t. gondii - infected hff cell Search Results


  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 93
    New England Biolabs α n acetylgalactosaminidase
    α N Acetylgalactosaminidase, supplied by New England Biolabs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 24 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/α n acetylgalactosaminidase/product/New England Biolabs
    Average 93 stars, based on 24 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    α n acetylgalactosaminidase - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    96
    ATCC human foreskin fibroblast hff cells
    Life cycle stages of T. <t>gondii</t> . A) Rosette of intracellular tachyzoites (arrowhead) is multiplying in <t>HFF</t> cells in vitro after 24 hours of post-infection. B) A mature tissue cyst of T. gondii (arrowhead) is developed in CD1 mice after one month of post intraperitoneal infection.
    Human Foreskin Fibroblast Hff Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 151 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/human foreskin fibroblast hff cells/product/ATCC
    Average 96 stars, based on 151 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    human foreskin fibroblast hff cells - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    96/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    ATCC mycoplasma infection
    Life cycle stages of T. <t>gondii</t> . A) Rosette of intracellular tachyzoites (arrowhead) is multiplying in <t>HFF</t> cells in vitro after 24 hours of post-infection. B) A mature tissue cyst of T. gondii (arrowhead) is developed in CD1 mice after one month of post intraperitoneal infection.
    Mycoplasma Infection, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 193 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/mycoplasma infection/product/ATCC
    Average 93 stars, based on 193 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    mycoplasma infection - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    92
    ATCC hff cells
    Life cycle stages of T. <t>gondii</t> . A) Rosette of intracellular tachyzoites (arrowhead) is multiplying in <t>HFF</t> cells in vitro after 24 hours of post-infection. B) A mature tissue cyst of T. gondii (arrowhead) is developed in CD1 mice after one month of post intraperitoneal infection.
    Hff Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 194 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/hff cells/product/ATCC
    Average 92 stars, based on 194 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    hff cells - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    92/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    95
    Millipore human foreskin fibroblast hff cells
    Life cycle stages of T. <t>gondii</t> . A) Rosette of intracellular tachyzoites (arrowhead) is multiplying in <t>HFF</t> cells in vitro after 24 hours of post-infection. B) A mature tissue cyst of T. gondii (arrowhead) is developed in CD1 mice after one month of post intraperitoneal infection.
    Human Foreskin Fibroblast Hff Cells, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 32 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/human foreskin fibroblast hff cells/product/Millipore
    Average 95 stars, based on 32 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    human foreskin fibroblast hff cells - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    95/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    86
    ibidi time lapse microscopy confluent hff cell monolayers
    Life cycle stages of T. <t>gondii</t> . A) Rosette of intracellular tachyzoites (arrowhead) is multiplying in <t>HFF</t> cells in vitro after 24 hours of post-infection. B) A mature tissue cyst of T. gondii (arrowhead) is developed in CD1 mice after one month of post intraperitoneal infection.
    Time Lapse Microscopy Confluent Hff Cell Monolayers, supplied by ibidi, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/time lapse microscopy confluent hff cell monolayers/product/ibidi
    Average 86 stars, based on 5 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    time lapse microscopy confluent hff cell monolayers - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    86/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    85
    Becton Dickinson inducible nitric oxide synthase inos cells
    Life cycle stages of T. <t>gondii</t> . A) Rosette of intracellular tachyzoites (arrowhead) is multiplying in <t>HFF</t> cells in vitro after 24 hours of post-infection. B) A mature tissue cyst of T. gondii (arrowhead) is developed in CD1 mice after one month of post intraperitoneal infection.
    Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inos Cells, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/inducible nitric oxide synthase inos cells/product/Becton Dickinson
    Average 85 stars, based on 5 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    inducible nitric oxide synthase inos cells - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    85/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC human foreskin fibroblasts cells
    Tanshinone IIA and hydroxyzine display dose-dependent inhibitory effects on Toxoplasma <t>gondii</t> growth. (A) Structures of tanshinone IIA and hydroxyzine. (B) Dose-response response curves and IC 50 values for tanshinone IIA and hydroxyzine. <t>HFF</t> cells infected with RH-2F parasites were incubated with various concentrations of the test compounds and parasite growth was measured by using the β-galactosidase assay. Inhibition rates were calculated using DMSO as a negative control (0% inhibition) and 10 μM pyrimethamine as a positive control (100% inhibition).
    Human Foreskin Fibroblasts Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 37 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/human foreskin fibroblasts cells/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 37 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    human foreskin fibroblasts cells - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    92
    ATCC human cell lines
    Tanshinone IIA and hydroxyzine display dose-dependent inhibitory effects on Toxoplasma <t>gondii</t> growth. (A) Structures of tanshinone IIA and hydroxyzine. (B) Dose-response response curves and IC 50 values for tanshinone IIA and hydroxyzine. <t>HFF</t> cells infected with RH-2F parasites were incubated with various concentrations of the test compounds and parasite growth was measured by using the β-galactosidase assay. Inhibition rates were calculated using DMSO as a negative control (0% inhibition) and 10 μM pyrimethamine as a positive control (100% inhibition).
    Human Cell Lines, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 1682 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/human cell lines/product/ATCC
    Average 92 stars, based on 1682 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    human cell lines - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    92/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    95
    ATCC toxoplasma gondii in vitro culture vero cells
    Primary screening for anti- Toxoplasma activity and cytotoxicity. (A) PLK/DLUC_1C9-infected <t>Vero</t> cells were incubated with 10 μM test compounds (837 compounds) for 48 h (see Materials and Methods ). Renilla luciferase, expressed by PLK/DLUC_1C9 T . <t>gondii</t> , was measured, and inhibition was calculated with DMSO as a negative control (0% inhibition) and 10 μM pyrimethamine as a positive control (100% inhibition). Compounds in the plates that had a Z’-value ≥0.5 are presented sorted by inhibitory effect. (B) Compounds that showed ≥90% parasite inhibition (83 compounds) were then screened for effects on host cell viability (see Materials and Methods ). Compounds were screened at a concentration of 10 μM. Cell viability values were calculated relative to background values (0% viability) and the DMSO negative control (100% viability). (C) Parasite growth inhibition activities were shown at 25μM (gray bars) and 2.5μM (red bars). Tanshinone IIA and hydroxyzine had > 50% growth inhibitory effect on parasites.
