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  • 99
    Thermo Fisher todd hewitt broth
    Sialidase and hyaluronidase production by the wild-type, mutant and complemented strains. Quantitative assays were carried out to determine the relative amount of extracellular enzyme production by the wild-type, mutant and complemented strains at time of inoculation and 4 h and 8 h post-inoculation (corresponding to exponential and stationary growth phases, respectively). Sialidase assays were performed using culture supernatants from cultures grown in <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> broth (A). Hyaluronidase activity was determined using the cell lysates from cultures grown in TPYG (B). All results are given as the average of three biological replicates (± SEM) for sialidase assays and six biological replicates for hyaluronidase assays; the asterisk (*) denotes a statistically significant difference ( p ≤0.05) as determined by the student’s t-test.
    Todd Hewitt Broth, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 936 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore todd hewitt broth
    Extracellular enzyme production in the isogenic revR strains. Quantitative assays were carried out to determine the relative amount of enzyme activity in 4-h cultures grown in TPYG medium or <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> broth (for sialidase assays only). Enzyme activity
    Todd Hewitt Broth, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 149 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher todd hewitt oxoid broth
    Extracellular enzyme production in the isogenic revR strains. Quantitative assays were carried out to determine the relative amount of enzyme activity in 4-h cultures grown in TPYG medium or <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> broth (for sialidase assays only). Enzyme activity
    Todd Hewitt Oxoid Broth, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    95
    Difco todd hewitt broth
    Effect of Dectin-2 deficiency on IL-12p40 production by BD-DCs upon stimulation with S. pneumoniae . BM-DCs from WT mice (open columns) or Dectin-2KO mice (solid columns) were cultured with live S. pneumoniae ( a ); lysates from S. pneumoniae or sham-operated PBS (Sham) ( b ); S. pneumoniae culture supernatant or <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> broth (THB) ( c ); or LPS (1 μg/ml), CpG (1 μg/ml) or mannan (3 mg/ml) for 24 h. IL-12p40 concentrations in the culture supernatants were measured using ELISA. Each column shows the mean ± SD of triplicate culture. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments. MOI, multiplicity of infection. *, p
    Todd Hewitt Broth, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 1603 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Becton Dickinson todd hewitt broth
    Effect of 5% GML-formulated gel on L. crispatus and S. aureus MN8. Lawns of lactobacilli and staphylococci were prepared on <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> agar plates, and then paper disks containing 5% GML gel (30 μl) were placed on the agar surfaces.
    Todd Hewitt Broth, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 838 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Teknova todd hewitt broth
    Effect of 5% GML-formulated gel on L. crispatus and S. aureus MN8. Lawns of lactobacilli and staphylococci were prepared on <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> agar plates, and then paper disks containing 5% GML gel (30 μl) were placed on the agar surfaces.
    Todd Hewitt Broth, supplied by Teknova, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Carl Roth GmbH todd hewitt broth
    Effect of 5% GML-formulated gel on L. crispatus and S. aureus MN8. Lawns of lactobacilli and staphylococci were prepared on <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> agar plates, and then paper disks containing 5% GML gel (30 μl) were placed on the agar surfaces.
    Todd Hewitt Broth, supplied by Carl Roth GmbH, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 56 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Spectrum Chemicals Inc todd hewitt broth
    Effect of 5% GML-formulated gel on L. crispatus and S. aureus MN8. Lawns of lactobacilli and staphylococci were prepared on <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> agar plates, and then paper disks containing 5% GML gel (30 μl) were placed on the agar surfaces.
    Todd Hewitt Broth, supplied by Spectrum Chemicals Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Neogen todd hewitt broth
    Effect of 5% GML-formulated gel on L. crispatus and S. aureus MN8. Lawns of lactobacilli and staphylococci were prepared on <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> agar plates, and then paper disks containing 5% GML gel (30 μl) were placed on the agar surfaces.
    Todd Hewitt Broth, supplied by Neogen, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 25 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Merck KGaA todd hewitt broth
    Effect of 5% GML-formulated gel on L. crispatus and S. aureus MN8. Lawns of lactobacilli and staphylococci were prepared on <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> agar plates, and then paper disks containing 5% GML gel (30 μl) were placed on the agar surfaces.
    Todd Hewitt Broth, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    HiMedia Laboratories todd hewitt broth
    Effect of 5% GML-formulated gel on L. crispatus and S. aureus MN8. Lawns of lactobacilli and staphylococci were prepared on <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> agar plates, and then paper disks containing 5% GML gel (30 μl) were placed on the agar surfaces.
    Todd Hewitt Broth, supplied by HiMedia Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 32 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Lab M Ltd todd hewitt broth
    Effect of 5% GML-formulated gel on L. crispatus and S. aureus MN8. Lawns of lactobacilli and staphylococci were prepared on <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> agar plates, and then paper disks containing 5% GML gel (30 μl) were placed on the agar surfaces.
    Todd Hewitt Broth, supplied by Lab M Ltd, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 81/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    bioMerieux todd hewitt broth
    Effect of 5% GML-formulated gel on L. crispatus and S. aureus MN8. Lawns of lactobacilli and staphylococci were prepared on <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> agar plates, and then paper disks containing 5% GML gel (30 μl) were placed on the agar surfaces.
    Todd Hewitt Broth, supplied by bioMerieux, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 10 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Acumedia Manufacturers todd hewitt broth
    Effect of 5% GML-formulated gel on L. crispatus and S. aureus MN8. Lawns of lactobacilli and staphylococci were prepared on <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> agar plates, and then paper disks containing 5% GML gel (30 μl) were placed on the agar surfaces.
    Todd Hewitt Broth, supplied by Acumedia Manufacturers, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Hardy Diagnostics todd hewitt broth thb
    Effect of 5% GML-formulated gel on L. crispatus and S. aureus MN8. Lawns of lactobacilli and staphylococci were prepared on <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> agar plates, and then paper disks containing 5% GML gel (30 μl) were placed on the agar surfaces.
    Todd Hewitt Broth Thb, supplied by Hardy Diagnostics, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 23 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Becton Dickinson todd hewitt broth thb
    Effect of 5% GML-formulated gel on L. crispatus and S. aureus MN8. Lawns of lactobacilli and staphylococci were prepared on <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> agar plates, and then paper disks containing 5% GML gel (30 μl) were placed on the agar surfaces.
    Todd Hewitt Broth Thb, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 116 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Difco todd hewitt broth thb
    Color phenotypes of strains expressing phoZ derivatives and grown as colonies on XP agar. (Top) E. coli CC873 expressing the periplasmic chimera LacY P1 ::AP, the cytoplasmic chimera LacY C2 ::AP, or the unfused LacY C2 or LacY P1 proteins (no AP). Strains were grown on Luria agar containing the chromogenic substrate XP. (Bottom). Gram-positive species deficient in AP (NONE) or expressing wild-type AP (WT), AP deleted of its signal sequence (NO S.S), or AP with the C5A peptidase signal sequence ( scpB S.S). Strains were grown on <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> agar with XP. On this medium, the GAS strains (insert) grew relatively slowly and had to be photographed 24 h after the other species.
    Todd Hewitt Broth Thb, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 212 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    HiMedia Laboratories todd hewitt broth thb
    Color phenotypes of strains expressing phoZ derivatives and grown as colonies on XP agar. (Top) E. coli CC873 expressing the periplasmic chimera LacY P1 ::AP, the cytoplasmic chimera LacY C2 ::AP, or the unfused LacY C2 or LacY P1 proteins (no AP). Strains were grown on Luria agar containing the chromogenic substrate XP. (Bottom). Gram-positive species deficient in AP (NONE) or expressing wild-type AP (WT), AP deleted of its signal sequence (NO S.S), or AP with the C5A peptidase signal sequence ( scpB S.S). Strains were grown on <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> agar with XP. On this medium, the GAS strains (insert) grew relatively slowly and had to be photographed 24 h after the other species.
    Todd Hewitt Broth Thb, supplied by HiMedia Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Becton Dickinson todd hewitt broth thyb
    Color phenotypes of strains expressing phoZ derivatives and grown as colonies on XP agar. (Top) E. coli CC873 expressing the periplasmic chimera LacY P1 ::AP, the cytoplasmic chimera LacY C2 ::AP, or the unfused LacY C2 or LacY P1 proteins (no AP). Strains were grown on Luria agar containing the chromogenic substrate XP. (Bottom). Gram-positive species deficient in AP (NONE) or expressing wild-type AP (WT), AP deleted of its signal sequence (NO S.S), or AP with the C5A peptidase signal sequence ( scpB S.S). Strains were grown on <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> agar with XP. On this medium, the GAS strains (insert) grew relatively slowly and had to be photographed 24 h after the other species.
    Todd Hewitt Broth Thyb, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Merck KGaA todd hewitt broth thb
    Color phenotypes of strains expressing phoZ derivatives and grown as colonies on XP agar. (Top) E. coli CC873 expressing the periplasmic chimera LacY P1 ::AP, the cytoplasmic chimera LacY C2 ::AP, or the unfused LacY C2 or LacY P1 proteins (no AP). Strains were grown on Luria agar containing the chromogenic substrate XP. (Bottom). Gram-positive species deficient in AP (NONE) or expressing wild-type AP (WT), AP deleted of its signal sequence (NO S.S), or AP with the C5A peptidase signal sequence ( scpB S.S). Strains were grown on <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> agar with XP. On this medium, the GAS strains (insert) grew relatively slowly and had to be photographed 24 h after the other species.
    Todd Hewitt Broth Thb, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Difco bacto todd hewitt broth
    Color phenotypes of strains expressing phoZ derivatives and grown as colonies on XP agar. (Top) E. coli CC873 expressing the periplasmic chimera LacY P1 ::AP, the cytoplasmic chimera LacY C2 ::AP, or the unfused LacY C2 or LacY P1 proteins (no AP). Strains were grown on Luria agar containing the chromogenic substrate XP. (Bottom). Gram-positive species deficient in AP (NONE) or expressing wild-type AP (WT), AP deleted of its signal sequence (NO S.S), or AP with the C5A peptidase signal sequence ( scpB S.S). Strains were grown on <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> agar with XP. On this medium, the GAS strains (insert) grew relatively slowly and had to be photographed 24 h after the other species.
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    Becton Dickinson bacto todd hewitt broth
    Color phenotypes of strains expressing phoZ derivatives and grown as colonies on XP agar. (Top) E. coli CC873 expressing the periplasmic chimera LacY P1 ::AP, the cytoplasmic chimera LacY C2 ::AP, or the unfused LacY C2 or LacY P1 proteins (no AP). Strains were grown on Luria agar containing the chromogenic substrate XP. (Bottom). Gram-positive species deficient in AP (NONE) or expressing wild-type AP (WT), AP deleted of its signal sequence (NO S.S), or AP with the C5A peptidase signal sequence ( scpB S.S). Strains were grown on <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> agar with XP. On this medium, the GAS strains (insert) grew relatively slowly and had to be photographed 24 h after the other species.
    Bacto Todd Hewitt Broth, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 22 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Neogen todd hewitt broth base thb
    Color phenotypes of strains expressing phoZ derivatives and grown as colonies on XP agar. (Top) E. coli CC873 expressing the periplasmic chimera LacY P1 ::AP, the cytoplasmic chimera LacY C2 ::AP, or the unfused LacY C2 or LacY P1 proteins (no AP). Strains were grown on Luria agar containing the chromogenic substrate XP. (Bottom). Gram-positive species deficient in AP (NONE) or expressing wild-type AP (WT), AP deleted of its signal sequence (NO S.S), or AP with the C5A peptidase signal sequence ( scpB S.S). Strains were grown on <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> agar with XP. On this medium, the GAS strains (insert) grew relatively slowly and had to be photographed 24 h after the other species.
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    Difco todd hewitt broth medium
    Color phenotypes of strains expressing phoZ derivatives and grown as colonies on XP agar. (Top) E. coli CC873 expressing the periplasmic chimera LacY P1 ::AP, the cytoplasmic chimera LacY C2 ::AP, or the unfused LacY C2 or LacY P1 proteins (no AP). Strains were grown on Luria agar containing the chromogenic substrate XP. (Bottom). Gram-positive species deficient in AP (NONE) or expressing wild-type AP (WT), AP deleted of its signal sequence (NO S.S), or AP with the C5A peptidase signal sequence ( scpB S.S). Strains were grown on <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> agar with XP. On this medium, the GAS strains (insert) grew relatively slowly and had to be photographed 24 h after the other species.
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    Becton Dickinson todd hewitt broth medium
    Color phenotypes of strains expressing phoZ derivatives and grown as colonies on XP agar. (Top) E. coli CC873 expressing the periplasmic chimera LacY P1 ::AP, the cytoplasmic chimera LacY C2 ::AP, or the unfused LacY C2 or LacY P1 proteins (no AP). Strains were grown on Luria agar containing the chromogenic substrate XP. (Bottom). Gram-positive species deficient in AP (NONE) or expressing wild-type AP (WT), AP deleted of its signal sequence (NO S.S), or AP with the C5A peptidase signal sequence ( scpB S.S). Strains were grown on <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> agar with XP. On this medium, the GAS strains (insert) grew relatively slowly and had to be photographed 24 h after the other species.
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    Hardy Diagnostics todd hewitt broth
    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) biofilm regulatory protein A (BrpA) deficiency influences cell survival, biofilm formation, and epithelial cell adherence but not autolysis. ( A ) Autolysis (left) in cultures of wild-type (WT) and Δ brpA organisms suspended in phosphate-buffered saline was measured spectrophotometrically (at OD 600 ), using turbidity normalized to T = 0. Viability (right) of WT and Δ brpA strains grown in <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> broth (THB) over time, as determined by plating on THB agar. Data from independent replicates (n = 3) are shown, with symbols representing mean values and lines indicating standard errors of the mean (SEMs). Data were analyzed using 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance with the Sidak multiple comparisons test. B , Biofilm formation of WT, Δ brpA , and revertant strains quantified by crystal violet uptake (left). Independent replicates (n = 6) are shown, and lines represent mean values ± SEMs. Data were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA with the Holm-Sidak multiple comparisons test. Fluorescent images of in vitro biofilms (center and right) stained with Syto 13 (green), taken at 100× original magnification. Scale bar = 100 µm. Experiments were performed twice independently, with representative images shown. C, Adherence of WT (black symbols) and Δ brpA (open circles) strains to vaginal (VK2) and bladder (HTB-9) epithelial cells. Independent replicates (n = 7) are shown, and lines represent median values ± 95% confidence intervals. Data were analyzed using the 2-tailed Mann-Whitney U test. D , In a competition model, CD1 mice were inoculated intravaginally with 1 × 10 7 CFU of WT and Δ brpA organisms (2 × 10 7 CFU total/mouse), and bacterial burdens were quantified daily after infection. Symbols represent biological replicates (n = 18), and paired values (WT and Δ brpA CFU) from each mouse are connected with dashed lines. Data were analyzed using the 2-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test with Spearman rank-order correlation. *** P
    Todd Hewitt Broth, supplied by Hardy Diagnostics, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 22 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Laboratorios Conda todd hewitt broth
    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) biofilm regulatory protein A (BrpA) deficiency influences cell survival, biofilm formation, and epithelial cell adherence but not autolysis. ( A ) Autolysis (left) in cultures of wild-type (WT) and Δ brpA organisms suspended in phosphate-buffered saline was measured spectrophotometrically (at OD 600 ), using turbidity normalized to T = 0. Viability (right) of WT and Δ brpA strains grown in <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> broth (THB) over time, as determined by plating on THB agar. Data from independent replicates (n = 3) are shown, with symbols representing mean values and lines indicating standard errors of the mean (SEMs). Data were analyzed using 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance with the Sidak multiple comparisons test. B , Biofilm formation of WT, Δ brpA , and revertant strains quantified by crystal violet uptake (left). Independent replicates (n = 6) are shown, and lines represent mean values ± SEMs. Data were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA with the Holm-Sidak multiple comparisons test. Fluorescent images of in vitro biofilms (center and right) stained with Syto 13 (green), taken at 100× original magnification. Scale bar = 100 µm. Experiments were performed twice independently, with representative images shown. C, Adherence of WT (black symbols) and Δ brpA (open circles) strains to vaginal (VK2) and bladder (HTB-9) epithelial cells. Independent replicates (n = 7) are shown, and lines represent median values ± 95% confidence intervals. Data were analyzed using the 2-tailed Mann-Whitney U test. D , In a competition model, CD1 mice were inoculated intravaginally with 1 × 10 7 CFU of WT and Δ brpA organisms (2 × 10 7 CFU total/mouse), and bacterial burdens were quantified daily after infection. Symbols represent biological replicates (n = 18), and paired values (WT and Δ brpA CFU) from each mouse are connected with dashed lines. Data were analyzed using the 2-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test with Spearman rank-order correlation. *** P
    Todd Hewitt Broth, supplied by Laboratorios Conda, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Difco agar supplemented todd hewitt broth
    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) biofilm regulatory protein A (BrpA) deficiency influences cell survival, biofilm formation, and epithelial cell adherence but not autolysis. ( A ) Autolysis (left) in cultures of wild-type (WT) and Δ brpA organisms suspended in phosphate-buffered saline was measured spectrophotometrically (at OD 600 ), using turbidity normalized to T = 0. Viability (right) of WT and Δ brpA strains grown in <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> broth (THB) over time, as determined by plating on THB agar. Data from independent replicates (n = 3) are shown, with symbols representing mean values and lines indicating standard errors of the mean (SEMs). Data were analyzed using 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance with the Sidak multiple comparisons test. B , Biofilm formation of WT, Δ brpA , and revertant strains quantified by crystal violet uptake (left). Independent replicates (n = 6) are shown, and lines represent mean values ± SEMs. Data were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA with the Holm-Sidak multiple comparisons test. Fluorescent images of in vitro biofilms (center and right) stained with Syto 13 (green), taken at 100× original magnification. Scale bar = 100 µm. Experiments were performed twice independently, with representative images shown. C, Adherence of WT (black symbols) and Δ brpA (open circles) strains to vaginal (VK2) and bladder (HTB-9) epithelial cells. Independent replicates (n = 7) are shown, and lines represent median values ± 95% confidence intervals. Data were analyzed using the 2-tailed Mann-Whitney U test. D , In a competition model, CD1 mice were inoculated intravaginally with 1 × 10 7 CFU of WT and Δ brpA organisms (2 × 10 7 CFU total/mouse), and bacterial burdens were quantified daily after infection. Symbols represent biological replicates (n = 18), and paired values (WT and Δ brpA CFU) from each mouse are connected with dashed lines. Data were analyzed using the 2-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test with Spearman rank-order correlation. *** P
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    Dot Scientific todd hewitt broth
    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) biofilm regulatory protein A (BrpA) deficiency influences cell survival, biofilm formation, and epithelial cell adherence but not autolysis. ( A ) Autolysis (left) in cultures of wild-type (WT) and Δ brpA organisms suspended in phosphate-buffered saline was measured spectrophotometrically (at OD 600 ), using turbidity normalized to T = 0. Viability (right) of WT and Δ brpA strains grown in <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> broth (THB) over time, as determined by plating on THB agar. Data from independent replicates (n = 3) are shown, with symbols representing mean values and lines indicating standard errors of the mean (SEMs). Data were analyzed using 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance with the Sidak multiple comparisons test. B , Biofilm formation of WT, Δ brpA , and revertant strains quantified by crystal violet uptake (left). Independent replicates (n = 6) are shown, and lines represent mean values ± SEMs. Data were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA with the Holm-Sidak multiple comparisons test. Fluorescent images of in vitro biofilms (center and right) stained with Syto 13 (green), taken at 100× original magnification. Scale bar = 100 µm. Experiments were performed twice independently, with representative images shown. C, Adherence of WT (black symbols) and Δ brpA (open circles) strains to vaginal (VK2) and bladder (HTB-9) epithelial cells. Independent replicates (n = 7) are shown, and lines represent median values ± 95% confidence intervals. Data were analyzed using the 2-tailed Mann-Whitney U test. D , In a competition model, CD1 mice were inoculated intravaginally with 1 × 10 7 CFU of WT and Δ brpA organisms (2 × 10 7 CFU total/mouse), and bacterial burdens were quantified daily after infection. Symbols represent biological replicates (n = 18), and paired values (WT and Δ brpA CFU) from each mouse are connected with dashed lines. Data were analyzed using the 2-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test with Spearman rank-order correlation. *** P
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    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) biofilm regulatory protein A (BrpA) deficiency influences cell survival, biofilm formation, and epithelial cell adherence but not autolysis. ( A ) Autolysis (left) in cultures of wild-type (WT) and Δ brpA organisms suspended in phosphate-buffered saline was measured spectrophotometrically (at OD 600 ), using turbidity normalized to T = 0. Viability (right) of WT and Δ brpA strains grown in <t>Todd-Hewitt</t> broth (THB) over time, as determined by plating on THB agar. Data from independent replicates (n = 3) are shown, with symbols representing mean values and lines indicating standard errors of the mean (SEMs). Data were analyzed using 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance with the Sidak multiple comparisons test. B , Biofilm formation of WT, Δ brpA , and revertant strains quantified by crystal violet uptake (left). Independent replicates (n = 6) are shown, and lines represent mean values ± SEMs. Data were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA with the Holm-Sidak multiple comparisons test. Fluorescent images of in vitro biofilms (center and right) stained with Syto 13 (green), taken at 100× original magnification. Scale bar = 100 µm. Experiments were performed twice independently, with representative images shown. C, Adherence of WT (black symbols) and Δ brpA (open circles) strains to vaginal (VK2) and bladder (HTB-9) epithelial cells. Independent replicates (n = 7) are shown, and lines represent median values ± 95% confidence intervals. Data were analyzed using the 2-tailed Mann-Whitney U test. D , In a competition model, CD1 mice were inoculated intravaginally with 1 × 10 7 CFU of WT and Δ brpA organisms (2 × 10 7 CFU total/mouse), and bacterial burdens were quantified daily after infection. Symbols represent biological replicates (n = 18), and paired values (WT and Δ brpA CFU) from each mouse are connected with dashed lines. Data were analyzed using the 2-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test with Spearman rank-order correlation. *** P
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    Image Search Results


    Sialidase and hyaluronidase production by the wild-type, mutant and complemented strains. Quantitative assays were carried out to determine the relative amount of extracellular enzyme production by the wild-type, mutant and complemented strains at time of inoculation and 4 h and 8 h post-inoculation (corresponding to exponential and stationary growth phases, respectively). Sialidase assays were performed using culture supernatants from cultures grown in Todd-Hewitt broth (A). Hyaluronidase activity was determined using the cell lysates from cultures grown in TPYG (B). All results are given as the average of three biological replicates (± SEM) for sialidase assays and six biological replicates for hyaluronidase assays; the asterisk (*) denotes a statistically significant difference ( p ≤0.05) as determined by the student’s t-test.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Regulation of Sialidase Production in Clostridium perfringens by the Orphan Sensor Histidine Kinase ReeS

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073525

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sialidase and hyaluronidase production by the wild-type, mutant and complemented strains. Quantitative assays were carried out to determine the relative amount of extracellular enzyme production by the wild-type, mutant and complemented strains at time of inoculation and 4 h and 8 h post-inoculation (corresponding to exponential and stationary growth phases, respectively). Sialidase assays were performed using culture supernatants from cultures grown in Todd-Hewitt broth (A). Hyaluronidase activity was determined using the cell lysates from cultures grown in TPYG (B). All results are given as the average of three biological replicates (± SEM) for sialidase assays and six biological replicates for hyaluronidase assays; the asterisk (*) denotes a statistically significant difference ( p ≤0.05) as determined by the student’s t-test.

    Article Snippet: Hyaluronidase and Sialidase Assays C. perfringens cultures were grown in either TPYG or Todd-Hewitt broth (Oxoid) supplemented with 0.1% (w/v) sodium thioglycolate and 0.37% (w/v) glucose after autoclaving.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Activity Assay

    Growth of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in the presence of LL-37 and DrsG. S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis MD985 ( drsG negative) was grown in the presence of LL-37 and/or DrsGL (A), DrsGS (B), or SIC (C). After a 2.5-h incubation, the bacteria were recovered, plated onto Todd-Hewitt agar, and incubated overnight. The percentage of growth compared to that of controls was determined for each individual assay. The results presented are the means for three independent experiments.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: DrsG from Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis Inhibits the Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01411-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in the presence of LL-37 and DrsG. S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis MD985 ( drsG negative) was grown in the presence of LL-37 and/or DrsGL (A), DrsGS (B), or SIC (C). After a 2.5-h incubation, the bacteria were recovered, plated onto Todd-Hewitt agar, and incubated overnight. The percentage of growth compared to that of controls was determined for each individual assay. The results presented are the means for three independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: Unless otherwise specified, S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis and S. pyogenes were grown in Todd-Hewitt broth (THB), Todd-Hewitt agar (Oxoid), or Columbia agar (CBA; Oxoid) supplemented with 5% defibrinated horse blood.

    Techniques: Incubation

    Pneumococcal survival-time curves based on the means and standard deviation of CFU of clinical isolates group (H2 and 61), nasopharyngeal isolates group (EF28 and EF33), and S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 strain stored on TH-SYC agar, along test 2. CFU (+): the number of CFU was expressed as crosses of growth in the recovery plate. TH-SYC: Todd-Hewitt/Skim-Milk/Yeast/Charcoal.

    Journal: BioMed Research International

    Article Title: Evaluation of Two Supplemented Culture Media for Long-Term, Room-Temperature Preservation of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains

    doi: 10.1155/2017/1218798

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pneumococcal survival-time curves based on the means and standard deviation of CFU of clinical isolates group (H2 and 61), nasopharyngeal isolates group (EF28 and EF33), and S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 strain stored on TH-SYC agar, along test 2. CFU (+): the number of CFU was expressed as crosses of growth in the recovery plate. TH-SYC: Todd-Hewitt/Skim-Milk/Yeast/Charcoal.

    Article Snippet: Supplemented TH-SYC agar consisted of 36.4 gr/Lt Todd-Hewitt Broth (Oxoid), 100 gr/Lt skim milk powder (Oxoid), 5 gr/Lt yeast extract powder (Oxoid), 4 gr/Lt activated charcoal, and 15 gr/Lt bacteriological agar (Oxoid), in distilled water.

    Techniques: Standard Deviation

    Pneumococcal survival-time curves based on the number of viable CFU of pneumococcal strains: EF28 (serotype 23F), EF33 (nontypeable), H2 (serotype 11), 61 (nontypeable), and S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 strains stored on TH-HYC agar, along test 2 (the number of viable CFU at 16 wk was 2+ for EF28 and 61 strains and 3+ for ATCC, EF33, and H2 strains). CFU (+): the number of CFU was expressed as crosses of growth in the recovery plate. TH-HYC: Todd-Hewitt/Hemoglobin/Yeast/Charcoal.

    Journal: BioMed Research International

    Article Title: Evaluation of Two Supplemented Culture Media for Long-Term, Room-Temperature Preservation of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains

    doi: 10.1155/2017/1218798

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pneumococcal survival-time curves based on the number of viable CFU of pneumococcal strains: EF28 (serotype 23F), EF33 (nontypeable), H2 (serotype 11), 61 (nontypeable), and S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 strains stored on TH-HYC agar, along test 2 (the number of viable CFU at 16 wk was 2+ for EF28 and 61 strains and 3+ for ATCC, EF33, and H2 strains). CFU (+): the number of CFU was expressed as crosses of growth in the recovery plate. TH-HYC: Todd-Hewitt/Hemoglobin/Yeast/Charcoal.

    Article Snippet: Supplemented TH-SYC agar consisted of 36.4 gr/Lt Todd-Hewitt Broth (Oxoid), 100 gr/Lt skim milk powder (Oxoid), 5 gr/Lt yeast extract powder (Oxoid), 4 gr/Lt activated charcoal, and 15 gr/Lt bacteriological agar (Oxoid), in distilled water.

    Techniques:

    Pneumococcal survival-time curves based on the means and standard deviation of CFU of five pneumococcal strains stored on TH-HYC and TH-SYC agar, along test 2. CFU (+): the number of CFU was expressed as crosses of growth in the recovery plate. TH-HYC: Todd-Hewitt/Hemoglobin/Yeast/Charcoal. TH-SYC: Todd-Hewitt/Skim-Milk/Yeast/Charcoal.

    Journal: BioMed Research International

    Article Title: Evaluation of Two Supplemented Culture Media for Long-Term, Room-Temperature Preservation of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains

    doi: 10.1155/2017/1218798

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pneumococcal survival-time curves based on the means and standard deviation of CFU of five pneumococcal strains stored on TH-HYC and TH-SYC agar, along test 2. CFU (+): the number of CFU was expressed as crosses of growth in the recovery plate. TH-HYC: Todd-Hewitt/Hemoglobin/Yeast/Charcoal. TH-SYC: Todd-Hewitt/Skim-Milk/Yeast/Charcoal.

    Article Snippet: Supplemented TH-SYC agar consisted of 36.4 gr/Lt Todd-Hewitt Broth (Oxoid), 100 gr/Lt skim milk powder (Oxoid), 5 gr/Lt yeast extract powder (Oxoid), 4 gr/Lt activated charcoal, and 15 gr/Lt bacteriological agar (Oxoid), in distilled water.

    Techniques: Standard Deviation

    Pneumococcal survival-time curves based on the means and standard deviation of CFU of clinical isolates group (H2 and 61), nasopharyngeal isolates group (EF28 and EF33), and S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 strain stored on TH-HYC agar, along test 2. CFU (+): the number of CFU was expressed as crosses of growth in the recovery plate. TH-HYC: Todd-Hewitt/Hemoglobin/Yeast/Charcoal.

    Journal: BioMed Research International

    Article Title: Evaluation of Two Supplemented Culture Media for Long-Term, Room-Temperature Preservation of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains

    doi: 10.1155/2017/1218798

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pneumococcal survival-time curves based on the means and standard deviation of CFU of clinical isolates group (H2 and 61), nasopharyngeal isolates group (EF28 and EF33), and S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 strain stored on TH-HYC agar, along test 2. CFU (+): the number of CFU was expressed as crosses of growth in the recovery plate. TH-HYC: Todd-Hewitt/Hemoglobin/Yeast/Charcoal.

    Article Snippet: Supplemented TH-SYC agar consisted of 36.4 gr/Lt Todd-Hewitt Broth (Oxoid), 100 gr/Lt skim milk powder (Oxoid), 5 gr/Lt yeast extract powder (Oxoid), 4 gr/Lt activated charcoal, and 15 gr/Lt bacteriological agar (Oxoid), in distilled water.

    Techniques: Standard Deviation

    Pneumococcal survival-time curves based on the number of viable CFU of S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 stored on TH-HYC and TH-SYC agar, along the pilot study. CFU (+): the number of CFU was expressed as crosses of growth in the recovery plate. TH-HYC: Todd-Hewitt/Hemoglobin/Yeast/Charcoal. TH-SYC: Todd-Hewitt/Skim-Milk/Yeast/Charcoal.

    Journal: BioMed Research International

    Article Title: Evaluation of Two Supplemented Culture Media for Long-Term, Room-Temperature Preservation of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains

    doi: 10.1155/2017/1218798

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pneumococcal survival-time curves based on the number of viable CFU of S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 stored on TH-HYC and TH-SYC agar, along the pilot study. CFU (+): the number of CFU was expressed as crosses of growth in the recovery plate. TH-HYC: Todd-Hewitt/Hemoglobin/Yeast/Charcoal. TH-SYC: Todd-Hewitt/Skim-Milk/Yeast/Charcoal.

    Article Snippet: Supplemented TH-SYC agar consisted of 36.4 gr/Lt Todd-Hewitt Broth (Oxoid), 100 gr/Lt skim milk powder (Oxoid), 5 gr/Lt yeast extract powder (Oxoid), 4 gr/Lt activated charcoal, and 15 gr/Lt bacteriological agar (Oxoid), in distilled water.

    Techniques:

    Pneumococcal survival-time curves based on the number of viable CFU of pneumococcal strains: EF28 (serotype 23F), EF33 (nontypeable), H2 (serotype 11), 61 (nontypeable), and S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 strains stored on TH-SYC agar, along test 2 (the number of viable CFU at 16 wk was 2+ for EF28, H2, and 61 strains and 3+ for ATCC and EF33 strains). CFU (+): the number of CFU was expressed as crosses of growth in the recovery plate. TH-SYC: Todd-Hewitt/Skim-Milk/Yeast/Charcoal.

    Journal: BioMed Research International

    Article Title: Evaluation of Two Supplemented Culture Media for Long-Term, Room-Temperature Preservation of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains

    doi: 10.1155/2017/1218798

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pneumococcal survival-time curves based on the number of viable CFU of pneumococcal strains: EF28 (serotype 23F), EF33 (nontypeable), H2 (serotype 11), 61 (nontypeable), and S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 strains stored on TH-SYC agar, along test 2 (the number of viable CFU at 16 wk was 2+ for EF28, H2, and 61 strains and 3+ for ATCC and EF33 strains). CFU (+): the number of CFU was expressed as crosses of growth in the recovery plate. TH-SYC: Todd-Hewitt/Skim-Milk/Yeast/Charcoal.

    Article Snippet: Supplemented TH-SYC agar consisted of 36.4 gr/Lt Todd-Hewitt Broth (Oxoid), 100 gr/Lt skim milk powder (Oxoid), 5 gr/Lt yeast extract powder (Oxoid), 4 gr/Lt activated charcoal, and 15 gr/Lt bacteriological agar (Oxoid), in distilled water.

    Techniques:

    Extracellular enzyme production in the isogenic revR strains. Quantitative assays were carried out to determine the relative amount of enzyme activity in 4-h cultures grown in TPYG medium or Todd-Hewitt broth (for sialidase assays only). Enzyme activity

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Regulation of Virulence by the RevR Response Regulator in Clostridium perfringens ▿ ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.00060-11

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Extracellular enzyme production in the isogenic revR strains. Quantitative assays were carried out to determine the relative amount of enzyme activity in 4-h cultures grown in TPYG medium or Todd-Hewitt broth (for sialidase assays only). Enzyme activity

    Article Snippet: For sialidase assays, culture supernatants from Todd-Hewitt broth cultures were collected by centrifugation at 5800 × g for 10 min and concentrated 20-fold using Amicon Ultra centrifugal filter devices (Millipore) with a nominal cutoff of 30 kDa.

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Sialidase and hyaluronidase production by the wild-type, mutant and complemented strains. Quantitative assays were carried out to determine the relative amount of extracellular enzyme production by the wild-type, mutant and complemented strains at time of inoculation and 4 h and 8 h post-inoculation (corresponding to exponential and stationary growth phases, respectively). Sialidase assays were performed using culture supernatants from cultures grown in Todd-Hewitt broth (A). Hyaluronidase activity was determined using the cell lysates from cultures grown in TPYG (B). All results are given as the average of three biological replicates (± SEM) for sialidase assays and six biological replicates for hyaluronidase assays; the asterisk (*) denotes a statistically significant difference ( p ≤0.05) as determined by the student’s t-test.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Regulation of Sialidase Production in Clostridium perfringens by the Orphan Sensor Histidine Kinase ReeS

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073525

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sialidase and hyaluronidase production by the wild-type, mutant and complemented strains. Quantitative assays were carried out to determine the relative amount of extracellular enzyme production by the wild-type, mutant and complemented strains at time of inoculation and 4 h and 8 h post-inoculation (corresponding to exponential and stationary growth phases, respectively). Sialidase assays were performed using culture supernatants from cultures grown in Todd-Hewitt broth (A). Hyaluronidase activity was determined using the cell lysates from cultures grown in TPYG (B). All results are given as the average of three biological replicates (± SEM) for sialidase assays and six biological replicates for hyaluronidase assays; the asterisk (*) denotes a statistically significant difference ( p ≤0.05) as determined by the student’s t-test.

    Article Snippet: Todd-Hewitt broth culture supernatants, derived from three independent biological replicates, were concentrated using Amicon ultra centrifugal devices (Millipore) with a nominal weight cutoff of 30 kDa.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Activity Assay

    Effect of Dectin-2 deficiency on IL-12p40 production by BD-DCs upon stimulation with S. pneumoniae . BM-DCs from WT mice (open columns) or Dectin-2KO mice (solid columns) were cultured with live S. pneumoniae ( a ); lysates from S. pneumoniae or sham-operated PBS (Sham) ( b ); S. pneumoniae culture supernatant or Todd-Hewitt broth (THB) ( c ); or LPS (1 μg/ml), CpG (1 μg/ml) or mannan (3 mg/ml) for 24 h. IL-12p40 concentrations in the culture supernatants were measured using ELISA. Each column shows the mean ± SD of triplicate culture. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments. MOI, multiplicity of infection. *, p

    Journal: BMC Immunology

    Article Title: Dectin-2-dependent host defense in mice infected with serotype 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae

    doi: 10.1186/s12865-015-0139-3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of Dectin-2 deficiency on IL-12p40 production by BD-DCs upon stimulation with S. pneumoniae . BM-DCs from WT mice (open columns) or Dectin-2KO mice (solid columns) were cultured with live S. pneumoniae ( a ); lysates from S. pneumoniae or sham-operated PBS (Sham) ( b ); S. pneumoniae culture supernatant or Todd-Hewitt broth (THB) ( c ); or LPS (1 μg/ml), CpG (1 μg/ml) or mannan (3 mg/ml) for 24 h. IL-12p40 concentrations in the culture supernatants were measured using ELISA. Each column shows the mean ± SD of triplicate culture. Similar results were obtained in three independent experiments. MOI, multiplicity of infection. *, p

    Article Snippet: Todd-Hewitt broth incubated without S. pneumoniae was used as a control.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Cell Culture, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Infection

    Effect of 5% GML-formulated gel on L. crispatus and S. aureus MN8. Lawns of lactobacilli and staphylococci were prepared on Todd-Hewitt agar plates, and then paper disks containing 5% GML gel (30 μl) were placed on the agar surfaces.

    Journal:

    Article Title: Glycerol Monolaurate Does Not Alter Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Vaginal Lactobacilli and Is Safe for Chronic Use ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00989-08

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 5% GML-formulated gel on L. crispatus and S. aureus MN8. Lawns of lactobacilli and staphylococci were prepared on Todd-Hewitt agar plates, and then paper disks containing 5% GML gel (30 μl) were placed on the agar surfaces.

    Article Snippet: The swabs were placed in 0.9 ml of 4°C Todd-Hewitt broth and then serially diluted in additional Todd-Hewitt broths for quantitative counts on chocolate agar plates that were incubated aerobically at 37°C in a 7% CO2 incubator.

    Techniques:

    Color phenotypes of strains expressing phoZ derivatives and grown as colonies on XP agar. (Top) E. coli CC873 expressing the periplasmic chimera LacY P1 ::AP, the cytoplasmic chimera LacY C2 ::AP, or the unfused LacY C2 or LacY P1 proteins (no AP). Strains were grown on Luria agar containing the chromogenic substrate XP. (Bottom). Gram-positive species deficient in AP (NONE) or expressing wild-type AP (WT), AP deleted of its signal sequence (NO S.S), or AP with the C5A peptidase signal sequence ( scpB S.S). Strains were grown on Todd-Hewitt agar with XP. On this medium, the GAS strains (insert) grew relatively slowly and had to be photographed 24 h after the other species.

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: Characterization of Enterococcus faecalis Alkaline Phosphatase and Use in Identifying Streptococcus agalactiae Secreted Proteins

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Color phenotypes of strains expressing phoZ derivatives and grown as colonies on XP agar. (Top) E. coli CC873 expressing the periplasmic chimera LacY P1 ::AP, the cytoplasmic chimera LacY C2 ::AP, or the unfused LacY C2 or LacY P1 proteins (no AP). Strains were grown on Luria agar containing the chromogenic substrate XP. (Bottom). Gram-positive species deficient in AP (NONE) or expressing wild-type AP (WT), AP deleted of its signal sequence (NO S.S), or AP with the C5A peptidase signal sequence ( scpB S.S). Strains were grown on Todd-Hewitt agar with XP. On this medium, the GAS strains (insert) grew relatively slowly and had to be photographed 24 h after the other species.

    Article Snippet: COH31 r/s was grown in Todd-Hewitt broth (THB) (Difco) supplemented with 10 μg of chloramphenicol/ml as required.

    Techniques: Expressing, Sequencing

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) biofilm regulatory protein A (BrpA) deficiency influences cell survival, biofilm formation, and epithelial cell adherence but not autolysis. ( A ) Autolysis (left) in cultures of wild-type (WT) and Δ brpA organisms suspended in phosphate-buffered saline was measured spectrophotometrically (at OD 600 ), using turbidity normalized to T = 0. Viability (right) of WT and Δ brpA strains grown in Todd-Hewitt broth (THB) over time, as determined by plating on THB agar. Data from independent replicates (n = 3) are shown, with symbols representing mean values and lines indicating standard errors of the mean (SEMs). Data were analyzed using 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance with the Sidak multiple comparisons test. B , Biofilm formation of WT, Δ brpA , and revertant strains quantified by crystal violet uptake (left). Independent replicates (n = 6) are shown, and lines represent mean values ± SEMs. Data were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA with the Holm-Sidak multiple comparisons test. Fluorescent images of in vitro biofilms (center and right) stained with Syto 13 (green), taken at 100× original magnification. Scale bar = 100 µm. Experiments were performed twice independently, with representative images shown. C, Adherence of WT (black symbols) and Δ brpA (open circles) strains to vaginal (VK2) and bladder (HTB-9) epithelial cells. Independent replicates (n = 7) are shown, and lines represent median values ± 95% confidence intervals. Data were analyzed using the 2-tailed Mann-Whitney U test. D , In a competition model, CD1 mice were inoculated intravaginally with 1 × 10 7 CFU of WT and Δ brpA organisms (2 × 10 7 CFU total/mouse), and bacterial burdens were quantified daily after infection. Symbols represent biological replicates (n = 18), and paired values (WT and Δ brpA CFU) from each mouse are connected with dashed lines. Data were analyzed using the 2-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test with Spearman rank-order correlation. *** P

    Journal: The Journal of Infectious Diseases

    Article Title: Group B Streptococcus Biofilm Regulatory Protein A Contributes to Bacterial Physiology and Innate Immune Resistance

    doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy341

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) biofilm regulatory protein A (BrpA) deficiency influences cell survival, biofilm formation, and epithelial cell adherence but not autolysis. ( A ) Autolysis (left) in cultures of wild-type (WT) and Δ brpA organisms suspended in phosphate-buffered saline was measured spectrophotometrically (at OD 600 ), using turbidity normalized to T = 0. Viability (right) of WT and Δ brpA strains grown in Todd-Hewitt broth (THB) over time, as determined by plating on THB agar. Data from independent replicates (n = 3) are shown, with symbols representing mean values and lines indicating standard errors of the mean (SEMs). Data were analyzed using 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance with the Sidak multiple comparisons test. B , Biofilm formation of WT, Δ brpA , and revertant strains quantified by crystal violet uptake (left). Independent replicates (n = 6) are shown, and lines represent mean values ± SEMs. Data were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA with the Holm-Sidak multiple comparisons test. Fluorescent images of in vitro biofilms (center and right) stained with Syto 13 (green), taken at 100× original magnification. Scale bar = 100 µm. Experiments were performed twice independently, with representative images shown. C, Adherence of WT (black symbols) and Δ brpA (open circles) strains to vaginal (VK2) and bladder (HTB-9) epithelial cells. Independent replicates (n = 7) are shown, and lines represent median values ± 95% confidence intervals. Data were analyzed using the 2-tailed Mann-Whitney U test. D , In a competition model, CD1 mice were inoculated intravaginally with 1 × 10 7 CFU of WT and Δ brpA organisms (2 × 10 7 CFU total/mouse), and bacterial burdens were quantified daily after infection. Symbols represent biological replicates (n = 18), and paired values (WT and Δ brpA CFU) from each mouse are connected with dashed lines. Data were analyzed using the 2-tailed Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test with Spearman rank-order correlation. *** P

    Article Snippet: GBS CNCTC 10/84 serotype V (catalog no. 49447; American Type Culture Collection [ATCC]) and isogenic strains were grown to stationary phase at 37°C in Todd-Hewitt broth (THB; Hardy Diagnostics) supplemented with 50 µg/mL erythromycin when needed.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Staining, MANN-WHITNEY, Mouse Assay, Infection

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) biofilm regulatory protein A (BrpA) contributes to cellular chain length, buoyancy, pigmentation, and acid tolerance. A , Bright-field images of wild-type (left) and Δ brpA (center) strains in mid-log–phase growth, taken at 630× original magnification. Scale bar = 10 µm. Quantification of the chain length is shown at right, with data analyzed via the 2-tailed Mann-Whitney U test (n = 50). Median values with 95% confidence intervals are displayed. Experiments were performed twice independently, with representative images and combined data shown. B and C , Visualization of stationary-phase cultures ( B ) or colonies ( C ) grown for 18 hours at 37°C in Todd-Hewitt broth (THB) or on THB agar plates, respectively. D , Growth curves of GBS strains in THB at specified pH values. Independent replicates (n = 3) are shown, with lines indicating mean values ± standard errors of the mean. Data were analyzed using 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance with the Tukey multiple comparisons test. **** P

    Journal: The Journal of Infectious Diseases

    Article Title: Group B Streptococcus Biofilm Regulatory Protein A Contributes to Bacterial Physiology and Innate Immune Resistance

    doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy341

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) biofilm regulatory protein A (BrpA) contributes to cellular chain length, buoyancy, pigmentation, and acid tolerance. A , Bright-field images of wild-type (left) and Δ brpA (center) strains in mid-log–phase growth, taken at 630× original magnification. Scale bar = 10 µm. Quantification of the chain length is shown at right, with data analyzed via the 2-tailed Mann-Whitney U test (n = 50). Median values with 95% confidence intervals are displayed. Experiments were performed twice independently, with representative images and combined data shown. B and C , Visualization of stationary-phase cultures ( B ) or colonies ( C ) grown for 18 hours at 37°C in Todd-Hewitt broth (THB) or on THB agar plates, respectively. D , Growth curves of GBS strains in THB at specified pH values. Independent replicates (n = 3) are shown, with lines indicating mean values ± standard errors of the mean. Data were analyzed using 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance with the Tukey multiple comparisons test. **** P

    Article Snippet: GBS CNCTC 10/84 serotype V (catalog no. 49447; American Type Culture Collection [ATCC]) and isogenic strains were grown to stationary phase at 37°C in Todd-Hewitt broth (THB; Hardy Diagnostics) supplemented with 50 µg/mL erythromycin when needed.

    Techniques: MANN-WHITNEY