSC group, the levels of PSA-NCAM and VEGF were increased compared with the Tg-sham group. Quantitative analysis shows that NSC transplantation significantly increased the level of PSA-NCAM and VEGF expressions. * P

    Article Snippet: Antibodies Primary antibodies were used as follows: goat anti-DCX (1 : 100; Santa Cruz, Dallas, TX, USA), mouse anti-MAP2 (1 : 100; Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA), rabbit anti-Iba1 (1 : 2000; Wako, Richmond, VA, USA), mouse anti-6E10 (1 : 1000, Covance, San Diego, CA, USA), mouse anti-phospho tau (1 : 1000, Pierce, Rockford, IL, USA), goat anti-tau (C17) (1 : 1000, Santa Cruz), rat anti-neprilysin (1 : 500, R & D Systems, Inc.), mouse anti PSA-NCAM (1 : 2000, Millipore), rabbit anti-VEGF (1 : 1000, Santa Cruz), mouse anti-PSD-95 (1 : 2000, Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA), rabbit anti-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH; 1 : 10000, Ab Frontier, Seoul, South Korea).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Transplantation Assay, Immunohistochemistry

    SLPI promotes proliferation of adult neural stem cells and induces cyclin D1 . A: Proliferation of rat neural stem cells after treatment with SLPI or VEGF, respectively. Cells were treated with indicated amounts of SLPI or VEGF for three days. Afterwards, they were pulsed with 10 μM BrdU. Proportion of BrdU-positive cells (+ std dev) was determined with the FITC BrdU Flow Kit. Presentation of a representative result of three experiments. *:p

    Journal: Journal of Neuroinflammation

    Article Title: Novel role for SLPI in MOG-induced EAE revealed by spinal cord expression analysis

    doi: 10.1186/1742-2094-5-20

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SLPI promotes proliferation of adult neural stem cells and induces cyclin D1 . A: Proliferation of rat neural stem cells after treatment with SLPI or VEGF, respectively. Cells were treated with indicated amounts of SLPI or VEGF for three days. Afterwards, they were pulsed with 10 μM BrdU. Proportion of BrdU-positive cells (+ std dev) was determined with the FITC BrdU Flow Kit. Presentation of a representative result of three experiments. *:p

    Article Snippet: After one day the specified amounts of recombinant SLPI, recombinant VEGF (R & D Systems) or recombinant α1 -antitrypsin (α1 -AT, Sigma Aldrich) were added.

    Techniques: Flow Cytometry

    NMDA-Triggered Excitotoxicity Reduces VEGFD Expression in RGCs (A) qRT-PCR analysis of vegfd , vegfc , vegfa , flt4 , flt1 , and kdr expression in retinal homogenates after intravitreal injection of NMDA. Unpaired t test. n = 6. vegfd , p = 0.0085; vegfc , p = 0.2052; vegfa , p = 0.8524; flt4 , p = 0.9414; flt1 , p = 0.6074; kdr , p = 0.2016. (B) Representative images of human retinal whole mounts. Retinas were immunolabeled with antibodies against Brn3a (red) and VEGFD (green). Scale bars, 10 μm. Negative controls of human retinas were immunolabeled only with secondary antibodies. (C) Representative bands of VEGFD, VEGFA, and β-actin cDNA products following qRT-PCR analysis of human retinal extracts obtained from two donors (subject 1, subject 2). (D) Quantification of VEGFD protein levels in cells in the ganglion cell layer of retinas of mice injected as indicated. Unpaired t test. n = 3. PBS versus NMDA, p = 0.0192. (E) Representative images of mouse sagittal retina sections at d7 after intravitreal injections of NMDA or PBS. Retinas were immunolabeled for VEGFD (green). Nuclei were labeled with Hoechst (blue). GCL, ganglion cell layer. Scale bar, 20 μm. (F) qRT-PCR analysis of vegfd , vegfc , vegfa , and flt4 expression in brain ECs (b.END3) 24 h after 20 μM NMDA treatment. Unpaired t test. n = 3. vegfd , p = 0.1744; vegfc , p = 0.7598; vegfa , p = 0.8998; flt4 , p = 0.4457. (G) qRT-PCR analysis of vegfd , vegfc , vegfa , and flt4 expression in primary astrocytes 24 h after 20 μM NMDA treatment. Unpaired t test. n = 3. vegfd , p = 0.8716; vegfc , p = 0.4918; vegfa , p = 0.9902; flt4 , p = 0.9331. Bars represent mean ± SEM. Dots represent single values. **p

    Journal: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development

    Article Title: VEGFD Protects Retinal Ganglion Cells and, consequently, Capillaries against Excitotoxic Injury

    doi: 10.1016/j.omtm.2019.12.009

    Figure Lengend Snippet: NMDA-Triggered Excitotoxicity Reduces VEGFD Expression in RGCs (A) qRT-PCR analysis of vegfd , vegfc , vegfa , flt4 , flt1 , and kdr expression in retinal homogenates after intravitreal injection of NMDA. Unpaired t test. n = 6. vegfd , p = 0.0085; vegfc , p = 0.2052; vegfa , p = 0.8524; flt4 , p = 0.9414; flt1 , p = 0.6074; kdr , p = 0.2016. (B) Representative images of human retinal whole mounts. Retinas were immunolabeled with antibodies against Brn3a (red) and VEGFD (green). Scale bars, 10 μm. Negative controls of human retinas were immunolabeled only with secondary antibodies. (C) Representative bands of VEGFD, VEGFA, and β-actin cDNA products following qRT-PCR analysis of human retinal extracts obtained from two donors (subject 1, subject 2). (D) Quantification of VEGFD protein levels in cells in the ganglion cell layer of retinas of mice injected as indicated. Unpaired t test. n = 3. PBS versus NMDA, p = 0.0192. (E) Representative images of mouse sagittal retina sections at d7 after intravitreal injections of NMDA or PBS. Retinas were immunolabeled for VEGFD (green). Nuclei were labeled with Hoechst (blue). GCL, ganglion cell layer. Scale bar, 20 μm. (F) qRT-PCR analysis of vegfd , vegfc , vegfa , and flt4 expression in brain ECs (b.END3) 24 h after 20 μM NMDA treatment. Unpaired t test. n = 3. vegfd , p = 0.1744; vegfc , p = 0.7598; vegfa , p = 0.8998; flt4 , p = 0.4457. (G) qRT-PCR analysis of vegfd , vegfc , vegfa , and flt4 expression in primary astrocytes 24 h after 20 μM NMDA treatment. Unpaired t test. n = 3. vegfd , p = 0.8716; vegfc , p = 0.4918; vegfa , p = 0.9902; flt4 , p = 0.9331. Bars represent mean ± SEM. Dots represent single values. **p

    Article Snippet: The following TaqMan gene expression assays were used in this study: Thy1 (Mm01174153_m1), nefl (Mm01315666_m1), ocld (Mm01282968_m1), cld5 (Mm00727012_m1), tjp1 (Mm00493699_s1), vegfd (Mm00438963_m1), vegfc (Mm01202432_m1), vegf (Mm01281449_m1), flt4 (Mm01292618_m1), flt1 (Mm00438980_m1), and kdr (Mm00440099_m1).

    Techniques: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Injection, Immunolabeling, Mouse Assay, Labeling

    DFP treatment decreases retinal markers of oxidative stress. Graph showing retinal isoprostane F2α-VI levels in the retinas of 9-month-old DKO mice treated with DFP for 5 months relative to untreated, age-matched DKO and WT mice ( A , n = 3 mice per group). DFP treatment significantly reduced Epo mRNA levels, as measured by qPCR, in the retinas of DKO mice treated for 6 months with DFP relative to untreated 9-month-old DKOs ( B , n = 3 mice per group). DFP did not change Vegfa mRNA levels in either neurosensory retina ( C ) or RPE/choroid ( D ), but it significantly reduced Cd68 mRNA levels in neurosensory retinas of treated DKO relative to untreated DKO controls ( E ) and showed a trend toward C3 mRNA level reduction in the RPE/choroid ( F ). *Significant difference ( P

    Journal: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science

    Article Title: The Oral Iron Chelator Deferiprone Protects against Iron Overload–Induced Retinal Degeneration

    doi: 10.1167/iovs.10-6207

    Figure Lengend Snippet: DFP treatment decreases retinal markers of oxidative stress. Graph showing retinal isoprostane F2α-VI levels in the retinas of 9-month-old DKO mice treated with DFP for 5 months relative to untreated, age-matched DKO and WT mice ( A , n = 3 mice per group). DFP treatment significantly reduced Epo mRNA levels, as measured by qPCR, in the retinas of DKO mice treated for 6 months with DFP relative to untreated 9-month-old DKOs ( B , n = 3 mice per group). DFP did not change Vegfa mRNA levels in either neurosensory retina ( C ) or RPE/choroid ( D ), but it significantly reduced Cd68 mRNA levels in neurosensory retinas of treated DKO relative to untreated DKO controls ( E ) and showed a trend toward C3 mRNA level reduction in the RPE/choroid ( F ). *Significant difference ( P

    Article Snippet: Probes used were transferrin receptor ( Tfrc , Mm00441941_m1), vascular endothelial growth factor A ( Vegfa , Mm00437304_m1), erythropoietin ( Epo , Mm00433126_m1), CD68 antigen ( Cd68 , Mm03047343_m1*), and complement component 3 ( C3 , Mm01232779_m1).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction