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  • utp  (Valiant)
    93
    Valiant utp
    Utp, supplied by Valiant, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 71 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Jena Bioscience 5 ethynyl uridine
    5 Ethynyl Uridine, supplied by Jena Bioscience, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 14 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore 5 fluoro 2 deoxyuridine
    5 Fluoro 2 Deoxyuridine, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1006 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    95
    Millipore uridine 5 diphosphoglucuronic acid udpga
    The formation of osthenol metabolites in human recombinant cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms ( a – d ) or cDNA-expressed uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms ( e ). Osthenol (20 μM) was incubated with each enzyme (5 pmole) for 60 min at 37 °C in the presence of a NADPH-regenerating system and 5 mM uridine <t>5′-diphosphoglucuronic</t> acid. Data are expressed as the means ± SE of three independent determinations.
    Uridine 5 Diphosphoglucuronic Acid Udpga, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 99 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    thermo fisher 5 ethynyl uridine
    Measurements of mRNA half-lives in PABPC-depleted HeLa cells and terminal uridylation levels in frog oocytes. ( A ) Experimental scheme for measuring mRNA half-lives in HeLa cells. siRNA-transfected cells were incubated with <t>5-ethynyl</t> uridine (5-EU), and cytoplasmic mRNA was harvested at the indicated time points. 5-EU-labeled RNA was biotinylated, isolated, and sequenced, using spike-in standards to normalize results from different time points. For labeled mRNA isolated from each gene, the approach to equilibrium was then fit to obtain its half-life. ( B ) The effect of PABPC knockdown on cytoplasmic mRNA half-lives in HeLa cells. For each gene, the mRNA half-life in PABPC1-knockdown cells (left) or in double-knockdown cells (right) is compared to that in control cells. Points representing mRNAs from three genes RHOB , TSC22D3 , PLEKHO2 fell outside the plot areas. ( C ) Distribution of the effects of PABPC knockdown on mRNA stability. Boxplots summarize the fold differences of mRNA half-lives observed in ( B ) when comparing PABPC1-knockdown or double-knockdown cells with control cells. Each box-whisker shows the 10 th , 25 th , 50 th , 75 th and 90 th percentile. ( D ) Minimal terminal uridylation activity in frog oocytes. Plotted are the fractions of cytoplasmic mRNAs containing uridines near their termini, as detected in frog oocytes injected with mRNAs overexpressing the indicated proteins using tail-length sequencing. For comparison, results from HeLa cells transfected with the indicated siRNAs are replotted from Figure 5D .
    5 Ethynyl Uridine, supplied by thermo fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 125 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Thermo Fisher 5 ethynyl uridine eu
    Measurements of mRNA half-lives in PABPC-depleted HeLa cells and terminal uridylation levels in frog oocytes. ( A ) Experimental scheme for measuring mRNA half-lives in HeLa cells. siRNA-transfected cells were incubated with <t>5-ethynyl</t> uridine (5-EU), and cytoplasmic mRNA was harvested at the indicated time points. 5-EU-labeled RNA was biotinylated, isolated, and sequenced, using spike-in standards to normalize results from different time points. For labeled mRNA isolated from each gene, the approach to equilibrium was then fit to obtain its half-life. ( B ) The effect of PABPC knockdown on cytoplasmic mRNA half-lives in HeLa cells. For each gene, the mRNA half-life in PABPC1-knockdown cells (left) or in double-knockdown cells (right) is compared to that in control cells. Points representing mRNAs from three genes RHOB , TSC22D3 , PLEKHO2 fell outside the plot areas. ( C ) Distribution of the effects of PABPC knockdown on mRNA stability. Boxplots summarize the fold differences of mRNA half-lives observed in ( B ) when comparing PABPC1-knockdown or double-knockdown cells with control cells. Each box-whisker shows the 10 th , 25 th , 50 th , 75 th and 90 th percentile. ( D ) Minimal terminal uridylation activity in frog oocytes. Plotted are the fractions of cytoplasmic mRNAs containing uridines near their termini, as detected in frog oocytes injected with mRNAs overexpressing the indicated proteins using tail-length sequencing. For comparison, results from HeLa cells transfected with the indicated siRNAs are replotted from Figure 5D .
    5 Ethynyl Uridine Eu, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 115 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    95
    Millipore uridine 5 diphosphoglucuronic acid trisodium salt udpga
    Measurements of mRNA half-lives in PABPC-depleted HeLa cells and terminal uridylation levels in frog oocytes. ( A ) Experimental scheme for measuring mRNA half-lives in HeLa cells. siRNA-transfected cells were incubated with <t>5-ethynyl</t> uridine (5-EU), and cytoplasmic mRNA was harvested at the indicated time points. 5-EU-labeled RNA was biotinylated, isolated, and sequenced, using spike-in standards to normalize results from different time points. For labeled mRNA isolated from each gene, the approach to equilibrium was then fit to obtain its half-life. ( B ) The effect of PABPC knockdown on cytoplasmic mRNA half-lives in HeLa cells. For each gene, the mRNA half-life in PABPC1-knockdown cells (left) or in double-knockdown cells (right) is compared to that in control cells. Points representing mRNAs from three genes RHOB , TSC22D3 , PLEKHO2 fell outside the plot areas. ( C ) Distribution of the effects of PABPC knockdown on mRNA stability. Boxplots summarize the fold differences of mRNA half-lives observed in ( B ) when comparing PABPC1-knockdown or double-knockdown cells with control cells. Each box-whisker shows the 10 th , 25 th , 50 th , 75 th and 90 th percentile. ( D ) Minimal terminal uridylation activity in frog oocytes. Plotted are the fractions of cytoplasmic mRNAs containing uridines near their termini, as detected in frog oocytes injected with mRNAs overexpressing the indicated proteins using tail-length sequencing. For comparison, results from HeLa cells transfected with the indicated siRNAs are replotted from Figure 5D .
    Uridine 5 Diphosphoglucuronic Acid Trisodium Salt Udpga, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 49 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore 5 bromo 2 deoxy uridine
    (A) Experimental design. Baseline T2w magnetic resonance images (MRI) were obtained to rule out brain abnormalities prior to sonication. Rats then received a single dose of intraperitoneal <t>5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine</t> (BrdU) on three consecutive days before the first pFUS+MB treatment. Axial T2w images were obtained by 3 T MRI for sonication treatment planning: Nine 2 mm-diameter non-overlapping focal points were placed on the left cortex covering the area anterior to the lateral ventricle and 4 focal points were placed on the right hippocampus. Pulsed FUS was coupled with 100 μL Optison TM MB infusion via the tail vein with 5 min between sonications of the cortex and hippocampus. Post sonication T2w, T2*w and Gd-T1w images were obtained by 3 T MRI, and T2w, T2*w images were obtained by 9.4 T MRI on separate consecutive days. Animals were euthanized and brains were harvested for histological examination at either week (W) 7 or 13. (B) GdT1w image at 3 T MRI depicts areas of BBB opening after sonication at PNP=0.3 MPa in the left cortex and right hippocampus. (C) Graphic display of the pFUS+MB experimental protocol. 100 μL Optison TM was infused over 60 s starting 30 s before pFUS at a rate ~1.6 μL/s. The dashed line depicts changes in blood concentration of #MB over time.
    5 Bromo 2 Deoxy Uridine, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 115 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Millipore uridine 5 triphosphate
    (A) Experimental design. Baseline T2w magnetic resonance images (MRI) were obtained to rule out brain abnormalities prior to sonication. Rats then received a single dose of intraperitoneal <t>5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine</t> (BrdU) on three consecutive days before the first pFUS+MB treatment. Axial T2w images were obtained by 3 T MRI for sonication treatment planning: Nine 2 mm-diameter non-overlapping focal points were placed on the left cortex covering the area anterior to the lateral ventricle and 4 focal points were placed on the right hippocampus. Pulsed FUS was coupled with 100 μL Optison TM MB infusion via the tail vein with 5 min between sonications of the cortex and hippocampus. Post sonication T2w, T2*w and Gd-T1w images were obtained by 3 T MRI, and T2w, T2*w images were obtained by 9.4 T MRI on separate consecutive days. Animals were euthanized and brains were harvested for histological examination at either week (W) 7 or 13. (B) GdT1w image at 3 T MRI depicts areas of BBB opening after sonication at PNP=0.3 MPa in the left cortex and right hippocampus. (C) Graphic display of the pFUS+MB experimental protocol. 100 μL Optison TM was infused over 60 s starting 30 s before pFUS at a rate ~1.6 μL/s. The dashed line depicts changes in blood concentration of #MB over time.
    Uridine 5 Triphosphate, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 81 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Millipore utp
    (A) Experimental design. Baseline T2w magnetic resonance images (MRI) were obtained to rule out brain abnormalities prior to sonication. Rats then received a single dose of intraperitoneal <t>5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine</t> (BrdU) on three consecutive days before the first pFUS+MB treatment. Axial T2w images were obtained by 3 T MRI for sonication treatment planning: Nine 2 mm-diameter non-overlapping focal points were placed on the left cortex covering the area anterior to the lateral ventricle and 4 focal points were placed on the right hippocampus. Pulsed FUS was coupled with 100 μL Optison TM MB infusion via the tail vein with 5 min between sonications of the cortex and hippocampus. Post sonication T2w, T2*w and Gd-T1w images were obtained by 3 T MRI, and T2w, T2*w images were obtained by 9.4 T MRI on separate consecutive days. Animals were euthanized and brains were harvested for histological examination at either week (W) 7 or 13. (B) GdT1w image at 3 T MRI depicts areas of BBB opening after sonication at PNP=0.3 MPa in the left cortex and right hippocampus. (C) Graphic display of the pFUS+MB experimental protocol. 100 μL Optison TM was infused over 60 s starting 30 s before pFUS at a rate ~1.6 μL/s. The dashed line depicts changes in blood concentration of #MB over time.
    Utp, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1225 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Millipore uridine 5 diphosphate udp
    (A) Experimental design. Baseline T2w magnetic resonance images (MRI) were obtained to rule out brain abnormalities prior to sonication. Rats then received a single dose of intraperitoneal <t>5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine</t> (BrdU) on three consecutive days before the first pFUS+MB treatment. Axial T2w images were obtained by 3 T MRI for sonication treatment planning: Nine 2 mm-diameter non-overlapping focal points were placed on the left cortex covering the area anterior to the lateral ventricle and 4 focal points were placed on the right hippocampus. Pulsed FUS was coupled with 100 μL Optison TM MB infusion via the tail vein with 5 min between sonications of the cortex and hippocampus. Post sonication T2w, T2*w and Gd-T1w images were obtained by 3 T MRI, and T2w, T2*w images were obtained by 9.4 T MRI on separate consecutive days. Animals were euthanized and brains were harvested for histological examination at either week (W) 7 or 13. (B) GdT1w image at 3 T MRI depicts areas of BBB opening after sonication at PNP=0.3 MPa in the left cortex and right hippocampus. (C) Graphic display of the pFUS+MB experimental protocol. 100 μL Optison TM was infused over 60 s starting 30 s before pFUS at a rate ~1.6 μL/s. The dashed line depicts changes in blood concentration of #MB over time.
    Uridine 5 Diphosphate Udp, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 25 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    97
    Millipore uridine 5 monophosphate
    (A) Experimental design. Baseline T2w magnetic resonance images (MRI) were obtained to rule out brain abnormalities prior to sonication. Rats then received a single dose of intraperitoneal <t>5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine</t> (BrdU) on three consecutive days before the first pFUS+MB treatment. Axial T2w images were obtained by 3 T MRI for sonication treatment planning: Nine 2 mm-diameter non-overlapping focal points were placed on the left cortex covering the area anterior to the lateral ventricle and 4 focal points were placed on the right hippocampus. Pulsed FUS was coupled with 100 μL Optison TM MB infusion via the tail vein with 5 min between sonications of the cortex and hippocampus. Post sonication T2w, T2*w and Gd-T1w images were obtained by 3 T MRI, and T2w, T2*w images were obtained by 9.4 T MRI on separate consecutive days. Animals were euthanized and brains were harvested for histological examination at either week (W) 7 or 13. (B) GdT1w image at 3 T MRI depicts areas of BBB opening after sonication at PNP=0.3 MPa in the left cortex and right hippocampus. (C) Graphic display of the pFUS+MB experimental protocol. 100 μL Optison TM was infused over 60 s starting 30 s before pFUS at a rate ~1.6 μL/s. The dashed line depicts changes in blood concentration of #MB over time.
    Uridine 5 Monophosphate, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 10 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    Millipore 5 bromo 2 deoxy uridine brdu
    (A) Experimental design. Baseline T2w magnetic resonance images (MRI) were obtained to rule out brain abnormalities prior to sonication. Rats then received a single dose of intraperitoneal <t>5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine</t> (BrdU) on three consecutive days before the first pFUS+MB treatment. Axial T2w images were obtained by 3 T MRI for sonication treatment planning: Nine 2 mm-diameter non-overlapping focal points were placed on the left cortex covering the area anterior to the lateral ventricle and 4 focal points were placed on the right hippocampus. Pulsed FUS was coupled with 100 μL Optison TM MB infusion via the tail vein with 5 min between sonications of the cortex and hippocampus. Post sonication T2w, T2*w and Gd-T1w images were obtained by 3 T MRI, and T2w, T2*w images were obtained by 9.4 T MRI on separate consecutive days. Animals were euthanized and brains were harvested for histological examination at either week (W) 7 or 13. (B) GdT1w image at 3 T MRI depicts areas of BBB opening after sonication at PNP=0.3 MPa in the left cortex and right hippocampus. (C) Graphic display of the pFUS+MB experimental protocol. 100 μL Optison TM was infused over 60 s starting 30 s before pFUS at a rate ~1.6 μL/s. The dashed line depicts changes in blood concentration of #MB over time.
    5 Bromo 2 Deoxy Uridine Brdu, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 14 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Boehringer Mannheim 5 bromo 2 deoxy uridine
    (A) Experimental design. Baseline T2w magnetic resonance images (MRI) were obtained to rule out brain abnormalities prior to sonication. Rats then received a single dose of intraperitoneal <t>5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine</t> (BrdU) on three consecutive days before the first pFUS+MB treatment. Axial T2w images were obtained by 3 T MRI for sonication treatment planning: Nine 2 mm-diameter non-overlapping focal points were placed on the left cortex covering the area anterior to the lateral ventricle and 4 focal points were placed on the right hippocampus. Pulsed FUS was coupled with 100 μL Optison TM MB infusion via the tail vein with 5 min between sonications of the cortex and hippocampus. Post sonication T2w, T2*w and Gd-T1w images were obtained by 3 T MRI, and T2w, T2*w images were obtained by 9.4 T MRI on separate consecutive days. Animals were euthanized and brains were harvested for histological examination at either week (W) 7 or 13. (B) GdT1w image at 3 T MRI depicts areas of BBB opening after sonication at PNP=0.3 MPa in the left cortex and right hippocampus. (C) Graphic display of the pFUS+MB experimental protocol. 100 μL Optison TM was infused over 60 s starting 30 s before pFUS at a rate ~1.6 μL/s. The dashed line depicts changes in blood concentration of #MB over time.
    5 Bromo 2 Deoxy Uridine, supplied by Boehringer Mannheim, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 38 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    The formation of osthenol metabolites in human recombinant cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms ( a – d ) or cDNA-expressed uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms ( e ). Osthenol (20 μM) was incubated with each enzyme (5 pmole) for 60 min at 37 °C in the presence of a NADPH-regenerating system and 5 mM uridine 5′-diphosphoglucuronic acid. Data are expressed as the means ± SE of three independent determinations.

    Journal: Pharmaceutics

    Article Title: Characterization of CYPs and UGTs Involved in Human Liver Microsomal Metabolism of Osthenol

    doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics10030141

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The formation of osthenol metabolites in human recombinant cDNA-expressed cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms ( a – d ) or cDNA-expressed uridine 5′-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms ( e ). Osthenol (20 μM) was incubated with each enzyme (5 pmole) for 60 min at 37 °C in the presence of a NADPH-regenerating system and 5 mM uridine 5′-diphosphoglucuronic acid. Data are expressed as the means ± SE of three independent determinations.

    Article Snippet: Glucose 6-phosphate, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, uridine 5′-diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA), β-glucuronidase, alamethicin, and 1,4-saccharolactone were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA). β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced form (β-NADPH) was purchased from Oriental Yeast Co. (Tokyo, Japan).

    Techniques: Recombinant, Incubation

    Measurements of mRNA half-lives in PABPC-depleted HeLa cells and terminal uridylation levels in frog oocytes. ( A ) Experimental scheme for measuring mRNA half-lives in HeLa cells. siRNA-transfected cells were incubated with 5-ethynyl uridine (5-EU), and cytoplasmic mRNA was harvested at the indicated time points. 5-EU-labeled RNA was biotinylated, isolated, and sequenced, using spike-in standards to normalize results from different time points. For labeled mRNA isolated from each gene, the approach to equilibrium was then fit to obtain its half-life. ( B ) The effect of PABPC knockdown on cytoplasmic mRNA half-lives in HeLa cells. For each gene, the mRNA half-life in PABPC1-knockdown cells (left) or in double-knockdown cells (right) is compared to that in control cells. Points representing mRNAs from three genes RHOB , TSC22D3 , PLEKHO2 fell outside the plot areas. ( C ) Distribution of the effects of PABPC knockdown on mRNA stability. Boxplots summarize the fold differences of mRNA half-lives observed in ( B ) when comparing PABPC1-knockdown or double-knockdown cells with control cells. Each box-whisker shows the 10 th , 25 th , 50 th , 75 th and 90 th percentile. ( D ) Minimal terminal uridylation activity in frog oocytes. Plotted are the fractions of cytoplasmic mRNAs containing uridines near their termini, as detected in frog oocytes injected with mRNAs overexpressing the indicated proteins using tail-length sequencing. For comparison, results from HeLa cells transfected with the indicated siRNAs are replotted from Figure 5D .

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: The molecular basis of coupling between poly(A)-tail length and translational efficiency

    doi: 10.1101/2021.01.18.427055

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Measurements of mRNA half-lives in PABPC-depleted HeLa cells and terminal uridylation levels in frog oocytes. ( A ) Experimental scheme for measuring mRNA half-lives in HeLa cells. siRNA-transfected cells were incubated with 5-ethynyl uridine (5-EU), and cytoplasmic mRNA was harvested at the indicated time points. 5-EU-labeled RNA was biotinylated, isolated, and sequenced, using spike-in standards to normalize results from different time points. For labeled mRNA isolated from each gene, the approach to equilibrium was then fit to obtain its half-life. ( B ) The effect of PABPC knockdown on cytoplasmic mRNA half-lives in HeLa cells. For each gene, the mRNA half-life in PABPC1-knockdown cells (left) or in double-knockdown cells (right) is compared to that in control cells. Points representing mRNAs from three genes RHOB , TSC22D3 , PLEKHO2 fell outside the plot areas. ( C ) Distribution of the effects of PABPC knockdown on mRNA stability. Boxplots summarize the fold differences of mRNA half-lives observed in ( B ) when comparing PABPC1-knockdown or double-knockdown cells with control cells. Each box-whisker shows the 10 th , 25 th , 50 th , 75 th and 90 th percentile. ( D ) Minimal terminal uridylation activity in frog oocytes. Plotted are the fractions of cytoplasmic mRNAs containing uridines near their termini, as detected in frog oocytes injected with mRNAs overexpressing the indicated proteins using tail-length sequencing. For comparison, results from HeLa cells transfected with the indicated siRNAs are replotted from Figure 5D .

    Article Snippet: Half-life measurements 48 h after siRNA transfection, HeLa cells were incubated with pre-warmed fresh media with 400 µM 5-ethynyl uridine (5EU, Jena Biosciences) for 1, 2, 4, and 8 h. Cells were removed from plates by treatment with trypsin, washed once with ice cold PBS and lysed with 200 µl ice cold buffer RL.

    Techniques: Transfection, Incubation, Labeling, Isolation, Whisker Assay, Activity Assay, Injection, Sequencing

    (A) Experimental design. Baseline T2w magnetic resonance images (MRI) were obtained to rule out brain abnormalities prior to sonication. Rats then received a single dose of intraperitoneal 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) on three consecutive days before the first pFUS+MB treatment. Axial T2w images were obtained by 3 T MRI for sonication treatment planning: Nine 2 mm-diameter non-overlapping focal points were placed on the left cortex covering the area anterior to the lateral ventricle and 4 focal points were placed on the right hippocampus. Pulsed FUS was coupled with 100 μL Optison TM MB infusion via the tail vein with 5 min between sonications of the cortex and hippocampus. Post sonication T2w, T2*w and Gd-T1w images were obtained by 3 T MRI, and T2w, T2*w images were obtained by 9.4 T MRI on separate consecutive days. Animals were euthanized and brains were harvested for histological examination at either week (W) 7 or 13. (B) GdT1w image at 3 T MRI depicts areas of BBB opening after sonication at PNP=0.3 MPa in the left cortex and right hippocampus. (C) Graphic display of the pFUS+MB experimental protocol. 100 μL Optison TM was infused over 60 s starting 30 s before pFUS at a rate ~1.6 μL/s. The dashed line depicts changes in blood concentration of #MB over time.

    Journal: Theranostics

    Article Title: MRI and histological evaluation of pulsed focused ultrasound and microbubbles treatment effects in the brain

    doi: 10.7150/thno.24512

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Experimental design. Baseline T2w magnetic resonance images (MRI) were obtained to rule out brain abnormalities prior to sonication. Rats then received a single dose of intraperitoneal 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) on three consecutive days before the first pFUS+MB treatment. Axial T2w images were obtained by 3 T MRI for sonication treatment planning: Nine 2 mm-diameter non-overlapping focal points were placed on the left cortex covering the area anterior to the lateral ventricle and 4 focal points were placed on the right hippocampus. Pulsed FUS was coupled with 100 μL Optison TM MB infusion via the tail vein with 5 min between sonications of the cortex and hippocampus. Post sonication T2w, T2*w and Gd-T1w images were obtained by 3 T MRI, and T2w, T2*w images were obtained by 9.4 T MRI on separate consecutive days. Animals were euthanized and brains were harvested for histological examination at either week (W) 7 or 13. (B) GdT1w image at 3 T MRI depicts areas of BBB opening after sonication at PNP=0.3 MPa in the left cortex and right hippocampus. (C) Graphic display of the pFUS+MB experimental protocol. 100 μL Optison TM was infused over 60 s starting 30 s before pFUS at a rate ~1.6 μL/s. The dashed line depicts changes in blood concentration of #MB over time.

    Article Snippet: In order to determine if pFUS stimulated neurogenesis, rats were treated for three consecutive days with intraperitoneal injections of 5-Bromo-2′-deoxy-uridine (BrdU, 300 mg/kg; B9285, Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) prior to pFUS+MB to label proliferating cells including neural stem cells in vivo .

    Techniques: Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Sonication, Concentration Assay