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  • 99
    New England Biolabs t4dna polymerase
    Guide Positioning Sequencing (GPS) detects genome-wide DNA methylation accurately with high coverage rate. ( A ) Schematic of GPS workflow for DNA methylation detection. The gray line represents original DNA sequence, and the orange line represents DNA treated by <t>T4</t> DNA polymerase, which replaces cytosine with 5′-methylcytosine at 3′ end of DNA fragment. The solid circle (●) represents methylated cytosine, and the open circle (○) represents unmethylated cytosine, whereas the triangle (Δ) represents thymine. Blue and green short lines represent the NGS linker. Read1 represents the bisulfite-converted 5′ end of fragments, whereas Read2 represents the 3′ end of fragments, which is the same as the genome sequence due to 5′-methylcytosine replacement. ( B ) The accurate alignment rate of Bowtie 2 and GPS is obviously higher than that in BSMAP based on simulated data: (***) P
    T4dna Polymerase, supplied by New England Biolabs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 99 stars, based on 7 article reviews
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    96
    Thermo Fisher t4dna polymerase
    Single-stranded DNA ligation with <t>T4</t> DNA ligase and CircLigase. A pool of 60 nt acceptor oligonucleotides (‘60N’) were ligated to 10 pmol of a 3΄ biotinylated donor oligonucleotide (CL78) using either T4 DNA ligase in the presence of a splinter oligonucleotide (TL38) or CircLigase. Ligation products were visualized on a 10% denaturing polyacrylamide gel stained with SybrGold. Band shifts from 60 nt to 80 nt indicate successful ligation. Schematic overviews of the reaction schemes are shown on top. The scheme developed by Kwok et al . ( 19 ) is shown for comparison. M: Single-stranded DNA size marker.
    T4dna Polymerase, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 149 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/t4dna polymerase/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 96 stars, based on 149 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    t4dna polymerase - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    95
    TaKaRa t4 dna polymerase
    The PCR product of a foreign gene was amplified by <t>T4</t> DNA polymerase and dGTP, and then was ligated with the Bsu36I-digested pRTRA. The ligation mixture was transformed to the donor strain DH10β, and then the recombinant donor plasmid was obtained. We introduced the two different Bsu36I sites (CCTTAGG and CCTGAGG) in the pRTRA vector and the 4 nt TTAC(5′–3′) in the forward primer and the other 4 nt TGAC(5′–3′) in the reverse primer. The complete digestion of pRTRA with Bsu36I results in a linearized donor vector with overhang ends of 5′-TTA-3′ and 5′-TCA-3′, respectively. We made use of the 3′→5′ exonuclease activity and 5′→3′ polymerase activity of T4 DNA polymerase. When T4 DNA polymerase encounters the first Guanine nucleotide at the 5′ end of the DNA in the dGTP bath, the reaction will keep the balance between the exonuclease activity and polymerase activity. Therefore, the overhang ends of the gene fragments of interest will be digested to be perfectly compatible with the vector.
    T4 Dna Polymerase, supplied by TaKaRa, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 867 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Guide Positioning Sequencing (GPS) detects genome-wide DNA methylation accurately with high coverage rate. ( A ) Schematic of GPS workflow for DNA methylation detection. The gray line represents original DNA sequence, and the orange line represents DNA treated by T4 DNA polymerase, which replaces cytosine with 5′-methylcytosine at 3′ end of DNA fragment. The solid circle (●) represents methylated cytosine, and the open circle (○) represents unmethylated cytosine, whereas the triangle (Δ) represents thymine. Blue and green short lines represent the NGS linker. Read1 represents the bisulfite-converted 5′ end of fragments, whereas Read2 represents the 3′ end of fragments, which is the same as the genome sequence due to 5′-methylcytosine replacement. ( B ) The accurate alignment rate of Bowtie 2 and GPS is obviously higher than that in BSMAP based on simulated data: (***) P

    Journal: Genome Research

    Article Title: Guide Positioning Sequencing identifies aberrant DNA methylation patterns that alter cell identity and tumor-immune surveillance networks

    doi: 10.1101/gr.240606.118

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Guide Positioning Sequencing (GPS) detects genome-wide DNA methylation accurately with high coverage rate. ( A ) Schematic of GPS workflow for DNA methylation detection. The gray line represents original DNA sequence, and the orange line represents DNA treated by T4 DNA polymerase, which replaces cytosine with 5′-methylcytosine at 3′ end of DNA fragment. The solid circle (●) represents methylated cytosine, and the open circle (○) represents unmethylated cytosine, whereas the triangle (Δ) represents thymine. Blue and green short lines represent the NGS linker. Read1 represents the bisulfite-converted 5′ end of fragments, whereas Read2 represents the 3′ end of fragments, which is the same as the genome sequence due to 5′-methylcytosine replacement. ( B ) The accurate alignment rate of Bowtie 2 and GPS is obviously higher than that in BSMAP based on simulated data: (***) P

    Article Snippet: Thirty units of T4 DNA polymerase (New England BioLabs, M0203L) was used to perform 3′→5′ digestion of the DNA fragments for 100 min at 12°C followed by adding 10 µL dNTP mix which contained dATP, dTTP, dGTP, and 5′-methyl-dCTP nucleotide (final concentration 0.5 mM) and incubating for 30 min at 37°C.

    Techniques: Sequencing, Genome Wide, DNA Methylation Assay, Methylation, Next-Generation Sequencing

    Single-stranded DNA ligation with T4 DNA ligase and CircLigase. A pool of 60 nt acceptor oligonucleotides (‘60N’) were ligated to 10 pmol of a 3΄ biotinylated donor oligonucleotide (CL78) using either T4 DNA ligase in the presence of a splinter oligonucleotide (TL38) or CircLigase. Ligation products were visualized on a 10% denaturing polyacrylamide gel stained with SybrGold. Band shifts from 60 nt to 80 nt indicate successful ligation. Schematic overviews of the reaction schemes are shown on top. The scheme developed by Kwok et al . ( 19 ) is shown for comparison. M: Single-stranded DNA size marker.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Single-stranded DNA library preparation from highly degraded DNA using T4 DNA ligase

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx033

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Single-stranded DNA ligation with T4 DNA ligase and CircLigase. A pool of 60 nt acceptor oligonucleotides (‘60N’) were ligated to 10 pmol of a 3΄ biotinylated donor oligonucleotide (CL78) using either T4 DNA ligase in the presence of a splinter oligonucleotide (TL38) or CircLigase. Ligation products were visualized on a 10% denaturing polyacrylamide gel stained with SybrGold. Band shifts from 60 nt to 80 nt indicate successful ligation. Schematic overviews of the reaction schemes are shown on top. The scheme developed by Kwok et al . ( 19 ) is shown for comparison. M: Single-stranded DNA size marker.

    Article Snippet: For fill-in with T4 DNA polymerase a 50 μl reaction mix was prepared containing 1× T4 DNA polymerase buffer (ThermoFisher Scientific), 0.05% Tween-20, 100 μM each dNTP, 100 pmol primer CL130 and 2 μl 5 U/μl T4 DNA polymerase (ThermoFisher Scientific).

    Techniques: DNA Ligation, Ligation, Staining, Marker

    Library preparation methods for highly degraded DNA. ( A ) In the single-stranded library preparation method described here (ssDNA2.0), DNA fragments (black) are 5΄ and 3΄ dephosphorylated and separated into single strands by heat denaturation. 3΄ biotinylated adapter molecules (red) are attached to the 3΄ ends of the DNA fragments via hybridization to a stretch of six random nucleotides (marked as ‘N’) belonging to a splinter oligonucleotide complementary to the adapter and nick closure with T4 DNA ligase. Following the immobilization of the ligation products on streptavidin-coated beads, the splinter oligonucleotide is removed by bead wash at an elevated temperature. Synthesis of the second strand is carried out using the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I and a primer with phosphorothioate backbone modifications (red stars) to prevent exonucleolytic degradation. Unincorporated primers are removed through a bead wash at an elevated temperature, preventing the formation of adapter dimers in the subsequent blunt-end ligation reaction, which is again catalyzed by T4 DNA ligase. Adapter self-ligation is prevented through a 3΄ dideoxy modification in the adapter. The final library strand is released from the beads by heat denaturation. ( B ) In the single-stranded library preparation method originally described in Gansauge and Meyer, ( 4 ), the first adapter was attached through true single-stranded DNA ligation using CircLigase. The large fragment of Bst DNA polymerase was used to copy the template strand, leaving overhanging 3΄ nucleotides, which had to be removed in a blunt-end repair reaction using T4 DNA polymerase. ( C ) The ‘454’ method of double-stranded library preparation in the implementation of Meyer and Kircher, ( 23 ), is based on non-directional blunt-end ligation of a mixture of two adapters to blunt-end repaired DNA fragments using T4 DNA ligase. To prevent adapter self-ligation, no phosphate groups are present at the 5΄ ends of the adapters, resulting in the ligation of the adapter strands only and necessitating subsequent nick fill-in with a strand-displacing polymerase. Intermittent DNA purification steps are required in-between enzymatic reactions. ( D ) The ‘Illumina’ method of double-stranded library preparation, shown here as implemented in New England Biolabs’ NEBNext Ultra II kit, requires the addition of A-overhangs (marked as ‘A’) to blunt-end repaired DNA fragments using a 3΄-5΄ exonuclease deletion mutant of the Klenow fragment of E. coli DNA polymerase I. Both adapter sequences are combined into one bell-shaped structure, which carries a 3΄ T overhang to allow sticky end ligation with T4 DNA ligase. Following ligation, adapter strands are separated by excision of uracil. Excess adapters and adapter dimers are removed through size-selective purification.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Single-stranded DNA library preparation from highly degraded DNA using T4 DNA ligase

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx033

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Library preparation methods for highly degraded DNA. ( A ) In the single-stranded library preparation method described here (ssDNA2.0), DNA fragments (black) are 5΄ and 3΄ dephosphorylated and separated into single strands by heat denaturation. 3΄ biotinylated adapter molecules (red) are attached to the 3΄ ends of the DNA fragments via hybridization to a stretch of six random nucleotides (marked as ‘N’) belonging to a splinter oligonucleotide complementary to the adapter and nick closure with T4 DNA ligase. Following the immobilization of the ligation products on streptavidin-coated beads, the splinter oligonucleotide is removed by bead wash at an elevated temperature. Synthesis of the second strand is carried out using the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I and a primer with phosphorothioate backbone modifications (red stars) to prevent exonucleolytic degradation. Unincorporated primers are removed through a bead wash at an elevated temperature, preventing the formation of adapter dimers in the subsequent blunt-end ligation reaction, which is again catalyzed by T4 DNA ligase. Adapter self-ligation is prevented through a 3΄ dideoxy modification in the adapter. The final library strand is released from the beads by heat denaturation. ( B ) In the single-stranded library preparation method originally described in Gansauge and Meyer, ( 4 ), the first adapter was attached through true single-stranded DNA ligation using CircLigase. The large fragment of Bst DNA polymerase was used to copy the template strand, leaving overhanging 3΄ nucleotides, which had to be removed in a blunt-end repair reaction using T4 DNA polymerase. ( C ) The ‘454’ method of double-stranded library preparation in the implementation of Meyer and Kircher, ( 23 ), is based on non-directional blunt-end ligation of a mixture of two adapters to blunt-end repaired DNA fragments using T4 DNA ligase. To prevent adapter self-ligation, no phosphate groups are present at the 5΄ ends of the adapters, resulting in the ligation of the adapter strands only and necessitating subsequent nick fill-in with a strand-displacing polymerase. Intermittent DNA purification steps are required in-between enzymatic reactions. ( D ) The ‘Illumina’ method of double-stranded library preparation, shown here as implemented in New England Biolabs’ NEBNext Ultra II kit, requires the addition of A-overhangs (marked as ‘A’) to blunt-end repaired DNA fragments using a 3΄-5΄ exonuclease deletion mutant of the Klenow fragment of E. coli DNA polymerase I. Both adapter sequences are combined into one bell-shaped structure, which carries a 3΄ T overhang to allow sticky end ligation with T4 DNA ligase. Following ligation, adapter strands are separated by excision of uracil. Excess adapters and adapter dimers are removed through size-selective purification.

    Article Snippet: For fill-in with T4 DNA polymerase a 50 μl reaction mix was prepared containing 1× T4 DNA polymerase buffer (ThermoFisher Scientific), 0.05% Tween-20, 100 μM each dNTP, 100 pmol primer CL130 and 2 μl 5 U/μl T4 DNA polymerase (ThermoFisher Scientific).

    Techniques: Hybridization, Ligation, Modification, DNA Ligation, DNA Purification, Mutagenesis, Purification

    Effects of single-stranded ligation schemes on library characteristics. ( A ) Informative sequence content of libraries prepared with CircLigase and T4 DNA ligase as a function of the input volume of ancient DNA extract used for library preparation. ( B ) Average GC content of the sequences obtained with the two ligation schemes. Note that the average GC content exceeds that of a typical mammalian genome because most sequences derive from microbial DNA, which is the dominant source of DNA in most ancient bones. ( C ) Fragment size distribution in the libraries as inferred from overlap-merged paired-end reads. Short artifacts in the library prepared from extremely little input DNA (corresponding to ∼1 mg bone) are mainly due to the incorporation of splinter fragments. ( D ) Frequencies of damage-induced C to T substitutions near the 5΄ and 3΄ ends of sequences.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Single-stranded DNA library preparation from highly degraded DNA using T4 DNA ligase

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx033

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of single-stranded ligation schemes on library characteristics. ( A ) Informative sequence content of libraries prepared with CircLigase and T4 DNA ligase as a function of the input volume of ancient DNA extract used for library preparation. ( B ) Average GC content of the sequences obtained with the two ligation schemes. Note that the average GC content exceeds that of a typical mammalian genome because most sequences derive from microbial DNA, which is the dominant source of DNA in most ancient bones. ( C ) Fragment size distribution in the libraries as inferred from overlap-merged paired-end reads. Short artifacts in the library prepared from extremely little input DNA (corresponding to ∼1 mg bone) are mainly due to the incorporation of splinter fragments. ( D ) Frequencies of damage-induced C to T substitutions near the 5΄ and 3΄ ends of sequences.

    Article Snippet: For fill-in with T4 DNA polymerase a 50 μl reaction mix was prepared containing 1× T4 DNA polymerase buffer (ThermoFisher Scientific), 0.05% Tween-20, 100 μM each dNTP, 100 pmol primer CL130 and 2 μl 5 U/μl T4 DNA polymerase (ThermoFisher Scientific).

    Techniques: Ligation, Sequencing, Ancient DNA Assay

    UV damage does not affect NCP reconstitution with the 601 sequence. A , NCP reconstitution with UV-undamaged and -damaged DNA. The 147-bp 601 DNA containing both UV lesions and labeling were mixed with histone octamer at 2 m NaCl. The reconstitution was performed by stepwise salt dialysis, and the final NaCl concentration was 50 m m . The reconstituted products were resolved in 5% native polyacrylamide gel and stained with SYBR Gold. The 100-bp DNA markers are indicated on the left. B , presence of CPDs and 6-4PPs in UV-damaged DNA. The different UV-damaged DNA were blotted on the nitrocellulose and detected by lesion-specific antibodies. The same membranes were reprobed with 32 P-labeled DNA to show equal loading. C , Southern blot of the photoproduct yield of the UV-irradiated DNA fragment. The DNA was treated with or without photolyase prior to the T4 DNA polymerase ( pol ) digestion. The digested samples were blotted on the nylon membrane and probed with with 32 P-labeled DNA. D , quantification data of the photoproduct yield by Southern blots. The CPD signals were calculated by subtracting the total signals with the 6-4PPs signals. Three independent experiments were performed to show error bars .

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: UV Damage in DNA Promotes Nucleosome Unwrapping *

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.140087

    Figure Lengend Snippet: UV damage does not affect NCP reconstitution with the 601 sequence. A , NCP reconstitution with UV-undamaged and -damaged DNA. The 147-bp 601 DNA containing both UV lesions and labeling were mixed with histone octamer at 2 m NaCl. The reconstitution was performed by stepwise salt dialysis, and the final NaCl concentration was 50 m m . The reconstituted products were resolved in 5% native polyacrylamide gel and stained with SYBR Gold. The 100-bp DNA markers are indicated on the left. B , presence of CPDs and 6-4PPs in UV-damaged DNA. The different UV-damaged DNA were blotted on the nitrocellulose and detected by lesion-specific antibodies. The same membranes were reprobed with 32 P-labeled DNA to show equal loading. C , Southern blot of the photoproduct yield of the UV-irradiated DNA fragment. The DNA was treated with or without photolyase prior to the T4 DNA polymerase ( pol ) digestion. The digested samples were blotted on the nylon membrane and probed with with 32 P-labeled DNA. D , quantification data of the photoproduct yield by Southern blots. The CPD signals were calculated by subtracting the total signals with the 6-4PPs signals. Three independent experiments were performed to show error bars .

    Article Snippet: Briefly, samples were incubated with 2.5 units of T4 DNA polymerase-exonuclease (Fermentas) at 37 °C for 2 h. The reaction was stopped by heating at 65 °C for 10 min.

    Techniques: Sequencing, Labeling, Concentration Assay, Staining, Southern Blot, Irradiation

    J κ 1 and J H 2 coding ends have 3′ overhangs. (A and B) DNA purified in agarose plugs from newborn-mouse thymocytes (A) or 103 bcl2/4 cells cultured at 33 or 39°C (B) (shift − or +) was ligated to the BW linker without pretreatment (lanes none) or after treatment with either T4 DNA polymerase (lanes T4 Pol) or mung bean nuclease (lanes MB-N). Ligated plugs were analyzed by PCR for J H 2 (A) or J κ 1 (B) coding-end (ce) breaks (arrows). The lanes labeled 63-12 were control LM-PCR assays with 63-12 cell DNA. Lanes 1 and 2 in panel A represent independent thymocyte DNA samples. (C) Amplified products from lanes 1, 3, and 4 in panel A and lanes 2, 4, and 6 in panel B were gel purified, reamplified for five cycles with a 32 P-labeled specific oligonucleotide, and analyzed by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In each case, the arrow indicates the predominant broken-ended molecule (+9 for J H 2 and +4 for J κ 1) and the tick marks indicate 1-nt intervals (determined by the electrophoresis of a DNA sequencing reaction mixture on the same gel). Lanes: N, no pretreatment; T, T4 DNA polymerase pretreatment; M, mung bean nuclease pretreatment.

    Journal: Molecular and Cellular Biology

    Article Title: Structure of Nonhairpin Coding-End DNA Breaks in Cells Undergoing V(D)J Recombination

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: J κ 1 and J H 2 coding ends have 3′ overhangs. (A and B) DNA purified in agarose plugs from newborn-mouse thymocytes (A) or 103 bcl2/4 cells cultured at 33 or 39°C (B) (shift − or +) was ligated to the BW linker without pretreatment (lanes none) or after treatment with either T4 DNA polymerase (lanes T4 Pol) or mung bean nuclease (lanes MB-N). Ligated plugs were analyzed by PCR for J H 2 (A) or J κ 1 (B) coding-end (ce) breaks (arrows). The lanes labeled 63-12 were control LM-PCR assays with 63-12 cell DNA. Lanes 1 and 2 in panel A represent independent thymocyte DNA samples. (C) Amplified products from lanes 1, 3, and 4 in panel A and lanes 2, 4, and 6 in panel B were gel purified, reamplified for five cycles with a 32 P-labeled specific oligonucleotide, and analyzed by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In each case, the arrow indicates the predominant broken-ended molecule (+9 for J H 2 and +4 for J κ 1) and the tick marks indicate 1-nt intervals (determined by the electrophoresis of a DNA sequencing reaction mixture on the same gel). Lanes: N, no pretreatment; T, T4 DNA polymerase pretreatment; M, mung bean nuclease pretreatment.

    Article Snippet: Some plug DNA samples were subjected to T4 DNA polymerase treatment by incubating 40 μl of plug in an 80-μl reaction mixture with manufacturer’s buffer (Life Technologies), 5 U of T4 DNA polymerase, and 100 μM deoxynucleoside triphosphates at 37°C for 1 h. Other plugs were treated with various amounts of mung bean nuclease (BRL) under conditions previously reported by Zhu and Roth ( ).

    Techniques: Purification, Cell Culture, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Labeling, Amplification, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Electrophoresis, DNA Sequencing

    V(D)J recombination reaction pathway and LM-PCR assay for reaction intermediates. (A) Diagram of the reactants (top), broken DNA intermediates (middle), and products (bottom) of V(D)J recombination. V and J gene segments, with their associated RSSs (heptamer [H] and nonamer [N]) are recognized and cleaved by the recombinase at the RSS–coding-segment junction (arrow), generating coding-end and signal-end fragments. These ends are joined to form a coding joint and a signal joint. (B) LM-PCR assay for broken-ended recombination reaction intermediates. The BW linker is ligated to available ends in total genomic DNA by using T4 DNA ligase. The sites of linker ligation are revealed by a set of nested PCR assays with a linker primer (BW-1) and locus-specific primers (open arrows labeled 1, 2, 4, and 5). Blots of PCR products were probed with internal oligonucleotides (solid lines labeled 3 and 6).

    Journal: Molecular and Cellular Biology

    Article Title: Structure of Nonhairpin Coding-End DNA Breaks in Cells Undergoing V(D)J Recombination

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: V(D)J recombination reaction pathway and LM-PCR assay for reaction intermediates. (A) Diagram of the reactants (top), broken DNA intermediates (middle), and products (bottom) of V(D)J recombination. V and J gene segments, with their associated RSSs (heptamer [H] and nonamer [N]) are recognized and cleaved by the recombinase at the RSS–coding-segment junction (arrow), generating coding-end and signal-end fragments. These ends are joined to form a coding joint and a signal joint. (B) LM-PCR assay for broken-ended recombination reaction intermediates. The BW linker is ligated to available ends in total genomic DNA by using T4 DNA ligase. The sites of linker ligation are revealed by a set of nested PCR assays with a linker primer (BW-1) and locus-specific primers (open arrows labeled 1, 2, 4, and 5). Blots of PCR products were probed with internal oligonucleotides (solid lines labeled 3 and 6).

    Article Snippet: Some plug DNA samples were subjected to T4 DNA polymerase treatment by incubating 40 μl of plug in an 80-μl reaction mixture with manufacturer’s buffer (Life Technologies), 5 U of T4 DNA polymerase, and 100 μM deoxynucleoside triphosphates at 37°C for 1 h. Other plugs were treated with various amounts of mung bean nuclease (BRL) under conditions previously reported by Zhu and Roth ( ).

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Ligation, Nested PCR, Labeling

    T4 DNA polymerase treatment enhances LM-PCR detection of broken coding ends. (A to C) DNA samples prepared by the agarose plug method from uninduced (33°C [33 degr]) and induced (39°C [39 degr]) 103 bcl2/4 cells (A and B) and from newborn thymus (C) were analyzed by LM-PCR for broken J κ 1 coding (A), J κ 1 and J κ 2 signal (B), and J H 2 coding and signal (C) ends without (lanes −) or with (lanes +) T4 DNA polymerase (T4 pol) pretreatment. Controls included identically prepared and treated 63-12 (RAG-2-deficient) cell DNA and buffer (lane C). DNA samples from panel C were amplified with primers specific for a nonrearranging genomic locus, demonstrating the presence of DNA in all samples. (D) Ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel of these control amplifications. Lanes 1 to 4 correspond to samples 1 to 4 in panel C, lanes 5 to 8 correspond to samples 6 to 9 in panel C, and lane 9 is a buffer-only control amplification. Lanes 1 to 6 of panels A and B were shown to contain equivalent amounts of DNA by a similar method (data not shown). ce, coding ends; se, signal ends.

    Journal: Molecular and Cellular Biology

    Article Title: Structure of Nonhairpin Coding-End DNA Breaks in Cells Undergoing V(D)J Recombination

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: T4 DNA polymerase treatment enhances LM-PCR detection of broken coding ends. (A to C) DNA samples prepared by the agarose plug method from uninduced (33°C [33 degr]) and induced (39°C [39 degr]) 103 bcl2/4 cells (A and B) and from newborn thymus (C) were analyzed by LM-PCR for broken J κ 1 coding (A), J κ 1 and J κ 2 signal (B), and J H 2 coding and signal (C) ends without (lanes −) or with (lanes +) T4 DNA polymerase (T4 pol) pretreatment. Controls included identically prepared and treated 63-12 (RAG-2-deficient) cell DNA and buffer (lane C). DNA samples from panel C were amplified with primers specific for a nonrearranging genomic locus, demonstrating the presence of DNA in all samples. (D) Ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel of these control amplifications. Lanes 1 to 4 correspond to samples 1 to 4 in panel C, lanes 5 to 8 correspond to samples 6 to 9 in panel C, and lane 9 is a buffer-only control amplification. Lanes 1 to 6 of panels A and B were shown to contain equivalent amounts of DNA by a similar method (data not shown). ce, coding ends; se, signal ends.

    Article Snippet: Some plug DNA samples were subjected to T4 DNA polymerase treatment by incubating 40 μl of plug in an 80-μl reaction mixture with manufacturer’s buffer (Life Technologies), 5 U of T4 DNA polymerase, and 100 μM deoxynucleoside triphosphates at 37°C for 1 h. Other plugs were treated with various amounts of mung bean nuclease (BRL) under conditions previously reported by Zhu and Roth ( ).

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Staining, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    Length heterogeneity of amplified coding ends and joints. D H , J H 1, J H 2, V κ , and J κ 1 coding ends (ce) (A, B, C, E, and F) and DJ H and VJ κ joints (D and G) were amplified from T4 polymerase-treated thymus or induced 103 bcl2/4 cell DNA. The amplified fragments were gel purified and end labeled with [γ- 32 P]ATP by using T4 DNA kinase. Labeled fragments were electrophoresed on 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gels alongside DNA sequencing ladders used as size markers. The diagrams adjacent to each coding-fragment gel image indicate the sequence position based on these comigrating sequence markers. Position zero in the diagrams corresponds to the full-length coding end (i.e., the junction between the RSS and the coding segment), positive numbers indicate coding-end deletions, and negative numbers indicate longer-than-full-length coding-end lengths. The diagrams adjoining DJ H and VJ κ joints indicate successive nucleotide lengths. In panel E, the lane labeled Vκ mkr contains a radiolabeled amplification product of genomic DNA demonstrating the length heterogeneity of intact V κ genes (see the text).

    Journal: Molecular and Cellular Biology

    Article Title: Structure of Nonhairpin Coding-End DNA Breaks in Cells Undergoing V(D)J Recombination

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Length heterogeneity of amplified coding ends and joints. D H , J H 1, J H 2, V κ , and J κ 1 coding ends (ce) (A, B, C, E, and F) and DJ H and VJ κ joints (D and G) were amplified from T4 polymerase-treated thymus or induced 103 bcl2/4 cell DNA. The amplified fragments were gel purified and end labeled with [γ- 32 P]ATP by using T4 DNA kinase. Labeled fragments were electrophoresed on 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gels alongside DNA sequencing ladders used as size markers. The diagrams adjacent to each coding-fragment gel image indicate the sequence position based on these comigrating sequence markers. Position zero in the diagrams corresponds to the full-length coding end (i.e., the junction between the RSS and the coding segment), positive numbers indicate coding-end deletions, and negative numbers indicate longer-than-full-length coding-end lengths. The diagrams adjoining DJ H and VJ κ joints indicate successive nucleotide lengths. In panel E, the lane labeled Vκ mkr contains a radiolabeled amplification product of genomic DNA demonstrating the length heterogeneity of intact V κ genes (see the text).

    Article Snippet: Some plug DNA samples were subjected to T4 DNA polymerase treatment by incubating 40 μl of plug in an 80-μl reaction mixture with manufacturer’s buffer (Life Technologies), 5 U of T4 DNA polymerase, and 100 μM deoxynucleoside triphosphates at 37°C for 1 h. Other plugs were treated with various amounts of mung bean nuclease (BRL) under conditions previously reported by Zhu and Roth ( ).

    Techniques: Amplification, Purification, Labeling, DNA Sequencing, Sequencing

    The PCR product of a foreign gene was amplified by T4 DNA polymerase and dGTP, and then was ligated with the Bsu36I-digested pRTRA. The ligation mixture was transformed to the donor strain DH10β, and then the recombinant donor plasmid was obtained. We introduced the two different Bsu36I sites (CCTTAGG and CCTGAGG) in the pRTRA vector and the 4 nt TTAC(5′–3′) in the forward primer and the other 4 nt TGAC(5′–3′) in the reverse primer. The complete digestion of pRTRA with Bsu36I results in a linearized donor vector with overhang ends of 5′-TTA-3′ and 5′-TCA-3′, respectively. We made use of the 3′→5′ exonuclease activity and 5′→3′ polymerase activity of T4 DNA polymerase. When T4 DNA polymerase encounters the first Guanine nucleotide at the 5′ end of the DNA in the dGTP bath, the reaction will keep the balance between the exonuclease activity and polymerase activity. Therefore, the overhang ends of the gene fragments of interest will be digested to be perfectly compatible with the vector.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: A novel and simple method for construction of recombinant adenoviruses

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkl449

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The PCR product of a foreign gene was amplified by T4 DNA polymerase and dGTP, and then was ligated with the Bsu36I-digested pRTRA. The ligation mixture was transformed to the donor strain DH10β, and then the recombinant donor plasmid was obtained. We introduced the two different Bsu36I sites (CCTTAGG and CCTGAGG) in the pRTRA vector and the 4 nt TTAC(5′–3′) in the forward primer and the other 4 nt TGAC(5′–3′) in the reverse primer. The complete digestion of pRTRA with Bsu36I results in a linearized donor vector with overhang ends of 5′-TTA-3′ and 5′-TCA-3′, respectively. We made use of the 3′→5′ exonuclease activity and 5′→3′ polymerase activity of T4 DNA polymerase. When T4 DNA polymerase encounters the first Guanine nucleotide at the 5′ end of the DNA in the dGTP bath, the reaction will keep the balance between the exonuclease activity and polymerase activity. Therefore, the overhang ends of the gene fragments of interest will be digested to be perfectly compatible with the vector.

    Article Snippet: Cloning the foreign genes gfp and man into the donor plasmid using restriction enzyme Bsu36I and T4 DNA polymerase The gfp gene was amplified from pEGFP-1 (Clontech) by PCR.

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Ligation, Transformation Assay, Recombinant, Plasmid Preparation, Activity Assay