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  • 99
    Thermo Fisher tbst
    Tbst, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 37653 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    tbst - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
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    Millipore tris buffered saline
    Tris Buffered Saline, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 18302 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore tris hcl
    Tris Hcl, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 61816 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore tris buffer
    Tris Buffer, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 6375 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Cell Signaling Technology Inc tris buffered saline
    Tris Buffered Saline, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 10124 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/tris buffered saline/product/Cell Signaling Technology Inc
    Average 99 stars, based on 10124 article reviews
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology tris buffered saline
    Tris Buffered Saline, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 12205 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Abcam tris buffered saline
    Tris Buffered Saline, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 10637 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher tris buffered saline
    Tris Buffered Saline, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 7131 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore tris buffered saline tbs
    Tris Buffered Saline Tbs, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 4911 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore tris
    Tris, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 38479 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Bio-Rad tris buffered saline
    Tris Buffered Saline, supplied by Bio-Rad, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 4135 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher tris buffered saline tbs
    Tris Buffered Saline Tbs, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1666 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Agilent technologies tris buffered saline
    Targeted fib-GC-AuNPs are superior to non-targeted GC-AuNPs in fibrin-binding and mCT imaging of cerebral thromboemboli. A , Schematic diagram of fibrin-targeted gold nanoparticles. B , In vitro experiments to show a higher fibrin-binding capacity of fib-GC-AuNPs vs. GC-AuNPs. When either fibrinogen or thrombin was added to GC-AuNP colloid (upper row) or fib-GC-AuNP colloid (middle row), the red coloring caused by dissolute colloids did not change. In contrast, when either preformed fibrin clot was immersed in the fib-GC-AuNP colloid (upper row) or if fibrin clot was formed in situ in the fib-GC-AuNP colloid (middle row), the redness (upper and middle rows) and UV absorbance (lower row) caused by the nanoparticle colloids was decreased and the clots formed were stained a red color. These changes suggest that both non-targeted GC-AuNPs and fibrin-targeted fib-GC-AuNPs have bound to the clot, reducing the amount of colloid in free solution. Considering the relatively weak changes in the color and UV absorbance of the non-targeted GC-AuNP colloid as well as in the color of the preformed and in situ clots, the fibrin-binding capacity of GC-AuNPs is substantially lower than that of fib-GC-AuNPs. <t>TBS</t> denotes <t>Tris-buffered</t> saline. C and D , representative mCT thrombus images / Cy5.5 near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) thrombus images of C57Bl/6 mice with embolic stroke ( C ) and grouped quantification data for the areas of embolic clots in the black and red dotted squares ( D ). Embolic stroke was induced by injecting Cy5.5-fluorescently labeled clot into the bifurcation area of the left distal internal carotid artery of mice (n = 56). One hour later, mCT thrombus images (upper row in C ) were acquired 5 minutes after intravenous injection of 300 μL GC-AuNPs or fib-GC-AuNPs of either a low (12 mg/kg; n = 5 / group) or high concentration (120 mg/kg; n = 23 / group). After each animal was sacrificed and the brain was collected, ex vivo optical imaging was performed to obtain a Cy5.5 NIRF thrombus image (lower row in C ), which served as a exogenously labeled standard for the purposes of comparing to the corresponding mCT image. At both the high and low concentrations, targeted fib-GC-AuNPs visualize the Y-shape cerebral thrombi better than non-targeted GC-AuNPs (black dotted squares in C ). Note how the fluorescent embolic thrombus (red dotted squares in C ) is similar for all animals, but how the same thrombi are much better visualized with targeted vs. non-targeted nanoparticles by CT (black dotted squares in C ). Regardless of the type of imaging agent, the high concentration is superior to the low concentration in the CT visualization of cerebral thrombi. The above imaging findings from the representative animals ( C ) are corroborated by the quantification data for all 56 animals ( D ); the visualized thrombus area ratio (mCT/NIRF) is the highest in the high concentration fib-GC-AuNP group, followed by the high concentration GC-AuNP group, the low concentration fib-GC-AuNP group, and last the lowest in the low concentration GC-AuNP group. E and F , mCT visualization ( E ) and quantification ( F ) of cerebral thromboemboli after sequential administrations (blue colored +→) of first non-targeted GC-AuNP and then targeted fib-GC-AuNP, and vice versa. After intravenous (i.v.) injection of GC-AuNPs (120 mg/kg, 300 μL) 50 minutes after embolic stroke, there is very weak parenchymal mCT hyperdensity in the circle of Willis (black dotted square in the 1 st column of the upper row). A subsequent mCT image at 60 minutes, obtained after administering fib-GC-AuNPs (120 mg/kg, 300 μL), clearly visualizes cerebral thrombus (black dotted square in the 2 nd column of the upper row), which co-localizes to thrombus-marking Cy5.5 signal on the ex vivo NIRF image (red dotted square in the second column of the lower row). When the order of injecting the two types of imaging agent was reversed, mCT visualization of cerebral thrombus by using fib-GC-AuNPs is not further improved by additionally using GC-AuNPs (black dotted squares in the 3 rd and 4 th columns of the upper row), despite the presence of thrombus-marking Cy5.5 signal on the ex vivo NIRF image (red dotted square in the 4 th column of the lower row). These findings from the representative animals are corroborated by quantified data (the areas of embolic clots in the black and red dotted squares) for all 14 animals ( F ; n = 7 / group). Graphs show mean ± SEM. * P
    Tris Buffered Saline, supplied by Agilent technologies, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 3306 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/tris buffered saline/product/Agilent technologies
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    tris buffered saline - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
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    99
    Thermo Fisher tbe buffer
    Targeted fib-GC-AuNPs are superior to non-targeted GC-AuNPs in fibrin-binding and mCT imaging of cerebral thromboemboli. A , Schematic diagram of fibrin-targeted gold nanoparticles. B , In vitro experiments to show a higher fibrin-binding capacity of fib-GC-AuNPs vs. GC-AuNPs. When either fibrinogen or thrombin was added to GC-AuNP colloid (upper row) or fib-GC-AuNP colloid (middle row), the red coloring caused by dissolute colloids did not change. In contrast, when either preformed fibrin clot was immersed in the fib-GC-AuNP colloid (upper row) or if fibrin clot was formed in situ in the fib-GC-AuNP colloid (middle row), the redness (upper and middle rows) and UV absorbance (lower row) caused by the nanoparticle colloids was decreased and the clots formed were stained a red color. These changes suggest that both non-targeted GC-AuNPs and fibrin-targeted fib-GC-AuNPs have bound to the clot, reducing the amount of colloid in free solution. Considering the relatively weak changes in the color and UV absorbance of the non-targeted GC-AuNP colloid as well as in the color of the preformed and in situ clots, the fibrin-binding capacity of GC-AuNPs is substantially lower than that of fib-GC-AuNPs. <t>TBS</t> denotes <t>Tris-buffered</t> saline. C and D , representative mCT thrombus images / Cy5.5 near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) thrombus images of C57Bl/6 mice with embolic stroke ( C ) and grouped quantification data for the areas of embolic clots in the black and red dotted squares ( D ). Embolic stroke was induced by injecting Cy5.5-fluorescently labeled clot into the bifurcation area of the left distal internal carotid artery of mice (n = 56). One hour later, mCT thrombus images (upper row in C ) were acquired 5 minutes after intravenous injection of 300 μL GC-AuNPs or fib-GC-AuNPs of either a low (12 mg/kg; n = 5 / group) or high concentration (120 mg/kg; n = 23 / group). After each animal was sacrificed and the brain was collected, ex vivo optical imaging was performed to obtain a Cy5.5 NIRF thrombus image (lower row in C ), which served as a exogenously labeled standard for the purposes of comparing to the corresponding mCT image. At both the high and low concentrations, targeted fib-GC-AuNPs visualize the Y-shape cerebral thrombi better than non-targeted GC-AuNPs (black dotted squares in C ). Note how the fluorescent embolic thrombus (red dotted squares in C ) is similar for all animals, but how the same thrombi are much better visualized with targeted vs. non-targeted nanoparticles by CT (black dotted squares in C ). Regardless of the type of imaging agent, the high concentration is superior to the low concentration in the CT visualization of cerebral thrombi. The above imaging findings from the representative animals ( C ) are corroborated by the quantification data for all 56 animals ( D ); the visualized thrombus area ratio (mCT/NIRF) is the highest in the high concentration fib-GC-AuNP group, followed by the high concentration GC-AuNP group, the low concentration fib-GC-AuNP group, and last the lowest in the low concentration GC-AuNP group. E and F , mCT visualization ( E ) and quantification ( F ) of cerebral thromboemboli after sequential administrations (blue colored +→) of first non-targeted GC-AuNP and then targeted fib-GC-AuNP, and vice versa. After intravenous (i.v.) injection of GC-AuNPs (120 mg/kg, 300 μL) 50 minutes after embolic stroke, there is very weak parenchymal mCT hyperdensity in the circle of Willis (black dotted square in the 1 st column of the upper row). A subsequent mCT image at 60 minutes, obtained after administering fib-GC-AuNPs (120 mg/kg, 300 μL), clearly visualizes cerebral thrombus (black dotted square in the 2 nd column of the upper row), which co-localizes to thrombus-marking Cy5.5 signal on the ex vivo NIRF image (red dotted square in the second column of the lower row). When the order of injecting the two types of imaging agent was reversed, mCT visualization of cerebral thrombus by using fib-GC-AuNPs is not further improved by additionally using GC-AuNPs (black dotted squares in the 3 rd and 4 th columns of the upper row), despite the presence of thrombus-marking Cy5.5 signal on the ex vivo NIRF image (red dotted square in the 4 th column of the lower row). These findings from the representative animals are corroborated by quantified data (the areas of embolic clots in the black and red dotted squares) for all 14 animals ( F ; n = 7 / group). Graphs show mean ± SEM. * P
    Tbe Buffer, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2279 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    tbe buffer - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
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    Thermo Fisher tris buffer
    Targeted fib-GC-AuNPs are superior to non-targeted GC-AuNPs in fibrin-binding and mCT imaging of cerebral thromboemboli. A , Schematic diagram of fibrin-targeted gold nanoparticles. B , In vitro experiments to show a higher fibrin-binding capacity of fib-GC-AuNPs vs. GC-AuNPs. When either fibrinogen or thrombin was added to GC-AuNP colloid (upper row) or fib-GC-AuNP colloid (middle row), the red coloring caused by dissolute colloids did not change. In contrast, when either preformed fibrin clot was immersed in the fib-GC-AuNP colloid (upper row) or if fibrin clot was formed in situ in the fib-GC-AuNP colloid (middle row), the redness (upper and middle rows) and UV absorbance (lower row) caused by the nanoparticle colloids was decreased and the clots formed were stained a red color. These changes suggest that both non-targeted GC-AuNPs and fibrin-targeted fib-GC-AuNPs have bound to the clot, reducing the amount of colloid in free solution. Considering the relatively weak changes in the color and UV absorbance of the non-targeted GC-AuNP colloid as well as in the color of the preformed and in situ clots, the fibrin-binding capacity of GC-AuNPs is substantially lower than that of fib-GC-AuNPs. <t>TBS</t> denotes <t>Tris-buffered</t> saline. C and D , representative mCT thrombus images / Cy5.5 near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) thrombus images of C57Bl/6 mice with embolic stroke ( C ) and grouped quantification data for the areas of embolic clots in the black and red dotted squares ( D ). Embolic stroke was induced by injecting Cy5.5-fluorescently labeled clot into the bifurcation area of the left distal internal carotid artery of mice (n = 56). One hour later, mCT thrombus images (upper row in C ) were acquired 5 minutes after intravenous injection of 300 μL GC-AuNPs or fib-GC-AuNPs of either a low (12 mg/kg; n = 5 / group) or high concentration (120 mg/kg; n = 23 / group). After each animal was sacrificed and the brain was collected, ex vivo optical imaging was performed to obtain a Cy5.5 NIRF thrombus image (lower row in C ), which served as a exogenously labeled standard for the purposes of comparing to the corresponding mCT image. At both the high and low concentrations, targeted fib-GC-AuNPs visualize the Y-shape cerebral thrombi better than non-targeted GC-AuNPs (black dotted squares in C ). Note how the fluorescent embolic thrombus (red dotted squares in C ) is similar for all animals, but how the same thrombi are much better visualized with targeted vs. non-targeted nanoparticles by CT (black dotted squares in C ). Regardless of the type of imaging agent, the high concentration is superior to the low concentration in the CT visualization of cerebral thrombi. The above imaging findings from the representative animals ( C ) are corroborated by the quantification data for all 56 animals ( D ); the visualized thrombus area ratio (mCT/NIRF) is the highest in the high concentration fib-GC-AuNP group, followed by the high concentration GC-AuNP group, the low concentration fib-GC-AuNP group, and last the lowest in the low concentration GC-AuNP group. E and F , mCT visualization ( E ) and quantification ( F ) of cerebral thromboemboli after sequential administrations (blue colored +→) of first non-targeted GC-AuNP and then targeted fib-GC-AuNP, and vice versa. After intravenous (i.v.) injection of GC-AuNPs (120 mg/kg, 300 μL) 50 minutes after embolic stroke, there is very weak parenchymal mCT hyperdensity in the circle of Willis (black dotted square in the 1 st column of the upper row). A subsequent mCT image at 60 minutes, obtained after administering fib-GC-AuNPs (120 mg/kg, 300 μL), clearly visualizes cerebral thrombus (black dotted square in the 2 nd column of the upper row), which co-localizes to thrombus-marking Cy5.5 signal on the ex vivo NIRF image (red dotted square in the second column of the lower row). When the order of injecting the two types of imaging agent was reversed, mCT visualization of cerebral thrombus by using fib-GC-AuNPs is not further improved by additionally using GC-AuNPs (black dotted squares in the 3 rd and 4 th columns of the upper row), despite the presence of thrombus-marking Cy5.5 signal on the ex vivo NIRF image (red dotted square in the 4 th column of the lower row). These findings from the representative animals are corroborated by quantified data (the areas of embolic clots in the black and red dotted squares) for all 14 animals ( F ; n = 7 / group). Graphs show mean ± SEM. * P
    Tris Buffer, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1815 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/tris buffer/product/Thermo Fisher
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    tris buffer - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
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    Millipore edta
    Targeted fib-GC-AuNPs are superior to non-targeted GC-AuNPs in fibrin-binding and mCT imaging of cerebral thromboemboli. A , Schematic diagram of fibrin-targeted gold nanoparticles. B , In vitro experiments to show a higher fibrin-binding capacity of fib-GC-AuNPs vs. GC-AuNPs. When either fibrinogen or thrombin was added to GC-AuNP colloid (upper row) or fib-GC-AuNP colloid (middle row), the red coloring caused by dissolute colloids did not change. In contrast, when either preformed fibrin clot was immersed in the fib-GC-AuNP colloid (upper row) or if fibrin clot was formed in situ in the fib-GC-AuNP colloid (middle row), the redness (upper and middle rows) and UV absorbance (lower row) caused by the nanoparticle colloids was decreased and the clots formed were stained a red color. These changes suggest that both non-targeted GC-AuNPs and fibrin-targeted fib-GC-AuNPs have bound to the clot, reducing the amount of colloid in free solution. Considering the relatively weak changes in the color and UV absorbance of the non-targeted GC-AuNP colloid as well as in the color of the preformed and in situ clots, the fibrin-binding capacity of GC-AuNPs is substantially lower than that of fib-GC-AuNPs. <t>TBS</t> denotes <t>Tris-buffered</t> saline. C and D , representative mCT thrombus images / Cy5.5 near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) thrombus images of C57Bl/6 mice with embolic stroke ( C ) and grouped quantification data for the areas of embolic clots in the black and red dotted squares ( D ). Embolic stroke was induced by injecting Cy5.5-fluorescently labeled clot into the bifurcation area of the left distal internal carotid artery of mice (n = 56). One hour later, mCT thrombus images (upper row in C ) were acquired 5 minutes after intravenous injection of 300 μL GC-AuNPs or fib-GC-AuNPs of either a low (12 mg/kg; n = 5 / group) or high concentration (120 mg/kg; n = 23 / group). After each animal was sacrificed and the brain was collected, ex vivo optical imaging was performed to obtain a Cy5.5 NIRF thrombus image (lower row in C ), which served as a exogenously labeled standard for the purposes of comparing to the corresponding mCT image. At both the high and low concentrations, targeted fib-GC-AuNPs visualize the Y-shape cerebral thrombi better than non-targeted GC-AuNPs (black dotted squares in C ). Note how the fluorescent embolic thrombus (red dotted squares in C ) is similar for all animals, but how the same thrombi are much better visualized with targeted vs. non-targeted nanoparticles by CT (black dotted squares in C ). Regardless of the type of imaging agent, the high concentration is superior to the low concentration in the CT visualization of cerebral thrombi. The above imaging findings from the representative animals ( C ) are corroborated by the quantification data for all 56 animals ( D ); the visualized thrombus area ratio (mCT/NIRF) is the highest in the high concentration fib-GC-AuNP group, followed by the high concentration GC-AuNP group, the low concentration fib-GC-AuNP group, and last the lowest in the low concentration GC-AuNP group. E and F , mCT visualization ( E ) and quantification ( F ) of cerebral thromboemboli after sequential administrations (blue colored +→) of first non-targeted GC-AuNP and then targeted fib-GC-AuNP, and vice versa. After intravenous (i.v.) injection of GC-AuNPs (120 mg/kg, 300 μL) 50 minutes after embolic stroke, there is very weak parenchymal mCT hyperdensity in the circle of Willis (black dotted square in the 1 st column of the upper row). A subsequent mCT image at 60 minutes, obtained after administering fib-GC-AuNPs (120 mg/kg, 300 μL), clearly visualizes cerebral thrombus (black dotted square in the 2 nd column of the upper row), which co-localizes to thrombus-marking Cy5.5 signal on the ex vivo NIRF image (red dotted square in the second column of the lower row). When the order of injecting the two types of imaging agent was reversed, mCT visualization of cerebral thrombus by using fib-GC-AuNPs is not further improved by additionally using GC-AuNPs (black dotted squares in the 3 rd and 4 th columns of the upper row), despite the presence of thrombus-marking Cy5.5 signal on the ex vivo NIRF image (red dotted square in the 4 th column of the lower row). These findings from the representative animals are corroborated by quantified data (the areas of embolic clots in the black and red dotted squares) for all 14 animals ( F ; n = 7 / group). Graphs show mean ± SEM. * P
    Edta, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 32373 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/edta/product/Millipore
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    edta - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
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    Thermo Fisher tae buffer
    Targeted fib-GC-AuNPs are superior to non-targeted GC-AuNPs in fibrin-binding and mCT imaging of cerebral thromboemboli. A , Schematic diagram of fibrin-targeted gold nanoparticles. B , In vitro experiments to show a higher fibrin-binding capacity of fib-GC-AuNPs vs. GC-AuNPs. When either fibrinogen or thrombin was added to GC-AuNP colloid (upper row) or fib-GC-AuNP colloid (middle row), the red coloring caused by dissolute colloids did not change. In contrast, when either preformed fibrin clot was immersed in the fib-GC-AuNP colloid (upper row) or if fibrin clot was formed in situ in the fib-GC-AuNP colloid (middle row), the redness (upper and middle rows) and UV absorbance (lower row) caused by the nanoparticle colloids was decreased and the clots formed were stained a red color. These changes suggest that both non-targeted GC-AuNPs and fibrin-targeted fib-GC-AuNPs have bound to the clot, reducing the amount of colloid in free solution. Considering the relatively weak changes in the color and UV absorbance of the non-targeted GC-AuNP colloid as well as in the color of the preformed and in situ clots, the fibrin-binding capacity of GC-AuNPs is substantially lower than that of fib-GC-AuNPs. <t>TBS</t> denotes <t>Tris-buffered</t> saline. C and D , representative mCT thrombus images / Cy5.5 near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) thrombus images of C57Bl/6 mice with embolic stroke ( C ) and grouped quantification data for the areas of embolic clots in the black and red dotted squares ( D ). Embolic stroke was induced by injecting Cy5.5-fluorescently labeled clot into the bifurcation area of the left distal internal carotid artery of mice (n = 56). One hour later, mCT thrombus images (upper row in C ) were acquired 5 minutes after intravenous injection of 300 μL GC-AuNPs or fib-GC-AuNPs of either a low (12 mg/kg; n = 5 / group) or high concentration (120 mg/kg; n = 23 / group). After each animal was sacrificed and the brain was collected, ex vivo optical imaging was performed to obtain a Cy5.5 NIRF thrombus image (lower row in C ), which served as a exogenously labeled standard for the purposes of comparing to the corresponding mCT image. At both the high and low concentrations, targeted fib-GC-AuNPs visualize the Y-shape cerebral thrombi better than non-targeted GC-AuNPs (black dotted squares in C ). Note how the fluorescent embolic thrombus (red dotted squares in C ) is similar for all animals, but how the same thrombi are much better visualized with targeted vs. non-targeted nanoparticles by CT (black dotted squares in C ). Regardless of the type of imaging agent, the high concentration is superior to the low concentration in the CT visualization of cerebral thrombi. The above imaging findings from the representative animals ( C ) are corroborated by the quantification data for all 56 animals ( D ); the visualized thrombus area ratio (mCT/NIRF) is the highest in the high concentration fib-GC-AuNP group, followed by the high concentration GC-AuNP group, the low concentration fib-GC-AuNP group, and last the lowest in the low concentration GC-AuNP group. E and F , mCT visualization ( E ) and quantification ( F ) of cerebral thromboemboli after sequential administrations (blue colored +→) of first non-targeted GC-AuNP and then targeted fib-GC-AuNP, and vice versa. After intravenous (i.v.) injection of GC-AuNPs (120 mg/kg, 300 μL) 50 minutes after embolic stroke, there is very weak parenchymal mCT hyperdensity in the circle of Willis (black dotted square in the 1 st column of the upper row). A subsequent mCT image at 60 minutes, obtained after administering fib-GC-AuNPs (120 mg/kg, 300 μL), clearly visualizes cerebral thrombus (black dotted square in the 2 nd column of the upper row), which co-localizes to thrombus-marking Cy5.5 signal on the ex vivo NIRF image (red dotted square in the second column of the lower row). When the order of injecting the two types of imaging agent was reversed, mCT visualization of cerebral thrombus by using fib-GC-AuNPs is not further improved by additionally using GC-AuNPs (black dotted squares in the 3 rd and 4 th columns of the upper row), despite the presence of thrombus-marking Cy5.5 signal on the ex vivo NIRF image (red dotted square in the 4 th column of the lower row). These findings from the representative animals are corroborated by quantified data (the areas of embolic clots in the black and red dotted squares) for all 14 animals ( F ; n = 7 / group). Graphs show mean ± SEM. * P
    Tae Buffer, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2058 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/tae buffer/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 99 stars, based on 2058 article reviews
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    tae buffer - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
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    Millipore tris edta buffer
    Targeted fib-GC-AuNPs are superior to non-targeted GC-AuNPs in fibrin-binding and mCT imaging of cerebral thromboemboli. A , Schematic diagram of fibrin-targeted gold nanoparticles. B , In vitro experiments to show a higher fibrin-binding capacity of fib-GC-AuNPs vs. GC-AuNPs. When either fibrinogen or thrombin was added to GC-AuNP colloid (upper row) or fib-GC-AuNP colloid (middle row), the red coloring caused by dissolute colloids did not change. In contrast, when either preformed fibrin clot was immersed in the fib-GC-AuNP colloid (upper row) or if fibrin clot was formed in situ in the fib-GC-AuNP colloid (middle row), the redness (upper and middle rows) and UV absorbance (lower row) caused by the nanoparticle colloids was decreased and the clots formed were stained a red color. These changes suggest that both non-targeted GC-AuNPs and fibrin-targeted fib-GC-AuNPs have bound to the clot, reducing the amount of colloid in free solution. Considering the relatively weak changes in the color and UV absorbance of the non-targeted GC-AuNP colloid as well as in the color of the preformed and in situ clots, the fibrin-binding capacity of GC-AuNPs is substantially lower than that of fib-GC-AuNPs. <t>TBS</t> denotes <t>Tris-buffered</t> saline. C and D , representative mCT thrombus images / Cy5.5 near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) thrombus images of C57Bl/6 mice with embolic stroke ( C ) and grouped quantification data for the areas of embolic clots in the black and red dotted squares ( D ). Embolic stroke was induced by injecting Cy5.5-fluorescently labeled clot into the bifurcation area of the left distal internal carotid artery of mice (n = 56). One hour later, mCT thrombus images (upper row in C ) were acquired 5 minutes after intravenous injection of 300 μL GC-AuNPs or fib-GC-AuNPs of either a low (12 mg/kg; n = 5 / group) or high concentration (120 mg/kg; n = 23 / group). After each animal was sacrificed and the brain was collected, ex vivo optical imaging was performed to obtain a Cy5.5 NIRF thrombus image (lower row in C ), which served as a exogenously labeled standard for the purposes of comparing to the corresponding mCT image. At both the high and low concentrations, targeted fib-GC-AuNPs visualize the Y-shape cerebral thrombi better than non-targeted GC-AuNPs (black dotted squares in C ). Note how the fluorescent embolic thrombus (red dotted squares in C ) is similar for all animals, but how the same thrombi are much better visualized with targeted vs. non-targeted nanoparticles by CT (black dotted squares in C ). Regardless of the type of imaging agent, the high concentration is superior to the low concentration in the CT visualization of cerebral thrombi. The above imaging findings from the representative animals ( C ) are corroborated by the quantification data for all 56 animals ( D ); the visualized thrombus area ratio (mCT/NIRF) is the highest in the high concentration fib-GC-AuNP group, followed by the high concentration GC-AuNP group, the low concentration fib-GC-AuNP group, and last the lowest in the low concentration GC-AuNP group. E and F , mCT visualization ( E ) and quantification ( F ) of cerebral thromboemboli after sequential administrations (blue colored +→) of first non-targeted GC-AuNP and then targeted fib-GC-AuNP, and vice versa. After intravenous (i.v.) injection of GC-AuNPs (120 mg/kg, 300 μL) 50 minutes after embolic stroke, there is very weak parenchymal mCT hyperdensity in the circle of Willis (black dotted square in the 1 st column of the upper row). A subsequent mCT image at 60 minutes, obtained after administering fib-GC-AuNPs (120 mg/kg, 300 μL), clearly visualizes cerebral thrombus (black dotted square in the 2 nd column of the upper row), which co-localizes to thrombus-marking Cy5.5 signal on the ex vivo NIRF image (red dotted square in the second column of the lower row). When the order of injecting the two types of imaging agent was reversed, mCT visualization of cerebral thrombus by using fib-GC-AuNPs is not further improved by additionally using GC-AuNPs (black dotted squares in the 3 rd and 4 th columns of the upper row), despite the presence of thrombus-marking Cy5.5 signal on the ex vivo NIRF image (red dotted square in the 4 th column of the lower row). These findings from the representative animals are corroborated by quantified data (the areas of embolic clots in the black and red dotted squares) for all 14 animals ( F ; n = 7 / group). Graphs show mean ± SEM. * P
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    Targeted fib-GC-AuNPs are superior to non-targeted GC-AuNPs in fibrin-binding and mCT imaging of cerebral thromboemboli. A , Schematic diagram of fibrin-targeted gold nanoparticles. B , In vitro experiments to show a higher fibrin-binding capacity of fib-GC-AuNPs vs. GC-AuNPs. When either fibrinogen or thrombin was added to GC-AuNP colloid (upper row) or fib-GC-AuNP colloid (middle row), the red coloring caused by dissolute colloids did not change. In contrast, when either preformed fibrin clot was immersed in the fib-GC-AuNP colloid (upper row) or if fibrin clot was formed in situ in the fib-GC-AuNP colloid (middle row), the redness (upper and middle rows) and UV absorbance (lower row) caused by the nanoparticle colloids was decreased and the clots formed were stained a red color. These changes suggest that both non-targeted GC-AuNPs and fibrin-targeted fib-GC-AuNPs have bound to the clot, reducing the amount of colloid in free solution. Considering the relatively weak changes in the color and UV absorbance of the non-targeted GC-AuNP colloid as well as in the color of the preformed and in situ clots, the fibrin-binding capacity of GC-AuNPs is substantially lower than that of fib-GC-AuNPs. <t>TBS</t> denotes <t>Tris-buffered</t> saline. C and D , representative mCT thrombus images / Cy5.5 near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) thrombus images of C57Bl/6 mice with embolic stroke ( C ) and grouped quantification data for the areas of embolic clots in the black and red dotted squares ( D ). Embolic stroke was induced by injecting Cy5.5-fluorescently labeled clot into the bifurcation area of the left distal internal carotid artery of mice (n = 56). One hour later, mCT thrombus images (upper row in C ) were acquired 5 minutes after intravenous injection of 300 μL GC-AuNPs or fib-GC-AuNPs of either a low (12 mg/kg; n = 5 / group) or high concentration (120 mg/kg; n = 23 / group). After each animal was sacrificed and the brain was collected, ex vivo optical imaging was performed to obtain a Cy5.5 NIRF thrombus image (lower row in C ), which served as a exogenously labeled standard for the purposes of comparing to the corresponding mCT image. At both the high and low concentrations, targeted fib-GC-AuNPs visualize the Y-shape cerebral thrombi better than non-targeted GC-AuNPs (black dotted squares in C ). Note how the fluorescent embolic thrombus (red dotted squares in C ) is similar for all animals, but how the same thrombi are much better visualized with targeted vs. non-targeted nanoparticles by CT (black dotted squares in C ). Regardless of the type of imaging agent, the high concentration is superior to the low concentration in the CT visualization of cerebral thrombi. The above imaging findings from the representative animals ( C ) are corroborated by the quantification data for all 56 animals ( D ); the visualized thrombus area ratio (mCT/NIRF) is the highest in the high concentration fib-GC-AuNP group, followed by the high concentration GC-AuNP group, the low concentration fib-GC-AuNP group, and last the lowest in the low concentration GC-AuNP group. E and F , mCT visualization ( E ) and quantification ( F ) of cerebral thromboemboli after sequential administrations (blue colored +→) of first non-targeted GC-AuNP and then targeted fib-GC-AuNP, and vice versa. After intravenous (i.v.) injection of GC-AuNPs (120 mg/kg, 300 μL) 50 minutes after embolic stroke, there is very weak parenchymal mCT hyperdensity in the circle of Willis (black dotted square in the 1 st column of the upper row). A subsequent mCT image at 60 minutes, obtained after administering fib-GC-AuNPs (120 mg/kg, 300 μL), clearly visualizes cerebral thrombus (black dotted square in the 2 nd column of the upper row), which co-localizes to thrombus-marking Cy5.5 signal on the ex vivo NIRF image (red dotted square in the second column of the lower row). When the order of injecting the two types of imaging agent was reversed, mCT visualization of cerebral thrombus by using fib-GC-AuNPs is not further improved by additionally using GC-AuNPs (black dotted squares in the 3 rd and 4 th columns of the upper row), despite the presence of thrombus-marking Cy5.5 signal on the ex vivo NIRF image (red dotted square in the 4 th column of the lower row). These findings from the representative animals are corroborated by quantified data (the areas of embolic clots in the black and red dotted squares) for all 14 animals ( F ; n = 7 / group). Graphs show mean ± SEM. * P
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    Targeted fib-GC-AuNPs are superior to non-targeted GC-AuNPs in fibrin-binding and mCT imaging of cerebral thromboemboli. A , Schematic diagram of fibrin-targeted gold nanoparticles. B , In vitro experiments to show a higher fibrin-binding capacity of fib-GC-AuNPs vs. GC-AuNPs. When either fibrinogen or thrombin was added to GC-AuNP colloid (upper row) or fib-GC-AuNP colloid (middle row), the red coloring caused by dissolute colloids did not change. In contrast, when either preformed fibrin clot was immersed in the fib-GC-AuNP colloid (upper row) or if fibrin clot was formed in situ in the fib-GC-AuNP colloid (middle row), the redness (upper and middle rows) and UV absorbance (lower row) caused by the nanoparticle colloids was decreased and the clots formed were stained a red color. These changes suggest that both non-targeted GC-AuNPs and fibrin-targeted fib-GC-AuNPs have bound to the clot, reducing the amount of colloid in free solution. Considering the relatively weak changes in the color and UV absorbance of the non-targeted GC-AuNP colloid as well as in the color of the preformed and in situ clots, the fibrin-binding capacity of GC-AuNPs is substantially lower than that of fib-GC-AuNPs. TBS denotes Tris-buffered saline. C and D , representative mCT thrombus images / Cy5.5 near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) thrombus images of C57Bl/6 mice with embolic stroke ( C ) and grouped quantification data for the areas of embolic clots in the black and red dotted squares ( D ). Embolic stroke was induced by injecting Cy5.5-fluorescently labeled clot into the bifurcation area of the left distal internal carotid artery of mice (n = 56). One hour later, mCT thrombus images (upper row in C ) were acquired 5 minutes after intravenous injection of 300 μL GC-AuNPs or fib-GC-AuNPs of either a low (12 mg/kg; n = 5 / group) or high concentration (120 mg/kg; n = 23 / group). After each animal was sacrificed and the brain was collected, ex vivo optical imaging was performed to obtain a Cy5.5 NIRF thrombus image (lower row in C ), which served as a exogenously labeled standard for the purposes of comparing to the corresponding mCT image. At both the high and low concentrations, targeted fib-GC-AuNPs visualize the Y-shape cerebral thrombi better than non-targeted GC-AuNPs (black dotted squares in C ). Note how the fluorescent embolic thrombus (red dotted squares in C ) is similar for all animals, but how the same thrombi are much better visualized with targeted vs. non-targeted nanoparticles by CT (black dotted squares in C ). Regardless of the type of imaging agent, the high concentration is superior to the low concentration in the CT visualization of cerebral thrombi. The above imaging findings from the representative animals ( C ) are corroborated by the quantification data for all 56 animals ( D ); the visualized thrombus area ratio (mCT/NIRF) is the highest in the high concentration fib-GC-AuNP group, followed by the high concentration GC-AuNP group, the low concentration fib-GC-AuNP group, and last the lowest in the low concentration GC-AuNP group. E and F , mCT visualization ( E ) and quantification ( F ) of cerebral thromboemboli after sequential administrations (blue colored +→) of first non-targeted GC-AuNP and then targeted fib-GC-AuNP, and vice versa. After intravenous (i.v.) injection of GC-AuNPs (120 mg/kg, 300 μL) 50 minutes after embolic stroke, there is very weak parenchymal mCT hyperdensity in the circle of Willis (black dotted square in the 1 st column of the upper row). A subsequent mCT image at 60 minutes, obtained after administering fib-GC-AuNPs (120 mg/kg, 300 μL), clearly visualizes cerebral thrombus (black dotted square in the 2 nd column of the upper row), which co-localizes to thrombus-marking Cy5.5 signal on the ex vivo NIRF image (red dotted square in the second column of the lower row). When the order of injecting the two types of imaging agent was reversed, mCT visualization of cerebral thrombus by using fib-GC-AuNPs is not further improved by additionally using GC-AuNPs (black dotted squares in the 3 rd and 4 th columns of the upper row), despite the presence of thrombus-marking Cy5.5 signal on the ex vivo NIRF image (red dotted square in the 4 th column of the lower row). These findings from the representative animals are corroborated by quantified data (the areas of embolic clots in the black and red dotted squares) for all 14 animals ( F ; n = 7 / group). Graphs show mean ± SEM. * P

    Journal: Theranostics

    Article Title: Direct Imaging of Cerebral Thromboemboli Using Computed Tomography and Fibrin-targeted Gold Nanoparticles

    doi: 10.7150/thno.11679

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Targeted fib-GC-AuNPs are superior to non-targeted GC-AuNPs in fibrin-binding and mCT imaging of cerebral thromboemboli. A , Schematic diagram of fibrin-targeted gold nanoparticles. B , In vitro experiments to show a higher fibrin-binding capacity of fib-GC-AuNPs vs. GC-AuNPs. When either fibrinogen or thrombin was added to GC-AuNP colloid (upper row) or fib-GC-AuNP colloid (middle row), the red coloring caused by dissolute colloids did not change. In contrast, when either preformed fibrin clot was immersed in the fib-GC-AuNP colloid (upper row) or if fibrin clot was formed in situ in the fib-GC-AuNP colloid (middle row), the redness (upper and middle rows) and UV absorbance (lower row) caused by the nanoparticle colloids was decreased and the clots formed were stained a red color. These changes suggest that both non-targeted GC-AuNPs and fibrin-targeted fib-GC-AuNPs have bound to the clot, reducing the amount of colloid in free solution. Considering the relatively weak changes in the color and UV absorbance of the non-targeted GC-AuNP colloid as well as in the color of the preformed and in situ clots, the fibrin-binding capacity of GC-AuNPs is substantially lower than that of fib-GC-AuNPs. TBS denotes Tris-buffered saline. C and D , representative mCT thrombus images / Cy5.5 near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) thrombus images of C57Bl/6 mice with embolic stroke ( C ) and grouped quantification data for the areas of embolic clots in the black and red dotted squares ( D ). Embolic stroke was induced by injecting Cy5.5-fluorescently labeled clot into the bifurcation area of the left distal internal carotid artery of mice (n = 56). One hour later, mCT thrombus images (upper row in C ) were acquired 5 minutes after intravenous injection of 300 μL GC-AuNPs or fib-GC-AuNPs of either a low (12 mg/kg; n = 5 / group) or high concentration (120 mg/kg; n = 23 / group). After each animal was sacrificed and the brain was collected, ex vivo optical imaging was performed to obtain a Cy5.5 NIRF thrombus image (lower row in C ), which served as a exogenously labeled standard for the purposes of comparing to the corresponding mCT image. At both the high and low concentrations, targeted fib-GC-AuNPs visualize the Y-shape cerebral thrombi better than non-targeted GC-AuNPs (black dotted squares in C ). Note how the fluorescent embolic thrombus (red dotted squares in C ) is similar for all animals, but how the same thrombi are much better visualized with targeted vs. non-targeted nanoparticles by CT (black dotted squares in C ). Regardless of the type of imaging agent, the high concentration is superior to the low concentration in the CT visualization of cerebral thrombi. The above imaging findings from the representative animals ( C ) are corroborated by the quantification data for all 56 animals ( D ); the visualized thrombus area ratio (mCT/NIRF) is the highest in the high concentration fib-GC-AuNP group, followed by the high concentration GC-AuNP group, the low concentration fib-GC-AuNP group, and last the lowest in the low concentration GC-AuNP group. E and F , mCT visualization ( E ) and quantification ( F ) of cerebral thromboemboli after sequential administrations (blue colored +→) of first non-targeted GC-AuNP and then targeted fib-GC-AuNP, and vice versa. After intravenous (i.v.) injection of GC-AuNPs (120 mg/kg, 300 μL) 50 minutes after embolic stroke, there is very weak parenchymal mCT hyperdensity in the circle of Willis (black dotted square in the 1 st column of the upper row). A subsequent mCT image at 60 minutes, obtained after administering fib-GC-AuNPs (120 mg/kg, 300 μL), clearly visualizes cerebral thrombus (black dotted square in the 2 nd column of the upper row), which co-localizes to thrombus-marking Cy5.5 signal on the ex vivo NIRF image (red dotted square in the second column of the lower row). When the order of injecting the two types of imaging agent was reversed, mCT visualization of cerebral thrombus by using fib-GC-AuNPs is not further improved by additionally using GC-AuNPs (black dotted squares in the 3 rd and 4 th columns of the upper row), despite the presence of thrombus-marking Cy5.5 signal on the ex vivo NIRF image (red dotted square in the 4 th column of the lower row). These findings from the representative animals are corroborated by quantified data (the areas of embolic clots in the black and red dotted squares) for all 14 animals ( F ; n = 7 / group). Graphs show mean ± SEM. * P

    Article Snippet: Fibrin polymerization was performed in Tris-buffered saline (TBS, pH 7.4; Dako, Glostrup, Denmark) containing 10 mmol/L of tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane.

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Imaging, In Vitro, In Situ, Staining, Mouse Assay, Labeling, Injection, Concentration Assay, Ex Vivo, Optical Imaging