    Toxoplasma Gondii In Vitro Culture Vero Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/toxoplasma gondii in vitro culture vero cells/product/ATCC
    Average 95 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    toxoplasma gondii in vitro culture vero cells - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    95/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC intestinal epithelial caco 2 cells
    Role of host NPC1L1 for cholesterol supply for C. parvum A . Quantification of C. parvum growth by ELISA. <t>Caco-2</t> cells were infected for 36 h with C. parvum in the presence of ezetimibe at the indicated concentrations before monitoring infection by ELISA. The trypan blue exclusion assay did not reveal any difference between ezetimibe-treated and untreated cells. Statistically significant differences in the infection levels were found in treated parasites compared to untreated parasites as shown by the P values. Data are means ± SEM from 3 independent populations of C. parvum . B. IFA of C. parvum -infected cells incubated 36 h with ezetimibe at the shown concentrations before staining with antibodies against GP40/900 confirming the ELISA results in A. C. Effect of silencing of host NPC1L1 on C. parvum growth. Panel a: Immunoblots of lysates from Caco-2 cells that have been transfected with NPC1L1 siRNA expression for 48 h (NPC1L1 siRNA) or non-targeting siRNA using antibodies against NPC1L1 (140 kDa) and α-tubulin (α-tub; 55 kDa). Molecular weight standards are shown at the right. Panel b: Quantification of expression levels of NPC1L1 or α-tubulin in Caco-2 cells transfected with NPC1L1 siRNA or non-specific targeting siRNA by densitometry. Results are means from 3 independent assays. Panel c: Quantification of C. parvum infectivity after silencing of NPC1L1 expression, using non-targeting siRNA or under control conditions (non-silenced cells) 36 h post-transfection in LPDS medium containing micellar cholesterol. The PV size was measured and expressed as means ± SEM. in μm (n=3) and the percents of PV containing merozoites (meronts) proportional to the PV with trophozoites are shown in histograms. Panel d: Morphological illustrations of the parasites (red-stained with antibodies against GP40/900) grown in NPC1L1 siRNA-treated cells (identifiable by GFP staining; arrow) in comparison to parasites developing in non-silenced cells (arrowheads). Top right panel shows a PV from cells with non-relevant siRNA. Scale bars are 5 μm.
    Intestinal Epithelial Caco 2 Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/intestinal epithelial caco 2 cells/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 6 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    intestinal epithelial caco 2 cells - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    Thermo Fisher tryptophan free rpmi cell culture medium
    Role of host NPC1L1 for cholesterol supply for C. parvum A . Quantification of C. parvum growth by ELISA. <t>Caco-2</t> cells were infected for 36 h with C. parvum in the presence of ezetimibe at the indicated concentrations before monitoring infection by ELISA. The trypan blue exclusion assay did not reveal any difference between ezetimibe-treated and untreated cells. Statistically significant differences in the infection levels were found in treated parasites compared to untreated parasites as shown by the P values. Data are means ± SEM from 3 independent populations of C. parvum . B. IFA of C. parvum -infected cells incubated 36 h with ezetimibe at the shown concentrations before staining with antibodies against GP40/900 confirming the ELISA results in A. C. Effect of silencing of host NPC1L1 on C. parvum growth. Panel a: Immunoblots of lysates from Caco-2 cells that have been transfected with NPC1L1 siRNA expression for 48 h (NPC1L1 siRNA) or non-targeting siRNA using antibodies against NPC1L1 (140 kDa) and α-tubulin (α-tub; 55 kDa). Molecular weight standards are shown at the right. Panel b: Quantification of expression levels of NPC1L1 or α-tubulin in Caco-2 cells transfected with NPC1L1 siRNA or non-specific targeting siRNA by densitometry. Results are means from 3 independent assays. Panel c: Quantification of C. parvum infectivity after silencing of NPC1L1 expression, using non-targeting siRNA or under control conditions (non-silenced cells) 36 h post-transfection in LPDS medium containing micellar cholesterol. The PV size was measured and expressed as means ± SEM. in μm (n=3) and the percents of PV containing merozoites (meronts) proportional to the PV with trophozoites are shown in histograms. Panel d: Morphological illustrations of the parasites (red-stained with antibodies against GP40/900) grown in NPC1L1 siRNA-treated cells (identifiable by GFP staining; arrow) in comparison to parasites developing in non-silenced cells (arrowheads). Top right panel shows a PV from cells with non-relevant siRNA. Scale bars are 5 μm.
    Tryptophan Free Rpmi Cell Culture Medium, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/tryptophan free rpmi cell culture medium/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 93 stars, based on 3 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    tryptophan free rpmi cell culture medium - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC 293t cell lines
    ROP18 promotes degradation of UBE2N. A , <t>293T</t> cells were transfected with V5-ROP18 Δ83 or V5-ROP18 Δ83 -KD plasmids for 36 h, and then total cell lysates were subjected to Western blotting analysis. IB, immunoblot. B , 293T cells were infected without or with wild-type ( WT ) RH or ROP18-Ty1 RH strain for 36 h. Cell lysates were separated by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted with the indicated antibodies. SAG1 and GAPDH were used as loading controls.
    293t Cell Lines, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 412 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/293t cell lines/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 412 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    293t cell lines - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC hela cell line
    Transfection with <t>siRNA</t> reduces targeted protein over time. <t>HeLa</t> cells were untransfected (Un) or transfected with 25 nM siRNA to the indicated gene. Protein samples were subjected to Western immunoblotting and membranes probed for the protein of interest. Membranes were probed for Ran-GTP (Ran) as a loading control. Size markers in kDa are indicated to the left of each blot. At 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post transfection (hpt), total protein was collected (A) or cells were fractionated into cytoplasmic (cyt) and nuclear (nuc) fractions (B). Panel C, HeLa cells were transfected with 0–25 nM siRNA to Wee1 and total protein collected at 24 hpt.
    Hela Cell Line, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 838 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/hela cell line/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 838 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    hela cell line - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    96
    Selleck Chemicals go6983
    Transfection with <t>siRNA</t> reduces targeted protein over time. <t>HeLa</t> cells were untransfected (Un) or transfected with 25 nM siRNA to the indicated gene. Protein samples were subjected to Western immunoblotting and membranes probed for the protein of interest. Membranes were probed for Ran-GTP (Ran) as a loading control. Size markers in kDa are indicated to the left of each blot. At 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post transfection (hpt), total protein was collected (A) or cells were fractionated into cytoplasmic (cyt) and nuclear (nuc) fractions (B). Panel C, HeLa cells were transfected with 0–25 nM siRNA to Wee1 and total protein collected at 24 hpt.
    Go6983, supplied by Selleck Chemicals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 52 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/go6983/product/Selleck Chemicals
    Average 96 stars, based on 52 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    go6983 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    96/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Carl Zeiss zeiss microscope
    Transfection with <t>siRNA</t> reduces targeted protein over time. <t>HeLa</t> cells were untransfected (Un) or transfected with 25 nM siRNA to the indicated gene. Protein samples were subjected to Western immunoblotting and membranes probed for the protein of interest. Membranes were probed for Ran-GTP (Ran) as a loading control. Size markers in kDa are indicated to the left of each blot. At 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post transfection (hpt), total protein was collected (A) or cells were fractionated into cytoplasmic (cyt) and nuclear (nuc) fractions (B). Panel C, HeLa cells were transfected with 0–25 nM siRNA to Wee1 and total protein collected at 24 hpt.
    Zeiss Microscope, supplied by Carl Zeiss, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 17513 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/zeiss microscope/product/Carl Zeiss
    Average 99 stars, based on 17513 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    zeiss microscope - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Promega lysis buffer
    Transfection with <t>siRNA</t> reduces targeted protein over time. <t>HeLa</t> cells were untransfected (Un) or transfected with 25 nM siRNA to the indicated gene. Protein samples were subjected to Western immunoblotting and membranes probed for the protein of interest. Membranes were probed for Ran-GTP (Ran) as a loading control. Size markers in kDa are indicated to the left of each blot. At 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post transfection (hpt), total protein was collected (A) or cells were fractionated into cytoplasmic (cyt) and nuclear (nuc) fractions (B). Panel C, HeLa cells were transfected with 0–25 nM siRNA to Wee1 and total protein collected at 24 hpt.
    Lysis Buffer, supplied by Promega, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 15244 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/lysis buffer/product/Promega
    Average 94 stars, based on 15244 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    lysis buffer - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Thermo Fisher dmem
    Transfection with <t>siRNA</t> reduces targeted protein over time. <t>HeLa</t> cells were untransfected (Un) or transfected with 25 nM siRNA to the indicated gene. Protein samples were subjected to Western immunoblotting and membranes probed for the protein of interest. Membranes were probed for Ran-GTP (Ran) as a loading control. Size markers in kDa are indicated to the left of each blot. At 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post transfection (hpt), total protein was collected (A) or cells were fractionated into cytoplasmic (cyt) and nuclear (nuc) fractions (B). Panel C, HeLa cells were transfected with 0–25 nM siRNA to Wee1 and total protein collected at 24 hpt.
    Dmem, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 147955 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dmem/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 99 stars, based on 147955 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    dmem - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    89
    ATCC t gondii strains
    Life cycle stages of T. <t>gondii</t> . A) Rosette of intracellular tachyzoites (arrowhead) is multiplying in <t>HFF</t> cells in vitro after 24 hours of post-infection. B) A mature tissue cyst of T. gondii (arrowhead) is developed in CD1 mice after one month of post intraperitoneal infection.
    T Gondii Strains, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 26 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/t gondii strains/product/ATCC
    Average 89 stars, based on 26 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    t gondii strains - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    89/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Thermo Fisher phenol red
    Life cycle stages of T. <t>gondii</t> . A) Rosette of intracellular tachyzoites (arrowhead) is multiplying in <t>HFF</t> cells in vitro after 24 hours of post-infection. B) A mature tissue cyst of T. gondii (arrowhead) is developed in CD1 mice after one month of post intraperitoneal infection.
    Phenol Red, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 12676 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/phenol red/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 99 stars, based on 12676 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    phenol red - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    95
    Millipore atovaquone
    The efficacy of ELQ-271, ELQ-316, and <t>atovaquone</t> against acute T. gondii infection in mice. The T. gondii burden reflects the percentage of T. gondii infection. Treatment groups consisted of the control ( n = 7), 0.04 mg/kg ( n = 4), 0.2 mg/kg ( n = 4; one
    Atovaquone, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 147 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/atovaquone/product/Millipore
    Average 95 stars, based on 147 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    atovaquone - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    95/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    88
    Thermo Fisher human genome arrays
    The efficacy of ELQ-271, ELQ-316, and <t>atovaquone</t> against acute T. gondii infection in mice. The T. gondii burden reflects the percentage of T. gondii infection. Treatment groups consisted of the control ( n = 7), 0.04 mg/kg ( n = 4), 0.2 mg/kg ( n = 4; one
    Human Genome Arrays, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 117 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/human genome arrays/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 88 stars, based on 117 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    human genome arrays - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    88/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    88
    The Jackson Laboratory c57bl 6 strain mice
    Lack of compound 1 efficacy in mice infected with T. gondii strains dependent upon the Tg-T761Q and Tg-T761M alleles. Groups of 10 <t>C57BL/6</t> mice were infected with 10 3 tachyzoites of T. gondii and either treated with a twice-daily intraperitoneal dose of 50 mg of compound 1/kg or with vehicle for 10 consecutive days (shaded area). Vehicle-treated mice infected with parental RHΔHXGPRT parasites (▵, dashed line) or with the T761Q-KO strain (○, dashed line) died within 8 days. Mice infected with untransformed parasites and treated with compound 1 survived acute toxoplasmosis (▴), whereas animals infected with the T761Q-KO strain (•) did not respond to compound 1 treatment. Similar results were obtained in a second trial that also included the T761M-KO parasite line (not shown).
    C57bl 6 Strain Mice, supplied by The Jackson Laboratory, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 19 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/c57bl 6 strain mice/product/The Jackson Laboratory
    Average 88 stars, based on 19 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    c57bl 6 strain mice - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    88/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Life cycle stages of T. gondii . A) Rosette of intracellular tachyzoites (arrowhead) is multiplying in HFF cells in vitro after 24 hours of post-infection. B) A mature tissue cyst of T. gondii (arrowhead) is developed in CD1 mice after one month of post intraperitoneal infection.

    Journal: Current protocols in microbiology

    Article Title: Toxoplasma gondii: Laboratory maintenance and growth

    doi: 10.1002/cpmc.26

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Life cycle stages of T. gondii . A) Rosette of intracellular tachyzoites (arrowhead) is multiplying in HFF cells in vitro after 24 hours of post-infection. B) A mature tissue cyst of T. gondii (arrowhead) is developed in CD1 mice after one month of post intraperitoneal infection.

    Article Snippet: Although T. gondii strains have different growth rates in various cell lines , human foreskin fibroblast (HFF) cells (ATCC CRL-1634TM ) have been utilized widely as the primary cell line to maintain in vitro cultures of T. gondii ( ; ).

    Techniques: In Vitro, Infection, Mouse Assay

    Life cycle stages of T. gondii . A) Rosette of intracellular tachyzoites (arrowhead) is multiplying in HFF cells in vitro after 24 hours of post-infection. B) A mature tissue cyst of T. gondii (arrowhead) is developed in CD1 mice after one month of post intraperitoneal infection.

    Journal: Current protocols in microbiology

    Article Title: Toxoplasma gondii: Laboratory maintenance and growth

    doi: 10.1002/cpmc.26

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Life cycle stages of T. gondii . A) Rosette of intracellular tachyzoites (arrowhead) is multiplying in HFF cells in vitro after 24 hours of post-infection. B) A mature tissue cyst of T. gondii (arrowhead) is developed in CD1 mice after one month of post intraperitoneal infection.

    Article Snippet: Examine for growth and vacuole formation of T. gondii within HFF cells microscopically every day ( ).

    Techniques: In Vitro, Infection, Mouse Assay

    Tanshinone IIA and hydroxyzine display dose-dependent inhibitory effects on Toxoplasma gondii growth. (A) Structures of tanshinone IIA and hydroxyzine. (B) Dose-response response curves and IC 50 values for tanshinone IIA and hydroxyzine. HFF cells infected with RH-2F parasites were incubated with various concentrations of the test compounds and parasite growth was measured by using the β-galactosidase assay. Inhibition rates were calculated using DMSO as a negative control (0% inhibition) and 10 μM pyrimethamine as a positive control (100% inhibition).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Identification of compounds that suppress Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites and bradyzoites

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178203

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Tanshinone IIA and hydroxyzine display dose-dependent inhibitory effects on Toxoplasma gondii growth. (A) Structures of tanshinone IIA and hydroxyzine. (B) Dose-response response curves and IC 50 values for tanshinone IIA and hydroxyzine. HFF cells infected with RH-2F parasites were incubated with various concentrations of the test compounds and parasite growth was measured by using the β-galactosidase assay. Inhibition rates were calculated using DMSO as a negative control (0% inhibition) and 10 μM pyrimethamine as a positive control (100% inhibition).

    Article Snippet: Toxoplasma gondii in vitro culture Vero cells (RIKEN BioResource Center: RCB0001) or human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) (ATCC: SCRC-1041) were used as host cells for T . gondii culture.

    Techniques: Infection, Incubation, Inhibition, Negative Control, Positive Control

    Tanshinone IIA and hydroxyzine reduced the number of in vitro- differentiated bradyzoites. PLK_DLUC_1C9 T . gondii were inoculated onto a monolayer of HFF cells and incubated for 2 h before undergoing bradyzoite induction for 3 days. After bradyzoite induction, compounds, as indicated, were added to the medium and infected host cells were incubated for 2 days under bradyzoite culture conditions. Firefly luciferase activity, under the control of the bradyzoite-specific BAG1 promoter, was measured and normalized to non-treated control (DMSO) wells. Bradyzoite growth rate was normalized with host cell number. Means ± SD from triplicate wells are shown. The statistical difference between the DMSO control and each compound was evaluated by using Dunnett’s test. ** p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Identification of compounds that suppress Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites and bradyzoites

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178203

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Tanshinone IIA and hydroxyzine reduced the number of in vitro- differentiated bradyzoites. PLK_DLUC_1C9 T . gondii were inoculated onto a monolayer of HFF cells and incubated for 2 h before undergoing bradyzoite induction for 3 days. After bradyzoite induction, compounds, as indicated, were added to the medium and infected host cells were incubated for 2 days under bradyzoite culture conditions. Firefly luciferase activity, under the control of the bradyzoite-specific BAG1 promoter, was measured and normalized to non-treated control (DMSO) wells. Bradyzoite growth rate was normalized with host cell number. Means ± SD from triplicate wells are shown. The statistical difference between the DMSO control and each compound was evaluated by using Dunnett’s test. ** p

    Article Snippet: Toxoplasma gondii in vitro culture Vero cells (RIKEN BioResource Center: RCB0001) or human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) (ATCC: SCRC-1041) were used as host cells for T . gondii culture.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Incubation, Infection, Luciferase, Activity Assay

    Primary screening for anti- Toxoplasma activity and cytotoxicity. (A) PLK/DLUC_1C9-infected Vero cells were incubated with 10 μM test compounds (837 compounds) for 48 h (see Materials and Methods ). Renilla luciferase, expressed by PLK/DLUC_1C9 T . gondii , was measured, and inhibition was calculated with DMSO as a negative control (0% inhibition) and 10 μM pyrimethamine as a positive control (100% inhibition). Compounds in the plates that had a Z’-value ≥0.5 are presented sorted by inhibitory effect. (B) Compounds that showed ≥90% parasite inhibition (83 compounds) were then screened for effects on host cell viability (see Materials and Methods ). Compounds were screened at a concentration of 10 μM. Cell viability values were calculated relative to background values (0% viability) and the DMSO negative control (100% viability). (C) Parasite growth inhibition activities were shown at 25μM (gray bars) and 2.5μM (red bars). Tanshinone IIA and hydroxyzine had > 50% growth inhibitory effect on parasites.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Identification of compounds that suppress Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites and bradyzoites

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0178203

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Primary screening for anti- Toxoplasma activity and cytotoxicity. (A) PLK/DLUC_1C9-infected Vero cells were incubated with 10 μM test compounds (837 compounds) for 48 h (see Materials and Methods ). Renilla luciferase, expressed by PLK/DLUC_1C9 T . gondii , was measured, and inhibition was calculated with DMSO as a negative control (0% inhibition) and 10 μM pyrimethamine as a positive control (100% inhibition). Compounds in the plates that had a Z’-value ≥0.5 are presented sorted by inhibitory effect. (B) Compounds that showed ≥90% parasite inhibition (83 compounds) were then screened for effects on host cell viability (see Materials and Methods ). Compounds were screened at a concentration of 10 μM. Cell viability values were calculated relative to background values (0% viability) and the DMSO negative control (100% viability). (C) Parasite growth inhibition activities were shown at 25μM (gray bars) and 2.5μM (red bars). Tanshinone IIA and hydroxyzine had > 50% growth inhibitory effect on parasites.

    Article Snippet: Toxoplasma gondii in vitro culture Vero cells (RIKEN BioResource Center: RCB0001) or human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) (ATCC: SCRC-1041) were used as host cells for T . gondii culture.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Infection, Incubation, Luciferase, Inhibition, Negative Control, Positive Control, Concentration Assay

    Role of host NPC1L1 for cholesterol supply for C. parvum A . Quantification of C. parvum growth by ELISA. Caco-2 cells were infected for 36 h with C. parvum in the presence of ezetimibe at the indicated concentrations before monitoring infection by ELISA. The trypan blue exclusion assay did not reveal any difference between ezetimibe-treated and untreated cells. Statistically significant differences in the infection levels were found in treated parasites compared to untreated parasites as shown by the P values. Data are means ± SEM from 3 independent populations of C. parvum . B. IFA of C. parvum -infected cells incubated 36 h with ezetimibe at the shown concentrations before staining with antibodies against GP40/900 confirming the ELISA results in A. C. Effect of silencing of host NPC1L1 on C. parvum growth. Panel a: Immunoblots of lysates from Caco-2 cells that have been transfected with NPC1L1 siRNA expression for 48 h (NPC1L1 siRNA) or non-targeting siRNA using antibodies against NPC1L1 (140 kDa) and α-tubulin (α-tub; 55 kDa). Molecular weight standards are shown at the right. Panel b: Quantification of expression levels of NPC1L1 or α-tubulin in Caco-2 cells transfected with NPC1L1 siRNA or non-specific targeting siRNA by densitometry. Results are means from 3 independent assays. Panel c: Quantification of C. parvum infectivity after silencing of NPC1L1 expression, using non-targeting siRNA or under control conditions (non-silenced cells) 36 h post-transfection in LPDS medium containing micellar cholesterol. The PV size was measured and expressed as means ± SEM. in μm (n=3) and the percents of PV containing merozoites (meronts) proportional to the PV with trophozoites are shown in histograms. Panel d: Morphological illustrations of the parasites (red-stained with antibodies against GP40/900) grown in NPC1L1 siRNA-treated cells (identifiable by GFP staining; arrow) in comparison to parasites developing in non-silenced cells (arrowheads). Top right panel shows a PV from cells with non-relevant siRNA. Scale bars are 5 μm.

    Journal: Cellular microbiology

    Article Title: Cryptosporidium parvum scavenges LDL-derived cholesterol and micellar cholesterol internalized into enterocytes

    doi: 10.1111/cmi.12107

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Role of host NPC1L1 for cholesterol supply for C. parvum A . Quantification of C. parvum growth by ELISA. Caco-2 cells were infected for 36 h with C. parvum in the presence of ezetimibe at the indicated concentrations before monitoring infection by ELISA. The trypan blue exclusion assay did not reveal any difference between ezetimibe-treated and untreated cells. Statistically significant differences in the infection levels were found in treated parasites compared to untreated parasites as shown by the P values. Data are means ± SEM from 3 independent populations of C. parvum . B. IFA of C. parvum -infected cells incubated 36 h with ezetimibe at the shown concentrations before staining with antibodies against GP40/900 confirming the ELISA results in A. C. Effect of silencing of host NPC1L1 on C. parvum growth. Panel a: Immunoblots of lysates from Caco-2 cells that have been transfected with NPC1L1 siRNA expression for 48 h (NPC1L1 siRNA) or non-targeting siRNA using antibodies against NPC1L1 (140 kDa) and α-tubulin (α-tub; 55 kDa). Molecular weight standards are shown at the right. Panel b: Quantification of expression levels of NPC1L1 or α-tubulin in Caco-2 cells transfected with NPC1L1 siRNA or non-specific targeting siRNA by densitometry. Results are means from 3 independent assays. Panel c: Quantification of C. parvum infectivity after silencing of NPC1L1 expression, using non-targeting siRNA or under control conditions (non-silenced cells) 36 h post-transfection in LPDS medium containing micellar cholesterol. The PV size was measured and expressed as means ± SEM. in μm (n=3) and the percents of PV containing merozoites (meronts) proportional to the PV with trophozoites are shown in histograms. Panel d: Morphological illustrations of the parasites (red-stained with antibodies against GP40/900) grown in NPC1L1 siRNA-treated cells (identifiable by GFP staining; arrow) in comparison to parasites developing in non-silenced cells (arrowheads). Top right panel shows a PV from cells with non-relevant siRNA. Scale bars are 5 μm.

    Article Snippet: The human cell lines used in this study are the intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells (ATCC HTB-37) for C. parvum infections and foreskin fibroblasts (HFF; ATCC CRL-1635) for T. gondii infections.

    Techniques: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Infection, Trypan Blue Exclusion Assay, Immunofluorescence, Incubation, Staining, Western Blot, Transfection, Expressing, Molecular Weight

    Association of sterols with intracellular and extracellular stages of Cryptosporidium parvum A–B. Filipin staining of Caco-2 cells infected with Cryptosporidium parvum or human fibroblasts infected with Toxoplasma gondii at the indicated times. Data show an intense fluorescent signal associated with the PV of C. parvum (arrow; 24 h and 48 h for the trophozoite and the merozoite stages respectively) as observed for the Toxoplasma PV (arrow). In B, intravaculor merozoites are indicated by arrowheads. Scale bars are 10 (in A) and 5 (in B) μm. C. Filipin staining (left panels) or immunofluoresence assays (IFA) using antibodies against the plasma membrane marker GP40/900 (right panels) of C. parvum -infected cells for 24 h and 48 h, showing comparable staining of the parasite plasma membrane (arrows). Scale bars are 2 μm. D. Filipin staining of trophozoites illustrating a fluorescent signal at the site of attachment of the parasite to the host cell (arrows). The right figure shows a positive filipin staining on intraparasitic structures. Scale bars are 2 μm. E. Filipin staining of extracellular oocysts either untreated (cyst wall intact) or treated with taurochoate and bleach to induce excystation (cyst wall open) showing fluorescence inside excystated oocysts and on released sporozoites. Arrow shows the progression of sporulation until sporozoite egress. Scale bars are 3 μm.

    Journal: Cellular microbiology

    Article Title: Cryptosporidium parvum scavenges LDL-derived cholesterol and micellar cholesterol internalized into enterocytes

    doi: 10.1111/cmi.12107

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Association of sterols with intracellular and extracellular stages of Cryptosporidium parvum A–B. Filipin staining of Caco-2 cells infected with Cryptosporidium parvum or human fibroblasts infected with Toxoplasma gondii at the indicated times. Data show an intense fluorescent signal associated with the PV of C. parvum (arrow; 24 h and 48 h for the trophozoite and the merozoite stages respectively) as observed for the Toxoplasma PV (arrow). In B, intravaculor merozoites are indicated by arrowheads. Scale bars are 10 (in A) and 5 (in B) μm. C. Filipin staining (left panels) or immunofluoresence assays (IFA) using antibodies against the plasma membrane marker GP40/900 (right panels) of C. parvum -infected cells for 24 h and 48 h, showing comparable staining of the parasite plasma membrane (arrows). Scale bars are 2 μm. D. Filipin staining of trophozoites illustrating a fluorescent signal at the site of attachment of the parasite to the host cell (arrows). The right figure shows a positive filipin staining on intraparasitic structures. Scale bars are 2 μm. E. Filipin staining of extracellular oocysts either untreated (cyst wall intact) or treated with taurochoate and bleach to induce excystation (cyst wall open) showing fluorescence inside excystated oocysts and on released sporozoites. Arrow shows the progression of sporulation until sporozoite egress. Scale bars are 3 μm.

    Article Snippet: The human cell lines used in this study are the intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells (ATCC HTB-37) for C. parvum infections and foreskin fibroblasts (HFF; ATCC CRL-1635) for T. gondii infections.

    Techniques: Staining, Infection, Immunofluorescence, Marker, Fluorescence

    ROP18 promotes degradation of UBE2N. A , 293T cells were transfected with V5-ROP18 Δ83 or V5-ROP18 Δ83 -KD plasmids for 36 h, and then total cell lysates were subjected to Western blotting analysis. IB, immunoblot. B , 293T cells were infected without or with wild-type ( WT ) RH or ROP18-Ty1 RH strain for 36 h. Cell lysates were separated by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted with the indicated antibodies. SAG1 and GAPDH were used as loading controls.

    Journal: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP

    Article Title: A Human Proteome Array Approach to Identifying Key Host Proteins Targeted by Toxoplasma Kinase ROP18 *

    doi: 10.1074/mcp.M116.063602

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ROP18 promotes degradation of UBE2N. A , 293T cells were transfected with V5-ROP18 Δ83 or V5-ROP18 Δ83 -KD plasmids for 36 h, and then total cell lysates were subjected to Western blotting analysis. IB, immunoblot. B , 293T cells were infected without or with wild-type ( WT ) RH or ROP18-Ty1 RH strain for 36 h. Cell lysates were separated by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted with the indicated antibodies. SAG1 and GAPDH were used as loading controls.

    Article Snippet: The HFF, HeLa, and 293T cell lines were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA) and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, high glucose, and pyruvate from Gibco) containing 100 units/ml penicillin and 100 μg/ml streptomycin (Gibco) and 10% fetal bovine serum (Gibco).

    Techniques: Transfection, Western Blot, Infection, SDS Page

    ROP18 interacts with p38 and promotes its degradation. A , HeLa cells transiently expressing V5-ROP18 Δ83 were infected with tachyzoites of RH strain. 24 h after infection, immunofluorescence staining was performed with mouse monoclonal anti-V5 ( green ) and rabbit monoclonal anti-p38 ( red ) antibodies. DAPI ( blue ) was used to visualize cell nuclei. Phase , bright field; bar, 5 μm. B , GST pulldown assay was performed using GST-ROP18 Δ83 protein and 293T cell lysates. IB, immunoblot. C , 293T cells were transfected with V5-ROP18 Δ83 or V5-ROP18 Δ83 -KD plasmids for 36 h, and then total cell lysates were subjected to Western blotting analysis. D , 293T cells were infected without or with wild-type ( WT ) RH or ROP18-Ty1 RH strain for 36 h. Cellular lysates were separated by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted with the indicated antibodies. SAG1 and GAPDH were used as loading controls.

    Journal: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP

    Article Title: A Human Proteome Array Approach to Identifying Key Host Proteins Targeted by Toxoplasma Kinase ROP18 *

    doi: 10.1074/mcp.M116.063602

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ROP18 interacts with p38 and promotes its degradation. A , HeLa cells transiently expressing V5-ROP18 Δ83 were infected with tachyzoites of RH strain. 24 h after infection, immunofluorescence staining was performed with mouse monoclonal anti-V5 ( green ) and rabbit monoclonal anti-p38 ( red ) antibodies. DAPI ( blue ) was used to visualize cell nuclei. Phase , bright field; bar, 5 μm. B , GST pulldown assay was performed using GST-ROP18 Δ83 protein and 293T cell lysates. IB, immunoblot. C , 293T cells were transfected with V5-ROP18 Δ83 or V5-ROP18 Δ83 -KD plasmids for 36 h, and then total cell lysates were subjected to Western blotting analysis. D , 293T cells were infected without or with wild-type ( WT ) RH or ROP18-Ty1 RH strain for 36 h. Cellular lysates were separated by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted with the indicated antibodies. SAG1 and GAPDH were used as loading controls.

    Article Snippet: The HFF, HeLa, and 293T cell lines were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA) and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, high glucose, and pyruvate from Gibco) containing 100 units/ml penicillin and 100 μg/ml streptomycin (Gibco) and 10% fetal bovine serum (Gibco).

    Techniques: Expressing, Infection, Immunofluorescence, Staining, GST Pulldown Assay, Transfection, Western Blot, SDS Page

    ROP18 interacts with p53 and promotes its degradation. A , HeLa cells were transfected with V5-ROP18 Δ83 and FLAG-p53 followed by infection with tachyzoites of RH strain for 24 h, and then immunofluorescence staining was performed with mouse monoclonal anti-V5 ( green ) and rabbit polyclonal anti-FLAG ( red ) antibodies. DAPI ( blue ) was used to visualize cell nuclei. Phase, bright field; bar, 5 μm. B , GST pulldown assay was performed using GST-ROP18 Δ83 protein purified from yeast and lysates of 293T cells overexpressing FLAG-p53. IB, immunoblot. C , 293T cells were transfected with ROP18 Δ27 -GFP expression plasmid, and coimmunoprecipitation was performed with anti-GFP, followed by immunoblotting with the indicated antibodies. D , 293T cells were transfected with V5-ROP18 Δ83 or V5-ROP18 Δ83 -KD plasmids for 36 h, and the total cell lysates were subjected to Western blotting with the indicated antibodies. E , lysates of 293T cells transiently transfected with the indicated amounts of V5-ROP18 Δ83 plasmids were detected by Western blotting with the indicated antibodies. F , 293T cells were cotransfected with the indicated amounts of V5-ROP18 Δ83 and 1 μg of FLAG-p53 plasmids. 36 h after transfection, total cell lysates were analyzed by Western blotting. G , lysates of 293T cells infected with wild-type ( WT ) RH and ROP18-Ty1 RH strains were detected by Western blotting with the indicated antibodies. SAG1 and GAPDH were used as loading controls.

    Journal: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP

    Article Title: A Human Proteome Array Approach to Identifying Key Host Proteins Targeted by Toxoplasma Kinase ROP18 *

    doi: 10.1074/mcp.M116.063602

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ROP18 interacts with p53 and promotes its degradation. A , HeLa cells were transfected with V5-ROP18 Δ83 and FLAG-p53 followed by infection with tachyzoites of RH strain for 24 h, and then immunofluorescence staining was performed with mouse monoclonal anti-V5 ( green ) and rabbit polyclonal anti-FLAG ( red ) antibodies. DAPI ( blue ) was used to visualize cell nuclei. Phase, bright field; bar, 5 μm. B , GST pulldown assay was performed using GST-ROP18 Δ83 protein purified from yeast and lysates of 293T cells overexpressing FLAG-p53. IB, immunoblot. C , 293T cells were transfected with ROP18 Δ27 -GFP expression plasmid, and coimmunoprecipitation was performed with anti-GFP, followed by immunoblotting with the indicated antibodies. D , 293T cells were transfected with V5-ROP18 Δ83 or V5-ROP18 Δ83 -KD plasmids for 36 h, and the total cell lysates were subjected to Western blotting with the indicated antibodies. E , lysates of 293T cells transiently transfected with the indicated amounts of V5-ROP18 Δ83 plasmids were detected by Western blotting with the indicated antibodies. F , 293T cells were cotransfected with the indicated amounts of V5-ROP18 Δ83 and 1 μg of FLAG-p53 plasmids. 36 h after transfection, total cell lysates were analyzed by Western blotting. G , lysates of 293T cells infected with wild-type ( WT ) RH and ROP18-Ty1 RH strains were detected by Western blotting with the indicated antibodies. SAG1 and GAPDH were used as loading controls.

    Article Snippet: The HFF, HeLa, and 293T cell lines were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA) and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, high glucose, and pyruvate from Gibco) containing 100 units/ml penicillin and 100 μg/ml streptomycin (Gibco) and 10% fetal bovine serum (Gibco).

    Techniques: Transfection, Infection, Immunofluorescence, Staining, GST Pulldown Assay, Purification, Expressing, Plasmid Preparation, Western Blot

    Transfection with siRNA reduces targeted protein over time. HeLa cells were untransfected (Un) or transfected with 25 nM siRNA to the indicated gene. Protein samples were subjected to Western immunoblotting and membranes probed for the protein of interest. Membranes were probed for Ran-GTP (Ran) as a loading control. Size markers in kDa are indicated to the left of each blot. At 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post transfection (hpt), total protein was collected (A) or cells were fractionated into cytoplasmic (cyt) and nuclear (nuc) fractions (B). Panel C, HeLa cells were transfected with 0–25 nM siRNA to Wee1 and total protein collected at 24 hpt.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: A Genome-Wide siRNA Screen to Identify Host Factors Necessary for Growth of the Parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068129

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Transfection with siRNA reduces targeted protein over time. HeLa cells were untransfected (Un) or transfected with 25 nM siRNA to the indicated gene. Protein samples were subjected to Western immunoblotting and membranes probed for the protein of interest. Membranes were probed for Ran-GTP (Ran) as a loading control. Size markers in kDa are indicated to the left of each blot. At 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post transfection (hpt), total protein was collected (A) or cells were fractionated into cytoplasmic (cyt) and nuclear (nuc) fractions (B). Panel C, HeLa cells were transfected with 0–25 nM siRNA to Wee1 and total protein collected at 24 hpt.

    Article Snippet: The HeLa cell line (ATCC) was used for siRNA experiments because immortalized cell lines are more consistent and easily transformed than primary cells such as HFFs.

    Techniques: Transfection, Western Blot

    siRNA against TJP2 reduces protein but does not inhibit T. gondii growth. (A) HeLa cells were transfected with 25 nM siRNA to TJP2 (diamonds), CKLF (square), GRIN-1 (triangle), PKD-1 (inverted triangle), AllStars Hs Cell Death Control siRNA (death, closed circles), or AllStars Negative Control siRNA (negative, open circles) for 24 hours, then infected with 2.5×10 4 mCherry-expressing parasites. Replication of T. gondii over time was measured by fluorescence. Asterisks indicate a significant (p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: A Genome-Wide siRNA Screen to Identify Host Factors Necessary for Growth of the Parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068129

    Figure Lengend Snippet: siRNA against TJP2 reduces protein but does not inhibit T. gondii growth. (A) HeLa cells were transfected with 25 nM siRNA to TJP2 (diamonds), CKLF (square), GRIN-1 (triangle), PKD-1 (inverted triangle), AllStars Hs Cell Death Control siRNA (death, closed circles), or AllStars Negative Control siRNA (negative, open circles) for 24 hours, then infected with 2.5×10 4 mCherry-expressing parasites. Replication of T. gondii over time was measured by fluorescence. Asterisks indicate a significant (p

    Article Snippet: The HeLa cell line (ATCC) was used for siRNA experiments because immortalized cell lines are more consistent and easily transformed than primary cells such as HFFs.

    Techniques: Transfection, Negative Control, Infection, Expressing, Fluorescence

    siRNAs, not transfection alone, induces host cell toxicity over time. (A) At 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post transfection, medium from HeLa cells transfected with 25 nM siRNA pools was mixed with an equal volume CytoToxONE assay reagent. Fluorescence of samples was measured and data plotted as a percentage of the maximum LDH release obtained from lysed cells (% max release). (B) HeLa cells were treated with transfection medium alone (white) or transfected with AllStars Negative Control (black) or AllStars Hs Cell Death Control (blue) siRNAs. At the indicated times, cells were trypsinized and the number of viable cells determined by trypan blue exclusion. Asterisks indicate a significant (p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: A Genome-Wide siRNA Screen to Identify Host Factors Necessary for Growth of the Parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068129

    Figure Lengend Snippet: siRNAs, not transfection alone, induces host cell toxicity over time. (A) At 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post transfection, medium from HeLa cells transfected with 25 nM siRNA pools was mixed with an equal volume CytoToxONE assay reagent. Fluorescence of samples was measured and data plotted as a percentage of the maximum LDH release obtained from lysed cells (% max release). (B) HeLa cells were treated with transfection medium alone (white) or transfected with AllStars Negative Control (black) or AllStars Hs Cell Death Control (blue) siRNAs. At the indicated times, cells were trypsinized and the number of viable cells determined by trypan blue exclusion. Asterisks indicate a significant (p

    Article Snippet: The HeLa cell line (ATCC) was used for siRNA experiments because immortalized cell lines are more consistent and easily transformed than primary cells such as HFFs.

    Techniques: Transfection, Fluorescence, Negative Control

    siRNA against human genes inhibits T. gondii growth. HeLa cells were transfected with siRNA pools to the indicated gene for 24 hours, then infected with 2.5×10 4 mCherry-expressing parasites. Fluorescent measurements were taken at 24, 48, and 72 hours post infection. (A) Replication of T. gondii as measured by fluorescence in HeLa cells transfected with DDX48 siRNA (DDX48, squares), AllStars Negative Control siRNA (negative, circles), or AllStars Hs Cell Death Control siRNA (death, triangles). (B) Replication of T. gondii graphed as the percent growth of wells treated with AllStars Negative Control siRNA (% negative siRNA) at 24 (black), 48 (red), and 72 (blue) hours post infection. Asterisks indicate a significant (p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: A Genome-Wide siRNA Screen to Identify Host Factors Necessary for Growth of the Parasite Toxoplasma gondii

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068129

    Figure Lengend Snippet: siRNA against human genes inhibits T. gondii growth. HeLa cells were transfected with siRNA pools to the indicated gene for 24 hours, then infected with 2.5×10 4 mCherry-expressing parasites. Fluorescent measurements were taken at 24, 48, and 72 hours post infection. (A) Replication of T. gondii as measured by fluorescence in HeLa cells transfected with DDX48 siRNA (DDX48, squares), AllStars Negative Control siRNA (negative, circles), or AllStars Hs Cell Death Control siRNA (death, triangles). (B) Replication of T. gondii graphed as the percent growth of wells treated with AllStars Negative Control siRNA (% negative siRNA) at 24 (black), 48 (red), and 72 (blue) hours post infection. Asterisks indicate a significant (p

    Article Snippet: The HeLa cell line (ATCC) was used for siRNA experiments because immortalized cell lines are more consistent and easily transformed than primary cells such as HFFs.

    Techniques: Transfection, Infection, Expressing, Fluorescence, Negative Control

    Life cycle stages of T. gondii . A) Rosette of intracellular tachyzoites (arrowhead) is multiplying in HFF cells in vitro after 24 hours of post-infection. B) A mature tissue cyst of T. gondii (arrowhead) is developed in CD1 mice after one month of post intraperitoneal infection.

    Journal: Current protocols in microbiology

    Article Title: Toxoplasma gondii: Laboratory maintenance and growth

    doi: 10.1002/cpmc.26

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Life cycle stages of T. gondii . A) Rosette of intracellular tachyzoites (arrowhead) is multiplying in HFF cells in vitro after 24 hours of post-infection. B) A mature tissue cyst of T. gondii (arrowhead) is developed in CD1 mice after one month of post intraperitoneal infection.

    Article Snippet: Typically, release of ~70% of parasites from HFF cells generally takes 2–3 days of infection for most of the T. gondii strains.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Infection, Mouse Assay

    The efficacy of ELQ-271, ELQ-316, and atovaquone against acute T. gondii infection in mice. The T. gondii burden reflects the percentage of T. gondii infection. Treatment groups consisted of the control ( n = 7), 0.04 mg/kg ( n = 4), 0.2 mg/kg ( n = 4; one

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Endochin-like quinolones are highly efficacious against acute and latent experimental toxoplasmosis

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1208069109

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The efficacy of ELQ-271, ELQ-316, and atovaquone against acute T. gondii infection in mice. The T. gondii burden reflects the percentage of T. gondii infection. Treatment groups consisted of the control ( n = 7), 0.04 mg/kg ( n = 4), 0.2 mg/kg ( n = 4; one

    Article Snippet: Atovaquone was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich or DeF PharmaChemical Co. HFF cells were obtained from American Type Culture Collection, and YFP2 RH strain T. gondii was obtained from Boris Striepen (University of Georgia, Athens GA).

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay

    The efficacy of ELQ-271, ELQ-316, and atovaquone against latent T. gondii infection. The number of T. gondii cysts per brain was reduced by atovaquone, ELQ-271, and ELQ-316 compared with the control. Five weeks after inoculation with the T. gondii ME49

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Endochin-like quinolones are highly efficacious against acute and latent experimental toxoplasmosis

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1208069109

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The efficacy of ELQ-271, ELQ-316, and atovaquone against latent T. gondii infection. The number of T. gondii cysts per brain was reduced by atovaquone, ELQ-271, and ELQ-316 compared with the control. Five weeks after inoculation with the T. gondii ME49

    Article Snippet: Atovaquone was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich or DeF PharmaChemical Co. HFF cells were obtained from American Type Culture Collection, and YFP2 RH strain T. gondii was obtained from Boris Striepen (University of Georgia, Athens GA).

    Techniques: Infection

    Lack of compound 1 efficacy in mice infected with T. gondii strains dependent upon the Tg-T761Q and Tg-T761M alleles. Groups of 10 C57BL/6 mice were infected with 10 3 tachyzoites of T. gondii and either treated with a twice-daily intraperitoneal dose of 50 mg of compound 1/kg or with vehicle for 10 consecutive days (shaded area). Vehicle-treated mice infected with parental RHΔHXGPRT parasites (▵, dashed line) or with the T761Q-KO strain (○, dashed line) died within 8 days. Mice infected with untransformed parasites and treated with compound 1 survived acute toxoplasmosis (▴), whereas animals infected with the T761Q-KO strain (•) did not respond to compound 1 treatment. Similar results were obtained in a second trial that also included the T761M-KO parasite line (not shown).

    Journal: Eukaryotic Cell

    Article Title: Toxoplasma gondii Cyclic GMP-Dependent Kinase: Chemotherapeutic Targeting of an Essential Parasite Protein Kinase

    doi: 10.1128/EC.1.3.317-328.2002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Lack of compound 1 efficacy in mice infected with T. gondii strains dependent upon the Tg-T761Q and Tg-T761M alleles. Groups of 10 C57BL/6 mice were infected with 10 3 tachyzoites of T. gondii and either treated with a twice-daily intraperitoneal dose of 50 mg of compound 1/kg or with vehicle for 10 consecutive days (shaded area). Vehicle-treated mice infected with parental RHΔHXGPRT parasites (▵, dashed line) or with the T761Q-KO strain (○, dashed line) died within 8 days. Mice infected with untransformed parasites and treated with compound 1 survived acute toxoplasmosis (▴), whereas animals infected with the T761Q-KO strain (•) did not respond to compound 1 treatment. Similar results were obtained in a second trial that also included the T761M-KO parasite line (not shown).

    Article Snippet: Tachyzoites of T. gondii collected from freshly lysed HFF host cell monolayers were counted in a hemocytometer and diluted in minimal essential medium to a concentration of 1 × 103 to 3 × 103 T. gondii tachyzoites per 500 μl for intraperitoneal injection into C57BL/6 strain mice (Jackson Laboratories, Bar Harbor, Maine).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection