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  • 97
    ATCC t2 cells
    Characterization of Env183/A2 MAb. (A) Cross-reactivity was evaluated by incubating <t>T2</t> cells with 1 μM (each) the listed peptides for 1 h, and cells were stained with 0.5 μg of Env183/A2 MAb and analyzed as described above. Specific binding was observed only with the Env183-91 peptide. (B) Env183/A2 MAb is not inhibited by circulating HBV antigens. The Env183/A2 MAb was preincubated with 100 μl of sera from 2 CHB patients, the serum of healthy (AB) subjects, or culture supernatants of HepG2-117 cells. This preincubated MAb-serum mixture was used to stain Env183-91 peptide-loaded (1 μM) T2 cells. (C) Binding characterization of the TCR-like MAb. Titrated concentrations of the Env183/A2 MAb were tested with peptide-pulsed T2 cells. Bars represent the MFI values obtained at the indicated concentrations. Mean values of triplicate measurements are shown. (D) Sensitivity of Env183/A2-specific MAb and CTLs. T2 cells were incubated with the indicated concentrations of the Env183-91 peptide for 1 h and used for the binding assay of antibodies (bars) or CD8 T-cell activation (line). The binding of antibody was detected by flow cytometric analysis as described above. CD8 T-cell activation was calculated as the percentage of CD107-expressing CD8 T cells. Data represent data from one of at least two independent experiments.
    T2 Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 488 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    96
    Millipore t 2 toxin
    <t>T-2</t> toxin induced mRNA changes of collagen degradation-related TGF-β1, ALK5, Smad3, collagen II, and MMP13. The expression of TGF-β1, ALK5, Smad3, collagen II, and MMP13 was analyzed by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) at the level of mRNA, subsequent to treatment with different concentrations of T-2 toxin (0.00 ng/mL, 0.32 ng/mL, 1.60 ng/mL, 8.00 ng/mL). * p
    T 2 Toxin, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 131 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Thermo Fisher rnase t2
    Effect of L gene mutations on [ribose-2′-O] methylation. (A) Viral mRNA was synthesized in vitro as described in the text in the presence of 15 μCi of [ 3 H]SAM. Purified mRNAs were digested with 10 U of <t>RNase</t> T2 and/or 2 U of TAP, and the
    Rnase T2, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 160 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Siemens AG t2 weighted
    Lesion location in each of the UWD cases in coronal views of a <t>T2-weighted</t> MR scan. For consistency, the cases are identified as in previous publications (UWD1-3, UWD6 and year of birth). Crosshairs indicate calcified brain tissue due to the genetic mutation.
    T2 Weighted, supplied by Siemens AG, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 286 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore rnase t2
    Compilation of probing results for DiGIR2 FLC and L-IVS. Differences in probing signals in FLC compared to L-IVS are highlighted. Red indicates increased signal in FLC, green decreased signal. Grey indicates signals that are similar in the two. The individual structure probing maps of FLC and L-IVS are depicted in Supplementary Materials Figure S2 . In addition to the summary secondary structure diagram ( a ), examples of probing gels for the Internal Guide Sequence (IGS) ( b ), P7 comprising essential parts of the G-binding pocket ( c , d ), and the K-turn ( e ), are shown. The type of probe is indicated by letters next to the arrows (M: DMS, D: DEP, K: Kethoxal, C: CMCT, T1: <t>RNase</t> T1, T2: RNase T2, V1: RNase V1) and explained in the box in the central part of the figure. The length of the arrows reflects the signal strength. The paired segments are denoted P1–P13, and nucleotide positions within the DiGIR2 construct are indicated by numbers.
    Rnase T2, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 164 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Siemens Healthineers t2 mapping
    The AAR by FDG-PET imaging versus <t>T2-mapping</t> MR. There was excellent correlation and agreement between FDG-PET and the T2-mapping AAR (R=0.86; P
    T2 Mapping, supplied by Siemens Healthineers, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 107 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Philips Healthcare t2 weighted images
    Spermidine treatment ameliorates rat IDD in vivo. (A‐B) Representative safranin O‐fast green and haematoxylin, and haematoxylin and eosin staining of disc samples from different experimental groups at 4 and 8 weeks post‐surgery. Scale bars are 200 μm (40×) and 50 μm (200×), respectively. (C) <t>T2‐weighted</t> MRI of a rat tail with a needle‐punctured disc at 4 and 8 weeks post‐surgery. (D) The histological grades evaluated at week 4 and week 8 in three groups. Samples from 48 rats (sixteen in each group) were used for imageological and histopathologic analysis. (E) The Pfirrmann MRI grade scores in three groups at week 4 and week 8. Significant differences between the treatment and control groups are indicated as ** P
    T2 Weighted Images, supplied by Philips Healthcare, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 100 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Data MATRIX t2 weighted images
    Greater injury is associated with a greater shift in cortical activation to the contralesional (right) hemisphere in response to affected (right) forelimb-evoked activation at 1 week post-injury. (A) Stacked, surface projection plot of contusion volume masked from the <t>T2-weighted</t> structural image of each rat at 4 weeks post-injury and warped into template space. Data shows that there are a range of injury severities within the group indicate by the presence of contusion in 11 rats (yellow region) but extending further out in only 1-5 rats (red regions). (B) Representative Jacobian maps of the same data confirming different degrees of brain injury at 4 weeks consistent with mild-to-moderate levels of brain injury (outlined region indicates the region drawn in mean deformation target image space used to obtain average Jacobian values in subject space). (C) Group-level, statistical contrast maps of affected forelimb-evoked brain activation differences between mild and moderate injured rats at 1 week post-injury (mean cortical Jacobian percentage values 0.7 ± 1.9 versus 23.8 ± 3.5%, respectively from (B) showing regions where moderate > mild group brain activation. Data show a greater left-to-right shift in the degree of cortical activation in response to affected forelimb stimulation after moderate compared with mild injury, two-tailed t -test, n = 6 vs. 5, respectively; z = 1.7, p
    T2 Weighted Images, supplied by Data MATRIX, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 109 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Philips Healthcare mri t2
    The comparison of NT-ProBNP average based on <t>MRI</t> T2
    Mri T2, supplied by Philips Healthcare, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 26 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Aperio Technologies aperio scanscope t2 scanner
    Representative immunohistochemical staining for cPLA 2 at 6 h in the cortex as visualized by DAB. Within the entire plane of cut of the brain, scanning with an <t>Aperio</t> <t>Scanscope</t> indicated positive staining in neurons and neuronal processes only within the
    Aperio Scanscope T2 Scanner, supplied by Aperio Technologies, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 68 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Signal Recovery t2 weighted functional magnetic resonance imaging
    Representative immunohistochemical staining for cPLA 2 at 6 h in the cortex as visualized by DAB. Within the entire plane of cut of the brain, scanning with an <t>Aperio</t> <t>Scanscope</t> indicated positive staining in neurons and neuronal processes only within the
    T2 Weighted Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, supplied by Signal Recovery, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 27 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Siemens Healthineers mri t2
    a and b show Correlation between heart <t>MRI-T2*</t> and EF (r = 0.432, P =
    Mri T2, supplied by Siemens Healthineers, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 21 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    96
    ATCC t2 cell line
    a and b show Correlation between heart <t>MRI-T2*</t> and EF (r = 0.432, P =
    T2 Cell Line, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 40 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    Siemens Healthineers symbia t2
    SPECT/CT case acquired on <t>Symbia</t> T2 (Siemens Healthcare). A 54-year-old woman with breast carcinoma (pT1) for SLN mapping. Planar scintigraphy ( a ) detected sentinel lymph node (SLN). Subsequent SPECT/CT shows two SLNs: one in ( b ) typical localisation and ( c , d ) one in the upper axilla with 7-mm diameter. Histology proved the second SLN to be malignant ( e ). Imaging protocol: 102 MBq 99m Tc-nanocolloid, 0 min pi scintigraphy, 75 min pi SPECT/CT; CT: 100 mAs, 130 kVp, 1-mm/3-mm slices; SPECT: 15 s/image, FBP, no CT-AC. (Courtesy of L.S. Freudenberg, Grevenbroich, Germany)
    Symbia T2, supplied by Siemens Healthineers, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 55 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Mobitec rnase t2
    hMTr1 and hMTr2 act on the U1 and U2 snRNAs in vitro. In vitro transcribed U1 and U2 snRNA molecules with 32 P-labeled cap0 ( A and C ) or cap01 ( B and D ) structures were incubated with one of the indicated enzymes, added in the order indicated and SAM. After every modification step RNA was purified by phenol/chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation. Final products were fragmented with nuclease P1 ( A and C ) or <t>RNase</t> T2 ( B and D ). Digestion products were resolved on 21% polyacrylamide/8 M urea gels and visualized by autoradiography. Cap structures modified with VMT ( A and C ) or TbMTr2 ( B and D ) were used as positive controls. Asterisks indicate positions of 32 P-labeled phosphates.
    Rnase T2, supplied by Mobitec, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 97 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Addgene inc grna aavs1 t2
    Homology-directed <t>AAVS1</t> targeting using standard and in trans paired nicking strategies. a Diagram of standard and in trans paired nicking (Nick 2 ) procedures. The former involve DSB formation only at the target sequence; the latter comprise SSB formation at target plus donor sequences. pDonor S1 and pDonor S1.TS have their transgenes framed by sequences homologous to AAVS1 . pDonor S1.TS differs from pDonor S1 in that it has the <t>gRNA</t> S1 target site (TS) bracketing its EGFP-encoding targeting module. Cas9:gRNA S1 and Cas9 D10A :gRNA S1 are cleaving and nicking RGNs, respectively. Open and solid magenta arrowheads , position of the phosphodiester bond cleavage induced by Cas9’s RuvC and HNH nuclease domains, respectively. Solid arrowhead , position of the SSB induced by Cas9 D10A . Amplicons diagnostic for telomere-sided and centromere-sided transgenic- AAVS1 junctions (jT and jC, respectively), are depicted. b Quantification of stably transfected cells. Flow cytometry of long-term HeLa and 293 T cell cultures initially transfected with the indicated plasmids. The bars correspond to mean ± s.d. of six biological replicates from two independent experiments (three biological replicates per experiment). **** P
    Grna Aavs1 T2, supplied by Addgene inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 80 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    ACM Global t2 mapping
    Homology-directed <t>AAVS1</t> targeting using standard and in trans paired nicking strategies. a Diagram of standard and in trans paired nicking (Nick 2 ) procedures. The former involve DSB formation only at the target sequence; the latter comprise SSB formation at target plus donor sequences. pDonor S1 and pDonor S1.TS have their transgenes framed by sequences homologous to AAVS1 . pDonor S1.TS differs from pDonor S1 in that it has the <t>gRNA</t> S1 target site (TS) bracketing its EGFP-encoding targeting module. Cas9:gRNA S1 and Cas9 D10A :gRNA S1 are cleaving and nicking RGNs, respectively. Open and solid magenta arrowheads , position of the phosphodiester bond cleavage induced by Cas9’s RuvC and HNH nuclease domains, respectively. Solid arrowhead , position of the SSB induced by Cas9 D10A . Amplicons diagnostic for telomere-sided and centromere-sided transgenic- AAVS1 junctions (jT and jC, respectively), are depicted. b Quantification of stably transfected cells. Flow cytometry of long-term HeLa and 293 T cell cultures initially transfected with the indicated plasmids. The bars correspond to mean ± s.d. of six biological replicates from two independent experiments (three biological replicates per experiment). **** P
    T2 Mapping, supplied by ACM Global, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 11 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Siemens AG t2 weighted sequence
    Anatomical slice views (for visualization) of an average <t>T2-weighted</t> image comprised of the 12 control infants used in this study and 20 preterm infants with little or no brain injury. The blue and red ribbons outline the average anterior commissure–posterior commissure midthickness cortical surfaces of the control and preterm infants, respectively. (A) A coronal slice through the insula and temporal lobe. Significant differences in size and shape can be observed. (B) A more posterior coronal slice through the temporal lobe and insula. The yellow arrow identifies the posterior portion of the superior temporal sulcus. (C) A horizontal slice. The more anterior yellow arrow identifies the precentral sulcus. The more posterior yellow arrow identifies the superior temporal sulcus.
    T2 Weighted Sequence, supplied by Siemens AG, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 33 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Characterization of Env183/A2 MAb. (A) Cross-reactivity was evaluated by incubating T2 cells with 1 μM (each) the listed peptides for 1 h, and cells were stained with 0.5 μg of Env183/A2 MAb and analyzed as described above. Specific binding was observed only with the Env183-91 peptide. (B) Env183/A2 MAb is not inhibited by circulating HBV antigens. The Env183/A2 MAb was preincubated with 100 μl of sera from 2 CHB patients, the serum of healthy (AB) subjects, or culture supernatants of HepG2-117 cells. This preincubated MAb-serum mixture was used to stain Env183-91 peptide-loaded (1 μM) T2 cells. (C) Binding characterization of the TCR-like MAb. Titrated concentrations of the Env183/A2 MAb were tested with peptide-pulsed T2 cells. Bars represent the MFI values obtained at the indicated concentrations. Mean values of triplicate measurements are shown. (D) Sensitivity of Env183/A2-specific MAb and CTLs. T2 cells were incubated with the indicated concentrations of the Env183-91 peptide for 1 h and used for the binding assay of antibodies (bars) or CD8 T-cell activation (line). The binding of antibody was detected by flow cytometric analysis as described above. CD8 T-cell activation was calculated as the percentage of CD107-expressing CD8 T cells. Data represent data from one of at least two independent experiments.

    Journal: Journal of Virology

    Article Title: Targeting Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Cells with a T-Cell Receptor-Like Antibody ▿Targeting Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Cells with a T-Cell Receptor-Like Antibody ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.01990-10

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Characterization of Env183/A2 MAb. (A) Cross-reactivity was evaluated by incubating T2 cells with 1 μM (each) the listed peptides for 1 h, and cells were stained with 0.5 μg of Env183/A2 MAb and analyzed as described above. Specific binding was observed only with the Env183-91 peptide. (B) Env183/A2 MAb is not inhibited by circulating HBV antigens. The Env183/A2 MAb was preincubated with 100 μl of sera from 2 CHB patients, the serum of healthy (AB) subjects, or culture supernatants of HepG2-117 cells. This preincubated MAb-serum mixture was used to stain Env183-91 peptide-loaded (1 μM) T2 cells. (C) Binding characterization of the TCR-like MAb. Titrated concentrations of the Env183/A2 MAb were tested with peptide-pulsed T2 cells. Bars represent the MFI values obtained at the indicated concentrations. Mean values of triplicate measurements are shown. (D) Sensitivity of Env183/A2-specific MAb and CTLs. T2 cells were incubated with the indicated concentrations of the Env183-91 peptide for 1 h and used for the binding assay of antibodies (bars) or CD8 T-cell activation (line). The binding of antibody was detected by flow cytometric analysis as described above. CD8 T-cell activation was calculated as the percentage of CD107-expressing CD8 T cells. Data represent data from one of at least two independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: T2 cells (ATCC CRL 1992) were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 20 mM HEPES, 0.5 mM sodium pyruvate, minimal essential medium (MEM), nonessential amino acids, Glutamax, 5 μg/ml Plasmocin (InvivoGen), 100 U/ml penicillin, and 100 μg/ml streptomycin.

    Techniques: Staining, Binding Assay, Incubation, Activation Assay, Flow Cytometry, Expressing

    Schematic representation of the production of Env183/A2 MAb. (A) Synthesis of HLA-A2 complexes, mouse immunization, B-cell selections, and characterization of specific antibody production (detailed in Materials and Methods). The table shows the total number of screened hybridomas and their specificities. (B) Histograms representing the different staining profiles of B-cell hybridoma supernatants. T2 cells were pulsed with 1 μM (each) Env183-91 peptide or influenza A virus matrix peptide at positions 58 to 66 (Flu M1 58-66 ) and then incubated with 50 μl of hybridoma supernatant followed by washing and incubation with anti-mouse IgG-Alexa Fluor 488 for 30 min. Cells were washed and analyzed with flow cytometry. Three different profiles (negative, specific for HLA-A2 molecules, and specific for the Env183/A2 complex) are represented. Data show representative FACS profiles.

    Journal: Journal of Virology

    Article Title: Targeting Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Cells with a T-Cell Receptor-Like Antibody ▿Targeting Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Cells with a T-Cell Receptor-Like Antibody ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.01990-10

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic representation of the production of Env183/A2 MAb. (A) Synthesis of HLA-A2 complexes, mouse immunization, B-cell selections, and characterization of specific antibody production (detailed in Materials and Methods). The table shows the total number of screened hybridomas and their specificities. (B) Histograms representing the different staining profiles of B-cell hybridoma supernatants. T2 cells were pulsed with 1 μM (each) Env183-91 peptide or influenza A virus matrix peptide at positions 58 to 66 (Flu M1 58-66 ) and then incubated with 50 μl of hybridoma supernatant followed by washing and incubation with anti-mouse IgG-Alexa Fluor 488 for 30 min. Cells were washed and analyzed with flow cytometry. Three different profiles (negative, specific for HLA-A2 molecules, and specific for the Env183/A2 complex) are represented. Data show representative FACS profiles.

    Article Snippet: T2 cells (ATCC CRL 1992) were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 20 mM HEPES, 0.5 mM sodium pyruvate, minimal essential medium (MEM), nonessential amino acids, Glutamax, 5 μg/ml Plasmocin (InvivoGen), 100 U/ml penicillin, and 100 μg/ml streptomycin.

    Techniques: Staining, Incubation, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, FACS

    Fine-mapping of Env183/A2 MAb epitope recognition. (A) Influence of amino acid mutations within the Env183-91 epitope on Env183/A2 MAb and CD8 T-cell recognition. T2 cells were pulsed with 1 μM Env183-91 peptide with or without (wild type [wt]) alanine substitutions at the indicated positions. The inhibition of TCR-like MAb binding (top) and CD8 T-cell activation (bottom) elicited by alanine substitutions on the wild-type Env183-91 peptide are indicated by bars. Percent inhibition is calculated with the following formula: MFI (or CD107 expression) values obtained with alanine-substituted peptides divided by values obtained with wild-type peptides × 100. (B) Env183/A2 MAb is exclusively specific for the Env183-91 peptide of HBV genotypes (gen) A, C, and D. T2 cells were pulsed with 1 μM Env183-91 peptides with the indicated substitutions at position 187. 187R is characteristic of HBV genotype A, C, and D isolates, and K187 is characteristic of HBV genotype B, E, and F isolates. These cells were stained with Env183/A2 MAb for 1 h and analyzed by flow cytometry. Histograms were overlaid. Results are representative of three independent experiments.

    Journal: Journal of Virology

    Article Title: Targeting Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Cells with a T-Cell Receptor-Like Antibody ▿Targeting Hepatitis B Virus-Infected Cells with a T-Cell Receptor-Like Antibody ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.01990-10

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fine-mapping of Env183/A2 MAb epitope recognition. (A) Influence of amino acid mutations within the Env183-91 epitope on Env183/A2 MAb and CD8 T-cell recognition. T2 cells were pulsed with 1 μM Env183-91 peptide with or without (wild type [wt]) alanine substitutions at the indicated positions. The inhibition of TCR-like MAb binding (top) and CD8 T-cell activation (bottom) elicited by alanine substitutions on the wild-type Env183-91 peptide are indicated by bars. Percent inhibition is calculated with the following formula: MFI (or CD107 expression) values obtained with alanine-substituted peptides divided by values obtained with wild-type peptides × 100. (B) Env183/A2 MAb is exclusively specific for the Env183-91 peptide of HBV genotypes (gen) A, C, and D. T2 cells were pulsed with 1 μM Env183-91 peptides with the indicated substitutions at position 187. 187R is characteristic of HBV genotype A, C, and D isolates, and K187 is characteristic of HBV genotype B, E, and F isolates. These cells were stained with Env183/A2 MAb for 1 h and analyzed by flow cytometry. Histograms were overlaid. Results are representative of three independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: T2 cells (ATCC CRL 1992) were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 20 mM HEPES, 0.5 mM sodium pyruvate, minimal essential medium (MEM), nonessential amino acids, Glutamax, 5 μg/ml Plasmocin (InvivoGen), 100 U/ml penicillin, and 100 μg/ml streptomycin.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Binding Assay, Activation Assay, Expressing, Staining, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    T-2 toxin induced mRNA changes of collagen degradation-related TGF-β1, ALK5, Smad3, collagen II, and MMP13. The expression of TGF-β1, ALK5, Smad3, collagen II, and MMP13 was analyzed by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) at the level of mRNA, subsequent to treatment with different concentrations of T-2 toxin (0.00 ng/mL, 0.32 ng/mL, 1.60 ng/mL, 8.00 ng/mL). * p

    Journal: Toxins

    Article Title: TGF-β1/Smad3 Signaling Pathway Mediates T-2 Toxin-Induced Decrease of Type II Collagen in Cultured Rat Chondrocytes

    doi: 10.3390/toxins9110359

    Figure Lengend Snippet: T-2 toxin induced mRNA changes of collagen degradation-related TGF-β1, ALK5, Smad3, collagen II, and MMP13. The expression of TGF-β1, ALK5, Smad3, collagen II, and MMP13 was analyzed by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) at the level of mRNA, subsequent to treatment with different concentrations of T-2 toxin (0.00 ng/mL, 0.32 ng/mL, 1.60 ng/mL, 8.00 ng/mL). * p

    Article Snippet: They were randomly divided into four groups and treated with T-2 toxin (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) at different concentrations, including 0.00 ng/mL, 0.32 ng/mL, 1.60 ng/mL, and 8.00 ng/mL.

    Techniques: Expressing, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction

    The effect of T-2 toxin on the viability of chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were treated with different concentrations of T-2 toxin (0.00 ng/mL, 0.32 ng/mL, 1.60 ng/mL, 8.00 ng/mL) for 24 h. RTCA-DP (Real Time Cell Analyzer-Dual Plate) system was used to measure the survival rate of chondrocytes. * p

    Journal: Toxins

    Article Title: TGF-β1/Smad3 Signaling Pathway Mediates T-2 Toxin-Induced Decrease of Type II Collagen in Cultured Rat Chondrocytes

    doi: 10.3390/toxins9110359

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The effect of T-2 toxin on the viability of chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were treated with different concentrations of T-2 toxin (0.00 ng/mL, 0.32 ng/mL, 1.60 ng/mL, 8.00 ng/mL) for 24 h. RTCA-DP (Real Time Cell Analyzer-Dual Plate) system was used to measure the survival rate of chondrocytes. * p

    Article Snippet: They were randomly divided into four groups and treated with T-2 toxin (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) at different concentrations, including 0.00 ng/mL, 0.32 ng/mL, 1.60 ng/mL, and 8.00 ng/mL.

    Techniques:

    The effect of T-2 toxin on the ultrastructure of chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were treated with different concentrations of T-2 toxin (0.00 ng/mL, 0.32 ng/mL, 1.60 ng/mL, 8.00 ng/mL) for the ultrastructural characteristics of chondrocytes. ( A ) The ultrastructure of chondrocytes in control group. Cells have normal cell structure, including many microvilli on the cell surface, and clear mitochondrial and nucleus structure. ( B ) The ultrastructure of chondrocytes in 0.32 ng/mL T-2 toxin. A few of cells displays swollen, increased intracellular vacuoles, mild pyknosis of cell nucleus. Apoptotic bodies appeared around the cell surface. ( C ) The ultrastructure of chondrocytes in 1.60 ng/mL T-2 toxin. There are some apoptotic cells and swollen cells, accompanied by large autophagosome, nuclei, and mitochondrial swelling. The apoptotic cells indicate transition stage of apoptotic process. ( D ) The ultrastructure of chondrocytes in 8.00 ng/mL of T-2 toxin. There are some apoptotic cells, and the number of swollen cells was further increased. The cell nucleus was condensed and fragmented. * p

    Journal: Toxins

    Article Title: TGF-β1/Smad3 Signaling Pathway Mediates T-2 Toxin-Induced Decrease of Type II Collagen in Cultured Rat Chondrocytes

    doi: 10.3390/toxins9110359

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The effect of T-2 toxin on the ultrastructure of chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were treated with different concentrations of T-2 toxin (0.00 ng/mL, 0.32 ng/mL, 1.60 ng/mL, 8.00 ng/mL) for the ultrastructural characteristics of chondrocytes. ( A ) The ultrastructure of chondrocytes in control group. Cells have normal cell structure, including many microvilli on the cell surface, and clear mitochondrial and nucleus structure. ( B ) The ultrastructure of chondrocytes in 0.32 ng/mL T-2 toxin. A few of cells displays swollen, increased intracellular vacuoles, mild pyknosis of cell nucleus. Apoptotic bodies appeared around the cell surface. ( C ) The ultrastructure of chondrocytes in 1.60 ng/mL T-2 toxin. There are some apoptotic cells and swollen cells, accompanied by large autophagosome, nuclei, and mitochondrial swelling. The apoptotic cells indicate transition stage of apoptotic process. ( D ) The ultrastructure of chondrocytes in 8.00 ng/mL of T-2 toxin. There are some apoptotic cells, and the number of swollen cells was further increased. The cell nucleus was condensed and fragmented. * p

    Article Snippet: They were randomly divided into four groups and treated with T-2 toxin (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) at different concentrations, including 0.00 ng/mL, 0.32 ng/mL, 1.60 ng/mL, and 8.00 ng/mL.

    Techniques:

    TGF-β1 and Smad3 inhibitors could block the effect of T-2 toxin. After incubation with ( A , B )SB-431542 (0.50 μM of TGF-β1 inhibitor) or ( C ) SIS3 (1.2 μM of Smad3 inhibitor) for 1 h, chondrocytes were treated with T-2 toxin for another 24 h. Western blot was used to detect protein levels of P-Smad3, Smad3, ALK5, type II collagen, and MMP13 in chondrocytes. * p

    Journal: Toxins

    Article Title: TGF-β1/Smad3 Signaling Pathway Mediates T-2 Toxin-Induced Decrease of Type II Collagen in Cultured Rat Chondrocytes

    doi: 10.3390/toxins9110359

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TGF-β1 and Smad3 inhibitors could block the effect of T-2 toxin. After incubation with ( A , B )SB-431542 (0.50 μM of TGF-β1 inhibitor) or ( C ) SIS3 (1.2 μM of Smad3 inhibitor) for 1 h, chondrocytes were treated with T-2 toxin for another 24 h. Western blot was used to detect protein levels of P-Smad3, Smad3, ALK5, type II collagen, and MMP13 in chondrocytes. * p

    Article Snippet: They were randomly divided into four groups and treated with T-2 toxin (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) at different concentrations, including 0.00 ng/mL, 0.32 ng/mL, 1.60 ng/mL, and 8.00 ng/mL.

