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  • 99
    Millipore surfactant tyloxapol
    Fat absorption in MGAT2-deficient mice is quantitatively normal but delayed. ( a . Wild-type, n = 12; Mogat2 −/− , n = 14. ( b ) Output and energy content determined by an adiabatic bomb calorimeter of feces from mice fed a 60% fat diet. Wild-type n = 9; Mogat2 −/− , n = 8. ( c ) Total amounts of retinol and retinyl esters (Vit. A) in the liver and the levels of α-tocopherol (Vit. E) in the WAT in 10-month-old male wild-type and Mogat2 −/− mice fed a 60 kcal% fat diet. n = 6 mice per group. ( d and stained with iodine vapor. TG, triacylglycerol; DG, diacylglycerol; MG, monoacylglycerol; FA, fatty acid. ( e ) Plasma triacylglycerol and radioactivity levels in chow-fed female mice after injection of the lipase inhibitor <t>tyloxapol</t> and gavage with olive oil containing 14 C-trioleoylglycerol. Wild-type, n = 7; Mogat2 −/− n = 6. ( f ) Sections of jejunum from mice fed a high-fat diet. Arrows indicate lipid droplets stained with toluidine blue. Scale bar, 20 μm. ( g ) Altered distribution of dietary triacylglycerol in the small intestine of Mogat2 −/− mice after an oral challenge of oil. Radioactivity levels 2 h after gavage with oil containing 14 C-trioleoylglycerol in intestinal segments of female mice acclimatized to a high-fat diet. n = 4 per genotype. ( h ) Postprandial GLP-1 and PYY concentrations in the plasma of chronically high-fat–fed mice. n = 10–20 mice per group. Values are means ± s.e.m. * P
    Surfactant Tyloxapol, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 38 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Millipore triton wr 1339
    Presentation of significant differences for SOD, CAT, GPx levels in liver total homogenate NOR: normal group; TWR: Triton <t>WR-1339-treated</t> group; FSCT: fermented Saururus chinensis extract and Triton WR-1339-treated groups; NFSCT: nonfermented Saururus chinensis extract and Triton WR-1339-treated group. MF: mitochondrial fraction; LF: liver total homogenate fraction. The results are presented as mean ± SD (n = 7). Significantly different from the value of the TWR group at *** p
    Triton Wr 1339, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 194 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    S D Fine-Chem triton wr 1339
    Presentation of significant differences for SOD, CAT, GPx levels in liver total homogenate NOR: normal group; TWR: Triton <t>WR-1339-treated</t> group; FSCT: fermented Saururus chinensis extract and Triton WR-1339-treated groups; NFSCT: nonfermented Saururus chinensis extract and Triton WR-1339-treated group. MF: mitochondrial fraction; LF: liver total homogenate fraction. The results are presented as mean ± SD (n = 7). Significantly different from the value of the TWR group at *** p
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    91
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology triton wr 1339
    The ablation of Pgam5 affects lipid metabolism under fasting and cold stress. (a) The triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in the serum of WT and Pgam5 KO mice under a 6-h cold exposure after 12 h of fasting (n = 21). (b) Estimation of TG release from liver using a lipoprotein lipase (LPL) inhibitor, Triton <t>WR-1339.</t> After 12 h of fasting, WT and Pgam5 KO mice were intravenously treated with PBS or Triton WR-1339 and subjected to cold stress. After 4 h of cold exposure, the serum TG level was measured (n = 8). (c) Representative gross image of BAT from WT and Pgam5 KO mice under basal conditions or at 5 h of cold exposure after 12 h of fasting. (d) BAT weight ratio of WT and Pgam5 KO mice at 6-h cold exposure after 12-h of fasting. (e and f) Representative H E staining of BAT sections from WT and Pgam5 KO mice under the indicated conditions. Scale bars, 100 μm. (g) Several-tissue weight ratio of WT and Pgam5 KO mice at 6 h of cold exposure after 12 h of fasting. (h) Expression of Elovl3 , an elongation factor of FFAs in BAT from WT and Pgam5 KO mice under basal conditions or at 6 h of cold exposure after 12 h of fasting was determined via quantitative RT-PCR (n = 4). Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM, **p
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    Nacalai triton wr 1339
    The ablation of Pgam5 affects lipid metabolism under fasting and cold stress. (a) The triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in the serum of WT and Pgam5 KO mice under a 6-h cold exposure after 12 h of fasting (n = 21). (b) Estimation of TG release from liver using a lipoprotein lipase (LPL) inhibitor, Triton <t>WR-1339.</t> After 12 h of fasting, WT and Pgam5 KO mice were intravenously treated with PBS or Triton WR-1339 and subjected to cold stress. After 4 h of cold exposure, the serum TG level was measured (n = 8). (c) Representative gross image of BAT from WT and Pgam5 KO mice under basal conditions or at 5 h of cold exposure after 12 h of fasting. (d) BAT weight ratio of WT and Pgam5 KO mice at 6-h cold exposure after 12-h of fasting. (e and f) Representative H E staining of BAT sections from WT and Pgam5 KO mice under the indicated conditions. Scale bars, 100 μm. (g) Several-tissue weight ratio of WT and Pgam5 KO mice at 6 h of cold exposure after 12 h of fasting. (h) Expression of Elovl3 , an elongation factor of FFAs in BAT from WT and Pgam5 KO mice under basal conditions or at 6 h of cold exposure after 12 h of fasting was determined via quantitative RT-PCR (n = 4). Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM, **p
    Triton Wr 1339, supplied by Nacalai, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 29 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Cole-Parmer tyloxapol
    LGSKO mice have more body fat without change in liver triglyceride export. The percentage in body fat measured by DEXA scan ( A ) and the epididymal fat weight by body weight (mg/g) ( B ) were measured in 4- and 14-month-old CN ( black bars ) and LGSKO mice ( white bars ). n = 6–12 per group. Hepatic triglyceride accumulation in plasma samples after the intravenous injection <t>tyloxapol</t> ( C ) in CN ( full symbols and solid lines ) and LGSKO ( open symbols and dashed lines ) 4-month ( circles ) and 14-month ( triangles )-old mice. n = 5–7 per group. Fold-change of Apob and Mttp ( D ) mRNA content normalized by 18S rRNA measured by quantitative real-time PCR in liver of CN fed ( black ), 6 h fasted ( heavy hatched ) or fasted overnight ( light hatched ), and LGSKO fed ( white ), 6-h fasted ( horizontally crossed ) or fasted overnight ( diagonally crossed ) mice ( n = 5–8). E, Western blotting of pAkt (Thr-308), Akt, and GAPDH in livers of 4- or 14-month-old CN and LGSKO mice injected i.p. with 5 units/kg (body weight) of insulin for 15 min. As control, saline was injected for 15 min ( n = 3). The marks on the right of the blots represent the molecular weight markers in kDa. F, neutral lipid staining by Oil Red-O in frozen liver sections of 4- ( left ), 7- ( central ), or 14- ( right ) month-old CN ( top ) and LGSKO ( bottom ) mice. The bar represent 200 μm. Notice that the gradation of the fat deposits between periportal and pericentral areas ( arrows ) of the liver are more noticeable in CN mice at 4 and 7 months. Groups with the same letter are not significantly different from each other ( p
    Tyloxapol, supplied by Cole-Parmer, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Thermo Fisher tyloxapol
    LGSKO mice have more body fat without change in liver triglyceride export. The percentage in body fat measured by DEXA scan ( A ) and the epididymal fat weight by body weight (mg/g) ( B ) were measured in 4- and 14-month-old CN ( black bars ) and LGSKO mice ( white bars ). n = 6–12 per group. Hepatic triglyceride accumulation in plasma samples after the intravenous injection <t>tyloxapol</t> ( C ) in CN ( full symbols and solid lines ) and LGSKO ( open symbols and dashed lines ) 4-month ( circles ) and 14-month ( triangles )-old mice. n = 5–7 per group. Fold-change of Apob and Mttp ( D ) mRNA content normalized by 18S rRNA measured by quantitative real-time PCR in liver of CN fed ( black ), 6 h fasted ( heavy hatched ) or fasted overnight ( light hatched ), and LGSKO fed ( white ), 6-h fasted ( horizontally crossed ) or fasted overnight ( diagonally crossed ) mice ( n = 5–8). E, Western blotting of pAkt (Thr-308), Akt, and GAPDH in livers of 4- or 14-month-old CN and LGSKO mice injected i.p. with 5 units/kg (body weight) of insulin for 15 min. As control, saline was injected for 15 min ( n = 3). The marks on the right of the blots represent the molecular weight markers in kDa. F, neutral lipid staining by Oil Red-O in frozen liver sections of 4- ( left ), 7- ( central ), or 14- ( right ) month-old CN ( top ) and LGSKO ( bottom ) mice. The bar represent 200 μm. Notice that the gradation of the fat deposits between periportal and pericentral areas ( arrows ) of the liver are more noticeable in CN mice at 4 and 7 months. Groups with the same letter are not significantly different from each other ( p
    Tyloxapol, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 35 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Fisher Scientific chemicals triton wr 1339
    LGSKO mice have more body fat without change in liver triglyceride export. The percentage in body fat measured by DEXA scan ( A ) and the epididymal fat weight by body weight (mg/g) ( B ) were measured in 4- and 14-month-old CN ( black bars ) and LGSKO mice ( white bars ). n = 6–12 per group. Hepatic triglyceride accumulation in plasma samples after the intravenous injection <t>tyloxapol</t> ( C ) in CN ( full symbols and solid lines ) and LGSKO ( open symbols and dashed lines ) 4-month ( circles ) and 14-month ( triangles )-old mice. n = 5–7 per group. Fold-change of Apob and Mttp ( D ) mRNA content normalized by 18S rRNA measured by quantitative real-time PCR in liver of CN fed ( black ), 6 h fasted ( heavy hatched ) or fasted overnight ( light hatched ), and LGSKO fed ( white ), 6-h fasted ( horizontally crossed ) or fasted overnight ( diagonally crossed ) mice ( n = 5–8). E, Western blotting of pAkt (Thr-308), Akt, and GAPDH in livers of 4- or 14-month-old CN and LGSKO mice injected i.p. with 5 units/kg (body weight) of insulin for 15 min. As control, saline was injected for 15 min ( n = 3). The marks on the right of the blots represent the molecular weight markers in kDa. F, neutral lipid staining by Oil Red-O in frozen liver sections of 4- ( left ), 7- ( central ), or 14- ( right ) month-old CN ( top ) and LGSKO ( bottom ) mice. The bar represent 200 μm. Notice that the gradation of the fat deposits between periportal and pericentral areas ( arrows ) of the liver are more noticeable in CN mice at 4 and 7 months. Groups with the same letter are not significantly different from each other ( p
    Chemicals Triton Wr 1339, supplied by Fisher Scientific, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals tyloxapol
