superscript iii reverse transcriptase Thermo Fisher Search Results


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  • 90
    Thermo Fisher superscript iii reverse transcriptase
    A. thaliana contains <t>three</t> TER isoforms. ( A ) Diagram of the three TER isoforms in Arabidopsis . ( B ) Primer extension results of total cellular <t>RNA</t> from cell culture using a primer complementary to a region in CR2 (filled arrow in A ). (Lane 1 ) In vitro
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    Expression pattern of IVSPER genes in Hyposoter didymator calyx cells during pupal developmental stages. (A) Mean reads per kilo base per million mapped reads (RPKM) values are given from <t>RNA-seq</t> analyses (transformed by log10). Genes with a similar expression pattern are represented by the same color (genes with stable transcript levels over pupal development time in orange, genes with increasing transcript levels in blue and those with decreased transcript levels in green). See S1 Table for raw values. The <t>three</t> analyzed pupal stages are shown underneath the graph: St1: pupal stage 1; St2: pupal stage 2; St3: pupal stage 3. For each stage, are shown (i) a picture of dissected wasp ovaries; white arrows indicate the calyx where virus particles are produced and (ii) TEM micrographs of calyx cells showing that the first particles are visible at stage 3. N, nucleus; C, cytoplasm; black arrows indicate viral particles. (B) Schematic representation of the different categories of expression profiles observed for IVSPER genes and list of genes in each category (see S4 Table for detail of statistical analyses). NS, no statistical differences of the RPKM values between the 2 compared pupal stages; if p
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    Expression pattern of IVSPER genes in Hyposoter didymator calyx cells during pupal developmental stages. (A) Mean reads per kilo base per million mapped reads (RPKM) values are given from <t>RNA-seq</t> analyses (transformed by log10). Genes with a similar expression pattern are represented by the same color (genes with stable transcript levels over pupal development time in orange, genes with increasing transcript levels in blue and those with decreased transcript levels in green). See S1 Table for raw values. The <t>three</t> analyzed pupal stages are shown underneath the graph: St1: pupal stage 1; St2: pupal stage 2; St3: pupal stage 3. For each stage, are shown (i) a picture of dissected wasp ovaries; white arrows indicate the calyx where virus particles are produced and (ii) TEM micrographs of calyx cells showing that the first particles are visible at stage 3. N, nucleus; C, cytoplasm; black arrows indicate viral particles. (B) Schematic representation of the different categories of expression profiles observed for IVSPER genes and list of genes in each category (see S4 Table for detail of statistical analyses). NS, no statistical differences of the RPKM values between the 2 compared pupal stages; if p
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    Expression pattern of IVSPER genes in Hyposoter didymator calyx cells during pupal developmental stages. (A) Mean reads per kilo base per million mapped reads (RPKM) values are given from <t>RNA-seq</t> analyses (transformed by log10). Genes with a similar expression pattern are represented by the same color (genes with stable transcript levels over pupal development time in orange, genes with increasing transcript levels in blue and those with decreased transcript levels in green). See S1 Table for raw values. The <t>three</t> analyzed pupal stages are shown underneath the graph: St1: pupal stage 1; St2: pupal stage 2; St3: pupal stage 3. For each stage, are shown (i) a picture of dissected wasp ovaries; white arrows indicate the calyx where virus particles are produced and (ii) TEM micrographs of calyx cells showing that the first particles are visible at stage 3. N, nucleus; C, cytoplasm; black arrows indicate viral particles. (B) Schematic representation of the different categories of expression profiles observed for IVSPER genes and list of genes in each category (see S4 Table for detail of statistical analyses). NS, no statistical differences of the RPKM values between the 2 compared pupal stages; if p
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    Expression pattern of IVSPER genes in Hyposoter didymator calyx cells during pupal developmental stages. (A) Mean reads per kilo base per million mapped reads (RPKM) values are given from <t>RNA-seq</t> analyses (transformed by log10). Genes with a similar expression pattern are represented by the same color (genes with stable transcript levels over pupal development time in orange, genes with increasing transcript levels in blue and those with decreased transcript levels in green). See S1 Table for raw values. The <t>three</t> analyzed pupal stages are shown underneath the graph: St1: pupal stage 1; St2: pupal stage 2; St3: pupal stage 3. For each stage, are shown (i) a picture of dissected wasp ovaries; white arrows indicate the calyx where virus particles are produced and (ii) TEM micrographs of calyx cells showing that the first particles are visible at stage 3. N, nucleus; C, cytoplasm; black arrows indicate viral particles. (B) Schematic representation of the different categories of expression profiles observed for IVSPER genes and list of genes in each category (see S4 Table for detail of statistical analyses). NS, no statistical differences of the RPKM values between the 2 compared pupal stages; if p
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    Expression pattern of IVSPER genes in Hyposoter didymator calyx cells during pupal developmental stages. (A) Mean reads per kilo base per million mapped reads (RPKM) values are given from <t>RNA-seq</t> analyses (transformed by log10). Genes with a similar expression pattern are represented by the same color (genes with stable transcript levels over pupal development time in orange, genes with increasing transcript levels in blue and those with decreased transcript levels in green). See S1 Table for raw values. The <t>three</t> analyzed pupal stages are shown underneath the graph: St1: pupal stage 1; St2: pupal stage 2; St3: pupal stage 3. For each stage, are shown (i) a picture of dissected wasp ovaries; white arrows indicate the calyx where virus particles are produced and (ii) TEM micrographs of calyx cells showing that the first particles are visible at stage 3. N, nucleus; C, cytoplasm; black arrows indicate viral particles. (B) Schematic representation of the different categories of expression profiles observed for IVSPER genes and list of genes in each category (see S4 Table for detail of statistical analyses). NS, no statistical differences of the RPKM values between the 2 compared pupal stages; if p
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    Expression pattern of IVSPER genes in Hyposoter didymator calyx cells during pupal developmental stages. (A) Mean reads per kilo base per million mapped reads (RPKM) values are given from <t>RNA-seq</t> analyses (transformed by log10). Genes with a similar expression pattern are represented by the same color (genes with stable transcript levels over pupal development time in orange, genes with increasing transcript levels in blue and those with decreased transcript levels in green). See S1 Table for raw values. The <t>three</t> analyzed pupal stages are shown underneath the graph: St1: pupal stage 1; St2: pupal stage 2; St3: pupal stage 3. For each stage, are shown (i) a picture of dissected wasp ovaries; white arrows indicate the calyx where virus particles are produced and (ii) TEM micrographs of calyx cells showing that the first particles are visible at stage 3. N, nucleus; C, cytoplasm; black arrows indicate viral particles. (B) Schematic representation of the different categories of expression profiles observed for IVSPER genes and list of genes in each category (see S4 Table for detail of statistical analyses). NS, no statistical differences of the RPKM values between the 2 compared pupal stages; if p
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    Expression pattern of IVSPER genes in Hyposoter didymator calyx cells during pupal developmental stages. (A) Mean reads per kilo base per million mapped reads (RPKM) values are given from <t>RNA-seq</t> analyses (transformed by log10). Genes with a similar expression pattern are represented by the same color (genes with stable transcript levels over pupal development time in orange, genes with increasing transcript levels in blue and those with decreased transcript levels in green). See S1 Table for raw values. The <t>three</t> analyzed pupal stages are shown underneath the graph: St1: pupal stage 1; St2: pupal stage 2; St3: pupal stage 3. For each stage, are shown (i) a picture of dissected wasp ovaries; white arrows indicate the calyx where virus particles are produced and (ii) TEM micrographs of calyx cells showing that the first particles are visible at stage 3. N, nucleus; C, cytoplasm; black arrows indicate viral particles. (B) Schematic representation of the different categories of expression profiles observed for IVSPER genes and list of genes in each category (see S4 Table for detail of statistical analyses). NS, no statistical differences of the RPKM values between the 2 compared pupal stages; if p
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    Thermo Fisher moloney murine leukemia virus superscript iii reverse transcriptase
    Expression pattern of IVSPER genes in Hyposoter didymator calyx cells during pupal developmental stages. (A) Mean reads per kilo base per million mapped reads (RPKM) values are given from <t>RNA-seq</t> analyses (transformed by log10). Genes with a similar expression pattern are represented by the same color (genes with stable transcript levels over pupal development time in orange, genes with increasing transcript levels in blue and those with decreased transcript levels in green). See S1 Table for raw values. The <t>three</t> analyzed pupal stages are shown underneath the graph: St1: pupal stage 1; St2: pupal stage 2; St3: pupal stage 3. For each stage, are shown (i) a picture of dissected wasp ovaries; white arrows indicate the calyx where virus particles are produced and (ii) TEM micrographs of calyx cells showing that the first particles are visible at stage 3. N, nucleus; C, cytoplasm; black arrows indicate viral particles. (B) Schematic representation of the different categories of expression profiles observed for IVSPER genes and list of genes in each category (see S4 Table for detail of statistical analyses). NS, no statistical differences of the RPKM values between the 2 compared pupal stages; if p
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    Thermo Fisher superscript iii reverse transcriptase first strand synthesis supermix
    Expression pattern of IVSPER genes in Hyposoter didymator calyx cells during pupal developmental stages. (A) Mean reads per kilo base per million mapped reads (RPKM) values are given from <t>RNA-seq</t> analyses (transformed by log10). Genes with a similar expression pattern are represented by the same color (genes with stable transcript levels over pupal development time in orange, genes with increasing transcript levels in blue and those with decreased transcript levels in green). See S1 Table for raw values. The <t>three</t> analyzed pupal stages are shown underneath the graph: St1: pupal stage 1; St2: pupal stage 2; St3: pupal stage 3. For each stage, are shown (i) a picture of dissected wasp ovaries; white arrows indicate the calyx where virus particles are produced and (ii) TEM micrographs of calyx cells showing that the first particles are visible at stage 3. N, nucleus; C, cytoplasm; black arrows indicate viral particles. (B) Schematic representation of the different categories of expression profiles observed for IVSPER genes and list of genes in each category (see S4 Table for detail of statistical analyses). NS, no statistical differences of the RPKM values between the 2 compared pupal stages; if p
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    Thermo Fisher superscripts iii reverse transcriptase
    Expression pattern of IVSPER genes in Hyposoter didymator calyx cells during pupal developmental stages. (A) Mean reads per kilo base per million mapped reads (RPKM) values are given from <t>RNA-seq</t> analyses (transformed by log10). Genes with a similar expression pattern are represented by the same color (genes with stable transcript levels over pupal development time in orange, genes with increasing transcript levels in blue and those with decreased transcript levels in green). See S1 Table for raw values. The <t>three</t> analyzed pupal stages are shown underneath the graph: St1: pupal stage 1; St2: pupal stage 2; St3: pupal stage 3. For each stage, are shown (i) a picture of dissected wasp ovaries; white arrows indicate the calyx where virus particles are produced and (ii) TEM micrographs of calyx cells showing that the first particles are visible at stage 3. N, nucleus; C, cytoplasm; black arrows indicate viral particles. (B) Schematic representation of the different categories of expression profiles observed for IVSPER genes and list of genes in each category (see S4 Table for detail of statistical analyses). NS, no statistical differences of the RPKM values between the 2 compared pupal stages; if p
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    Thermo Fisher superscript iii reverse transcriptase first strand cdna synthesis kit
    Expression pattern of IVSPER genes in Hyposoter didymator calyx cells during pupal developmental stages. (A) Mean reads per kilo base per million mapped reads (RPKM) values are given from <t>RNA-seq</t> analyses (transformed by log10). Genes with a similar expression pattern are represented by the same color (genes with stable transcript levels over pupal development time in orange, genes with increasing transcript levels in blue and those with decreased transcript levels in green). See S1 Table for raw values. The <t>three</t> analyzed pupal stages are shown underneath the graph: St1: pupal stage 1; St2: pupal stage 2; St3: pupal stage 3. For each stage, are shown (i) a picture of dissected wasp ovaries; white arrows indicate the calyx where virus particles are produced and (ii) TEM micrographs of calyx cells showing that the first particles are visible at stage 3. N, nucleus; C, cytoplasm; black arrows indicate viral particles. (B) Schematic representation of the different categories of expression profiles observed for IVSPER genes and list of genes in each category (see S4 Table for detail of statistical analyses). NS, no statistical differences of the RPKM values between the 2 compared pupal stages; if p
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    Thermo Fisher supercript iii reverse transcriptase
    Expression pattern of IVSPER genes in Hyposoter didymator calyx cells during pupal developmental stages. (A) Mean reads per kilo base per million mapped reads (RPKM) values are given from <t>RNA-seq</t> analyses (transformed by log10). Genes with a similar expression pattern are represented by the same color (genes with stable transcript levels over pupal development time in orange, genes with increasing transcript levels in blue and those with decreased transcript levels in green). See S1 Table for raw values. The <t>three</t> analyzed pupal stages are shown underneath the graph: St1: pupal stage 1; St2: pupal stage 2; St3: pupal stage 3. For each stage, are shown (i) a picture of dissected wasp ovaries; white arrows indicate the calyx where virus particles are produced and (ii) TEM micrographs of calyx cells showing that the first particles are visible at stage 3. N, nucleus; C, cytoplasm; black arrows indicate viral particles. (B) Schematic representation of the different categories of expression profiles observed for IVSPER genes and list of genes in each category (see S4 Table for detail of statistical analyses). NS, no statistical differences of the RPKM values between the 2 compared pupal stages; if p
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    Expression pattern of IVSPER genes in Hyposoter didymator calyx cells during pupal developmental stages. (A) Mean reads per kilo base per million mapped reads (RPKM) values are given from <t>RNA-seq</t> analyses (transformed by log10). Genes with a similar expression pattern are represented by the same color (genes with stable transcript levels over pupal development time in orange, genes with increasing transcript levels in blue and those with decreased transcript levels in green). See S1 Table for raw values. The <t>three</t> analyzed pupal stages are shown underneath the graph: St1: pupal stage 1; St2: pupal stage 2; St3: pupal stage 3. For each stage, are shown (i) a picture of dissected wasp ovaries; white arrows indicate the calyx where virus particles are produced and (ii) TEM micrographs of calyx cells showing that the first particles are visible at stage 3. N, nucleus; C, cytoplasm; black arrows indicate viral particles. (B) Schematic representation of the different categories of expression profiles observed for IVSPER genes and list of genes in each category (see S4 Table for detail of statistical analyses). NS, no statistical differences of the RPKM values between the 2 compared pupal stages; if p
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    Expression pattern of IVSPER genes in Hyposoter didymator calyx cells during pupal developmental stages. (A) Mean reads per kilo base per million mapped reads (RPKM) values are given from <t>RNA-seq</t> analyses (transformed by log10). Genes with a similar expression pattern are represented by the same color (genes with stable transcript levels over pupal development time in orange, genes with increasing transcript levels in blue and those with decreased transcript levels in green). See S1 Table for raw values. The <t>three</t> analyzed pupal stages are shown underneath the graph: St1: pupal stage 1; St2: pupal stage 2; St3: pupal stage 3. For each stage, are shown (i) a picture of dissected wasp ovaries; white arrows indicate the calyx where virus particles are produced and (ii) TEM micrographs of calyx cells showing that the first particles are visible at stage 3. N, nucleus; C, cytoplasm; black arrows indicate viral particles. (B) Schematic representation of the different categories of expression profiles observed for IVSPER genes and list of genes in each category (see S4 Table for detail of statistical analyses). NS, no statistical differences of the RPKM values between the 2 compared pupal stages; if p
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    Expression pattern of IVSPER genes in Hyposoter didymator calyx cells during pupal developmental stages. (A) Mean reads per kilo base per million mapped reads (RPKM) values are given from <t>RNA-seq</t> analyses (transformed by log10). Genes with a similar expression pattern are represented by the same color (genes with stable transcript levels over pupal development time in orange, genes with increasing transcript levels in blue and those with decreased transcript levels in green). See S1 Table for raw values. The <t>three</t> analyzed pupal stages are shown underneath the graph: St1: pupal stage 1; St2: pupal stage 2; St3: pupal stage 3. For each stage, are shown (i) a picture of dissected wasp ovaries; white arrows indicate the calyx where virus particles are produced and (ii) TEM micrographs of calyx cells showing that the first particles are visible at stage 3. N, nucleus; C, cytoplasm; black arrows indicate viral particles. (B) Schematic representation of the different categories of expression profiles observed for IVSPER genes and list of genes in each category (see S4 Table for detail of statistical analyses). NS, no statistical differences of the RPKM values between the 2 compared pupal stages; if p
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    Expression pattern of IVSPER genes in Hyposoter didymator calyx cells during pupal developmental stages. (A) Mean reads per kilo base per million mapped reads (RPKM) values are given from <t>RNA-seq</t> analyses (transformed by log10). Genes with a similar expression pattern are represented by the same color (genes with stable transcript levels over pupal development time in orange, genes with increasing transcript levels in blue and those with decreased transcript levels in green). See S1 Table for raw values. The <t>three</t> analyzed pupal stages are shown underneath the graph: St1: pupal stage 1; St2: pupal stage 2; St3: pupal stage 3. For each stage, are shown (i) a picture of dissected wasp ovaries; white arrows indicate the calyx where virus particles are produced and (ii) TEM micrographs of calyx cells showing that the first particles are visible at stage 3. N, nucleus; C, cytoplasm; black arrows indicate viral particles. (B) Schematic representation of the different categories of expression profiles observed for IVSPER genes and list of genes in each category (see S4 Table for detail of statistical analyses). NS, no statistical differences of the RPKM values between the 2 compared pupal stages; if p
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    Expression pattern of IVSPER genes in Hyposoter didymator calyx cells during pupal developmental stages. (A) Mean reads per kilo base per million mapped reads (RPKM) values are given from <t>RNA-seq</t> analyses (transformed by log10). Genes with a similar expression pattern are represented by the same color (genes with stable transcript levels over pupal development time in orange, genes with increasing transcript levels in blue and those with decreased transcript levels in green). See S1 Table for raw values. The <t>three</t> analyzed pupal stages are shown underneath the graph: St1: pupal stage 1; St2: pupal stage 2; St3: pupal stage 3. For each stage, are shown (i) a picture of dissected wasp ovaries; white arrows indicate the calyx where virus particles are produced and (ii) TEM micrographs of calyx cells showing that the first particles are visible at stage 3. N, nucleus; C, cytoplasm; black arrows indicate viral particles. (B) Schematic representation of the different categories of expression profiles observed for IVSPER genes and list of genes in each category (see S4 Table for detail of statistical analyses). NS, no statistical differences of the RPKM values between the 2 compared pupal stages; if p
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    Thermo Fisher thermostable reverse transcriptase superscript iii
    Expression pattern of IVSPER genes in Hyposoter didymator calyx cells during pupal developmental stages. (A) Mean reads per kilo base per million mapped reads (RPKM) values are given from <t>RNA-seq</t> analyses (transformed by log10). Genes with a similar expression pattern are represented by the same color (genes with stable transcript levels over pupal development time in orange, genes with increasing transcript levels in blue and those with decreased transcript levels in green). See S1 Table for raw values. The <t>three</t> analyzed pupal stages are shown underneath the graph: St1: pupal stage 1; St2: pupal stage 2; St3: pupal stage 3. For each stage, are shown (i) a picture of dissected wasp ovaries; white arrows indicate the calyx where virus particles are produced and (ii) TEM micrographs of calyx cells showing that the first particles are visible at stage 3. N, nucleus; C, cytoplasm; black arrows indicate viral particles. (B) Schematic representation of the different categories of expression profiles observed for IVSPER genes and list of genes in each category (see S4 Table for detail of statistical analyses). NS, no statistical differences of the RPKM values between the 2 compared pupal stages; if p
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    Expression pattern of IVSPER genes in Hyposoter didymator calyx cells during pupal developmental stages. (A) Mean reads per kilo base per million mapped reads (RPKM) values are given from <t>RNA-seq</t> analyses (transformed by log10). Genes with a similar expression pattern are represented by the same color (genes with stable transcript levels over pupal development time in orange, genes with increasing transcript levels in blue and those with decreased transcript levels in green). See S1 Table for raw values. The <t>three</t> analyzed pupal stages are shown underneath the graph: St1: pupal stage 1; St2: pupal stage 2; St3: pupal stage 3. For each stage, are shown (i) a picture of dissected wasp ovaries; white arrows indicate the calyx where virus particles are produced and (ii) TEM micrographs of calyx cells showing that the first particles are visible at stage 3. N, nucleus; C, cytoplasm; black arrows indicate viral particles. (B) Schematic representation of the different categories of expression profiles observed for IVSPER genes and list of genes in each category (see S4 Table for detail of statistical analyses). NS, no statistical differences of the RPKM values between the 2 compared pupal stages; if p
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    Microbiota independent inflammatory and stress response phenotypes of EPI-/- skin. ( a ) qPCR of 16s RNA gene in WT, EPI-/-, antibiotic-treated EPI-/-, and flora-deficient EPI-/- ear skin samples. ( b ) Number of CD4 + CD3 + cells per mm 2 dermis. ( c ) Number of γδTCR + cells per mm epidermis. ( d ) Number of Vγ3 + cells per mm epidermis. ( e ) <t>qRT-PCR</t> of Rae-1 in WT, EPI-/-, antibiotic-treated EPI-/-, and flora-deficient EPI-/- epidermis. ( f ) Quantification of MPO in WT, EPI-/-, and flora-deficient skin lysates. Data are means ± SEM from at least four ( a ) or three ( b–f ) mice per group. * P
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    Microbiota independent inflammatory and stress response phenotypes of EPI-/- skin. ( a ) qPCR of 16s RNA gene in WT, EPI-/-, antibiotic-treated EPI-/-, and flora-deficient EPI-/- ear skin samples. ( b ) Number of CD4 + CD3 + cells per mm 2 dermis. ( c ) Number of γδTCR + cells per mm epidermis. ( d ) Number of Vγ3 + cells per mm epidermis. ( e ) <t>qRT-PCR</t> of Rae-1 in WT, EPI-/-, antibiotic-treated EPI-/-, and flora-deficient EPI-/- epidermis. ( f ) Quantification of MPO in WT, EPI-/-, and flora-deficient skin lysates. Data are means ± SEM from at least four ( a ) or three ( b–f ) mice per group. * P
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    Microbiota independent inflammatory and stress response phenotypes of EPI-/- skin. ( a ) qPCR of 16s RNA gene in WT, EPI-/-, antibiotic-treated EPI-/-, and flora-deficient EPI-/- ear skin samples. ( b ) Number of CD4 + CD3 + cells per mm 2 dermis. ( c ) Number of γδTCR + cells per mm epidermis. ( d ) Number of Vγ3 + cells per mm epidermis. ( e ) <t>qRT-PCR</t> of Rae-1 in WT, EPI-/-, antibiotic-treated EPI-/-, and flora-deficient EPI-/- epidermis. ( f ) Quantification of MPO in WT, EPI-/-, and flora-deficient skin lysates. Data are means ± SEM from at least four ( a ) or three ( b–f ) mice per group. * P
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    Quantification of HEV RNA loads in serum, fecal, and bile samples of wild-type and J H knockout gnotobiotic piglets experimentally infected with HEV. Viral RNAs were extracted from fecal samples <t>three</t> times weekly (A), intestinal contents and bile at 28 dpi (B), as a scatterplot of fecal viral RNA, with each symbol indicating the value for an individual piglet (C), and serum samples at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 dpi (D) for the quantification of HEV RNA copy numbers by <t>qRT-PCR.</t> The data are expressed as means ± the SEM. The detection limit is 10 viral genomic copies, which corresponds to 400 copies per 1-ml sample or per gram of tissue. Titers below the reported detection limit were considered negative. Asterisks indicate statistical significance between designated groups as determined by two-way ANOVA and a P value of
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    Quantification of HEV RNA loads in serum, fecal, and bile samples of wild-type and J H knockout gnotobiotic piglets experimentally infected with HEV. Viral RNAs were extracted from fecal samples <t>three</t> times weekly (A), intestinal contents and bile at 28 dpi (B), as a scatterplot of fecal viral RNA, with each symbol indicating the value for an individual piglet (C), and serum samples at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 dpi (D) for the quantification of HEV RNA copy numbers by <t>qRT-PCR.</t> The data are expressed as means ± the SEM. The detection limit is 10 viral genomic copies, which corresponds to 400 copies per 1-ml sample or per gram of tissue. Titers below the reported detection limit were considered negative. Asterisks indicate statistical significance between designated groups as determined by two-way ANOVA and a P value of
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    Quantification of HEV RNA loads in serum, fecal, and bile samples of wild-type and J H knockout gnotobiotic piglets experimentally infected with HEV. Viral RNAs were extracted from fecal samples <t>three</t> times weekly (A), intestinal contents and bile at 28 dpi (B), as a scatterplot of fecal viral RNA, with each symbol indicating the value for an individual piglet (C), and serum samples at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 dpi (D) for the quantification of HEV RNA copy numbers by <t>qRT-PCR.</t> The data are expressed as means ± the SEM. The detection limit is 10 viral genomic copies, which corresponds to 400 copies per 1-ml sample or per gram of tissue. Titers below the reported detection limit were considered negative. Asterisks indicate statistical significance between designated groups as determined by two-way ANOVA and a P value of
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    Quantification of HEV RNA loads in serum, fecal, and bile samples of wild-type and J H knockout gnotobiotic piglets experimentally infected with HEV. Viral RNAs were extracted from fecal samples <t>three</t> times weekly (A), intestinal contents and bile at 28 dpi (B), as a scatterplot of fecal viral RNA, with each symbol indicating the value for an individual piglet (C), and serum samples at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 dpi (D) for the quantification of HEV RNA copy numbers by <t>qRT-PCR.</t> The data are expressed as means ± the SEM. The detection limit is 10 viral genomic copies, which corresponds to 400 copies per 1-ml sample or per gram of tissue. Titers below the reported detection limit were considered negative. Asterisks indicate statistical significance between designated groups as determined by two-way ANOVA and a P value of
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    Quantification of HEV RNA loads in serum, fecal, and bile samples of wild-type and J H knockout gnotobiotic piglets experimentally infected with HEV. Viral RNAs were extracted from fecal samples <t>three</t> times weekly (A), intestinal contents and bile at 28 dpi (B), as a scatterplot of fecal viral RNA, with each symbol indicating the value for an individual piglet (C), and serum samples at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 dpi (D) for the quantification of HEV RNA copy numbers by <t>qRT-PCR.</t> The data are expressed as means ± the SEM. The detection limit is 10 viral genomic copies, which corresponds to 400 copies per 1-ml sample or per gram of tissue. Titers below the reported detection limit were considered negative. Asterisks indicate statistical significance between designated groups as determined by two-way ANOVA and a P value of
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    Quantification of HEV RNA loads in serum, fecal, and bile samples of wild-type and J H knockout gnotobiotic piglets experimentally infected with HEV. Viral RNAs were extracted from fecal samples <t>three</t> times weekly (A), intestinal contents and bile at 28 dpi (B), as a scatterplot of fecal viral RNA, with each symbol indicating the value for an individual piglet (C), and serum samples at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 dpi (D) for the quantification of HEV RNA copy numbers by <t>qRT-PCR.</t> The data are expressed as means ± the SEM. The detection limit is 10 viral genomic copies, which corresponds to 400 copies per 1-ml sample or per gram of tissue. Titers below the reported detection limit were considered negative. Asterisks indicate statistical significance between designated groups as determined by two-way ANOVA and a P value of
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    Quantification of HEV RNA loads in serum, fecal, and bile samples of wild-type and J H knockout gnotobiotic piglets experimentally infected with HEV. Viral RNAs were extracted from fecal samples <t>three</t> times weekly (A), intestinal contents and bile at 28 dpi (B), as a scatterplot of fecal viral RNA, with each symbol indicating the value for an individual piglet (C), and serum samples at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 dpi (D) for the quantification of HEV RNA copy numbers by <t>qRT-PCR.</t> The data are expressed as means ± the SEM. The detection limit is 10 viral genomic copies, which corresponds to 400 copies per 1-ml sample or per gram of tissue. Titers below the reported detection limit were considered negative. Asterisks indicate statistical significance between designated groups as determined by two-way ANOVA and a P value of
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    Quantification of HEV RNA loads in serum, fecal, and bile samples of wild-type and J H knockout gnotobiotic piglets experimentally infected with HEV. Viral RNAs were extracted from fecal samples <t>three</t> times weekly (A), intestinal contents and bile at 28 dpi (B), as a scatterplot of fecal viral RNA, with each symbol indicating the value for an individual piglet (C), and serum samples at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 dpi (D) for the quantification of HEV RNA copy numbers by <t>qRT-PCR.</t> The data are expressed as means ± the SEM. The detection limit is 10 viral genomic copies, which corresponds to 400 copies per 1-ml sample or per gram of tissue. Titers below the reported detection limit were considered negative. Asterisks indicate statistical significance between designated groups as determined by two-way ANOVA and a P value of
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    Image Search Results


    A. thaliana contains three TER isoforms. ( A ) Diagram of the three TER isoforms in Arabidopsis . ( B ) Primer extension results of total cellular RNA from cell culture using a primer complementary to a region in CR2 (filled arrow in A ). (Lane 1 ) In vitro

    Journal: Genes & Development

    Article Title: An alternative telomerase RNA in Arabidopsis modulates enzyme activity in response to DNA damage

    doi: 10.1101/gad.202960.112

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A. thaliana contains three TER isoforms. ( A ) Diagram of the three TER isoforms in Arabidopsis . ( B ) Primer extension results of total cellular RNA from cell culture using a primer complementary to a region in CR2 (filled arrow in A ). (Lane 1 ) In vitro

    Article Snippet: Total RNA was extracted using Tri reagent (Sigma), and cDNA was synthesized using SuperScript III reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen) as described ( ).

    Techniques: Cell Culture, In Vitro

    The three TER isoforms assemble into distinct RNP complexes. In vitro filter-binding assay results for TERT with TER1, TER2, and TER2 S are shown in A and B . RRL-expressed TERT was incubated with 5 nM or 10 nM radiolabeled RNA as indicated. TRFL4 protein

    Journal: Genes & Development

    Article Title: An alternative telomerase RNA in Arabidopsis modulates enzyme activity in response to DNA damage

    doi: 10.1101/gad.202960.112

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The three TER isoforms assemble into distinct RNP complexes. In vitro filter-binding assay results for TERT with TER1, TER2, and TER2 S are shown in A and B . RRL-expressed TERT was incubated with 5 nM or 10 nM radiolabeled RNA as indicated. TRFL4 protein

    Article Snippet: Total RNA was extracted using Tri reagent (Sigma), and cDNA was synthesized using SuperScript III reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen) as described ( ).

    Techniques: In Vitro, Filter-binding Assay, Incubation

    The saxE gene was required for Pst growth in leaf extracts and in planta . A. A schematic diagram of the complementary tests pinpointing the minimal region required for rescuing the growth of 25D12 mutant in plant leaf extracts. Filled arrows indicate genes annotated by the sequencing project marked with locus tags on the top. The filled triangle shows the insertion site of Ω‐Km transposon in mutant 25D12 . Genomic DNA fragments downstream the transposon insertion site were tested for the ability to confer tolerance to leaf extracts. B. The minimal region that protected 25D12 in leaf extracts also rescued the growth of the mutant on Arabidopsis plant. Bacterial inocula were infiltrated into Arabidopsis leaves at OD 600 = 0.001. Samples were taken at 0 and 3 dpi for colony counts. The saxE orf was required for bacterial virulence on Arabidopsis (C) and tomato (D) plants. Wild‐type Pst , Pst ▵saxE and the complemented strain Pst ▵saxE ‐ saxEhis were infiltrated into Arabidopsis (C) and tomato (D) leaves at OD 600 = 0.001. Samples were taken at 0 and 3 dpi for colony counts. All experiments were repeated at least three times, and similar results were observed. Data shown are means ± SD. ** indicates significant difference ( t ‐test, P

    Journal: Microbial Biotechnology

    Article Title: Pseudomonas bacteriocin syringacin M released upon desiccation suppresses the growth of sensitive bacteria in plant necrotic lesions

    doi: 10.1111/1751-7915.13367

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The saxE gene was required for Pst growth in leaf extracts and in planta . A. A schematic diagram of the complementary tests pinpointing the minimal region required for rescuing the growth of 25D12 mutant in plant leaf extracts. Filled arrows indicate genes annotated by the sequencing project marked with locus tags on the top. The filled triangle shows the insertion site of Ω‐Km transposon in mutant 25D12 . Genomic DNA fragments downstream the transposon insertion site were tested for the ability to confer tolerance to leaf extracts. B. The minimal region that protected 25D12 in leaf extracts also rescued the growth of the mutant on Arabidopsis plant. Bacterial inocula were infiltrated into Arabidopsis leaves at OD 600 = 0.001. Samples were taken at 0 and 3 dpi for colony counts. The saxE orf was required for bacterial virulence on Arabidopsis (C) and tomato (D) plants. Wild‐type Pst , Pst ▵saxE and the complemented strain Pst ▵saxE ‐ saxEhis were infiltrated into Arabidopsis (C) and tomato (D) leaves at OD 600 = 0.001. Samples were taken at 0 and 3 dpi for colony counts. All experiments were repeated at least three times, and similar results were observed. Data shown are means ± SD. ** indicates significant difference ( t ‐test, P

    Article Snippet: Recombinant RNase‐free DNase I (Takara, Kusatsu, Japan) and SuperScript III Reverse Transcriptase (Invitrogen) were used to remove genomic DNA and synthesize the first‐strand cDNA respectively.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Sequencing

    Analysis of APP RNA and protein expression induced by IGK. (A) Western blots of the APP expression in HEK293T and SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells treated by IGK at different doses. (B) Schematic diagram of three major APP RNA transcripts (770, 751, and 695). (C) Western blot to show APP form change in IGK treatment. Samples were from HEK293T cell lysates. The loading amount of IGK samples was serially reduced so that the APP expression level is close to that of the DMSO control for clearer protein pattern comparison. Proteins on the membrane after electrotransfer during western blotting were stained by Ponceau S. (D) RT-PCR of APP mRNA in IGK treatment. Forward primer targets exon 6 and the reverse primer targets exon 9. All samples received the same RT-PCR protocol. After 25 amplification cycles, the DNA products of each sample were taken for separation and visualization on the 1% agarose gel. This was repeated every three cycles until the DNA bands started to be visible, so that the difference in their relative abundance would not diminish due to over amplification. The results shown were from PCR after 31 cycles.

    Journal: ACS Omega

    Article Title: Effects of RNA Splicing Inhibitors on Amyloid Precursor Protein Expression

    doi: 10.1021/acsomega.7b02073

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Analysis of APP RNA and protein expression induced by IGK. (A) Western blots of the APP expression in HEK293T and SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells treated by IGK at different doses. (B) Schematic diagram of three major APP RNA transcripts (770, 751, and 695). (C) Western blot to show APP form change in IGK treatment. Samples were from HEK293T cell lysates. The loading amount of IGK samples was serially reduced so that the APP expression level is close to that of the DMSO control for clearer protein pattern comparison. Proteins on the membrane after electrotransfer during western blotting were stained by Ponceau S. (D) RT-PCR of APP mRNA in IGK treatment. Forward primer targets exon 6 and the reverse primer targets exon 9. All samples received the same RT-PCR protocol. After 25 amplification cycles, the DNA products of each sample were taken for separation and visualization on the 1% agarose gel. This was repeated every three cycles until the DNA bands started to be visible, so that the difference in their relative abundance would not diminish due to over amplification. The results shown were from PCR after 31 cycles.

    Article Snippet: RT-PCR The RNA was extracted from HEK293T cells using an RNeasy Mini Kit (74104, Qiagen) and synthesized into the first DNA strand by SuperScript III reverse transcriptase (18080-051, Life Technologies).

    Techniques: Expressing, Western Blot, Electrotransfer, Staining, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Expression pattern of IVSPER genes in Hyposoter didymator calyx cells during pupal developmental stages. (A) Mean reads per kilo base per million mapped reads (RPKM) values are given from RNA-seq analyses (transformed by log10). Genes with a similar expression pattern are represented by the same color (genes with stable transcript levels over pupal development time in orange, genes with increasing transcript levels in blue and those with decreased transcript levels in green). See S1 Table for raw values. The three analyzed pupal stages are shown underneath the graph: St1: pupal stage 1; St2: pupal stage 2; St3: pupal stage 3. For each stage, are shown (i) a picture of dissected wasp ovaries; white arrows indicate the calyx where virus particles are produced and (ii) TEM micrographs of calyx cells showing that the first particles are visible at stage 3. N, nucleus; C, cytoplasm; black arrows indicate viral particles. (B) Schematic representation of the different categories of expression profiles observed for IVSPER genes and list of genes in each category (see S4 Table for detail of statistical analyses). NS, no statistical differences of the RPKM values between the 2 compared pupal stages; if p

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: RNA interference identifies domesticated viral genes involved in assembly and trafficking of virus-derived particles in ichneumonid wasps

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008210

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression pattern of IVSPER genes in Hyposoter didymator calyx cells during pupal developmental stages. (A) Mean reads per kilo base per million mapped reads (RPKM) values are given from RNA-seq analyses (transformed by log10). Genes with a similar expression pattern are represented by the same color (genes with stable transcript levels over pupal development time in orange, genes with increasing transcript levels in blue and those with decreased transcript levels in green). See S1 Table for raw values. The three analyzed pupal stages are shown underneath the graph: St1: pupal stage 1; St2: pupal stage 2; St3: pupal stage 3. For each stage, are shown (i) a picture of dissected wasp ovaries; white arrows indicate the calyx where virus particles are produced and (ii) TEM micrographs of calyx cells showing that the first particles are visible at stage 3. N, nucleus; C, cytoplasm; black arrows indicate viral particles. (B) Schematic representation of the different categories of expression profiles observed for IVSPER genes and list of genes in each category (see S4 Table for detail of statistical analyses). NS, no statistical differences of the RPKM values between the 2 compared pupal stages; if p

    Article Snippet: Reverse-transcriptase quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) For RT-qPCRs, 400 ng of purified RNA were reverse-transcripted with the SuperScript III Reverse Transcriptase kit (Life Technologies) and oligo(dT)15 primer (Promega).

    Techniques: Expressing, RNA Sequencing Assay, Transformation Assay, Produced, Transmission Electron Microscopy, IF-P

    Microbiota independent inflammatory and stress response phenotypes of EPI-/- skin. ( a ) qPCR of 16s RNA gene in WT, EPI-/-, antibiotic-treated EPI-/-, and flora-deficient EPI-/- ear skin samples. ( b ) Number of CD4 + CD3 + cells per mm 2 dermis. ( c ) Number of γδTCR + cells per mm epidermis. ( d ) Number of Vγ3 + cells per mm epidermis. ( e ) qRT-PCR of Rae-1 in WT, EPI-/-, antibiotic-treated EPI-/-, and flora-deficient EPI-/- epidermis. ( f ) Quantification of MPO in WT, EPI-/-, and flora-deficient skin lysates. Data are means ± SEM from at least four ( a ) or three ( b–f ) mice per group. * P

    Journal: The Journal of Investigative Dermatology

    Article Title: Increased Bacterial Load and Expression of Antimicrobial Peptides in Skin of Barrier-Deficient Mice with Reduced Cancer Susceptibility

    doi: 10.1038/JID.2015.383

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Microbiota independent inflammatory and stress response phenotypes of EPI-/- skin. ( a ) qPCR of 16s RNA gene in WT, EPI-/-, antibiotic-treated EPI-/-, and flora-deficient EPI-/- ear skin samples. ( b ) Number of CD4 + CD3 + cells per mm 2 dermis. ( c ) Number of γδTCR + cells per mm epidermis. ( d ) Number of Vγ3 + cells per mm epidermis. ( e ) qRT-PCR of Rae-1 in WT, EPI-/-, antibiotic-treated EPI-/-, and flora-deficient EPI-/- epidermis. ( f ) Quantification of MPO in WT, EPI-/-, and flora-deficient skin lysates. Data are means ± SEM from at least four ( a ) or three ( b–f ) mice per group. * P

    Article Snippet: RNA concentration was measured using an ND-100 NanoDrop spectrophotometer (NanoDrop Technologies, Wilmington, DE). cDNA was synthesized using a Superscript III First-Strand Synthesis Supermix for quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) kit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. qRT-PCR was carried out using specific primers and fast SYBR Green and run on an ABI Prism 7900HT Sequence detection system.

    Techniques: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Quantitative RT-PCR, Mouse Assay

    AMP expression and protease activity in EPI-/- epidermis after microbiota modulation. ( a–k ) qRT-PCR of Camp ( a ) , Defb1 ( b ), Defb2 ( c ), Defb3 ( d ), Defb6 ( e ), S100A9 ( f ), Pla2g2a ( g ), Reg3b ( h ), Reg3g ( i ), and Serpina1b ( j ) in WT, EPI-/-, antibiotic-treated EPI-/-, and flora-deficient EPI-/- epidermis. Data are means ± SEM from at least four mice per group. * P

    Journal: The Journal of Investigative Dermatology

    Article Title: Increased Bacterial Load and Expression of Antimicrobial Peptides in Skin of Barrier-Deficient Mice with Reduced Cancer Susceptibility

    doi: 10.1038/JID.2015.383

    Figure Lengend Snippet: AMP expression and protease activity in EPI-/- epidermis after microbiota modulation. ( a–k ) qRT-PCR of Camp ( a ) , Defb1 ( b ), Defb2 ( c ), Defb3 ( d ), Defb6 ( e ), S100A9 ( f ), Pla2g2a ( g ), Reg3b ( h ), Reg3g ( i ), and Serpina1b ( j ) in WT, EPI-/-, antibiotic-treated EPI-/-, and flora-deficient EPI-/- epidermis. Data are means ± SEM from at least four mice per group. * P

    Article Snippet: RNA concentration was measured using an ND-100 NanoDrop spectrophotometer (NanoDrop Technologies, Wilmington, DE). cDNA was synthesized using a Superscript III First-Strand Synthesis Supermix for quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) kit (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. qRT-PCR was carried out using specific primers and fast SYBR Green and run on an ABI Prism 7900HT Sequence detection system.

    Techniques: Expressing, Activity Assay, Quantitative RT-PCR, Mouse Assay

    Quantification of HEV RNA loads in serum, fecal, and bile samples of wild-type and J H knockout gnotobiotic piglets experimentally infected with HEV. Viral RNAs were extracted from fecal samples three times weekly (A), intestinal contents and bile at 28 dpi (B), as a scatterplot of fecal viral RNA, with each symbol indicating the value for an individual piglet (C), and serum samples at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 dpi (D) for the quantification of HEV RNA copy numbers by qRT-PCR. The data are expressed as means ± the SEM. The detection limit is 10 viral genomic copies, which corresponds to 400 copies per 1-ml sample or per gram of tissue. Titers below the reported detection limit were considered negative. Asterisks indicate statistical significance between designated groups as determined by two-way ANOVA and a P value of

    Journal: Journal of Virology

    Article Title: Infection Dynamics of Hepatitis E Virus in Wild-Type and Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Knockout JH−/− Gnotobiotic Piglets

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.01208-18

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Quantification of HEV RNA loads in serum, fecal, and bile samples of wild-type and J H knockout gnotobiotic piglets experimentally infected with HEV. Viral RNAs were extracted from fecal samples three times weekly (A), intestinal contents and bile at 28 dpi (B), as a scatterplot of fecal viral RNA, with each symbol indicating the value for an individual piglet (C), and serum samples at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 dpi (D) for the quantification of HEV RNA copy numbers by qRT-PCR. The data are expressed as means ± the SEM. The detection limit is 10 viral genomic copies, which corresponds to 400 copies per 1-ml sample or per gram of tissue. Titers below the reported detection limit were considered negative. Asterisks indicate statistical significance between designated groups as determined by two-way ANOVA and a P value of

    Article Snippet: Synthesis of cDNA and first-round PCR amplification were performed using Superscript III one-step reverse transcriptase PCR kit (Invitrogen) with primers specific for the US-2 strain of HEV: forward primer US202:1198F22 (5′-ATCGCCCTGACACTGTTCAATC-3′) and reverse primer US202:2064R25 (5′-AGGAATTAATTAAGACTCCCGGGTT-3′).

    Techniques: Knock-Out, Infection, Quantitative RT-PCR