    Techniques: Blocking Assay, Incubation, Western Blot

    T-2 toxin induced changes of collagen degradation-related proteins. Western blot was used to detect the protein production of ( A ) TGF-β1, MMP13, type II collagen, ( B ) ALK5, P-Smad3, and Smad3 subsequent to treatment with different concentrations of T-2 toxin (0.00 ng/mL, 0.32 ng/mL, 1.60 ng/mL, 8.00 ng/mL). * p

    Journal: Toxins

    Article Title: TGF-β1/Smad3 Signaling Pathway Mediates T-2 Toxin-Induced Decrease of Type II Collagen in Cultured Rat Chondrocytes

    doi: 10.3390/toxins9110359

    Figure Lengend Snippet: T-2 toxin induced changes of collagen degradation-related proteins. Western blot was used to detect the protein production of ( A ) TGF-β1, MMP13, type II collagen, ( B ) ALK5, P-Smad3, and Smad3 subsequent to treatment with different concentrations of T-2 toxin (0.00 ng/mL, 0.32 ng/mL, 1.60 ng/mL, 8.00 ng/mL). * p

    Article Snippet: They were randomly divided into four groups and treated with T-2 toxin (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) at different concentrations, including 0.00 ng/mL, 0.32 ng/mL, 1.60 ng/mL, and 8.00 ng/mL.

    Techniques: Western Blot

    Effect of L gene mutations on [ribose-2′-O] methylation. (A) Viral mRNA was synthesized in vitro as described in the text in the presence of 15 μCi of [ 3 H]SAM. Purified mRNAs were digested with 10 U of RNase T2 and/or 2 U of TAP, and the

    Journal:

    Article Title: Amino Acid Residues within Conserved Domain VI of the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Large Polymerase Protein Essential for mRNA Cap Methyltransferase Activity

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.79.21.13373-13384.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of L gene mutations on [ribose-2′-O] methylation. (A) Viral mRNA was synthesized in vitro as described in the text in the presence of 15 μCi of [ 3 H]SAM. Purified mRNAs were digested with 10 U of RNase T2 and/or 2 U of TAP, and the

    Article Snippet: To examine the extent of cap methylation, purified RNAs were digested with RNase T2 (Invitrogen) and/or tobacco acid pyrophosphatase (TAP; Epicenter, Madison, WI), and the products were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on PEI-F cellulose sheets (EM Biosciences).

    Techniques: Methylation, Synthesized, In Vitro, Purification

    Lesion location in each of the UWD cases in coronal views of a T2-weighted MR scan. For consistency, the cases are identified as in previous publications (UWD1-3, UWD6 and year of birth). Crosshairs indicate calcified brain tissue due to the genetic mutation.

    Journal: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

    Article Title: Impaired acquisition of classically conditioned fear-potentiated startle reflexes in humans with focal bilateral basolateral amygdala damage

    doi: 10.1093/scan/nsu164

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Lesion location in each of the UWD cases in coronal views of a T2-weighted MR scan. For consistency, the cases are identified as in previous publications (UWD1-3, UWD6 and year of birth). Crosshairs indicate calcified brain tissue due to the genetic mutation.

    Article Snippet: A high-quality, T2-weighted, whole brain anatomical scan from a Siemens Magnetom Allegra 3-Tesla head-only scanner was used to identify the lesions (1 mm isotropic resolution, TR = 3500 ms and TE = 354 ms).

    Techniques: Mutagenesis

    Coronal T1 and T2 weighted magnetic resonance scans obtained on 1 day demonstrates a contusion in the ipsilateral hemisphere and on day 14 after injury enlarged ventricles indicating brain atrophy .

    Journal: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine

    Article Title: An experimental protocol for mimicking pathomechanisms of traumatic brain injury in mice

    doi: 10.1186/2040-7378-4-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Coronal T1 and T2 weighted magnetic resonance scans obtained on 1 day demonstrates a contusion in the ipsilateral hemisphere and on day 14 after injury enlarged ventricles indicating brain atrophy .

    Article Snippet: The representative T1- and T2-weighted MR-images in Figure , were obtained with a 3.0- Tesla magnetic resonance apparatus (Vision, Siemens) using a brain coil for rodents 1 day and 14 days after induction of injury.

    Techniques:

    Compilation of probing results for DiGIR2 FLC and L-IVS. Differences in probing signals in FLC compared to L-IVS are highlighted. Red indicates increased signal in FLC, green decreased signal. Grey indicates signals that are similar in the two. The individual structure probing maps of FLC and L-IVS are depicted in Supplementary Materials Figure S2 . In addition to the summary secondary structure diagram ( a ), examples of probing gels for the Internal Guide Sequence (IGS) ( b ), P7 comprising essential parts of the G-binding pocket ( c , d ), and the K-turn ( e ), are shown. The type of probe is indicated by letters next to the arrows (M: DMS, D: DEP, K: Kethoxal, C: CMCT, T1: RNase T1, T2: RNase T2, V1: RNase V1) and explained in the box in the central part of the figure. The length of the arrows reflects the signal strength. The paired segments are denoted P1–P13, and nucleotide positions within the DiGIR2 construct are indicated by numbers.

    Journal: Molecules

    Article Title: Accumulation of Stable Full-Length Circular Group I Intron RNAs during Heat-Shock

    doi: 10.3390/molecules21111451

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Compilation of probing results for DiGIR2 FLC and L-IVS. Differences in probing signals in FLC compared to L-IVS are highlighted. Red indicates increased signal in FLC, green decreased signal. Grey indicates signals that are similar in the two. The individual structure probing maps of FLC and L-IVS are depicted in Supplementary Materials Figure S2 . In addition to the summary secondary structure diagram ( a ), examples of probing gels for the Internal Guide Sequence (IGS) ( b ), P7 comprising essential parts of the G-binding pocket ( c , d ), and the K-turn ( e ), are shown. The type of probe is indicated by letters next to the arrows (M: DMS, D: DEP, K: Kethoxal, C: CMCT, T1: RNase T1, T2: RNase T2, V1: RNase V1) and explained in the box in the central part of the figure. The length of the arrows reflects the signal strength. The paired segments are denoted P1–P13, and nucleotide positions within the DiGIR2 construct are indicated by numbers.

    Article Snippet: The enzymatic probes were (supplier and preference of cleavage in parenthesis): RNase T1 (Sigma, St. Louis, MO, USA; single-stranded G), RNase T2 (Sigma; single-stranded A), RNase A (Ambion; single-stranded U and C), RNase V1 (Ambion; double-stranded RNA without sequence preference).

    Techniques: Sequencing, Binding Assay, Construct

    The AAR by FDG-PET imaging versus T2-mapping MR. There was excellent correlation and agreement between FDG-PET and the T2-mapping AAR (R=0.86; P

    Journal: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

    Article Title: Hybrid PET/MR metabolic imaging of the reperfused infarct - new biology, future directions

    doi: 10.1186/1532-429X-17-S1-O41

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The AAR by FDG-PET imaging versus T2-mapping MR. There was excellent correlation and agreement between FDG-PET and the T2-mapping AAR (R=0.86; P

    Article Snippet: The total volume of myocardium with reduced FDG uptake was larger than the measured MI size (% left ventricle volume [mean±SD]: 35±12 versus 22±12; P < 0.001), and was similar in size to the AAR measured by T2-mapping (% left ventricle volume [mean±SD]: 34±11 versus 35±12; P > 0.05, Fig ), with good correlation and low bias (R=0.86, bias 0.75±12.78%, Fig ).

    Techniques: Positron Emission Tomography, Imaging

    Multi-modality imaging of Subendocardial MI (arrows) with significant myocardial salvage. The area of reduced myocardial FDG uptake and edema on T2 mapping MR imaging (the AAR) extends transmurally and radially beyond the infarcted area (LGE, MR).

    Journal: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance

    Article Title: Hybrid PET/MR metabolic imaging of the reperfused infarct - new biology, future directions

    doi: 10.1186/1532-429X-17-S1-O41

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Multi-modality imaging of Subendocardial MI (arrows) with significant myocardial salvage. The area of reduced myocardial FDG uptake and edema on T2 mapping MR imaging (the AAR) extends transmurally and radially beyond the infarcted area (LGE, MR).

    Article Snippet: The total volume of myocardium with reduced FDG uptake was larger than the measured MI size (% left ventricle volume [mean±SD]: 35±12 versus 22±12; P < 0.001), and was similar in size to the AAR measured by T2-mapping (% left ventricle volume [mean±SD]: 34±11 versus 35±12; P > 0.05, Fig ), with good correlation and low bias (R=0.86, bias 0.75±12.78%, Fig ).

    Techniques: Imaging

    Tumor satellite lesion displays hyperintense on NOE mediated CEST. Tumor satellite of a glioblastoma subcortical temporal right in a 67 year old woman. The satellite presents a clear enhancement on CE-T1 (arrow in A) and barely displays on the T2-weighted image (arrow in B). In contrast, the satellite displays clearly hyperintense on CEST based on MTR asym (C) and matches with the area of contrast enhancement on the CE-T1 image (A). Furthermore also CSF in lateral ventricles and cerebral sulci displays hyperintense on MTR asym .

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement Mediated Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Imaging at 7 Tesla in Glioblastoma Patients

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104181

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Tumor satellite lesion displays hyperintense on NOE mediated CEST. Tumor satellite of a glioblastoma subcortical temporal right in a 67 year old woman. The satellite presents a clear enhancement on CE-T1 (arrow in A) and barely displays on the T2-weighted image (arrow in B). In contrast, the satellite displays clearly hyperintense on CEST based on MTR asym (C) and matches with the area of contrast enhancement on the CE-T1 image (A). Furthermore also CSF in lateral ventricles and cerebral sulci displays hyperintense on MTR asym .

    Article Snippet: Conventional MRI at 3T CE-T1 weighted (TE = 4.04 ms, TR = 1710 ms, FoV 256×256, resolution 512×512, slice thickness 1 mm) and T2-weighted (TE = 89 ms, TR = 5140 ms, FoV 172×229, resolution 384×230, slice thickness 4 mm) images were acquired on a 3T whole body MR imaging system (Magnetom Verio/Trio TIM; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany).

    Techniques:

    Regions of interest (ROI) selection for spectral analysis and MTR asym quantification. Left occipital glioblastoma of a 79 year old patient, CE-T1 (A) and T2-weighted images (B) with color coded ROIs: CE-T1 tumor, isolated CEST HIR within CE-T1 margins, tumor necrosis, PTCH within T2 edema margins, CSF and CLNAWM. CEST contrast based on MTR asym (C): Same ROIs illustrated in green for improved visualization. Z-spectrum (D) and asymmetry analysis (E) shown. Analyses of Z-spectra reveals that a decrease of NOE upfield effects at −3.3 ppm causes the hyperintense MTR asym contrast in the tumor regions, while no clear APT peak around +3.3 ppm could be identified in any of the analyzed tissues. Even though MTR asym shows high intensities both in CSF and isolated CEST HIR within CE-T1 tumor, Z-spectrum analysis reveals that the underlying asymmetry has a different origin: no saturation transfer is apparent in CSF at ±3.3 ppm (D black line) while in tumor regions (D dark green, dark blue and light blue lines) MTR asym = 0 reflects that NOE signals (−3.3 ppm) and saturation transfer effects at the opposite side of the Z-spectrum (+3.3 ppm) are of equal size. Furthermore the width of the Z-spectrum of CSF is decreased due to the longer T2 relaxation time.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement Mediated Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Imaging at 7 Tesla in Glioblastoma Patients

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104181

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Regions of interest (ROI) selection for spectral analysis and MTR asym quantification. Left occipital glioblastoma of a 79 year old patient, CE-T1 (A) and T2-weighted images (B) with color coded ROIs: CE-T1 tumor, isolated CEST HIR within CE-T1 margins, tumor necrosis, PTCH within T2 edema margins, CSF and CLNAWM. CEST contrast based on MTR asym (C): Same ROIs illustrated in green for improved visualization. Z-spectrum (D) and asymmetry analysis (E) shown. Analyses of Z-spectra reveals that a decrease of NOE upfield effects at −3.3 ppm causes the hyperintense MTR asym contrast in the tumor regions, while no clear APT peak around +3.3 ppm could be identified in any of the analyzed tissues. Even though MTR asym shows high intensities both in CSF and isolated CEST HIR within CE-T1 tumor, Z-spectrum analysis reveals that the underlying asymmetry has a different origin: no saturation transfer is apparent in CSF at ±3.3 ppm (D black line) while in tumor regions (D dark green, dark blue and light blue lines) MTR asym = 0 reflects that NOE signals (−3.3 ppm) and saturation transfer effects at the opposite side of the Z-spectrum (+3.3 ppm) are of equal size. Furthermore the width of the Z-spectrum of CSF is decreased due to the longer T2 relaxation time.

    Article Snippet: Conventional MRI at 3T CE-T1 weighted (TE = 4.04 ms, TR = 1710 ms, FoV 256×256, resolution 512×512, slice thickness 1 mm) and T2-weighted (TE = 89 ms, TR = 5140 ms, FoV 172×229, resolution 384×230, slice thickness 4 mm) images were acquired on a 3T whole body MR imaging system (Magnetom Verio/Trio TIM; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany).

    Techniques: Selection, Isolation

    Peritumoral hyperintensity on NOE mediated CEST compared to standard MRI. Left frontal glioblastoma in a 59 year old man at 3 Tesla, CE-T1 (A) and T2-weighted images (B). On the selected slice the CEST contrast at 7 Tesla, based on MTR asym (C), displays peritumoral hyperintensities at equal extent compared to the edema on T2-weighted images. In contrast to T2-weighted images, the CEST peritumoral hyperintensity displays an irregular border and subareas of different signal intensity.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement Mediated Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Imaging at 7 Tesla in Glioblastoma Patients

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0104181

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Peritumoral hyperintensity on NOE mediated CEST compared to standard MRI. Left frontal glioblastoma in a 59 year old man at 3 Tesla, CE-T1 (A) and T2-weighted images (B). On the selected slice the CEST contrast at 7 Tesla, based on MTR asym (C), displays peritumoral hyperintensities at equal extent compared to the edema on T2-weighted images. In contrast to T2-weighted images, the CEST peritumoral hyperintensity displays an irregular border and subareas of different signal intensity.

    Article Snippet: Conventional MRI at 3T CE-T1 weighted (TE = 4.04 ms, TR = 1710 ms, FoV 256×256, resolution 512×512, slice thickness 1 mm) and T2-weighted (TE = 89 ms, TR = 5140 ms, FoV 172×229, resolution 384×230, slice thickness 4 mm) images were acquired on a 3T whole body MR imaging system (Magnetom Verio/Trio TIM; Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany).

    Techniques: Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    T1- and T2-weighted MRI-ON images at 0Y, and at 1, 3, 5, and 20Y. 0, 1Y: Representative IBIS images (1/55 section total through entire brain). 3–20Y: Representative non-IBIS images (1/255 sections). ON measurement analysis is shown in the T2/10Y

    Journal: Eye

    Article Title: Postnatal growth of the human optic nerve

    doi: 10.1038/eye.2016.141

    Figure Lengend Snippet: T1- and T2-weighted MRI-ON images at 0Y, and at 1, 3, 5, and 20Y. 0, 1Y: Representative IBIS images (1/55 section total through entire brain). 3–20Y: Representative non-IBIS images (1/255 sections). ON measurement analysis is shown in the T2/10Y

    Article Snippet: The ONs were measured bilaterally from the posterior of the globe to the middle of the optic chiasm on both T1- and T2-weighted images using the Leonardo MR workstation (Siemens Medical Solutions, Malvern, NY, USA) and the results were averaged.

    Techniques: Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Spermidine treatment ameliorates rat IDD in vivo. (A‐B) Representative safranin O‐fast green and haematoxylin, and haematoxylin and eosin staining of disc samples from different experimental groups at 4 and 8 weeks post‐surgery. Scale bars are 200 μm (40×) and 50 μm (200×), respectively. (C) T2‐weighted MRI of a rat tail with a needle‐punctured disc at 4 and 8 weeks post‐surgery. (D) The histological grades evaluated at week 4 and week 8 in three groups. Samples from 48 rats (sixteen in each group) were used for imageological and histopathologic analysis. (E) The Pfirrmann MRI grade scores in three groups at week 4 and week 8. Significant differences between the treatment and control groups are indicated as ** P

    Journal: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine

    Article Title: Spermidine promotes nucleus pulposus autophagy as a protective mechanism against apoptosis and ameliorates disc degeneration, et al. Spermidine promotes nucleus pulposus autophagy as a protective mechanism against apoptosis and ameliorates disc degeneration

    doi: 10.1111/jcmm.13586

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Spermidine treatment ameliorates rat IDD in vivo. (A‐B) Representative safranin O‐fast green and haematoxylin, and haematoxylin and eosin staining of disc samples from different experimental groups at 4 and 8 weeks post‐surgery. Scale bars are 200 μm (40×) and 50 μm (200×), respectively. (C) T2‐weighted MRI of a rat tail with a needle‐punctured disc at 4 and 8 weeks post‐surgery. (D) The histological grades evaluated at week 4 and week 8 in three groups. Samples from 48 rats (sixteen in each group) were used for imageological and histopathologic analysis. (E) The Pfirrmann MRI grade scores in three groups at week 4 and week 8. Significant differences between the treatment and control groups are indicated as ** P

    Article Snippet: Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on all rats to evaluate the signal and structural changes in sagittal T2‐weighted images using a 3.0 T clinical magnet (Philips Intera Achieva 3.0MR).

    Techniques: In Vivo, Staining, Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Coronal T2-weighted (A) and diffusion-weighted (B) MR images obtained after CED of 88 μl of radiolabeled 14 C-dextran into the right thalamus. The insets show the corresponding autoradiograms of 14 C-dextran distribution and demonstrates the spatial

    Journal: Journal of neurosurgery

    Article Title: Tracking accuracy of T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for infusate distribution by convection-enhanced delivery

    doi: 10.3171/2011.5.JNS11246

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Coronal T2-weighted (A) and diffusion-weighted (B) MR images obtained after CED of 88 μl of radiolabeled 14 C-dextran into the right thalamus. The insets show the corresponding autoradiograms of 14 C-dextran distribution and demonstrates the spatial

    Article Snippet: Upon initiation of infusion, T2-weighted (0.5-mm slice thickness) and diffusion-weighted (2.5-mm slice thickness) images in the coronal, axial, and sagittal planes were obtained using a 3-T MR imaging unit (Philips).

    Techniques: Diffusion-based Assay

    Coronal T2-weighted MR images obtained in a primate brain after infusion of 15 μl (A) , 30 μl (B) , and 60 μl (C) of 14 C-dextran. Infusion of 14 C-dextran solution provides a distinct region of T2-weighted hyperintensity in each thalamus

    Journal: Journal of neurosurgery

    Article Title: Tracking accuracy of T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for infusate distribution by convection-enhanced delivery

    doi: 10.3171/2011.5.JNS11246

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Coronal T2-weighted MR images obtained in a primate brain after infusion of 15 μl (A) , 30 μl (B) , and 60 μl (C) of 14 C-dextran. Infusion of 14 C-dextran solution provides a distinct region of T2-weighted hyperintensity in each thalamus

    Article Snippet: Upon initiation of infusion, T2-weighted (0.5-mm slice thickness) and diffusion-weighted (2.5-mm slice thickness) images in the coronal, axial, and sagittal planes were obtained using a 3-T MR imaging unit (Philips).

    Techniques:

    Graph demonstrating a linear relationship (R 2 = 0.94) between Vd with T2-weighted MR imaging and Vi in primates infused with 14 C-sucrose and 14 C-dextran. The mean Vd/Vi ratio was 3.6 ± 0.5 (mean ± SD).

    Journal: Journal of neurosurgery

    Article Title: Tracking accuracy of T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging for infusate distribution by convection-enhanced delivery

    doi: 10.3171/2011.5.JNS11246

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Graph demonstrating a linear relationship (R 2 = 0.94) between Vd with T2-weighted MR imaging and Vi in primates infused with 14 C-sucrose and 14 C-dextran. The mean Vd/Vi ratio was 3.6 ± 0.5 (mean ± SD).

    Article Snippet: Upon initiation of infusion, T2-weighted (0.5-mm slice thickness) and diffusion-weighted (2.5-mm slice thickness) images in the coronal, axial, and sagittal planes were obtained using a 3-T MR imaging unit (Philips).

    Techniques: Imaging

    Greater injury is associated with a greater shift in cortical activation to the contralesional (right) hemisphere in response to affected (right) forelimb-evoked activation at 1 week post-injury. (A) Stacked, surface projection plot of contusion volume masked from the T2-weighted structural image of each rat at 4 weeks post-injury and warped into template space. Data shows that there are a range of injury severities within the group indicate by the presence of contusion in 11 rats (yellow region) but extending further out in only 1-5 rats (red regions). (B) Representative Jacobian maps of the same data confirming different degrees of brain injury at 4 weeks consistent with mild-to-moderate levels of brain injury (outlined region indicates the region drawn in mean deformation target image space used to obtain average Jacobian values in subject space). (C) Group-level, statistical contrast maps of affected forelimb-evoked brain activation differences between mild and moderate injured rats at 1 week post-injury (mean cortical Jacobian percentage values 0.7 ± 1.9 versus 23.8 ± 3.5%, respectively from (B) showing regions where moderate > mild group brain activation. Data show a greater left-to-right shift in the degree of cortical activation in response to affected forelimb stimulation after moderate compared with mild injury, two-tailed t -test, n = 6 vs. 5, respectively; z = 1.7, p

    Journal: Journal of Neurotrauma

    Article Title: Remote Changes in Cortical Excitability after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury and Functional Reorganization

    doi: 10.1089/neu.2017.5536

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Greater injury is associated with a greater shift in cortical activation to the contralesional (right) hemisphere in response to affected (right) forelimb-evoked activation at 1 week post-injury. (A) Stacked, surface projection plot of contusion volume masked from the T2-weighted structural image of each rat at 4 weeks post-injury and warped into template space. Data shows that there are a range of injury severities within the group indicate by the presence of contusion in 11 rats (yellow region) but extending further out in only 1-5 rats (red regions). (B) Representative Jacobian maps of the same data confirming different degrees of brain injury at 4 weeks consistent with mild-to-moderate levels of brain injury (outlined region indicates the region drawn in mean deformation target image space used to obtain average Jacobian values in subject space). (C) Group-level, statistical contrast maps of affected forelimb-evoked brain activation differences between mild and moderate injured rats at 1 week post-injury (mean cortical Jacobian percentage values 0.7 ± 1.9 versus 23.8 ± 3.5%, respectively from (B) showing regions where moderate > mild group brain activation. Data show a greater left-to-right shift in the degree of cortical activation in response to affected forelimb stimulation after moderate compared with mild injury, two-tailed t -test, n = 6 vs. 5, respectively; z = 1.7, p

    Article Snippet: A two-dimensional rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) sequence was used to collect T2-weighted images with TR = 6018 msec, TE = 56 msec, and RARE factor = 8, and using the same geometry as used for the fMRI protocol, except a data matrix of 128-read by128-phase encoding steps.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Two Tailed Test

    The comparison of NT-ProBNP average based on MRI T2

    Journal: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion

    Article Title: A Comparison Between MRIT2 and NT-ProBNP in Early Detection of Heart Diseases in Thalassemia Major Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    doi: 10.1007/s12288-017-0797-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The comparison of NT-ProBNP average based on MRI T2

    Article Snippet: Eventually, the correlation between the results of MRI T2* and NT-ProBNP were evaluated.

    Techniques: Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Representative immunohistochemical staining for cPLA 2 at 6 h in the cortex as visualized by DAB. Within the entire plane of cut of the brain, scanning with an Aperio Scanscope indicated positive staining in neurons and neuronal processes only within the

    Journal: Neurochemical research

    Article Title: Bilateral common carotid artery ligation transiently changes brain lipid metabolism in rats

    doi: 10.1007/s11064-012-0740-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Representative immunohistochemical staining for cPLA 2 at 6 h in the cortex as visualized by DAB. Within the entire plane of cut of the brain, scanning with an Aperio Scanscope indicated positive staining in neurons and neuronal processes only within the

    Article Snippet: Digital images of the entire brain section were acquired with a Leica DMRBE microscope (Wetzlar, Germany) or using the Aperio Scanscope T2 Scanner (Aperio Technologies, Vista, CA USA) and viewed using Aperio Imagescope v. 6.25.0.1117.

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Representative immunohistochemical staining for COX-2 at 24 h after BCCL or sham operation. The sagittal plane of cut for the full section of the brain was scanned using an Aperio Scanscope T2 Scanner and viewed with an Aperio Imagescope. Staining was

    Journal: Neurochemical research

    Article Title: Bilateral common carotid artery ligation transiently changes brain lipid metabolism in rats

    doi: 10.1007/s11064-012-0740-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Representative immunohistochemical staining for COX-2 at 24 h after BCCL or sham operation. The sagittal plane of cut for the full section of the brain was scanned using an Aperio Scanscope T2 Scanner and viewed with an Aperio Imagescope. Staining was

    Article Snippet: Digital images of the entire brain section were acquired with a Leica DMRBE microscope (Wetzlar, Germany) or using the Aperio Scanscope T2 Scanner (Aperio Technologies, Vista, CA USA) and viewed using Aperio Imagescope v. 6.25.0.1117.

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    a and b show Correlation between heart MRI-T2* and EF (r = 0.432, P =

    Journal: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion

    Article Title: Assessment of Heart and Liver Iron Overload in Thalassemia Major Patients Using T2* Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    doi: 10.1007/s12288-016-0696-5

    Figure Lengend Snippet: a and b show Correlation between heart MRI-T2* and EF (r = 0.432, P =

    Article Snippet: We did not observe any correlation between MRI-T2 of heart and age (r = 0.018, P = 0.872), mean of hemoglobin measurements (r = −0.1, P = 0.354), transfused blood volume (r = 0.098, P = 0.362) and duration of desferal administration (r = 0.052, P = 0.631); however, between MRI-T2* (ms) of heart and mean of ferritin measurements a negative correlation was seen (r = −0.257, P = 0.015).

    Techniques: Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SPECT/CT case acquired on Symbia T2 (Siemens Healthcare). A 54-year-old woman with breast carcinoma (pT1) for SLN mapping. Planar scintigraphy ( a ) detected sentinel lymph node (SLN). Subsequent SPECT/CT shows two SLNs: one in ( b ) typical localisation and ( c , d ) one in the upper axilla with 7-mm diameter. Histology proved the second SLN to be malignant ( e ). Imaging protocol: 102 MBq 99m Tc-nanocolloid, 0 min pi scintigraphy, 75 min pi SPECT/CT; CT: 100 mAs, 130 kVp, 1-mm/3-mm slices; SPECT: 15 s/image, FBP, no CT-AC. (Courtesy of L.S. Freudenberg, Grevenbroich, Germany)

    Journal: Insights into Imaging

    Article Title: The future of hybrid imaging--part 1: hybrid imaging technologies and SPECT/CT

    doi: 10.1007/s13244-010-0063-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SPECT/CT case acquired on Symbia T2 (Siemens Healthcare). A 54-year-old woman with breast carcinoma (pT1) for SLN mapping. Planar scintigraphy ( a ) detected sentinel lymph node (SLN). Subsequent SPECT/CT shows two SLNs: one in ( b ) typical localisation and ( c , d ) one in the upper axilla with 7-mm diameter. Histology proved the second SLN to be malignant ( e ). Imaging protocol: 102 MBq 99m Tc-nanocolloid, 0 min pi scintigraphy, 75 min pi SPECT/CT; CT: 100 mAs, 130 kVp, 1-mm/3-mm slices; SPECT: 15 s/image, FBP, no CT-AC. (Courtesy of L.S. Freudenberg, Grevenbroich, Germany)

    Article Snippet: In 2004 the first combined clinical SPECT/CT system, the Symbia T2 (Siemens Medical Solutions), was launched comprising a dual-slice Emotion CT and a dual-head Symbia S scintillation camera.

    Techniques: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, Imaging

    hMTr1 and hMTr2 act on the U1 and U2 snRNAs in vitro. In vitro transcribed U1 and U2 snRNA molecules with 32 P-labeled cap0 ( A and C ) or cap01 ( B and D ) structures were incubated with one of the indicated enzymes, added in the order indicated and SAM. After every modification step RNA was purified by phenol/chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation. Final products were fragmented with nuclease P1 ( A and C ) or RNase T2 ( B and D ). Digestion products were resolved on 21% polyacrylamide/8 M urea gels and visualized by autoradiography. Cap structures modified with VMT ( A and C ) or TbMTr2 ( B and D ) were used as positive controls. Asterisks indicate positions of 32 P-labeled phosphates.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: 2?-O-ribose methylation of cap2 in human: function and evolution in a horizontally mobile family

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkr038

    Figure Lengend Snippet: hMTr1 and hMTr2 act on the U1 and U2 snRNAs in vitro. In vitro transcribed U1 and U2 snRNA molecules with 32 P-labeled cap0 ( A and C ) or cap01 ( B and D ) structures were incubated with one of the indicated enzymes, added in the order indicated and SAM. After every modification step RNA was purified by phenol/chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation. Final products were fragmented with nuclease P1 ( A and C ) or RNase T2 ( B and D ). Digestion products were resolved on 21% polyacrylamide/8 M urea gels and visualized by autoradiography. Cap structures modified with VMT ( A and C ) or TbMTr2 ( B and D ) were used as positive controls. Asterisks indicate positions of 32 P-labeled phosphates.

    Article Snippet: The reaction products were digested with nuclease P1 or RNase T2 and separated on a polyacrylamide gel.

    Techniques: Activated Clotting Time Assay, In Vitro, Labeling, Incubation, Modification, Purification, Ethanol Precipitation, Autoradiography

    Analysis of hMTr1 and hMTr2 mutants. In vitro transcribed RNA-GG molecules with 32 P-labeled cap0 ( A ) or cap01 ( B ) structures were incubated with indicated enzymes [wild-type (hMTr1, hMTr2), alanine-substituted variants of hMTr1 (K239A, D365A, K404A) and hMTr2 (K117A, D235A, K275A) or truncated forms of hMTr2 (1–530, 1–430)] in the presence of SAM. Purified product RNA was digested with nuclease P1 ( A ) or RNase T2 ( B ). Digestion products were resolved on a 21% polyacrylamide/8 M urea gel and visualized by autoradiography. Asterisks indicate positions of 32 P-labeled phosphates.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: 2?-O-ribose methylation of cap2 in human: function and evolution in a horizontally mobile family

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkr038

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Analysis of hMTr1 and hMTr2 mutants. In vitro transcribed RNA-GG molecules with 32 P-labeled cap0 ( A ) or cap01 ( B ) structures were incubated with indicated enzymes [wild-type (hMTr1, hMTr2), alanine-substituted variants of hMTr1 (K239A, D365A, K404A) and hMTr2 (K117A, D235A, K275A) or truncated forms of hMTr2 (1–530, 1–430)] in the presence of SAM. Purified product RNA was digested with nuclease P1 ( A ) or RNase T2 ( B ). Digestion products were resolved on a 21% polyacrylamide/8 M urea gel and visualized by autoradiography. Asterisks indicate positions of 32 P-labeled phosphates.

    Article Snippet: The reaction products were digested with nuclease P1 or RNase T2 and separated on a polyacrylamide gel.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Labeling, Incubation, Purification, Autoradiography

    hMTr2 activity and substrate requirements. Methyltransferase activity: In vitro transcribed RNA-GG molecules with the 32 P-labeled cap01 structure ( A ) were incubated with enzymes as indicated in the presence of SAM. Purified product RNA was digested with RNase T2. Digestion products were resolved on 21% polyacrylamide/8 M urea gel and visualized by autoradiography. BAP protein was used as negative control. RNA with 32 P-labeled cap structure created with the TbMTr2 enzyme was used as a reference. Specificity: autoradiography of two-dimensional chromatograms of 5′-phosphate nucleosides on thin layer cellulose plates. [α- 32 P] ATP-labeled in vitro transcribed cap01-RNA-GA was incubated with SAM in the absence, ( B ) or presence ( C ) of the hMTr2 protein. Product RNA was purified, cleaved by nuclease P1 and the resulting nucleotides were analyzed as described ( 44 ). 5′-monophosphate ribonucleosides of G, A, U, C, Am and m 6 A were used as standards. Substrate requirements: In vitro transcribed RNA-GG molecules with 32 P-labeled cap0 ( D ) or capG ( E) structure were incubated with one of the indicated enzymes, added in a given order, in the presence of SAM. After every modification step RNA molecules were purified by phenol/chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation. Final products were digested and analyzed as described in legend for panel A. Asterisks indicate positions of 32 P-labeled phosphates.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: 2?-O-ribose methylation of cap2 in human: function and evolution in a horizontally mobile family

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkr038

    Figure Lengend Snippet: hMTr2 activity and substrate requirements. Methyltransferase activity: In vitro transcribed RNA-GG molecules with the 32 P-labeled cap01 structure ( A ) were incubated with enzymes as indicated in the presence of SAM. Purified product RNA was digested with RNase T2. Digestion products were resolved on 21% polyacrylamide/8 M urea gel and visualized by autoradiography. BAP protein was used as negative control. RNA with 32 P-labeled cap structure created with the TbMTr2 enzyme was used as a reference. Specificity: autoradiography of two-dimensional chromatograms of 5′-phosphate nucleosides on thin layer cellulose plates. [α- 32 P] ATP-labeled in vitro transcribed cap01-RNA-GA was incubated with SAM in the absence, ( B ) or presence ( C ) of the hMTr2 protein. Product RNA was purified, cleaved by nuclease P1 and the resulting nucleotides were analyzed as described ( 44 ). 5′-monophosphate ribonucleosides of G, A, U, C, Am and m 6 A were used as standards. Substrate requirements: In vitro transcribed RNA-GG molecules with 32 P-labeled cap0 ( D ) or capG ( E) structure were incubated with one of the indicated enzymes, added in a given order, in the presence of SAM. After every modification step RNA molecules were purified by phenol/chloroform extraction and ethanol precipitation. Final products were digested and analyzed as described in legend for panel A. Asterisks indicate positions of 32 P-labeled phosphates.

    Article Snippet: The reaction products were digested with nuclease P1 or RNase T2 and separated on a polyacrylamide gel.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, In Vitro, Labeling, Incubation, Purification, Autoradiography, Negative Control, Modification, Ethanol Precipitation

    Homology-directed AAVS1 targeting using standard and in trans paired nicking strategies. a Diagram of standard and in trans paired nicking (Nick 2 ) procedures. The former involve DSB formation only at the target sequence; the latter comprise SSB formation at target plus donor sequences. pDonor S1 and pDonor S1.TS have their transgenes framed by sequences homologous to AAVS1 . pDonor S1.TS differs from pDonor S1 in that it has the gRNA S1 target site (TS) bracketing its EGFP-encoding targeting module. Cas9:gRNA S1 and Cas9 D10A :gRNA S1 are cleaving and nicking RGNs, respectively. Open and solid magenta arrowheads , position of the phosphodiester bond cleavage induced by Cas9’s RuvC and HNH nuclease domains, respectively. Solid arrowhead , position of the SSB induced by Cas9 D10A . Amplicons diagnostic for telomere-sided and centromere-sided transgenic- AAVS1 junctions (jT and jC, respectively), are depicted. b Quantification of stably transfected cells. Flow cytometry of long-term HeLa and 293 T cell cultures initially transfected with the indicated plasmids. The bars correspond to mean ± s.d. of six biological replicates from two independent experiments (three biological replicates per experiment). **** P

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: In trans paired nicking triggers seamless genome editing without double-stranded DNA cutting

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00687-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Homology-directed AAVS1 targeting using standard and in trans paired nicking strategies. a Diagram of standard and in trans paired nicking (Nick 2 ) procedures. The former involve DSB formation only at the target sequence; the latter comprise SSB formation at target plus donor sequences. pDonor S1 and pDonor S1.TS have their transgenes framed by sequences homologous to AAVS1 . pDonor S1.TS differs from pDonor S1 in that it has the gRNA S1 target site (TS) bracketing its EGFP-encoding targeting module. Cas9:gRNA S1 and Cas9 D10A :gRNA S1 are cleaving and nicking RGNs, respectively. Open and solid magenta arrowheads , position of the phosphodiester bond cleavage induced by Cas9’s RuvC and HNH nuclease domains, respectively. Solid arrowhead , position of the SSB induced by Cas9 D10A . Amplicons diagnostic for telomere-sided and centromere-sided transgenic- AAVS1 junctions (jT and jC, respectively), are depicted. b Quantification of stably transfected cells. Flow cytometry of long-term HeLa and 293 T cell cultures initially transfected with the indicated plasmids. The bars correspond to mean ± s.d. of six biological replicates from two independent experiments (three biological replicates per experiment). **** P

    Article Snippet: The constructs gRNA_Cloning Vector (#41824), gRNA_AAVS1-T2 (ref. ; #41818), and gRNA_GFP_T2 (ref. ; #41820), herein called pgRNAEmpty , pgRNAS1 , and pgRNAGFP1 , respectively, were also acquired from Addgene.

    Techniques: Sequencing, Diagnostic Assay, Transgenic Assay, Stable Transfection, Transfection, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    Comparing RGN-induced gene targeting based on standard and in trans paired nicking in human PSCs. a Quantification of genetically modified PSCs by flow cytometry. Cultures of iPSCs (A, B, and E) and ESCs (C and D) were exposed to AAVS1 -specific cleaving Cas9:gRNA S1 (standard) or nicking Cas9 D10A :gRNA S1 (Nick 2 ) complexes mixed with RGN-resistant or RGN-susceptible donor constructs, respectively, encoding either EGFP or Puro R .T2A.EGFP. The frequencies of gene-modified PSCs were determined by flow cytometric quantification of EGFP + and TRA-1-81 + dually labeled cells. b Representative flow cytometry dot plots corresponding to RGN-induced gene targeting experiments in PSCs. c Detection of gene-modified PSCs by colony-formation assays. ESCs ( top ) and iPSCs ( bottom ) were co-transfected with the indicated plasmids. After puromycin selection, alkaline phosphatase staining identified genetically modified PSC colonies. d RGN-induced gene targeting frequencies at AAVS1 in iPSCs. Junction PCR analyses of puromycin-resistant colonies from iPSC cultures initially co-transfected with pDonor.EP S1 and pCas9.gRNA S1 (standard) or with pDonor.EP S1.TS and pCas9 D10A .gRNA S1 (Nick 2 ). The respective PCR screening data are presented in Supplementary Fig. 13 . e Differentiation potential of gene-edited PSCs. ESC and iPSC lines were targeted at AAVS1 by in trans paired nicking. Cell types characteristic of ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm were identified by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy for TUBB3, AFP, and CD31, respectively. f Characterization of indel footprints in iPSCs subjected to standard vs. in trans paired nicking. Nucleotide sequencing of AAVS1 target alleles in randomly selected iPSC clones ( n = 68) genetically modified by DSB-dependent and in trans paired nicking methodologies (Standard and Nick 2 , respectively). Indel footprints were exclusively identified in iPSCs subjected to the standard gene targeting approach (15/28). The gRNA S1 target site is indicated underneath the sequence reads. Open box PAM; vertical dashed line position of expected RGN-induced phosphodiester bond cleavage; Ctrl reference wild-type nucleotide sequence from unedited cells

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: In trans paired nicking triggers seamless genome editing without double-stranded DNA cutting

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00687-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparing RGN-induced gene targeting based on standard and in trans paired nicking in human PSCs. a Quantification of genetically modified PSCs by flow cytometry. Cultures of iPSCs (A, B, and E) and ESCs (C and D) were exposed to AAVS1 -specific cleaving Cas9:gRNA S1 (standard) or nicking Cas9 D10A :gRNA S1 (Nick 2 ) complexes mixed with RGN-resistant or RGN-susceptible donor constructs, respectively, encoding either EGFP or Puro R .T2A.EGFP. The frequencies of gene-modified PSCs were determined by flow cytometric quantification of EGFP + and TRA-1-81 + dually labeled cells. b Representative flow cytometry dot plots corresponding to RGN-induced gene targeting experiments in PSCs. c Detection of gene-modified PSCs by colony-formation assays. ESCs ( top ) and iPSCs ( bottom ) were co-transfected with the indicated plasmids. After puromycin selection, alkaline phosphatase staining identified genetically modified PSC colonies. d RGN-induced gene targeting frequencies at AAVS1 in iPSCs. Junction PCR analyses of puromycin-resistant colonies from iPSC cultures initially co-transfected with pDonor.EP S1 and pCas9.gRNA S1 (standard) or with pDonor.EP S1.TS and pCas9 D10A .gRNA S1 (Nick 2 ). The respective PCR screening data are presented in Supplementary Fig. 13 . e Differentiation potential of gene-edited PSCs. ESC and iPSC lines were targeted at AAVS1 by in trans paired nicking. Cell types characteristic of ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm were identified by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy for TUBB3, AFP, and CD31, respectively. f Characterization of indel footprints in iPSCs subjected to standard vs. in trans paired nicking. Nucleotide sequencing of AAVS1 target alleles in randomly selected iPSC clones ( n = 68) genetically modified by DSB-dependent and in trans paired nicking methodologies (Standard and Nick 2 , respectively). Indel footprints were exclusively identified in iPSCs subjected to the standard gene targeting approach (15/28). The gRNA S1 target site is indicated underneath the sequence reads. Open box PAM; vertical dashed line position of expected RGN-induced phosphodiester bond cleavage; Ctrl reference wild-type nucleotide sequence from unedited cells

    Article Snippet: The constructs gRNA_Cloning Vector (#41824), gRNA_AAVS1-T2 (ref. ; #41818), and gRNA_GFP_T2 (ref. ; #41820), herein called pgRNAEmpty , pgRNAS1 , and pgRNAGFP1 , respectively, were also acquired from Addgene.

    Techniques: Genetically Modified, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Construct, Modification, Labeling, Transfection, Selection, Staining, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Immunofluorescence, Microscopy, Sequencing, Clone Assay

    Anatomical slice views (for visualization) of an average T2-weighted image comprised of the 12 control infants used in this study and 20 preterm infants with little or no brain injury. The blue and red ribbons outline the average anterior commissure–posterior commissure midthickness cortical surfaces of the control and preterm infants, respectively. (A) A coronal slice through the insula and temporal lobe. Significant differences in size and shape can be observed. (B) A more posterior coronal slice through the temporal lobe and insula. The yellow arrow identifies the posterior portion of the superior temporal sulcus. (C) A horizontal slice. The more anterior yellow arrow identifies the precentral sulcus. The more posterior yellow arrow identifies the superior temporal sulcus.

    Journal: Annals of Neurology

    Article Title: Regional impairments of cortical folding in premature infants

    doi: 10.1002/ana.24313

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Anatomical slice views (for visualization) of an average T2-weighted image comprised of the 12 control infants used in this study and 20 preterm infants with little or no brain injury. The blue and red ribbons outline the average anterior commissure–posterior commissure midthickness cortical surfaces of the control and preterm infants, respectively. (A) A coronal slice through the insula and temporal lobe. Significant differences in size and shape can be observed. (B) A more posterior coronal slice through the temporal lobe and insula. The yellow arrow identifies the posterior portion of the superior temporal sulcus. (C) A horizontal slice. The more anterior yellow arrow identifies the precentral sulcus. The more posterior yellow arrow identifies the superior temporal sulcus.

    Article Snippet: Images were obtained using a turbo spin echo T2-weighted sequence (repetition time = 8,500 milliseconds; echo time = 160 milliseconds; voxel size = 1 × 1 × 1 mm3 ) on a Siemens (Erlangen, Germany) 3T Trio scanner.

    Techniques: