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  • 90
    Thermo Fisher t4 dna ligase
    15% denaturing PAGE for the ligation products of linkers A–B, C–D and linkers G–H. PAGE (10×10×0.03 cm, A:B = 29∶1, 7 M urea, 0.5x TBE) was run in 0.5 x TBE, 25°C, 100 V for 3.5 hrs in ( A )–( F ), or 4.3 hrs in ( G ). The ligation products were indicated by the arrows. Lane M: DNA marker I (GeneRuler™ 50 bp DNA ladder, Fermentas). Lane M1: DNA marker I plus oligo 15. ( A ) The ligation products joined by using <t>T4</t> DNA ligase from Fermentas. Lane 1: the ligation products of linkers C–D preincubated with T4 DNA ligase; Lane 2: the ligation products of linkers C–D without the preincubation; Lane 4: the ligation products of linkers A–B; Lanes 3 and 5: the negative controls. ( B ) The ligation products joined by using T4 DNA ligase from Takara. Lanes 1–3∶0.5, 1, and 2 µl of 1 µM oligo 15, respectively; Lanes 4 and 6: the ligation products of linkers A–B; Lane 8: the ligation products of linkers C–D. Lanes 5, 7, and 9: the negative controls. ( C ) The ligation products joined by using T4 DNA ligase from Promega. Lane 1∶1 µl of 1 µM oligo 15; Lanes 2 and 4: ligation products of linkers A–B, and C–D, respectively; Lanes 3 and 5: the negative controls. ( D ) The ligation products joined by using E. coli DNA ligase from Takara. Lanes 1 and 3: the ligation products of linkers A–B, and C–D, respectively; Lanes 2 and 4: the negative controls. ( E ) The ligation products of linkers A–B joined in T4 DNA ligase reaction mixture containing (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . Lanes 1–3: the ligase reaction mixture with 7.5 mM (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , 3.75 mM (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , and without (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , respectively; Lane 4: the negative control. ( F ) The ligation products of the phosphorylated linkers A–B and C–D joined by using T4 and E. coli DNA ligase (Takara). Lane 1∶1 µl of 1 µM oligo 15; Lanes 2 and 4: the ligation products of the phosphorylated linkers A–B joined by using T4 and E. coli DNA ligase, respectively; Lanes 3 and 5: the ligation products of the phosphorylated linkers C–D joined by using T4 and E. coli DNA ligase, respectively; Lanes 6 and 7: the ligation products of linkers A–B and C–D, respectively; Lanes 8 and 9: the negative controls of lanes 6 and 7, respectively. ( G ) The ligation products of linkers A–B and the phosphorylated linkers G–H. Lanes 1 and 2: the ligation products of linkers A–B and the ligation products of the phosphorylated linkers G–H plus the negative control of linkers A–B, respectively; Lane 3: the negative control of linkers G–H plus the negative control of linkers A–B. The band from the ligation products of the phosphorylated linkers G–H run a little more slowly than that of linkers A–B. The sequences of linkers G and H are similar to those of linkers A and B, respectively. But there is a 1-base deletion at the 5′ end of each of linkers G and H.
    T4 Dna Ligase, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 19341 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/t4 dna ligase/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 90 stars, based on 19341 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    t4 dna ligase - by Bioz Stars, 2020-02
    90/100 stars
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    90
    TaKaRa t4 rna ligase
    ( A ) Schematic illustration of the formation of streptavidin–tRNA fusion using puromycin–tRNA, which contains a puromycin moiety in the place of 3′ terminal aminoacyl-adenosine and a four-base anticodon CCCG. The puromycin–tRNA binds to ribosomal A site and accepts a streptavidin polypeptide chain as an analog of aminoacyl-tRNA in response to a four-base CGGG codon at 3′ terminus of streptavidin mRNA in a cell-free translation. The resulting streptavidin–puromycin–tRNA may be translocated to the P-site. In this case, the next aminoacyl-tRNA binds to the vacant ribosomal A site, but can not accept the polypeptide chain because of the amide bond of puromycin–tRNA. The resulting streptavidin–tRNA fusion is released from the ribosome complex by the addition of EDTA. ( B ) Schematic illustration of the in vitro selection system of tRNAs. Step 1, a DNA pool encoding tRNAs containing a four-base anticodon CCCG is transcribed by T7 RNA polymerase to tRNA(-CA) pool. Step 2, the tRNA(-CA) pool is ligated with pdCp-Puromycin by <t>T4</t> RNA ligase to generate puromycin–tRNA. Step 3, a streptavidin mRNA containing a four-base CGGG codon at C-terminus is translated in an E.coli cell-free translation system in the presence of the puromycin–tRNA. Puromycin–tRNAs that successfully decode the CGGG codon form ribosome–mRNA–streptavidin–tRNA complex. Step 4, the streptavidin–tRNA fusion is dissociated from the complex by the addition of EDTA. Step 5, the streptavidin–tRNA fusion is recovered with biotin-coated magnetic beads. Step 6, the streptavidin–tRNA fusion is dissociated from the beads, and then the tRNA moiety is subjected to RT–PCR. Step 7, the tRNA genes are regenerated by overlap-extension PCR with a T7 promoter primer, which are used as template DNAs in the next round of selection.
    T4 Rna Ligase, supplied by TaKaRa, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 733 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/t4 rna ligase/product/TaKaRa
    Average 90 stars, based on 733 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    t4 rna ligase - by Bioz Stars, 2020-02
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    79
    TaKaRa 250 u t4 rna ligase
    ( A ) Schematic illustration of the formation of streptavidin–tRNA fusion using puromycin–tRNA, which contains a puromycin moiety in the place of 3′ terminal aminoacyl-adenosine and a four-base anticodon CCCG. The puromycin–tRNA binds to ribosomal A site and accepts a streptavidin polypeptide chain as an analog of aminoacyl-tRNA in response to a four-base CGGG codon at 3′ terminus of streptavidin mRNA in a cell-free translation. The resulting streptavidin–puromycin–tRNA may be translocated to the P-site. In this case, the next aminoacyl-tRNA binds to the vacant ribosomal A site, but can not accept the polypeptide chain because of the amide bond of puromycin–tRNA. The resulting streptavidin–tRNA fusion is released from the ribosome complex by the addition of EDTA. ( B ) Schematic illustration of the in vitro selection system of tRNAs. Step 1, a DNA pool encoding tRNAs containing a four-base anticodon CCCG is transcribed by T7 RNA polymerase to tRNA(-CA) pool. Step 2, the tRNA(-CA) pool is ligated with pdCp-Puromycin by <t>T4</t> RNA ligase to generate puromycin–tRNA. Step 3, a streptavidin mRNA containing a four-base CGGG codon at C-terminus is translated in an E.coli cell-free translation system in the presence of the puromycin–tRNA. Puromycin–tRNAs that successfully decode the CGGG codon form ribosome–mRNA–streptavidin–tRNA complex. Step 4, the streptavidin–tRNA fusion is dissociated from the complex by the addition of EDTA. Step 5, the streptavidin–tRNA fusion is recovered with biotin-coated magnetic beads. Step 6, the streptavidin–tRNA fusion is dissociated from the beads, and then the tRNA moiety is subjected to RT–PCR. Step 7, the tRNA genes are regenerated by overlap-extension PCR with a T7 promoter primer, which are used as template DNAs in the next round of selection.
    250 U T4 Rna Ligase, supplied by TaKaRa, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/250 u t4 rna ligase/product/TaKaRa
    Average 79 stars, based on 5 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    250 u t4 rna ligase - by Bioz Stars, 2020-02
    79/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    90
    TaKaRa t4 ligase
    ( A ) Schematic illustration of the formation of streptavidin–tRNA fusion using puromycin–tRNA, which contains a puromycin moiety in the place of 3′ terminal aminoacyl-adenosine and a four-base anticodon CCCG. The puromycin–tRNA binds to ribosomal A site and accepts a streptavidin polypeptide chain as an analog of aminoacyl-tRNA in response to a four-base CGGG codon at 3′ terminus of streptavidin mRNA in a cell-free translation. The resulting streptavidin–puromycin–tRNA may be translocated to the P-site. In this case, the next aminoacyl-tRNA binds to the vacant ribosomal A site, but can not accept the polypeptide chain because of the amide bond of puromycin–tRNA. The resulting streptavidin–tRNA fusion is released from the ribosome complex by the addition of EDTA. ( B ) Schematic illustration of the in vitro selection system of tRNAs. Step 1, a DNA pool encoding tRNAs containing a four-base anticodon CCCG is transcribed by T7 RNA polymerase to tRNA(-CA) pool. Step 2, the tRNA(-CA) pool is ligated with pdCp-Puromycin by <t>T4</t> RNA ligase to generate puromycin–tRNA. Step 3, a streptavidin mRNA containing a four-base CGGG codon at C-terminus is translated in an E.coli cell-free translation system in the presence of the puromycin–tRNA. Puromycin–tRNAs that successfully decode the CGGG codon form ribosome–mRNA–streptavidin–tRNA complex. Step 4, the streptavidin–tRNA fusion is dissociated from the complex by the addition of EDTA. Step 5, the streptavidin–tRNA fusion is recovered with biotin-coated magnetic beads. Step 6, the streptavidin–tRNA fusion is dissociated from the beads, and then the tRNA moiety is subjected to RT–PCR. Step 7, the tRNA genes are regenerated by overlap-extension PCR with a T7 promoter primer, which are used as template DNAs in the next round of selection.
    T4 Ligase, supplied by TaKaRa, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 909 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/t4 ligase/product/TaKaRa
    Average 90 stars, based on 909 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    t4 ligase - by Bioz Stars, 2020-02
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    15% denaturing PAGE for the ligation products of linkers A–B, C–D and linkers G–H. PAGE (10×10×0.03 cm, A:B = 29∶1, 7 M urea, 0.5x TBE) was run in 0.5 x TBE, 25°C, 100 V for 3.5 hrs in ( A )–( F ), or 4.3 hrs in ( G ). The ligation products were indicated by the arrows. Lane M: DNA marker I (GeneRuler™ 50 bp DNA ladder, Fermentas). Lane M1: DNA marker I plus oligo 15. ( A ) The ligation products joined by using T4 DNA ligase from Fermentas. Lane 1: the ligation products of linkers C–D preincubated with T4 DNA ligase; Lane 2: the ligation products of linkers C–D without the preincubation; Lane 4: the ligation products of linkers A–B; Lanes 3 and 5: the negative controls. ( B ) The ligation products joined by using T4 DNA ligase from Takara. Lanes 1–3∶0.5, 1, and 2 µl of 1 µM oligo 15, respectively; Lanes 4 and 6: the ligation products of linkers A–B; Lane 8: the ligation products of linkers C–D. Lanes 5, 7, and 9: the negative controls. ( C ) The ligation products joined by using T4 DNA ligase from Promega. Lane 1∶1 µl of 1 µM oligo 15; Lanes 2 and 4: ligation products of linkers A–B, and C–D, respectively; Lanes 3 and 5: the negative controls. ( D ) The ligation products joined by using E. coli DNA ligase from Takara. Lanes 1 and 3: the ligation products of linkers A–B, and C–D, respectively; Lanes 2 and 4: the negative controls. ( E ) The ligation products of linkers A–B joined in T4 DNA ligase reaction mixture containing (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . Lanes 1–3: the ligase reaction mixture with 7.5 mM (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , 3.75 mM (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , and without (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , respectively; Lane 4: the negative control. ( F ) The ligation products of the phosphorylated linkers A–B and C–D joined by using T4 and E. coli DNA ligase (Takara). Lane 1∶1 µl of 1 µM oligo 15; Lanes 2 and 4: the ligation products of the phosphorylated linkers A–B joined by using T4 and E. coli DNA ligase, respectively; Lanes 3 and 5: the ligation products of the phosphorylated linkers C–D joined by using T4 and E. coli DNA ligase, respectively; Lanes 6 and 7: the ligation products of linkers A–B and C–D, respectively; Lanes 8 and 9: the negative controls of lanes 6 and 7, respectively. ( G ) The ligation products of linkers A–B and the phosphorylated linkers G–H. Lanes 1 and 2: the ligation products of linkers A–B and the ligation products of the phosphorylated linkers G–H plus the negative control of linkers A–B, respectively; Lane 3: the negative control of linkers G–H plus the negative control of linkers A–B. The band from the ligation products of the phosphorylated linkers G–H run a little more slowly than that of linkers A–B. The sequences of linkers G and H are similar to those of linkers A and B, respectively. But there is a 1-base deletion at the 5′ end of each of linkers G and H.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Detection of Ligation Products of DNA Linkers with 5?-OH Ends by Denaturing PAGE Silver Stain

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039251

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 15% denaturing PAGE for the ligation products of linkers A–B, C–D and linkers G–H. PAGE (10×10×0.03 cm, A:B = 29∶1, 7 M urea, 0.5x TBE) was run in 0.5 x TBE, 25°C, 100 V for 3.5 hrs in ( A )–( F ), or 4.3 hrs in ( G ). The ligation products were indicated by the arrows. Lane M: DNA marker I (GeneRuler™ 50 bp DNA ladder, Fermentas). Lane M1: DNA marker I plus oligo 15. ( A ) The ligation products joined by using T4 DNA ligase from Fermentas. Lane 1: the ligation products of linkers C–D preincubated with T4 DNA ligase; Lane 2: the ligation products of linkers C–D without the preincubation; Lane 4: the ligation products of linkers A–B; Lanes 3 and 5: the negative controls. ( B ) The ligation products joined by using T4 DNA ligase from Takara. Lanes 1–3∶0.5, 1, and 2 µl of 1 µM oligo 15, respectively; Lanes 4 and 6: the ligation products of linkers A–B; Lane 8: the ligation products of linkers C–D. Lanes 5, 7, and 9: the negative controls. ( C ) The ligation products joined by using T4 DNA ligase from Promega. Lane 1∶1 µl of 1 µM oligo 15; Lanes 2 and 4: ligation products of linkers A–B, and C–D, respectively; Lanes 3 and 5: the negative controls. ( D ) The ligation products joined by using E. coli DNA ligase from Takara. Lanes 1 and 3: the ligation products of linkers A–B, and C–D, respectively; Lanes 2 and 4: the negative controls. ( E ) The ligation products of linkers A–B joined in T4 DNA ligase reaction mixture containing (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . Lanes 1–3: the ligase reaction mixture with 7.5 mM (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , 3.75 mM (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , and without (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , respectively; Lane 4: the negative control. ( F ) The ligation products of the phosphorylated linkers A–B and C–D joined by using T4 and E. coli DNA ligase (Takara). Lane 1∶1 µl of 1 µM oligo 15; Lanes 2 and 4: the ligation products of the phosphorylated linkers A–B joined by using T4 and E. coli DNA ligase, respectively; Lanes 3 and 5: the ligation products of the phosphorylated linkers C–D joined by using T4 and E. coli DNA ligase, respectively; Lanes 6 and 7: the ligation products of linkers A–B and C–D, respectively; Lanes 8 and 9: the negative controls of lanes 6 and 7, respectively. ( G ) The ligation products of linkers A–B and the phosphorylated linkers G–H. Lanes 1 and 2: the ligation products of linkers A–B and the ligation products of the phosphorylated linkers G–H plus the negative control of linkers A–B, respectively; Lane 3: the negative control of linkers G–H plus the negative control of linkers A–B. The band from the ligation products of the phosphorylated linkers G–H run a little more slowly than that of linkers A–B. The sequences of linkers G and H are similar to those of linkers A and B, respectively. But there is a 1-base deletion at the 5′ end of each of linkers G and H.

    Article Snippet: Ligations of the linkers with 5′-OH ends The ligations of linkers A–B, C–D, and E–F by using T4 DNA ligase were performed in 100 µl of T4 DNA ligase reaction mixture containing 1 x T4 DNA ligation buffer (40 mM Tris-HCl, 10 mM MgCl2 , 10 mM DTT, and 0.5 mM ATP; pH 7.8 at 25°C), 1 µM of each oligo, and 0.25 Weiss units/µl of T4 DNA ligase (Fermentas, Lithuania; Promega, USA; and Takara, Japan).

    Techniques: Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Ligation, Marker, Negative Control

    12% denaturing PAGE for the ligation products of linkers A–B treated with CIAP. PAGE (10×10×0.03 cm, A:B = 19∶1, 7 M urea and 0.5 x TBE) was run in 0.5 x TBE, 25°C, 200 V for 1.7 hrs. The arrows indicate the ligation products. Lane M: DNA marker I (GeneRuler™ 50 bp DNA ladder, Fermentas); Lane M1: DNA marker I +1 µl of 1 µM oligo 15. The ligases used in ( A )–( C ) were T4 DNA ligases. The ligases used in ( D )–( E ) were E. coli DNA ligases. ( A ) CIAP was inactivated at 75°C for 15 min. Lanes 1 and 5∶1 µl of 1 µM oligo 15; Lanes 2: CIAP was inactivated at 75°C for 15 min; Lane 3: the positive control without CIAP treatment; Lane 4: the negative control without ligase. ( B ) CIAP was inactivated at 85°C for 25 min and 45 min. Lanes 1 and 3: the positive controls without CIAP treatment; Lanes 2 and 4: CIAP was inactivated at 85°C for 25 min and 45 min, respectively; Lane 5: the negative control without ligase. ( C ) CIAP was inactivated at 85°C for 65 min and 90 min. Lanes 1 and 3: the positive controls without CIAP treatment; Lanes 2 and 4: CIAP was inactivated at 85°C for 65 min and 90 min, respectively; Lane 5: the negative control without ligase. ( D ) CIAP was inactivated at 85°C for 45 min. Lanes 1 and 3: the positive control without CIAP treatment and the negative control without ligase, respectively; Lane 2: CIAP was inactivated at 85°C for 45 min. ( E ) CIAP was inactivated at 85°C for 65 and 90 min. Lanes 1 and 3: the positive controls without CIAP treatment; Lanes 2 and 4: CIAP was inactivated at 85°C for 65 and 90 min, respectively; Lane 5: the negative control without ligase.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Detection of Ligation Products of DNA Linkers with 5?-OH Ends by Denaturing PAGE Silver Stain

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039251

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 12% denaturing PAGE for the ligation products of linkers A–B treated with CIAP. PAGE (10×10×0.03 cm, A:B = 19∶1, 7 M urea and 0.5 x TBE) was run in 0.5 x TBE, 25°C, 200 V for 1.7 hrs. The arrows indicate the ligation products. Lane M: DNA marker I (GeneRuler™ 50 bp DNA ladder, Fermentas); Lane M1: DNA marker I +1 µl of 1 µM oligo 15. The ligases used in ( A )–( C ) were T4 DNA ligases. The ligases used in ( D )–( E ) were E. coli DNA ligases. ( A ) CIAP was inactivated at 75°C for 15 min. Lanes 1 and 5∶1 µl of 1 µM oligo 15; Lanes 2: CIAP was inactivated at 75°C for 15 min; Lane 3: the positive control without CIAP treatment; Lane 4: the negative control without ligase. ( B ) CIAP was inactivated at 85°C for 25 min and 45 min. Lanes 1 and 3: the positive controls without CIAP treatment; Lanes 2 and 4: CIAP was inactivated at 85°C for 25 min and 45 min, respectively; Lane 5: the negative control without ligase. ( C ) CIAP was inactivated at 85°C for 65 min and 90 min. Lanes 1 and 3: the positive controls without CIAP treatment; Lanes 2 and 4: CIAP was inactivated at 85°C for 65 min and 90 min, respectively; Lane 5: the negative control without ligase. ( D ) CIAP was inactivated at 85°C for 45 min. Lanes 1 and 3: the positive control without CIAP treatment and the negative control without ligase, respectively; Lane 2: CIAP was inactivated at 85°C for 45 min. ( E ) CIAP was inactivated at 85°C for 65 and 90 min. Lanes 1 and 3: the positive controls without CIAP treatment; Lanes 2 and 4: CIAP was inactivated at 85°C for 65 and 90 min, respectively; Lane 5: the negative control without ligase.

    Article Snippet: Ligations of the linkers with 5′-OH ends The ligations of linkers A–B, C–D, and E–F by using T4 DNA ligase were performed in 100 µl of T4 DNA ligase reaction mixture containing 1 x T4 DNA ligation buffer (40 mM Tris-HCl, 10 mM MgCl2 , 10 mM DTT, and 0.5 mM ATP; pH 7.8 at 25°C), 1 µM of each oligo, and 0.25 Weiss units/µl of T4 DNA ligase (Fermentas, Lithuania; Promega, USA; and Takara, Japan).

    Techniques: Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Ligation, Marker, Positive Control, Negative Control

    12% denaturing PAGE for the ligation products of linkers A–B, C–D, and E–F. PAGE (10×10×0.03 cm, A:B = 19∶1, 7 M urea and 0.5 x TBE) was run in 0.5 x TBE, 25°C, 200 V for 1.7 hrs for the ligation products of linkers A–B and C–D, or 100 V for 3.5 hrs for those of linkers E–F. The arrows indicate the ligation products. Lane M: DNA marker I (GeneRuler™ 50 bp DNA ladder, Fermentas); Lane M1: DNA marker I +1 µl of 1 µM oligo 15; Lane M2: pUC19 DNA/MspI Marker (Fermentas). ( A ) The ligation products joined by using T4 DNA ligase from Takara and Fermentas. Lane 1∶1 µl of 1 µM oligo 15; Lanes 2 and 6: the ligation products of linkers A–B joined by using T4 DNA ligase from Takara and Fermentas, respectively. We could see 5 bands. Of them, bands 1 and 2 were from oligos 4 and 1, respectively. Band 3 was from both oligos 2 and 3. Band 4 was unknown. Perhaps it might be the intermixtures of oligos 1–4. Band 5 was the denatured ligation products of linkers A–B; Lanes 4 and 8: the ligation products of linkers C–D joined by using T4 DNA ligase from Takara and Fermentas, respectively. We could see 4 bands. Of them, bands 6 and 7 were from both oligos 6 and 7, and both oligos 5 and 8, respectively. Band 8 was the denatured ligation products of linkers C–D. Band 9 was unknown. Perhaps it might be the intermixtures of oligos 5–8 and the double-strand ligation products of linkers C–D; Lanes 3, 5, 7, and 9: the negative controls. ( B ) The ligation products of linkers A–B and C–D joined by using T4 DNA ligase from Promega and the ligation products of linkers A–B joined in the ligase reaction mixture containing (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . Lane 1∶1 µl of 1 µM oligo 15; Lanes 2 and 4: the denatured ligation products of linkers A–B, and C–D, respectively. T4 DNA ligase was from Promega; Lanes 6 and 7: the ligation products of linkers A–B joined in the ligase reaction mixture without (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and with (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , respectively. T4 DNA ligase used was from Takara; Lanes 3, 5, and 8: the negative controls. ( C ) The ligation products of linkers A–B and C–D joined by using E. coli DNA ligase. Lane 1∶1 µl of 1 µM oligo 15; Lanes 2 and 4: the ligation products of linkers A–B, and C–D, respectively; Lanes 3 and 5: the negative controls. ( D ) The ligation products of linkers E–F joined in the ligase reaction mixture with (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . The ligase was T4 DNA ligase (Fermentas). Lane 1: pUC19 DNA/MspI Marker plus 2 µl of ligation products of linkers E–F; Lanes 2 and 3: the ligation products of linkers E–F joined in the ligase reaction mixtures with (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , and without (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , respectively. We could see 3 bands. Bands 10 and 11 are from both oligos 9 and 12, and both oligos 10 and 11, respectively; Band 12 is the ligation products of linkers E–F; Lane 4: the negative control. ( E ) The ligation products of linkers E–F joined by using E. coli DNA ligase. Lane 1: the ligation products of linkers E–F. Lane 2: the negative control. ( F ) The ligation products of linkers A–B preincubated with T4 PNK in the E. coli DNA ligase reaction mixture without ATP. The ligase was E. coli DNA ligase (Takara). Lane 1∶1 µl of 1 µM oligo 15; Lane 2: linkers A–B were not preincubated with T4 PNK; Lane 3: linkers A–B were preincubated with T4 PNK; Lane 4: the negative control.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Detection of Ligation Products of DNA Linkers with 5?-OH Ends by Denaturing PAGE Silver Stain

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039251

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 12% denaturing PAGE for the ligation products of linkers A–B, C–D, and E–F. PAGE (10×10×0.03 cm, A:B = 19∶1, 7 M urea and 0.5 x TBE) was run in 0.5 x TBE, 25°C, 200 V for 1.7 hrs for the ligation products of linkers A–B and C–D, or 100 V for 3.5 hrs for those of linkers E–F. The arrows indicate the ligation products. Lane M: DNA marker I (GeneRuler™ 50 bp DNA ladder, Fermentas); Lane M1: DNA marker I +1 µl of 1 µM oligo 15; Lane M2: pUC19 DNA/MspI Marker (Fermentas). ( A ) The ligation products joined by using T4 DNA ligase from Takara and Fermentas. Lane 1∶1 µl of 1 µM oligo 15; Lanes 2 and 6: the ligation products of linkers A–B joined by using T4 DNA ligase from Takara and Fermentas, respectively. We could see 5 bands. Of them, bands 1 and 2 were from oligos 4 and 1, respectively. Band 3 was from both oligos 2 and 3. Band 4 was unknown. Perhaps it might be the intermixtures of oligos 1–4. Band 5 was the denatured ligation products of linkers A–B; Lanes 4 and 8: the ligation products of linkers C–D joined by using T4 DNA ligase from Takara and Fermentas, respectively. We could see 4 bands. Of them, bands 6 and 7 were from both oligos 6 and 7, and both oligos 5 and 8, respectively. Band 8 was the denatured ligation products of linkers C–D. Band 9 was unknown. Perhaps it might be the intermixtures of oligos 5–8 and the double-strand ligation products of linkers C–D; Lanes 3, 5, 7, and 9: the negative controls. ( B ) The ligation products of linkers A–B and C–D joined by using T4 DNA ligase from Promega and the ligation products of linkers A–B joined in the ligase reaction mixture containing (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . Lane 1∶1 µl of 1 µM oligo 15; Lanes 2 and 4: the denatured ligation products of linkers A–B, and C–D, respectively. T4 DNA ligase was from Promega; Lanes 6 and 7: the ligation products of linkers A–B joined in the ligase reaction mixture without (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and with (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , respectively. T4 DNA ligase used was from Takara; Lanes 3, 5, and 8: the negative controls. ( C ) The ligation products of linkers A–B and C–D joined by using E. coli DNA ligase. Lane 1∶1 µl of 1 µM oligo 15; Lanes 2 and 4: the ligation products of linkers A–B, and C–D, respectively; Lanes 3 and 5: the negative controls. ( D ) The ligation products of linkers E–F joined in the ligase reaction mixture with (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 . The ligase was T4 DNA ligase (Fermentas). Lane 1: pUC19 DNA/MspI Marker plus 2 µl of ligation products of linkers E–F; Lanes 2 and 3: the ligation products of linkers E–F joined in the ligase reaction mixtures with (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , and without (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , respectively. We could see 3 bands. Bands 10 and 11 are from both oligos 9 and 12, and both oligos 10 and 11, respectively; Band 12 is the ligation products of linkers E–F; Lane 4: the negative control. ( E ) The ligation products of linkers E–F joined by using E. coli DNA ligase. Lane 1: the ligation products of linkers E–F. Lane 2: the negative control. ( F ) The ligation products of linkers A–B preincubated with T4 PNK in the E. coli DNA ligase reaction mixture without ATP. The ligase was E. coli DNA ligase (Takara). Lane 1∶1 µl of 1 µM oligo 15; Lane 2: linkers A–B were not preincubated with T4 PNK; Lane 3: linkers A–B were preincubated with T4 PNK; Lane 4: the negative control.

    Article Snippet: Ligations of the linkers with 5′-OH ends The ligations of linkers A–B, C–D, and E–F by using T4 DNA ligase were performed in 100 µl of T4 DNA ligase reaction mixture containing 1 x T4 DNA ligation buffer (40 mM Tris-HCl, 10 mM MgCl2 , 10 mM DTT, and 0.5 mM ATP; pH 7.8 at 25°C), 1 µM of each oligo, and 0.25 Weiss units/µl of T4 DNA ligase (Fermentas, Lithuania; Promega, USA; and Takara, Japan).

    Techniques: Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Ligation, Marker, Negative Control

    The radioautograph of oligo 11 phosphorylated by T4 DNA ligase. The oligo 11 was phosphorylated by using commercial T4 DNA ligase. The phosphorylation products were loaded on a 15% denaturing PAGE gel (10×10×0.03 cm, A:B = 29∶1, 7 M urea, 0.5 x TBE). Electrophoresis was run in 0.5 x TBE at 100 V and 25°C for 3 hrs. The gel was dried between two semipermeable cellulose acetate membranes and radioautographed at −20°C for 1–3 days. The arrows indicate the phosphorylation products. The positive controls were oligo 11 phosphorylated by T4 PNK. ( A ) Oligo 11 was phosphorylated by T4 DNA ligase at 37°C for 2 hrs. Lanes 1 and 5: the positive controls; Lanes 2 and 4: the negative controls without ligase, and without oligo 11, respectively; Lane 3: the phosphorylation products of oligo 11 by T4 DNA ligase. ( B ) Oligo 11 treated with CIAP was phosphorylated by T4 DNA ligase at 37°C for 2 hrs. Lanes 1 and 5: the positive controls; Lane 2: the phosphorylation products of oligo 11 by T4 DNA ligase; Lanes 3 and 4: the negative controls without ligase, and without oligo 11, respectively; Lanes 6, 7, and 8: oligo 11 treated with CIAP was phosphorylated by T4 DNA ligase. CIAP was inactivated at 85°C for 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min, respectively. Lanes 9 and 10: the negative controls without ligase, and without oligo 11, respectively. ( C ) Oligo 11 treated with CIAP was phosphorylated by T4 DNA ligase at 37°C for 2 hrs. Lanes 1 and 5: the positive controls; Lane 2: the phosphorylation products of oligo 11 by T4 DNA ligase; Lanes 3 and 4: the negative controls without ligase, and without oligo 11, respectively; Lanes 6, 7, and 8: oligo 11 treated with CIAP was phosphorylated by T4 DNA ligase. CIAP was inactivated at 85°C for 60 min, 15 min, and 30 min, respectively. ( D ) Oligos 11 and 12 were phosphorylated by T4 DNA ligase at 37°C for 1 hr. Lane 1: oligos 11 and 12 were phosphorylated by T4 PNK; Lane 2: oligos 11 and 12 were phosphorylated by T4 DNA ligase; Lane 3: oligo 11 were phosphorylated by T4 DNA ligase; Lane 4: the negative control without ligase. ( E ) Oligo 11 was phosphorylated by T4 DNA ligase at 37°C for 2 hrs. 1 x TE and 10% SDS were not added to the phosphorylation products before phenol/chloroform extraction. Lane 1: the positive control; Lanes 2 and 3: the phosphorylation products of oligo 11 by T4 DNA ligase and the negative controls without ligase, respectively.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Detection of Ligation Products of DNA Linkers with 5?-OH Ends by Denaturing PAGE Silver Stain

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039251

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The radioautograph of oligo 11 phosphorylated by T4 DNA ligase. The oligo 11 was phosphorylated by using commercial T4 DNA ligase. The phosphorylation products were loaded on a 15% denaturing PAGE gel (10×10×0.03 cm, A:B = 29∶1, 7 M urea, 0.5 x TBE). Electrophoresis was run in 0.5 x TBE at 100 V and 25°C for 3 hrs. The gel was dried between two semipermeable cellulose acetate membranes and radioautographed at −20°C for 1–3 days. The arrows indicate the phosphorylation products. The positive controls were oligo 11 phosphorylated by T4 PNK. ( A ) Oligo 11 was phosphorylated by T4 DNA ligase at 37°C for 2 hrs. Lanes 1 and 5: the positive controls; Lanes 2 and 4: the negative controls without ligase, and without oligo 11, respectively; Lane 3: the phosphorylation products of oligo 11 by T4 DNA ligase. ( B ) Oligo 11 treated with CIAP was phosphorylated by T4 DNA ligase at 37°C for 2 hrs. Lanes 1 and 5: the positive controls; Lane 2: the phosphorylation products of oligo 11 by T4 DNA ligase; Lanes 3 and 4: the negative controls without ligase, and without oligo 11, respectively; Lanes 6, 7, and 8: oligo 11 treated with CIAP was phosphorylated by T4 DNA ligase. CIAP was inactivated at 85°C for 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min, respectively. Lanes 9 and 10: the negative controls without ligase, and without oligo 11, respectively. ( C ) Oligo 11 treated with CIAP was phosphorylated by T4 DNA ligase at 37°C for 2 hrs. Lanes 1 and 5: the positive controls; Lane 2: the phosphorylation products of oligo 11 by T4 DNA ligase; Lanes 3 and 4: the negative controls without ligase, and without oligo 11, respectively; Lanes 6, 7, and 8: oligo 11 treated with CIAP was phosphorylated by T4 DNA ligase. CIAP was inactivated at 85°C for 60 min, 15 min, and 30 min, respectively. ( D ) Oligos 11 and 12 were phosphorylated by T4 DNA ligase at 37°C for 1 hr. Lane 1: oligos 11 and 12 were phosphorylated by T4 PNK; Lane 2: oligos 11 and 12 were phosphorylated by T4 DNA ligase; Lane 3: oligo 11 were phosphorylated by T4 DNA ligase; Lane 4: the negative control without ligase. ( E ) Oligo 11 was phosphorylated by T4 DNA ligase at 37°C for 2 hrs. 1 x TE and 10% SDS were not added to the phosphorylation products before phenol/chloroform extraction. Lane 1: the positive control; Lanes 2 and 3: the phosphorylation products of oligo 11 by T4 DNA ligase and the negative controls without ligase, respectively.

    Article Snippet: Ligations of the linkers with 5′-OH ends The ligations of linkers A–B, C–D, and E–F by using T4 DNA ligase were performed in 100 µl of T4 DNA ligase reaction mixture containing 1 x T4 DNA ligation buffer (40 mM Tris-HCl, 10 mM MgCl2 , 10 mM DTT, and 0.5 mM ATP; pH 7.8 at 25°C), 1 µM of each oligo, and 0.25 Weiss units/µl of T4 DNA ligase (Fermentas, Lithuania; Promega, USA; and Takara, Japan).

    Techniques: Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Electrophoresis, Negative Control, Positive Control

    ( A ) Schematic illustration of the formation of streptavidin–tRNA fusion using puromycin–tRNA, which contains a puromycin moiety in the place of 3′ terminal aminoacyl-adenosine and a four-base anticodon CCCG. The puromycin–tRNA binds to ribosomal A site and accepts a streptavidin polypeptide chain as an analog of aminoacyl-tRNA in response to a four-base CGGG codon at 3′ terminus of streptavidin mRNA in a cell-free translation. The resulting streptavidin–puromycin–tRNA may be translocated to the P-site. In this case, the next aminoacyl-tRNA binds to the vacant ribosomal A site, but can not accept the polypeptide chain because of the amide bond of puromycin–tRNA. The resulting streptavidin–tRNA fusion is released from the ribosome complex by the addition of EDTA. ( B ) Schematic illustration of the in vitro selection system of tRNAs. Step 1, a DNA pool encoding tRNAs containing a four-base anticodon CCCG is transcribed by T7 RNA polymerase to tRNA(-CA) pool. Step 2, the tRNA(-CA) pool is ligated with pdCp-Puromycin by T4 RNA ligase to generate puromycin–tRNA. Step 3, a streptavidin mRNA containing a four-base CGGG codon at C-terminus is translated in an E.coli cell-free translation system in the presence of the puromycin–tRNA. Puromycin–tRNAs that successfully decode the CGGG codon form ribosome–mRNA–streptavidin–tRNA complex. Step 4, the streptavidin–tRNA fusion is dissociated from the complex by the addition of EDTA. Step 5, the streptavidin–tRNA fusion is recovered with biotin-coated magnetic beads. Step 6, the streptavidin–tRNA fusion is dissociated from the beads, and then the tRNA moiety is subjected to RT–PCR. Step 7, the tRNA genes are regenerated by overlap-extension PCR with a T7 promoter primer, which are used as template DNAs in the next round of selection.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: In vitro selection of tRNAs for efficient four-base decoding to incorporate non-natural amino acids into proteins in an Escherichia coli cell-free translation system

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkl087

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( A ) Schematic illustration of the formation of streptavidin–tRNA fusion using puromycin–tRNA, which contains a puromycin moiety in the place of 3′ terminal aminoacyl-adenosine and a four-base anticodon CCCG. The puromycin–tRNA binds to ribosomal A site and accepts a streptavidin polypeptide chain as an analog of aminoacyl-tRNA in response to a four-base CGGG codon at 3′ terminus of streptavidin mRNA in a cell-free translation. The resulting streptavidin–puromycin–tRNA may be translocated to the P-site. In this case, the next aminoacyl-tRNA binds to the vacant ribosomal A site, but can not accept the polypeptide chain because of the amide bond of puromycin–tRNA. The resulting streptavidin–tRNA fusion is released from the ribosome complex by the addition of EDTA. ( B ) Schematic illustration of the in vitro selection system of tRNAs. Step 1, a DNA pool encoding tRNAs containing a four-base anticodon CCCG is transcribed by T7 RNA polymerase to tRNA(-CA) pool. Step 2, the tRNA(-CA) pool is ligated with pdCp-Puromycin by T4 RNA ligase to generate puromycin–tRNA. Step 3, a streptavidin mRNA containing a four-base CGGG codon at C-terminus is translated in an E.coli cell-free translation system in the presence of the puromycin–tRNA. Puromycin–tRNAs that successfully decode the CGGG codon form ribosome–mRNA–streptavidin–tRNA complex. Step 4, the streptavidin–tRNA fusion is dissociated from the complex by the addition of EDTA. Step 5, the streptavidin–tRNA fusion is recovered with biotin-coated magnetic beads. Step 6, the streptavidin–tRNA fusion is dissociated from the beads, and then the tRNA moiety is subjected to RT–PCR. Step 7, the tRNA genes are regenerated by overlap-extension PCR with a T7 promoter primer, which are used as template DNAs in the next round of selection.

    Article Snippet: T4 RNA ligase, Bca BEST RNA PCR kit ver1.1, GelStar Nucleic Acid Stain and ribonuclease inhibitor were from TaKaRa BIO.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Selection, Magnetic Beads, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Polymerase Chain Reaction