    5-Styryl-oxathiazol-2-ones are bactericidal against nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Mtb was grown aerobically, washed, and resuspended in <t>PBS-tyloxapol</t> for 14 d. Compounds were added with the indicated concentrations. Colony forming units (CFU) were determined by plating serial dilutions. The lower limit of detection (LoD) is indicated.
    Tyloxapol, supplied by MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 49 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    Valiant tyloxapol
    5-Styryl-oxathiazol-2-ones are bactericidal against nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Mtb was grown aerobically, washed, and resuspended in <t>PBS-tyloxapol</t> for 14 d. Compounds were added with the indicated concentrations. Colony forming units (CFU) were determined by plating serial dilutions. The lower limit of detection (LoD) is indicated.
    Tyloxapol, supplied by Valiant, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Millipore triton wr 1339 saline solution
    5-Styryl-oxathiazol-2-ones are bactericidal against nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Mtb was grown aerobically, washed, and resuspended in <t>PBS-tyloxapol</t> for 14 d. Compounds were added with the indicated concentrations. Colony forming units (CFU) were determined by plating serial dilutions. The lower limit of detection (LoD) is indicated.
    Triton Wr 1339 Saline Solution, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Otsuka Holdings tyloxapol
    5-Styryl-oxathiazol-2-ones are bactericidal against nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Mtb was grown aerobically, washed, and resuspended in <t>PBS-tyloxapol</t> for 14 d. Compounds were added with the indicated concentrations. Colony forming units (CFU) were determined by plating serial dilutions. The lower limit of detection (LoD) is indicated.
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    91
    Millipore lipoprotein lipase inhibitor tyloxapol
    Them1 expression in livers of chow-fed mice reduces hepatic TG secretion rates. Chow-fed mice were sacrificed at age 18 weeks. Analyses included plasma concentrations (n = 6 per group) of FFAs (A), mRNA expression of FATPs (B), and lipogenic transcription factors and target genes (C) (n = 4 per group). Hepatic activities of GPAT (D) (n = 4 per group), as well as plasma concentrations of TGs (E) and cholesterol (F). G: Immunoblot analysis of apoB48 and apoB100 expression in the plasma (n = 3 per group). H: Rates of plasma TG secretion measured following injecting <t>tyloxapol</t> in 18-week-old chow-fed mice. * P
    Lipoprotein Lipase Inhibitor Tyloxapol, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore lpl inhibitor tyloxapol
    Them1 expression in livers of chow-fed mice reduces hepatic TG secretion rates. Chow-fed mice were sacrificed at age 18 weeks. Analyses included plasma concentrations (n = 6 per group) of FFAs (A), mRNA expression of FATPs (B), and lipogenic transcription factors and target genes (C) (n = 4 per group). Hepatic activities of GPAT (D) (n = 4 per group), as well as plasma concentrations of TGs (E) and cholesterol (F). G: Immunoblot analysis of apoB48 and apoB100 expression in the plasma (n = 3 per group). H: Rates of plasma TG secretion measured following injecting <t>tyloxapol</t> in 18-week-old chow-fed mice. * P
    Lpl Inhibitor Tyloxapol, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    87
    MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals middlebrook 7h9 tyloxapol
    Them1 expression in livers of chow-fed mice reduces hepatic TG secretion rates. Chow-fed mice were sacrificed at age 18 weeks. Analyses included plasma concentrations (n = 6 per group) of FFAs (A), mRNA expression of FATPs (B), and lipogenic transcription factors and target genes (C) (n = 4 per group). Hepatic activities of GPAT (D) (n = 4 per group), as well as plasma concentrations of TGs (E) and cholesterol (F). G: Immunoblot analysis of apoB48 and apoB100 expression in the plasma (n = 3 per group). H: Rates of plasma TG secretion measured following injecting <t>tyloxapol</t> in 18-week-old chow-fed mice. * P
    Middlebrook 7h9 Tyloxapol, supplied by MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 87/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Millipore lipase inhibitor tyloxapol
    Vigilin enhances translation of its mRNA targets and lipid secretion. ( a ) Autoradiograph of in vitro translation assays using fresh liver extracts from Ad-shCtrl or Ad-shVig-injected mice ( n =2 per group). Synthetic mRNAs (scheme indicated in lower panel) of fetuin-A and apoM (as control for non-target) were translated into V5-tagged and [ 35 S]-methionine/cysteine radiolabelled protein, immunoprecipitated and separated by SDS–PAGE. Fetuin-A mRNA with premature stop-codon before C-terminal V5-tag (#3) was used as a negative control for immunoprecipitation. ( b , c ) 35 S counts from metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation of hepatic vigilin targets upon ( b ) overexpression ( c ) silencing of vigilin. Primary hepatocytes from mice injected with either Ad-VIGILIN (control: Ad-GFP) or Ad-shVig (control: Ad-shCtrl) were pulse-chased with [ 35 S]-methionine/cysteine prior to immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled protein using target-specific antibodies and quantification via scintillation counting. Two biological and four technical replicates were used for each group. ( d ) 14 C counts of radiolabeled palmitic acid incorporated into triglycerides and secreted into the medium by primary hepatocytes upon knockdown of vigilin. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from C57BL/6 mice injected with either Ad-GFP versus Ad-VIGILIN (for gain-of-function) or Ad-shCtrl versus Ad-shVig (for loss-of-function) and pulse-chased with 14 C-labelled palmitic acid for incorporation into triglycerides. Lipids from the medium were extracted and quantified using 14 C scintillation counting. Values are normalized relative counts in b – d . ( e ) VLDL triglyceride secretion assay in 8-week-old mice upon overexpression (Ad-VIGILIN; n =6) or knockdown (Ad-shVig; n =6) of hepatic vigilin protein. Animals received an intravenous injection of 500 mg kg −1 <t>tyloxapol</t> to block lipases. Blood was collected at indicated time points and measured for plasma triglyceride accumulation. All values are expressed as mean±s.d. * P ≤0.05, ** P ≤0.01, *** P ≤0.001; P values were determined by student's t -test (in b – d ) or ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc analysis (in e ).
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    Alfresa tyloxapol inhalation solution
    Vigilin enhances translation of its mRNA targets and lipid secretion. ( a ) Autoradiograph of in vitro translation assays using fresh liver extracts from Ad-shCtrl or Ad-shVig-injected mice ( n =2 per group). Synthetic mRNAs (scheme indicated in lower panel) of fetuin-A and apoM (as control for non-target) were translated into V5-tagged and [ 35 S]-methionine/cysteine radiolabelled protein, immunoprecipitated and separated by SDS–PAGE. Fetuin-A mRNA with premature stop-codon before C-terminal V5-tag (#3) was used as a negative control for immunoprecipitation. ( b , c ) 35 S counts from metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation of hepatic vigilin targets upon ( b ) overexpression ( c ) silencing of vigilin. Primary hepatocytes from mice injected with either Ad-VIGILIN (control: Ad-GFP) or Ad-shVig (control: Ad-shCtrl) were pulse-chased with [ 35 S]-methionine/cysteine prior to immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled protein using target-specific antibodies and quantification via scintillation counting. Two biological and four technical replicates were used for each group. ( d ) 14 C counts of radiolabeled palmitic acid incorporated into triglycerides and secreted into the medium by primary hepatocytes upon knockdown of vigilin. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from C57BL/6 mice injected with either Ad-GFP versus Ad-VIGILIN (for gain-of-function) or Ad-shCtrl versus Ad-shVig (for loss-of-function) and pulse-chased with 14 C-labelled palmitic acid for incorporation into triglycerides. Lipids from the medium were extracted and quantified using 14 C scintillation counting. Values are normalized relative counts in b – d . ( e ) VLDL triglyceride secretion assay in 8-week-old mice upon overexpression (Ad-VIGILIN; n =6) or knockdown (Ad-shVig; n =6) of hepatic vigilin protein. Animals received an intravenous injection of 500 mg kg −1 <t>tyloxapol</t> to block lipases. Blood was collected at indicated time points and measured for plasma triglyceride accumulation. All values are expressed as mean±s.d. * P ≤0.05, ** P ≤0.01, *** P ≤0.001; P values were determined by student's t -test (in b – d ) or ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc analysis (in e ).
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    MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals middlebrook 7h9 oadc tyloxapol kan
    Vigilin enhances translation of its mRNA targets and lipid secretion. ( a ) Autoradiograph of in vitro translation assays using fresh liver extracts from Ad-shCtrl or Ad-shVig-injected mice ( n =2 per group). Synthetic mRNAs (scheme indicated in lower panel) of fetuin-A and apoM (as control for non-target) were translated into V5-tagged and [ 35 S]-methionine/cysteine radiolabelled protein, immunoprecipitated and separated by SDS–PAGE. Fetuin-A mRNA with premature stop-codon before C-terminal V5-tag (#3) was used as a negative control for immunoprecipitation. ( b , c ) 35 S counts from metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation of hepatic vigilin targets upon ( b ) overexpression ( c ) silencing of vigilin. Primary hepatocytes from mice injected with either Ad-VIGILIN (control: Ad-GFP) or Ad-shVig (control: Ad-shCtrl) were pulse-chased with [ 35 S]-methionine/cysteine prior to immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled protein using target-specific antibodies and quantification via scintillation counting. Two biological and four technical replicates were used for each group. ( d ) 14 C counts of radiolabeled palmitic acid incorporated into triglycerides and secreted into the medium by primary hepatocytes upon knockdown of vigilin. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from C57BL/6 mice injected with either Ad-GFP versus Ad-VIGILIN (for gain-of-function) or Ad-shCtrl versus Ad-shVig (for loss-of-function) and pulse-chased with 14 C-labelled palmitic acid for incorporation into triglycerides. Lipids from the medium were extracted and quantified using 14 C scintillation counting. Values are normalized relative counts in b – d . ( e ) VLDL triglyceride secretion assay in 8-week-old mice upon overexpression (Ad-VIGILIN; n =6) or knockdown (Ad-shVig; n =6) of hepatic vigilin protein. Animals received an intravenous injection of 500 mg kg −1 <t>tyloxapol</t> to block lipases. Blood was collected at indicated time points and measured for plasma triglyceride accumulation. All values are expressed as mean±s.d. * P ≤0.05, ** P ≤0.01, *** P ≤0.001; P values were determined by student's t -test (in b – d ) or ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc analysis (in e ).
    Middlebrook 7h9 Oadc Tyloxapol Kan, supplied by MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore lipoprotein lipase lpl inhibitor tyloxapol
    Vigilin enhances translation of its mRNA targets and lipid secretion. ( a ) Autoradiograph of in vitro translation assays using fresh liver extracts from Ad-shCtrl or Ad-shVig-injected mice ( n =2 per group). Synthetic mRNAs (scheme indicated in lower panel) of fetuin-A and apoM (as control for non-target) were translated into V5-tagged and [ 35 S]-methionine/cysteine radiolabelled protein, immunoprecipitated and separated by SDS–PAGE. Fetuin-A mRNA with premature stop-codon before C-terminal V5-tag (#3) was used as a negative control for immunoprecipitation. ( b , c ) 35 S counts from metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation of hepatic vigilin targets upon ( b ) overexpression ( c ) silencing of vigilin. Primary hepatocytes from mice injected with either Ad-VIGILIN (control: Ad-GFP) or Ad-shVig (control: Ad-shCtrl) were pulse-chased with [ 35 S]-methionine/cysteine prior to immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled protein using target-specific antibodies and quantification via scintillation counting. Two biological and four technical replicates were used for each group. ( d ) 14 C counts of radiolabeled palmitic acid incorporated into triglycerides and secreted into the medium by primary hepatocytes upon knockdown of vigilin. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from C57BL/6 mice injected with either Ad-GFP versus Ad-VIGILIN (for gain-of-function) or Ad-shCtrl versus Ad-shVig (for loss-of-function) and pulse-chased with 14 C-labelled palmitic acid for incorporation into triglycerides. Lipids from the medium were extracted and quantified using 14 C scintillation counting. Values are normalized relative counts in b – d . ( e ) VLDL triglyceride secretion assay in 8-week-old mice upon overexpression (Ad-VIGILIN; n =6) or knockdown (Ad-shVig; n =6) of hepatic vigilin protein. Animals received an intravenous injection of 500 mg kg −1 <t>tyloxapol</t> to block lipases. Blood was collected at indicated time points and measured for plasma triglyceride accumulation. All values are expressed as mean±s.d. * P ≤0.05, ** P ≤0.01, *** P ≤0.001; P values were determined by student's t -test (in b – d ) or ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc analysis (in e ).
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    MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals middlebrook 7h9 oadc tyloxapol glycerol
    Vigilin enhances translation of its mRNA targets and lipid secretion. ( a ) Autoradiograph of in vitro translation assays using fresh liver extracts from Ad-shCtrl or Ad-shVig-injected mice ( n =2 per group). Synthetic mRNAs (scheme indicated in lower panel) of fetuin-A and apoM (as control for non-target) were translated into V5-tagged and [ 35 S]-methionine/cysteine radiolabelled protein, immunoprecipitated and separated by SDS–PAGE. Fetuin-A mRNA with premature stop-codon before C-terminal V5-tag (#3) was used as a negative control for immunoprecipitation. ( b , c ) 35 S counts from metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation of hepatic vigilin targets upon ( b ) overexpression ( c ) silencing of vigilin. Primary hepatocytes from mice injected with either Ad-VIGILIN (control: Ad-GFP) or Ad-shVig (control: Ad-shCtrl) were pulse-chased with [ 35 S]-methionine/cysteine prior to immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled protein using target-specific antibodies and quantification via scintillation counting. Two biological and four technical replicates were used for each group. ( d ) 14 C counts of radiolabeled palmitic acid incorporated into triglycerides and secreted into the medium by primary hepatocytes upon knockdown of vigilin. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from C57BL/6 mice injected with either Ad-GFP versus Ad-VIGILIN (for gain-of-function) or Ad-shCtrl versus Ad-shVig (for loss-of-function) and pulse-chased with 14 C-labelled palmitic acid for incorporation into triglycerides. Lipids from the medium were extracted and quantified using 14 C scintillation counting. Values are normalized relative counts in b – d . ( e ) VLDL triglyceride secretion assay in 8-week-old mice upon overexpression (Ad-VIGILIN; n =6) or knockdown (Ad-shVig; n =6) of hepatic vigilin protein. Animals received an intravenous injection of 500 mg kg −1 <t>tyloxapol</t> to block lipases. Blood was collected at indicated time points and measured for plasma triglyceride accumulation. All values are expressed as mean±s.d. * P ≤0.05, ** P ≤0.01, *** P ≤0.001; P values were determined by student's t -test (in b – d ) or ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc analysis (in e ).
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    MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals middlebrook 7h9 oadc tyloxapol leucine pantothenate casamino acids
    Vigilin enhances translation of its mRNA targets and lipid secretion. ( a ) Autoradiograph of in vitro translation assays using fresh liver extracts from Ad-shCtrl or Ad-shVig-injected mice ( n =2 per group). Synthetic mRNAs (scheme indicated in lower panel) of fetuin-A and apoM (as control for non-target) were translated into V5-tagged and [ 35 S]-methionine/cysteine radiolabelled protein, immunoprecipitated and separated by SDS–PAGE. Fetuin-A mRNA with premature stop-codon before C-terminal V5-tag (#3) was used as a negative control for immunoprecipitation. ( b , c ) 35 S counts from metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation of hepatic vigilin targets upon ( b ) overexpression ( c ) silencing of vigilin. Primary hepatocytes from mice injected with either Ad-VIGILIN (control: Ad-GFP) or Ad-shVig (control: Ad-shCtrl) were pulse-chased with [ 35 S]-methionine/cysteine prior to immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled protein using target-specific antibodies and quantification via scintillation counting. Two biological and four technical replicates were used for each group. ( d ) 14 C counts of radiolabeled palmitic acid incorporated into triglycerides and secreted into the medium by primary hepatocytes upon knockdown of vigilin. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from C57BL/6 mice injected with either Ad-GFP versus Ad-VIGILIN (for gain-of-function) or Ad-shCtrl versus Ad-shVig (for loss-of-function) and pulse-chased with 14 C-labelled palmitic acid for incorporation into triglycerides. Lipids from the medium were extracted and quantified using 14 C scintillation counting. Values are normalized relative counts in b – d . ( e ) VLDL triglyceride secretion assay in 8-week-old mice upon overexpression (Ad-VIGILIN; n =6) or knockdown (Ad-shVig; n =6) of hepatic vigilin protein. Animals received an intravenous injection of 500 mg kg −1 <t>tyloxapol</t> to block lipases. Blood was collected at indicated time points and measured for plasma triglyceride accumulation. All values are expressed as mean±s.d. * P ≤0.05, ** P ≤0.01, *** P ≤0.001; P values were determined by student's t -test (in b – d ) or ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc analysis (in e ).
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    MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals 7h9 oleic acid albumin dextrose catalase oadc tyloxapol
    Vigilin enhances translation of its mRNA targets and lipid secretion. ( a ) Autoradiograph of in vitro translation assays using fresh liver extracts from Ad-shCtrl or Ad-shVig-injected mice ( n =2 per group). Synthetic mRNAs (scheme indicated in lower panel) of fetuin-A and apoM (as control for non-target) were translated into V5-tagged and [ 35 S]-methionine/cysteine radiolabelled protein, immunoprecipitated and separated by SDS–PAGE. Fetuin-A mRNA with premature stop-codon before C-terminal V5-tag (#3) was used as a negative control for immunoprecipitation. ( b , c ) 35 S counts from metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation of hepatic vigilin targets upon ( b ) overexpression ( c ) silencing of vigilin. Primary hepatocytes from mice injected with either Ad-VIGILIN (control: Ad-GFP) or Ad-shVig (control: Ad-shCtrl) were pulse-chased with [ 35 S]-methionine/cysteine prior to immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled protein using target-specific antibodies and quantification via scintillation counting. Two biological and four technical replicates were used for each group. ( d ) 14 C counts of radiolabeled palmitic acid incorporated into triglycerides and secreted into the medium by primary hepatocytes upon knockdown of vigilin. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from C57BL/6 mice injected with either Ad-GFP versus Ad-VIGILIN (for gain-of-function) or Ad-shCtrl versus Ad-shVig (for loss-of-function) and pulse-chased with 14 C-labelled palmitic acid for incorporation into triglycerides. Lipids from the medium were extracted and quantified using 14 C scintillation counting. Values are normalized relative counts in b – d . ( e ) VLDL triglyceride secretion assay in 8-week-old mice upon overexpression (Ad-VIGILIN; n =6) or knockdown (Ad-shVig; n =6) of hepatic vigilin protein. Animals received an intravenous injection of 500 mg kg −1 <t>tyloxapol</t> to block lipases. Blood was collected at indicated time points and measured for plasma triglyceride accumulation. All values are expressed as mean±s.d. * P ≤0.05, ** P ≤0.01, *** P ≤0.001; P values were determined by student's t -test (in b – d ) or ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc analysis (in e ).
    7h9 Oleic Acid Albumin Dextrose Catalase Oadc Tyloxapol, supplied by MiddleBrook Pharmaceuticals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Fat absorption in MGAT2-deficient mice is quantitatively normal but delayed. ( a . Wild-type, n = 12; Mogat2 −/− , n = 14. ( b ) Output and energy content determined by an adiabatic bomb calorimeter of feces from mice fed a 60% fat diet. Wild-type n = 9; Mogat2 −/− , n = 8. ( c ) Total amounts of retinol and retinyl esters (Vit. A) in the liver and the levels of α-tocopherol (Vit. E) in the WAT in 10-month-old male wild-type and Mogat2 −/− mice fed a 60 kcal% fat diet. n = 6 mice per group. ( d and stained with iodine vapor. TG, triacylglycerol; DG, diacylglycerol; MG, monoacylglycerol; FA, fatty acid. ( e ) Plasma triacylglycerol and radioactivity levels in chow-fed female mice after injection of the lipase inhibitor tyloxapol and gavage with olive oil containing 14 C-trioleoylglycerol. Wild-type, n = 7; Mogat2 −/− n = 6. ( f ) Sections of jejunum from mice fed a high-fat diet. Arrows indicate lipid droplets stained with toluidine blue. Scale bar, 20 μm. ( g ) Altered distribution of dietary triacylglycerol in the small intestine of Mogat2 −/− mice after an oral challenge of oil. Radioactivity levels 2 h after gavage with oil containing 14 C-trioleoylglycerol in intestinal segments of female mice acclimatized to a high-fat diet. n = 4 per genotype. ( h ) Postprandial GLP-1 and PYY concentrations in the plasma of chronically high-fat–fed mice. n = 10–20 mice per group. Values are means ± s.e.m. * P

    Journal: Nature medicine

    Article Title: Deficiency of the intestinal enzyme acyl CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase-2 protects mice from metabolic disorders induced by high-fat feeding

    doi: 10.1038/nm.1937

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fat absorption in MGAT2-deficient mice is quantitatively normal but delayed. ( a . Wild-type, n = 12; Mogat2 −/− , n = 14. ( b ) Output and energy content determined by an adiabatic bomb calorimeter of feces from mice fed a 60% fat diet. Wild-type n = 9; Mogat2 −/− , n = 8. ( c ) Total amounts of retinol and retinyl esters (Vit. A) in the liver and the levels of α-tocopherol (Vit. E) in the WAT in 10-month-old male wild-type and Mogat2 −/− mice fed a 60 kcal% fat diet. n = 6 mice per group. ( d and stained with iodine vapor. TG, triacylglycerol; DG, diacylglycerol; MG, monoacylglycerol; FA, fatty acid. ( e ) Plasma triacylglycerol and radioactivity levels in chow-fed female mice after injection of the lipase inhibitor tyloxapol and gavage with olive oil containing 14 C-trioleoylglycerol. Wild-type, n = 7; Mogat2 −/− n = 6. ( f ) Sections of jejunum from mice fed a high-fat diet. Arrows indicate lipid droplets stained with toluidine blue. Scale bar, 20 μm. ( g ) Altered distribution of dietary triacylglycerol in the small intestine of Mogat2 −/− mice after an oral challenge of oil. Radioactivity levels 2 h after gavage with oil containing 14 C-trioleoylglycerol in intestinal segments of female mice acclimatized to a high-fat diet. n = 4 per genotype. ( h ) Postprandial GLP-1 and PYY concentrations in the plasma of chronically high-fat–fed mice. n = 10–20 mice per group. Values are means ± s.e.m. * P

    Article Snippet: To inhibit the clearance of plasma triacylglycerol, we administered 100 μl of the surfactant tyloxapol (5% in PBS, Sigma) through a tail vein.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Staining, Radioactivity, Injection

    Increased membrane rigidity is associated with altered composition of the mycomembrane. Spearman correlations are shown between DPH anisotropy ( r ) and 1 H HR-MAS NMR resonance intensity data obtained for M. smegmatis mc 2 155 grown without challenge or with 0.025% tyloxapol or 0.75 MIC D-LAK120-A, D-LAK120-HP13, capreomycin, capreomycin plus D-LAK120-A, or capreomycin plus D-LAK120-HP13. Data are shown for lipid –(CH 2 ) n - (A), trehalose (B), lipid –CH=CH- (C), lipid –CH 2 -CH=CH- (D), and lipid -CH 3 (E).

    Journal: mSphere

    Article Title: Rifampin- or Capreomycin-Induced Remodeling of the Mycobacterium smegmatis Mycolic Acid Layer Is Mitigated in Synergistic Combinations with Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides

    doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00218-18

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Increased membrane rigidity is associated with altered composition of the mycomembrane. Spearman correlations are shown between DPH anisotropy ( r ) and 1 H HR-MAS NMR resonance intensity data obtained for M. smegmatis mc 2 155 grown without challenge or with 0.025% tyloxapol or 0.75 MIC D-LAK120-A, D-LAK120-HP13, capreomycin, capreomycin plus D-LAK120-A, or capreomycin plus D-LAK120-HP13. Data are shown for lipid –(CH 2 ) n - (A), trehalose (B), lipid –CH=CH- (C), lipid –CH 2 -CH=CH- (D), and lipid -CH 3 (E).

    Article Snippet: A concentration of 0.025% (vol/vol) tyloxapol surfactant (catalog number T8761; Sigma-Aldrich) was added as one of the treatments.

    Techniques: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Capreomycin and rifampin induce substantial changes in mycolic acid lipid components in M. smegmatis . (A) Hierarchical clustered heatmap comparing loadings obtained from cross-validated OPLS-DA of 1 H HR-MAS NMR spectra of M. smegmatis mc 2 155 grown under the indicated conditions. (B to F) Volcano plots are shown for individual comparisons of unchallenged bacteria and those challenged with 0.025% tyloxapol (B), D-LAK120-A (C), D-LAK120-HP13 (D), rifampin (E), or capreomycin (F). Volcano plots are of PQN normalized data and allow comparison of fold changes and significance for each metabolite. Blue, significant reductions; red, significant increases; gray, nonsignificant changes in the indicated metabolites.

    Journal: mSphere

    Article Title: Rifampin- or Capreomycin-Induced Remodeling of the Mycobacterium smegmatis Mycolic Acid Layer Is Mitigated in Synergistic Combinations with Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides

    doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00218-18

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Capreomycin and rifampin induce substantial changes in mycolic acid lipid components in M. smegmatis . (A) Hierarchical clustered heatmap comparing loadings obtained from cross-validated OPLS-DA of 1 H HR-MAS NMR spectra of M. smegmatis mc 2 155 grown under the indicated conditions. (B to F) Volcano plots are shown for individual comparisons of unchallenged bacteria and those challenged with 0.025% tyloxapol (B), D-LAK120-A (C), D-LAK120-HP13 (D), rifampin (E), or capreomycin (F). Volcano plots are of PQN normalized data and allow comparison of fold changes and significance for each metabolite. Blue, significant reductions; red, significant increases; gray, nonsignificant changes in the indicated metabolites.

    Article Snippet: A concentration of 0.025% (vol/vol) tyloxapol surfactant (catalog number T8761; Sigma-Aldrich) was added as one of the treatments.

    Techniques: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Increased body weight gain is related to increased parasympathetic nervous system activity and is prevented by myriocin treatment. (A and B) Parasympathetic nervous system activity recorded in tyloxapol-treated and control rats with or without co-infusion

    Journal: Molecular Metabolism

    Article Title: Hippocampal lipoprotein lipase regulates energy balance in rodents

    doi: 10.1016/j.molmet.2013.11.002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Increased body weight gain is related to increased parasympathetic nervous system activity and is prevented by myriocin treatment. (A and B) Parasympathetic nervous system activity recorded in tyloxapol-treated and control rats with or without co-infusion

    Article Snippet: Tyloxapol solution (10 µg/day) was prepared by diluting 25 µL of tyloxapol (Sigma Aldrich # T8761) with 16.6 ml of saline.

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Decreased LPL activity in the hippocampus increases body weight gain in mice and rats without affecting food intake. (A) LPL activity in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and cortex of rats infused with vehicle or tyloxapol for 28 days, through an osmotic

    Journal: Molecular Metabolism

    Article Title: Hippocampal lipoprotein lipase regulates energy balance in rodents

    doi: 10.1016/j.molmet.2013.11.002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Decreased LPL activity in the hippocampus increases body weight gain in mice and rats without affecting food intake. (A) LPL activity in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and cortex of rats infused with vehicle or tyloxapol for 28 days, through an osmotic

    Article Snippet: Tyloxapol solution (10 µg/day) was prepared by diluting 25 µL of tyloxapol (Sigma Aldrich # T8761) with 16.6 ml of saline.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Mouse Assay

    Myriocin infusion into the hippocampus completely prevents increased body weight gain in both models. (A and B) Body weight gain over 28 days in tyloxapol-treated and control rats with or without co-infusion with myriocin (A) and LPL Hip+/+ and LPL Hip−/−

    Journal: Molecular Metabolism

    Article Title: Hippocampal lipoprotein lipase regulates energy balance in rodents

    doi: 10.1016/j.molmet.2013.11.002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Myriocin infusion into the hippocampus completely prevents increased body weight gain in both models. (A and B) Body weight gain over 28 days in tyloxapol-treated and control rats with or without co-infusion with myriocin (A) and LPL Hip+/+ and LPL Hip−/−

    Article Snippet: Tyloxapol solution (10 µg/day) was prepared by diluting 25 µL of tyloxapol (Sigma Aldrich # T8761) with 16.6 ml of saline.

    Techniques:

    fadA5 is required for growth on cholesterol as the sole carbon source. The strains were grown in 7H9 medium containing 1 mg ml −1 (2.6 mM) cholesterol in tyloxapol or 7H9 medium containing only tyloxapol at 37°C. The wild-type H37Rv (Rv), fadA5 mutant, and complemented fadA5 (fadA5comp) strains were grown with and without cholesterol as indicated on the graph. Data represent results of each experiment run in duplicate.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: A Thiolase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is Required for Virulence and Production of Androstenedione and Androstadienedione from Cholesterol ▿ Is Required for Virulence and Production of Androstenedione and Androstadienedione from Cholesterol ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.00893-09

    Figure Lengend Snippet: fadA5 is required for growth on cholesterol as the sole carbon source. The strains were grown in 7H9 medium containing 1 mg ml −1 (2.6 mM) cholesterol in tyloxapol or 7H9 medium containing only tyloxapol at 37°C. The wild-type H37Rv (Rv), fadA5 mutant, and complemented fadA5 (fadA5comp) strains were grown with and without cholesterol as indicated on the graph. Data represent results of each experiment run in duplicate.

    Article Snippet: Growth on cholesterol as a sole carbon source was done by supplementing 7H9 medium with 1 mg ml−1 cholesterol made up in the nonionic surfactant tyloxapol (Sigma).

    Techniques: Mutagenesis

    Total liver lipogenesis rate and triglyceride secretion rate into the plasma . A. Mean ± SD of tritiated water incorporation into total lipids after one hour of 3 H 2 O injection. N = 4 in each group. B. Representative curves of plasma triglyceride response to Tyloxapol WR1339 injection. After the Tyloxapol WR1339 inhibition of triglyceride lipolysis, the rate of plasma triglyceride accumulation was taken as the measure of triglyceride secretion into the plasma. The mean ± SD of the triglyceride secretion rates were 7.04 ± 1.68 and 4.25 ± 1.00 mg/dL/min ( P ≤ 0.05) for SDR and NAR, respectively. N = 5 in each group. * P ≤ 0.05.

    Journal: Lipids in Health and Disease

    Article Title: Lack of plasma albumin impairs intravascular lipolysis and explains the associated free fatty acids deficiency and hypertriglyceridemia

    doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-9-146

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Total liver lipogenesis rate and triglyceride secretion rate into the plasma . A. Mean ± SD of tritiated water incorporation into total lipids after one hour of 3 H 2 O injection. N = 4 in each group. B. Representative curves of plasma triglyceride response to Tyloxapol WR1339 injection. After the Tyloxapol WR1339 inhibition of triglyceride lipolysis, the rate of plasma triglyceride accumulation was taken as the measure of triglyceride secretion into the plasma. The mean ± SD of the triglyceride secretion rates were 7.04 ± 1.68 and 4.25 ± 1.00 mg/dL/min ( P ≤ 0.05) for SDR and NAR, respectively. N = 5 in each group. * P ≤ 0.05.

    Article Snippet: Triglyceride secretion rate The hepatic triglyceride secretion rate to the plasma was measured after the administration of Tyloxapol WR1339 (Sigma), as described previously by Otway & Robinson [ ].

    Techniques: Injection, Inhibition

    Effect of magnolol (MG) treatment on histopathological changes and lipid accumulation responses in tyloxapol (Ty)-induced hyperlipidemia mice. (A,B) Tyloxapol (500 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected into mice at four time points (1, 3, 6, or 12 h). Next, the serum was extracted to evaluate total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in mice. (C,D) At the indicted time points, mice were administered MG (10 and 20 mg/kg) for 1 h. Afterward, the mice were injected with Ty (500 mg/kg) for 12 h. Serum TC and TG were assayed using assay kits. (E) Hematoxylin and eosin staining of liver tissues (magnification 200×, scale bar = 100 µm). (F) Oil Red O staining of live tissues (magnification 200×, scale bar = 100 µm). (E,F) Representative histological images derived from mice of different groups were tested for lipid accumulation. Analysis of the sections suggested that Ty led to accumulation of hepatocyte vacuoles and lipid droplets. Interestingly, MG attenuated this situation. The amount of lipid droplets inside and between hepatocytes decreased. All data are expressed as the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. Statistically significant at # p

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    Article Title: Magnolol Alleviates Inflammatory Responses and Lipid Accumulation by AMP-Activated Protein Kinase-Dependent Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Activation

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00147

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of magnolol (MG) treatment on histopathological changes and lipid accumulation responses in tyloxapol (Ty)-induced hyperlipidemia mice. (A,B) Tyloxapol (500 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected into mice at four time points (1, 3, 6, or 12 h). Next, the serum was extracted to evaluate total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in mice. (C,D) At the indicted time points, mice were administered MG (10 and 20 mg/kg) for 1 h. Afterward, the mice were injected with Ty (500 mg/kg) for 12 h. Serum TC and TG were assayed using assay kits. (E) Hematoxylin and eosin staining of liver tissues (magnification 200×, scale bar = 100 µm). (F) Oil Red O staining of live tissues (magnification 200×, scale bar = 100 µm). (E,F) Representative histological images derived from mice of different groups were tested for lipid accumulation. Analysis of the sections suggested that Ty led to accumulation of hepatocyte vacuoles and lipid droplets. Interestingly, MG attenuated this situation. The amount of lipid droplets inside and between hepatocytes decreased. All data are expressed as the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. Statistically significant at # p

    Article Snippet: Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), oleic acid (OA), tyloxapol (Ty), and Oil Red O were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Injection, Staining, Derivative Assay

    Effect of magnolol (MG) treatment on AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), AKT, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) in tyloxapol (Ty)-induced hyperlipidemia mice. Mice were administered MG (10 and 20 mg/kg) for 1 h. Afterward, the mice were injected with Ty (500 mg/kg) for 12 h. Liver tissues were gathered and analyzed by western blot. (A) Effects of MG on P-acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ACC, P-AMPKα, AMPKα, P-AKT, AKT, PPARα, SREBP-1c, P-P65, P65, and TLR4 were measured by western blot analysis. (B–H) Quantification of relative protein expression was performed by software analysis. All data are expressed as the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. Statistically significant at # p

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    Article Title: Magnolol Alleviates Inflammatory Responses and Lipid Accumulation by AMP-Activated Protein Kinase-Dependent Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Activation

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00147

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of magnolol (MG) treatment on AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), AKT, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) in tyloxapol (Ty)-induced hyperlipidemia mice. Mice were administered MG (10 and 20 mg/kg) for 1 h. Afterward, the mice were injected with Ty (500 mg/kg) for 12 h. Liver tissues were gathered and analyzed by western blot. (A) Effects of MG on P-acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ACC, P-AMPKα, AMPKα, P-AKT, AKT, PPARα, SREBP-1c, P-P65, P65, and TLR4 were measured by western blot analysis. (B–H) Quantification of relative protein expression was performed by software analysis. All data are expressed as the mean ± SD of three independent experiments. Statistically significant at # p

    Article Snippet: Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), oleic acid (OA), tyloxapol (Ty), and Oil Red O were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Mouse Assay, Injection, Western Blot, Expressing, Software

    Magnolol (MG)-activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) expression protects against inflammatory responses and lipid accumulation in oleic acid (OA)-induced steatosis of HepG2 cells and in tyloxapol-induced hyperlipidemia mice. MG can induce AMPK, AKT, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activation, which contribute to upregulation of PPARα expression and leads to anti-steatosis and antihyperlipidemia effects that are dependent on attenuating the induction of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) protein expression. Furthermore, MG reduces OA-induced reactive oxygen species and TNF-α overproduction by inhibiting the activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. These pathways play significant roles in repressing lipid accumulation and inflammatory responses to alleviate steatosis and hyperlipidemia.

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    Article Title: Magnolol Alleviates Inflammatory Responses and Lipid Accumulation by AMP-Activated Protein Kinase-Dependent Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Activation

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00147

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Magnolol (MG)-activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) expression protects against inflammatory responses and lipid accumulation in oleic acid (OA)-induced steatosis of HepG2 cells and in tyloxapol-induced hyperlipidemia mice. MG can induce AMPK, AKT, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activation, which contribute to upregulation of PPARα expression and leads to anti-steatosis and antihyperlipidemia effects that are dependent on attenuating the induction of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) protein expression. Furthermore, MG reduces OA-induced reactive oxygen species and TNF-α overproduction by inhibiting the activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. These pathways play significant roles in repressing lipid accumulation and inflammatory responses to alleviate steatosis and hyperlipidemia.

    Article Snippet: Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), oleic acid (OA), tyloxapol (Ty), and Oil Red O were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Expressing, Mouse Assay, Activation Assay, Binding Assay

    M. smegmatis growth. The symbol ( filled triangle ): the growth curve without any detergent. The symbols ( filled square and empty squares ): the growth with Tween 80. The empty squares : growth under aerobic conditions. The filled squares : growth under hypoxic stress. The symbol ( empty circle ): the growth with detergent Tyloxapol. t 0 : start of hypoxia, the culture was transferred to the serum bottle; t 1 : biomass samples were taken for isotopomer analysis

    Journal: Biotechnology Letters

    Article Title: Central metabolism in Mycobacterium smegmatis during the transition from O2-rich to O2-poor conditions as studied by isotopomer-assisted metabolite analysis

    doi: 10.1007/s10529-009-9991-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: M. smegmatis growth. The symbol ( filled triangle ): the growth curve without any detergent. The symbols ( filled square and empty squares ): the growth with Tween 80. The empty squares : growth under aerobic conditions. The filled squares : growth under hypoxic stress. The symbol ( empty circle ): the growth with detergent Tyloxapol. t 0 : start of hypoxia, the culture was transferred to the serum bottle; t 1 : biomass samples were taken for isotopomer analysis

    Article Snippet: Two types of detergents, 0.05% Tween 80 or 0.025% non-hydrolyzable Tyloxapol (Sigma-Aldrich, neither labeled with 13 C), can be added into the initial medium to promote cell growth (Vandal et al. ).

    Techniques:

    Potential sources of hepatic fat accumulation in aLivGHRkd mice. A : Rate of hepatic VLDL-TG secretion after tyloxapol injection (time 0, 500 mg/kg i.p.) in mice after 4-h food removal starting at 0800 h. Plasma TG clearance after an oral gavage of olive oil (200 µL) in mice fasted overnight ( B ), ex vivo basal and 1 µmol/L isoproterenol-stimulated urogenital-fat lipolysis assessed by the amount of glycerol in the media ( C ), and the amount of newly formed palmitate associated with TG as an indicator of DNL ( D ). These measurements were performed in male (left) and intact-female (right) control mice (dotted lines and open circles/columns) and aLivGHRkd mice (solid lines and circles/columns). Asterisks indicate differences between control and aLivGHRkd within the experiment; † and ‡ indicate differences between basal and isoproterenol-stimulated glycerol production within the group ( C ). * P

    Journal: Diabetes

    Article Title: Growth Hormone Inhibits Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis in Adult Mice

    doi: 10.2337/db15-0370

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Potential sources of hepatic fat accumulation in aLivGHRkd mice. A : Rate of hepatic VLDL-TG secretion after tyloxapol injection (time 0, 500 mg/kg i.p.) in mice after 4-h food removal starting at 0800 h. Plasma TG clearance after an oral gavage of olive oil (200 µL) in mice fasted overnight ( B ), ex vivo basal and 1 µmol/L isoproterenol-stimulated urogenital-fat lipolysis assessed by the amount of glycerol in the media ( C ), and the amount of newly formed palmitate associated with TG as an indicator of DNL ( D ). These measurements were performed in male (left) and intact-female (right) control mice (dotted lines and open circles/columns) and aLivGHRkd mice (solid lines and circles/columns). Asterisks indicate differences between control and aLivGHRkd within the experiment; † and ‡ indicate differences between basal and isoproterenol-stimulated glycerol production within the group ( C ). * P

    Article Snippet: The rate of hepatic VLDL-TG secretion was assessed after tyloxapol injection (500 mg/kg i.p.; Sigma-Aldrich).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Injection, Ex Vivo

    Spreading of the surfactant front for two representative experiments on a PA solution subphase. Both cases were observed in experiments conducted at a 0.1% w/w tyloxapol concentration and 300 mL/min carrier gas flow rate.

    Journal: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery

    Article Title: Surfactant Driven Post-Deposition Spreading of Aerosols on Complex Aqueous Subphases. 1: High Deposition Flux Representative of Aerosol Delivery to Large Airways

    doi: 10.1089/jamp.2014.1168

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Spreading of the surfactant front for two representative experiments on a PA solution subphase. Both cases were observed in experiments conducted at a 0.1% w/w tyloxapol concentration and 300 mL/min carrier gas flow rate.

    Article Snippet: The oligomeric nonionic surfactant tyloxapol (CAS #25301-02-04) was purchased from Sigma Aldrich and used as received.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Flow Cytometry

    Maximum spread distance of tyloxapol aerosol as a function of deposited tyloxapol mass when delivered on an entangled PA solution subphase. Symbols indicate different tyloxapol concentrations (□=0% w/w, ○=0.1% w/w, △=0.2% w/w, and ◇=0.4% w/w). Open symbols indicate carrier gas flow rate of 300 mL/min and filled symbols at 450 mL/min. The x-errors are the standard error on the determination of surfactant mass, and the y-errors are measurement errors on distance.

    Journal: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery

    Article Title: Surfactant Driven Post-Deposition Spreading of Aerosols on Complex Aqueous Subphases. 1: High Deposition Flux Representative of Aerosol Delivery to Large Airways

    doi: 10.1089/jamp.2014.1168

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Maximum spread distance of tyloxapol aerosol as a function of deposited tyloxapol mass when delivered on an entangled PA solution subphase. Symbols indicate different tyloxapol concentrations (□=0% w/w, ○=0.1% w/w, △=0.2% w/w, and ◇=0.4% w/w). Open symbols indicate carrier gas flow rate of 300 mL/min and filled symbols at 450 mL/min. The x-errors are the standard error on the determination of surfactant mass, and the y-errors are measurement errors on distance.

    Article Snippet: The oligomeric nonionic surfactant tyloxapol (CAS #25301-02-04) was purchased from Sigma Aldrich and used as received.

    Techniques: Flow Cytometry

    Maximum spread extent of microliter drops of tyloxapol solutions at different concentrations (□=0% w/w, ○=0.1% w/w, and △=0.2% w/w) as a function of deposited tyloxapol mass when delivered on an entangled PA solution subphase.

    Journal: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery

    Article Title: Surfactant Driven Post-Deposition Spreading of Aerosols on Complex Aqueous Subphases. 1: High Deposition Flux Representative of Aerosol Delivery to Large Airways

    doi: 10.1089/jamp.2014.1168

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Maximum spread extent of microliter drops of tyloxapol solutions at different concentrations (□=0% w/w, ○=0.1% w/w, and △=0.2% w/w) as a function of deposited tyloxapol mass when delivered on an entangled PA solution subphase.

    Article Snippet: The oligomeric nonionic surfactant tyloxapol (CAS #25301-02-04) was purchased from Sigma Aldrich and used as received.

    Techniques:

    Surface tension isotherm of tyloxapol in aqueous solution with 10 mM fluorescein.

    Journal: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery

    Article Title: Surfactant Driven Post-Deposition Spreading of Aerosols on Complex Aqueous Subphases. 1: High Deposition Flux Representative of Aerosol Delivery to Large Airways

    doi: 10.1089/jamp.2014.1168

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Surface tension isotherm of tyloxapol in aqueous solution with 10 mM fluorescein.

    Article Snippet: The oligomeric nonionic surfactant tyloxapol (CAS #25301-02-04) was purchased from Sigma Aldrich and used as received.

    Techniques:

    Representative top-view images of post-deposition spreading along the PA solution subphase with increasing time for aerosolized 0.1% w/w tyloxapol solution delivered at a 300 mL/min carrier gas flow rate. (A) Before delivery, (B) 0 sec (at the end of delivery), (C) 10 sec, (D) 1 min, (E) 2 min, (F) 5 min, and (G) 10 min after the end of delivery. Grayscale figures were inverted, with the presence of fluorescein tracer dye indicated by black pixels to facilitate viewing. (H) Image intensity value for spreading dye along the tube averaged across the width of the tube. Every 15 th pixel is plotted to make viewing easier. (I) Distance moved by tyloxapol aerosol front shown in (A–G) and that by surfactant-free fluorescein solution (both with delivered volume ∼0.22 μL).

    Journal: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery

    Article Title: Surfactant Driven Post-Deposition Spreading of Aerosols on Complex Aqueous Subphases. 1: High Deposition Flux Representative of Aerosol Delivery to Large Airways

    doi: 10.1089/jamp.2014.1168

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Representative top-view images of post-deposition spreading along the PA solution subphase with increasing time for aerosolized 0.1% w/w tyloxapol solution delivered at a 300 mL/min carrier gas flow rate. (A) Before delivery, (B) 0 sec (at the end of delivery), (C) 10 sec, (D) 1 min, (E) 2 min, (F) 5 min, and (G) 10 min after the end of delivery. Grayscale figures were inverted, with the presence of fluorescein tracer dye indicated by black pixels to facilitate viewing. (H) Image intensity value for spreading dye along the tube averaged across the width of the tube. Every 15 th pixel is plotted to make viewing easier. (I) Distance moved by tyloxapol aerosol front shown in (A–G) and that by surfactant-free fluorescein solution (both with delivered volume ∼0.22 μL).

    Article Snippet: The oligomeric nonionic surfactant tyloxapol (CAS #25301-02-04) was purchased from Sigma Aldrich and used as received.

    Techniques: Flow Cytometry, Size-exclusion Chromatography

    Presentation of significant differences for SOD, CAT, GPx levels in liver total homogenate NOR: normal group; TWR: Triton WR-1339-treated group; FSCT: fermented Saururus chinensis extract and Triton WR-1339-treated groups; NFSCT: nonfermented Saururus chinensis extract and Triton WR-1339-treated group. MF: mitochondrial fraction; LF: liver total homogenate fraction. The results are presented as mean ± SD (n = 7). Significantly different from the value of the TWR group at *** p

    Journal: Toxicological Research

    Article Title: Protection of Saururus Chinensis Extract against Liver Oxidative Stress in Rats of Triton WR-1339-induced Hyperlipidemia

    doi: 10.5487/TR.2014.30.4.291

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Presentation of significant differences for SOD, CAT, GPx levels in liver total homogenate NOR: normal group; TWR: Triton WR-1339-treated group; FSCT: fermented Saururus chinensis extract and Triton WR-1339-treated groups; NFSCT: nonfermented Saururus chinensis extract and Triton WR-1339-treated group. MF: mitochondrial fraction; LF: liver total homogenate fraction. The results are presented as mean ± SD (n = 7). Significantly different from the value of the TWR group at *** p

    Article Snippet: Triton WR-1339 (Sigma Co., USA), a specific cytotoxic agent for rats, was injected through tail vein at a dose of 200 mg/kg 40 hr before their anesthetization.

    Techniques:

    Histological examination of liver tissue (H E staining, 200x). (A) NOR: normal group (B) TWR: Triton WR-1339-treated group (C) FSCT: fermented Saururus chinensis extract and Triton WR-1339-treated group (D) NFSCT: nonfermented Saururus chinensis extract and Triton WR-1339-treated group; original magnification: 200x; H E: hematoxylin and eosin.

    Journal: Toxicological Research

    Article Title: Protection of Saururus Chinensis Extract against Liver Oxidative Stress in Rats of Triton WR-1339-induced Hyperlipidemia

    doi: 10.5487/TR.2014.30.4.291

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Histological examination of liver tissue (H E staining, 200x). (A) NOR: normal group (B) TWR: Triton WR-1339-treated group (C) FSCT: fermented Saururus chinensis extract and Triton WR-1339-treated group (D) NFSCT: nonfermented Saururus chinensis extract and Triton WR-1339-treated group; original magnification: 200x; H E: hematoxylin and eosin.

    Article Snippet: Triton WR-1339 (Sigma Co., USA), a specific cytotoxic agent for rats, was injected through tail vein at a dose of 200 mg/kg 40 hr before their anesthetization.

    Techniques: Staining

    Structure of chrysin and Triton WR-1339.

    Journal: Toxicology Reports

    Article Title: Hypolipidemic action of chrysin on Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in female C57BL/6 mice

    doi: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.02.003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Structure of chrysin and Triton WR-1339.

    Article Snippet: 2.1 Chemicals Chrysin, simvastatin and Triton WR-1339 (Tyloxapol) ( ) were purchased from Sigma–Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques:

    Effect of Triton WR-1339 (T), simvastatin (S) and chrysin (Cr) on plasma lipid levels in C57BL/6 mice. (a) total cholesterol, (b) high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, (c) non-HDL-cholesterol, and (d) triglyceride levels from plasma of C57BL/6 mice. Data are reported as mean ± S.D. for five to six animals per group. *Compared to control group (C); # compared to Triton WR-1339 group (T) ( P

    Journal: Toxicology Reports

    Article Title: Hypolipidemic action of chrysin on Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in female C57BL/6 mice

    doi: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.02.003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of Triton WR-1339 (T), simvastatin (S) and chrysin (Cr) on plasma lipid levels in C57BL/6 mice. (a) total cholesterol, (b) high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, (c) non-HDL-cholesterol, and (d) triglyceride levels from plasma of C57BL/6 mice. Data are reported as mean ± S.D. for five to six animals per group. *Compared to control group (C); # compared to Triton WR-1339 group (T) ( P

    Article Snippet: 2.1 Chemicals Chrysin, simvastatin and Triton WR-1339 (Tyloxapol) ( ) were purchased from Sigma–Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Effect of Triton WR-1339 (T), simvastatin (S) and chrysin (Cr) on markers of oxidative stress from liver of C57BL/6 mice, TBARS content from liver of C57BL/6 mice. Data are reported as mean ± S.D. for five to six animals per group. *Compared to control group (C); # compared to Triton WR-1339 group (T) ( P

    Journal: Toxicology Reports

    Article Title: Hypolipidemic action of chrysin on Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in female C57BL/6 mice

    doi: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.02.003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of Triton WR-1339 (T), simvastatin (S) and chrysin (Cr) on markers of oxidative stress from liver of C57BL/6 mice, TBARS content from liver of C57BL/6 mice. Data are reported as mean ± S.D. for five to six animals per group. *Compared to control group (C); # compared to Triton WR-1339 group (T) ( P

    Article Snippet: 2.1 Chemicals Chrysin, simvastatin and Triton WR-1339 (Tyloxapol) ( ) were purchased from Sigma–Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Effect of Triton WR-1339 (T), simvastatin (S) and chrysin (Cr) on antioxidant enzyme defense, superoxide dismutase from liver of C57BL/6 mice. Data are reported as mean ± S.D. for five to six animals per group. *Compared to control group (C); # compared to Triton WR-1339 group (T) ( P

    Journal: Toxicology Reports

    Article Title: Hypolipidemic action of chrysin on Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in female C57BL/6 mice

    doi: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.02.003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of Triton WR-1339 (T), simvastatin (S) and chrysin (Cr) on antioxidant enzyme defense, superoxide dismutase from liver of C57BL/6 mice. Data are reported as mean ± S.D. for five to six animals per group. *Compared to control group (C); # compared to Triton WR-1339 group (T) ( P

    Article Snippet: 2.1 Chemicals Chrysin, simvastatin and Triton WR-1339 (Tyloxapol) ( ) were purchased from Sigma–Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    The ablation of Pgam5 affects lipid metabolism under fasting and cold stress. (a) The triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in the serum of WT and Pgam5 KO mice under a 6-h cold exposure after 12 h of fasting (n = 21). (b) Estimation of TG release from liver using a lipoprotein lipase (LPL) inhibitor, Triton WR-1339. After 12 h of fasting, WT and Pgam5 KO mice were intravenously treated with PBS or Triton WR-1339 and subjected to cold stress. After 4 h of cold exposure, the serum TG level was measured (n = 8). (c) Representative gross image of BAT from WT and Pgam5 KO mice under basal conditions or at 5 h of cold exposure after 12 h of fasting. (d) BAT weight ratio of WT and Pgam5 KO mice at 6-h cold exposure after 12-h of fasting. (e and f) Representative H E staining of BAT sections from WT and Pgam5 KO mice under the indicated conditions. Scale bars, 100 μm. (g) Several-tissue weight ratio of WT and Pgam5 KO mice at 6 h of cold exposure after 12 h of fasting. (h) Expression of Elovl3 , an elongation factor of FFAs in BAT from WT and Pgam5 KO mice under basal conditions or at 6 h of cold exposure after 12 h of fasting was determined via quantitative RT-PCR (n = 4). Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM, **p

    Journal: EBioMedicine

    Article Title: The Ablation of Mitochondrial Protein Phosphatase Pgam5 Confers Resistance Against Metabolic Stress

    doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2016.01.031

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The ablation of Pgam5 affects lipid metabolism under fasting and cold stress. (a) The triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in the serum of WT and Pgam5 KO mice under a 6-h cold exposure after 12 h of fasting (n = 21). (b) Estimation of TG release from liver using a lipoprotein lipase (LPL) inhibitor, Triton WR-1339. After 12 h of fasting, WT and Pgam5 KO mice were intravenously treated with PBS or Triton WR-1339 and subjected to cold stress. After 4 h of cold exposure, the serum TG level was measured (n = 8). (c) Representative gross image of BAT from WT and Pgam5 KO mice under basal conditions or at 5 h of cold exposure after 12 h of fasting. (d) BAT weight ratio of WT and Pgam5 KO mice at 6-h cold exposure after 12-h of fasting. (e and f) Representative H E staining of BAT sections from WT and Pgam5 KO mice under the indicated conditions. Scale bars, 100 μm. (g) Several-tissue weight ratio of WT and Pgam5 KO mice at 6 h of cold exposure after 12 h of fasting. (h) Expression of Elovl3 , an elongation factor of FFAs in BAT from WT and Pgam5 KO mice under basal conditions or at 6 h of cold exposure after 12 h of fasting was determined via quantitative RT-PCR (n = 4). Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM, **p

    Article Snippet: 2.9 The Measurement of VLDL Release From Liver Fasted mice were intravenously injected with 100 μl/20 g body weight 10% Triton WR-1339 (Santa Cruz) in PBS and subsequently exposed to cold.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Staining, Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR

    LGSKO mice have more body fat without change in liver triglyceride export. The percentage in body fat measured by DEXA scan ( A ) and the epididymal fat weight by body weight (mg/g) ( B ) were measured in 4- and 14-month-old CN ( black bars ) and LGSKO mice ( white bars ). n = 6–12 per group. Hepatic triglyceride accumulation in plasma samples after the intravenous injection tyloxapol ( C ) in CN ( full symbols and solid lines ) and LGSKO ( open symbols and dashed lines ) 4-month ( circles ) and 14-month ( triangles )-old mice. n = 5–7 per group. Fold-change of Apob and Mttp ( D ) mRNA content normalized by 18S rRNA measured by quantitative real-time PCR in liver of CN fed ( black ), 6 h fasted ( heavy hatched ) or fasted overnight ( light hatched ), and LGSKO fed ( white ), 6-h fasted ( horizontally crossed ) or fasted overnight ( diagonally crossed ) mice ( n = 5–8). E, Western blotting of pAkt (Thr-308), Akt, and GAPDH in livers of 4- or 14-month-old CN and LGSKO mice injected i.p. with 5 units/kg (body weight) of insulin for 15 min. As control, saline was injected for 15 min ( n = 3). The marks on the right of the blots represent the molecular weight markers in kDa. F, neutral lipid staining by Oil Red-O in frozen liver sections of 4- ( left ), 7- ( central ), or 14- ( right ) month-old CN ( top ) and LGSKO ( bottom ) mice. The bar represent 200 μm. Notice that the gradation of the fat deposits between periportal and pericentral areas ( arrows ) of the liver are more noticeable in CN mice at 4 and 7 months. Groups with the same letter are not significantly different from each other ( p

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Lack of liver glycogen causes hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis in mice

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M117.786525

    Figure Lengend Snippet: LGSKO mice have more body fat without change in liver triglyceride export. The percentage in body fat measured by DEXA scan ( A ) and the epididymal fat weight by body weight (mg/g) ( B ) were measured in 4- and 14-month-old CN ( black bars ) and LGSKO mice ( white bars ). n = 6–12 per group. Hepatic triglyceride accumulation in plasma samples after the intravenous injection tyloxapol ( C ) in CN ( full symbols and solid lines ) and LGSKO ( open symbols and dashed lines ) 4-month ( circles ) and 14-month ( triangles )-old mice. n = 5–7 per group. Fold-change of Apob and Mttp ( D ) mRNA content normalized by 18S rRNA measured by quantitative real-time PCR in liver of CN fed ( black ), 6 h fasted ( heavy hatched ) or fasted overnight ( light hatched ), and LGSKO fed ( white ), 6-h fasted ( horizontally crossed ) or fasted overnight ( diagonally crossed ) mice ( n = 5–8). E, Western blotting of pAkt (Thr-308), Akt, and GAPDH in livers of 4- or 14-month-old CN and LGSKO mice injected i.p. with 5 units/kg (body weight) of insulin for 15 min. As control, saline was injected for 15 min ( n = 3). The marks on the right of the blots represent the molecular weight markers in kDa. F, neutral lipid staining by Oil Red-O in frozen liver sections of 4- ( left ), 7- ( central ), or 14- ( right ) month-old CN ( top ) and LGSKO ( bottom ) mice. The bar represent 200 μm. Notice that the gradation of the fat deposits between periportal and pericentral areas ( arrows ) of the liver are more noticeable in CN mice at 4 and 7 months. Groups with the same letter are not significantly different from each other ( p

    Article Snippet: For refeeding studies, 7–9-month-old mice were either fasted for 24 h, or fasted for 24 h and then given an oral bolus of glucose (3.6 g/kg body weight) for 2 h. To analyze liver triglyceride secretion, 300 mg/kg of body weight of Tyloxapol (Cole-Parmer) was injected via tail vein to 4-h fasted mice to prevent peripheral lipolysis.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Injection, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Western Blot, Molecular Weight, Staining

    5-Styryl-oxathiazol-2-ones are bactericidal against nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Mtb was grown aerobically, washed, and resuspended in PBS-tyloxapol for 14 d. Compounds were added with the indicated concentrations. Colony forming units (CFU) were determined by plating serial dilutions. The lower limit of detection (LoD) is indicated.

    Journal: ChemistryOpen

    Article Title: Optimization and Evaluation of 5-Styryl-Oxathiazol-2-one Mycobacterium tuberculosis Proteasome Inhibitors as Potential Antitubercular Agents

    doi: 10.1002/open.201500001

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 5-Styryl-oxathiazol-2-ones are bactericidal against nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Mtb was grown aerobically, washed, and resuspended in PBS-tyloxapol for 14 d. Compounds were added with the indicated concentrations. Colony forming units (CFU) were determined by plating serial dilutions. The lower limit of detection (LoD) is indicated.

    Article Snippet: Mtb was grown aerobically in Middlebrook 7H9 medium containing 10 % v /v OADC and 0.05 % w /v Tween 80, washed, and resuspended in PBS with 0.05 % w /v tyloxapol for 14 d. Compounds were added, and viability was determined by plating serial dilutions to determine colony forming units (CFU) on Middlebrook 7H10 agar plus 10 % v /v OADC.

    Techniques:

    Them1 expression in livers of chow-fed mice reduces hepatic TG secretion rates. Chow-fed mice were sacrificed at age 18 weeks. Analyses included plasma concentrations (n = 6 per group) of FFAs (A), mRNA expression of FATPs (B), and lipogenic transcription factors and target genes (C) (n = 4 per group). Hepatic activities of GPAT (D) (n = 4 per group), as well as plasma concentrations of TGs (E) and cholesterol (F). G: Immunoblot analysis of apoB48 and apoB100 expression in the plasma (n = 3 per group). H: Rates of plasma TG secretion measured following injecting tyloxapol in 18-week-old chow-fed mice. * P

    Journal: Journal of Lipid Research

    Article Title: Regulation of fatty acid trafficking in liver by thioesterase superfamily member 1 [S]

    doi: 10.1194/jlr.M081455

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Them1 expression in livers of chow-fed mice reduces hepatic TG secretion rates. Chow-fed mice were sacrificed at age 18 weeks. Analyses included plasma concentrations (n = 6 per group) of FFAs (A), mRNA expression of FATPs (B), and lipogenic transcription factors and target genes (C) (n = 4 per group). Hepatic activities of GPAT (D) (n = 4 per group), as well as plasma concentrations of TGs (E) and cholesterol (F). G: Immunoblot analysis of apoB48 and apoB100 expression in the plasma (n = 3 per group). H: Rates of plasma TG secretion measured following injecting tyloxapol in 18-week-old chow-fed mice. * P

    Article Snippet: The lipoprotein lipase inhibitor Tyloxapol (500 mg per kg of body weight) (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) was administered by tail vein injection during the light cycle.

    Techniques: Expressing, Mouse Assay

    Vigilin enhances translation of its mRNA targets and lipid secretion. ( a ) Autoradiograph of in vitro translation assays using fresh liver extracts from Ad-shCtrl or Ad-shVig-injected mice ( n =2 per group). Synthetic mRNAs (scheme indicated in lower panel) of fetuin-A and apoM (as control for non-target) were translated into V5-tagged and [ 35 S]-methionine/cysteine radiolabelled protein, immunoprecipitated and separated by SDS–PAGE. Fetuin-A mRNA with premature stop-codon before C-terminal V5-tag (#3) was used as a negative control for immunoprecipitation. ( b , c ) 35 S counts from metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation of hepatic vigilin targets upon ( b ) overexpression ( c ) silencing of vigilin. Primary hepatocytes from mice injected with either Ad-VIGILIN (control: Ad-GFP) or Ad-shVig (control: Ad-shCtrl) were pulse-chased with [ 35 S]-methionine/cysteine prior to immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled protein using target-specific antibodies and quantification via scintillation counting. Two biological and four technical replicates were used for each group. ( d ) 14 C counts of radiolabeled palmitic acid incorporated into triglycerides and secreted into the medium by primary hepatocytes upon knockdown of vigilin. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from C57BL/6 mice injected with either Ad-GFP versus Ad-VIGILIN (for gain-of-function) or Ad-shCtrl versus Ad-shVig (for loss-of-function) and pulse-chased with 14 C-labelled palmitic acid for incorporation into triglycerides. Lipids from the medium were extracted and quantified using 14 C scintillation counting. Values are normalized relative counts in b – d . ( e ) VLDL triglyceride secretion assay in 8-week-old mice upon overexpression (Ad-VIGILIN; n =6) or knockdown (Ad-shVig; n =6) of hepatic vigilin protein. Animals received an intravenous injection of 500 mg kg −1 tyloxapol to block lipases. Blood was collected at indicated time points and measured for plasma triglyceride accumulation. All values are expressed as mean±s.d. * P ≤0.05, ** P ≤0.01, *** P ≤0.001; P values were determined by student's t -test (in b – d ) or ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc analysis (in e ).

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: The RNA-binding protein vigilin regulates VLDL secretion through modulation of Apob mRNA translation

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms12848

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Vigilin enhances translation of its mRNA targets and lipid secretion. ( a ) Autoradiograph of in vitro translation assays using fresh liver extracts from Ad-shCtrl or Ad-shVig-injected mice ( n =2 per group). Synthetic mRNAs (scheme indicated in lower panel) of fetuin-A and apoM (as control for non-target) were translated into V5-tagged and [ 35 S]-methionine/cysteine radiolabelled protein, immunoprecipitated and separated by SDS–PAGE. Fetuin-A mRNA with premature stop-codon before C-terminal V5-tag (#3) was used as a negative control for immunoprecipitation. ( b , c ) 35 S counts from metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation of hepatic vigilin targets upon ( b ) overexpression ( c ) silencing of vigilin. Primary hepatocytes from mice injected with either Ad-VIGILIN (control: Ad-GFP) or Ad-shVig (control: Ad-shCtrl) were pulse-chased with [ 35 S]-methionine/cysteine prior to immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled protein using target-specific antibodies and quantification via scintillation counting. Two biological and four technical replicates were used for each group. ( d ) 14 C counts of radiolabeled palmitic acid incorporated into triglycerides and secreted into the medium by primary hepatocytes upon knockdown of vigilin. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from C57BL/6 mice injected with either Ad-GFP versus Ad-VIGILIN (for gain-of-function) or Ad-shCtrl versus Ad-shVig (for loss-of-function) and pulse-chased with 14 C-labelled palmitic acid for incorporation into triglycerides. Lipids from the medium were extracted and quantified using 14 C scintillation counting. Values are normalized relative counts in b – d . ( e ) VLDL triglyceride secretion assay in 8-week-old mice upon overexpression (Ad-VIGILIN; n =6) or knockdown (Ad-shVig; n =6) of hepatic vigilin protein. Animals received an intravenous injection of 500 mg kg −1 tyloxapol to block lipases. Blood was collected at indicated time points and measured for plasma triglyceride accumulation. All values are expressed as mean±s.d. * P ≤0.05, ** P ≤0.01, *** P ≤0.001; P values were determined by student's t -test (in b – d ) or ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc analysis (in e ).

    Article Snippet: In vivo VLDL secretion assay Gain-of-function and loss-of-function mouse models were fasted for 6 h and injected intravenously with the lipase inhibitor tyloxapol (500 mg kg−1 ; Sigma) prior to blood collection at 0, 1, 2 and 3 h after injection.

    Techniques: Autoradiography, In Vitro, Injection, Mouse Assay, Immunoprecipitation, SDS Page, Negative Control, Labeling, Over Expression, Isolation, Blocking Assay