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  • 99
    Millipore ivermectin
    Pharmacokinetic simulation of <t>ivermectin</t> concentration-time profile when given as 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 mg/kg for 7 days in Rhesus macaques
    Ivermectin, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 529 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Merck & Co ivermectin
    Forest plot of comparison: 2 <t>Ivermectin</t> versus thiabendazole, outcome: 2.1 Parasitological cure.
    Ivermectin, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 386 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Merial ivermectin
    Blood concentrations of <t>ivermectin</t> in pigs delivered via subcutaneous injection, oral and pour-on routes. Subcutaneous injection of 0.6 mg/kg ivermectin in experimental pigs resulted in much higher mean blood levels of the drug (18.2, 32.8, 26.1 and 15.3 ng/ml on week 1 and 2.4 ng/ml on week 2, (concentrations found lethal to mosquitoes) and longer residence time (up to 3 weeks) as compared to same drug concentration of 0.6 mg/kg delivered via oral and pour-on routes in experimental pigs. The mean lethal dose of 19.9 ng/ml delivered via oral route was detectable only after 24 h post-treatment of pigs and rapidly declined to 6.2 ng/ml after 3 days. This lethal dose was not reached by pour-on delivery
    Ivermectin, supplied by Merial, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 271 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    Merck & Co mectizan donation program
    The 26 Countries in Africa where Mass Treatment with <t>Mectizan</t> is Indicated and Ongoing for Onchocerciasis, as of the end of 2005 . Countries are colored coded according to their inclusion in the former-OCP ( ) or APOC ( ) regions. As of the end of 2005, there were mass treatment programs with Mectizan for onchocerciasis in all 26 African countries where such intervention is epidemiologically justified. These 26 countries, plus Niger and Mozambique, are eligible for Mectizan combined with albendazole for national PELFs. This map is reproduced with permission of the Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology , 2006, Volume 100, pages 733–46.
    Mectizan Donation Program, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 45 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Boehringer Ingelheim ivermectin
    Overall efficacy of six anthelmintics against gastrointestinal nematodes of alpacas on 20 farms in Australia. Each circle shows percentage of the faecal egg count reduction while each horizontal line shows upper and lower 95% confidence intervals. Abbreviations : CLO, closantel; CYD, cydectin; IVM, <t>ivermectin;</t> FBZ, fenbendazole; QDR, Q-drench (a combination of abamectin, albendazole, closantel and levamisole); MON, monepantel
    Ivermectin, supplied by Boehringer Ingelheim, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 15 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Tocris ivermectin
    P2X4 responses in gene-edited BV-2 cells to eliminate P2X7 receptors. BV-2 cells deficient for P2X7 were generated using CRISPR/Cas9 editing. (A) Flow cytometry data indicating parental BV-2 cells express P2X7 (black histogram), whereas P2X7-deficient BV-2 cells show no P2X7-positive stain (green histogram) using Hano43 antibody labeling. Red histogram indicates negative control, cells labeled with secondary antibody only. (B) Western blots showing no anti-P2X7 reactive protein band in P2X7-deficient BV-2 cells compared with parental BV-2 and J774 macrophages. Equal amounts of protein (25 μ g) were loaded per lane as indicated by the β -actin loading control on stripped and reprobed blots. P2X4 protein levels were unchanged following knockout of P2X7. (C) Staining for P2X4 receptors was performed using a fix/perm method with cells grown on 13-mm glass coverslips. Rabbit anti-P2X4 (1:200) was used to label all P2X4 receptors in BV-2 parental and P2X7-deficient BV-2 cells. Images are representative of two independent experiments. (D) Intracellular calcium measurements in Fura-2 acetoxymethyl ester–loaded BV-2 and P2X7-deficient BV-2 show identical ATP (25 µ M) responses. ATP + <t>ivermectin</t> (3 µ M) responses were reduced by pretreatment of cells with 5-BDBD (10 µ M) or PSB-12062 (1 µ M). Error bars are S.D. and * P
    Ivermectin, supplied by Tocris, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 15 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Glaxo Smith ivermectin
    Reduction of circulating antigen levels (CAg) after high-dose, twice-yearly albendazole and <t>ivermectin</t> ( A ), compared with standard-dose, annual treatment ( B ). Each solid line represents the percentage of pretreatment microfilarial level for an individual
    Ivermectin, supplied by Glaxo Smith, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 51 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Amazon ivermectin
    Effects of <t>ivermectin</t> on the reproductive fitness of Anopheles aquasalis. a Effects on number of eggs per female (fecundity); b Effects on eggs that produced larvae (eggs hatch rate); c Effects on number of pupae that developed from larvae
    Ivermectin, supplied by Amazon, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 19 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Thermo Fisher ivermectin
    Bed bug incapacitation rates after feeding on a rabbit injected with 0.3 mg/kg of <t>ivermectin</t> (Test 1 and Test 2).
    Ivermectin, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 19 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Virbac ivermectin
    Percentage of irradiated males remaining in control cages and treatment cages. Irradiated males remaining in cages for the duration of 4 days in control cages (solid line) and in cages fed with 7.5 ppm <t>ivermectin-spiked</t> blood (semi-dotted line). Error ba represent SEM.
    Ivermectin, supplied by Virbac, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ivm  (Merial)
    92
    Merial ivm
    Comparative mean (±SD) ( n = 4) moxidectin, <t>(MXD),</t> abamectin (ABM) and ivermectin <t>(IVM)</t> concentrations measured within adult H. contortus recovered from intaruminally (IR) treated (0.2 mg/kg) infected lambs. ( ∗ ) Values for MXD are statistically different from those obtained after the administration of both ABM and IVM at P
    Ivm, supplied by Merial, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 29 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Merck & Co ivermectin tablets
    Percentage reduction from pre-treatment in skin microfilariae density (mean, standard deviation) 8 days, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after treatment by treatment group. A Total e-mITT population, B Severely infected in the e-mITT population treated with <t>ivermectin</t> or 8 mg moxidectin. For the ivermectin treatment group, means and standard deviations are shown across all severely infected and without the suboptimal microfilariae responders (Ivermectin - SOMR). Tx – treatment, SD – standard deviation shown in one direction. Marker positions for different treatment groups have been placed around the measurement time point to allow, to the extent possible, differentiation between overlapping means and SD.
    Ivermectin Tablets, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Virbac moxidectin
    In vitro activity of ivermectin and <t>moxidectin</t> 24 h post-membrane feeding. Lower concentrations of ivermectin than moxidectin are necessary to achieve the same mortality level in mosquitoes
    Moxidectin, supplied by Virbac, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 51 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Merial ivermectin pyrantel
    In vitro activity of ivermectin and <t>moxidectin</t> 24 h post-membrane feeding. Lower concentrations of ivermectin than moxidectin are necessary to achieve the same mortality level in mosquitoes
    Ivermectin Pyrantel, supplied by Merial, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Gilead Sciences ivermectin
    In vitro activity of ivermectin and <t>moxidectin</t> 24 h post-membrane feeding. Lower concentrations of ivermectin than moxidectin are necessary to achieve the same mortality level in mosquitoes
    Ivermectin, supplied by Gilead Sciences, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Pfizer Inc ivermectin
    In vitro activity of ivermectin and <t>moxidectin</t> 24 h post-membrane feeding. Lower concentrations of ivermectin than moxidectin are necessary to achieve the same mortality level in mosquitoes
    Ivermectin, supplied by Pfizer Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 18 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Merck & Co parenteral ivermectin
    In vitro activity of ivermectin and <t>moxidectin</t> 24 h post-membrane feeding. Lower concentrations of ivermectin than moxidectin are necessary to achieve the same mortality level in mosquitoes
    Parenteral Ivermectin, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Merck & Co anthelminthic
    In vitro activity of ivermectin and <t>moxidectin</t> 24 h post-membrane feeding. Lower concentrations of ivermectin than moxidectin are necessary to achieve the same mortality level in mosquitoes
    Anthelminthic, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Merial anthelmintic
    In vitro activity of ivermectin and <t>moxidectin</t> 24 h post-membrane feeding. Lower concentrations of ivermectin than moxidectin are necessary to achieve the same mortality level in mosquitoes
    Anthelmintic, supplied by Merial, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    Zoetis selamectin
    Diagram of feline heartworm disease and HARD. Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) is induced at the first arrival of immature adult worms as early as 70 to 90 days after infection. The inflammation develops even if the cat “self-cures” and all immature adults die, and no adult heartworms develop. The lung lesions continue for up to 8 months after infection and perhaps longer. The antibody (Ab) response is present if cats are started on <t>selamectin</t> 28 days after the infection even if immature adults do not reach the heart. The antibody response continues after the arrival of immature adults; in cats which develop only the immature adults with HARD, the antibody response is present in 50% of the cats 8 months after the infection. Cats that develop the adult heartworms continue to live for up to 4 years, often with no symptoms, and the cats develop a decreased responsiveness of their pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIM). When adult heartworms eventually die, acute symptoms may develop
    Selamectin, supplied by Zoetis, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 58 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Merial ivermectin pyrantel pamoate
    Diagram of feline heartworm disease and HARD. Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) is induced at the first arrival of immature adult worms as early as 70 to 90 days after infection. The inflammation develops even if the cat “self-cures” and all immature adults die, and no adult heartworms develop. The lung lesions continue for up to 8 months after infection and perhaps longer. The antibody (Ab) response is present if cats are started on <t>selamectin</t> 28 days after the infection even if immature adults do not reach the heart. The antibody response continues after the arrival of immature adults; in cats which develop only the immature adults with HARD, the antibody response is present in 50% of the cats 8 months after the infection. Cats that develop the adult heartworms continue to live for up to 4 years, often with no symptoms, and the cats develop a decreased responsiveness of their pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIM). When adult heartworms eventually die, acute symptoms may develop
    Ivermectin Pyrantel Pamoate, supplied by Merial, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Pharmacokinetic simulation of ivermectin concentration-time profile when given as 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 mg/kg for 7 days in Rhesus macaques

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Safety, pharmacokinetics, and liver-stage Plasmodium cynomolgi effect of high-dose ivermectin and chloroquine in Rhesus Macaques

    doi: 10.1101/2020.04.27.065409

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pharmacokinetic simulation of ivermectin concentration-time profile when given as 0.3, 0.6 and 1.2 mg/kg for 7 days in Rhesus macaques

    Article Snippet: Ivermectin compound (Lot # MKBZ1802V, Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) was dissolved in 100% DMSO and used at a final concentration of 100 µg/ml in an 8-point, 2-fold serial dilution.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Mean plasma concentration-time profiles of ivermectin 24 hours after the first and seventh dose when administered ivermectin at 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 mg/kg with and without chloroquine (10 mg/kg)

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Safety, pharmacokinetics, and liver-stage Plasmodium cynomolgi effect of high-dose ivermectin and chloroquine in Rhesus Macaques

    doi: 10.1101/2020.04.27.065409

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mean plasma concentration-time profiles of ivermectin 24 hours after the first and seventh dose when administered ivermectin at 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 mg/kg with and without chloroquine (10 mg/kg)

    Article Snippet: Ivermectin compound (Lot # MKBZ1802V, Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) was dissolved in 100% DMSO and used at a final concentration of 100 µg/ml in an 8-point, 2-fold serial dilution.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Relative ivermectin parameter values for C max (left panel) and AUC 24 hr (right panel)

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Safety, pharmacokinetics, and liver-stage Plasmodium cynomolgi effect of high-dose ivermectin and chloroquine in Rhesus Macaques

    doi: 10.1101/2020.04.27.065409

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Relative ivermectin parameter values for C max (left panel) and AUC 24 hr (right panel)

    Article Snippet: Ivermectin compound (Lot # MKBZ1802V, Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) was dissolved in 100% DMSO and used at a final concentration of 100 µg/ml in an 8-point, 2-fold serial dilution.

    Techniques:

    Ivermectin concentrations achieved in macaques 24 hours post first oral dose

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Safety, pharmacokinetics, and liver-stage Plasmodium cynomolgi effect of high-dose ivermectin and chloroquine in Rhesus Macaques

    doi: 10.1101/2020.04.27.065409

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ivermectin concentrations achieved in macaques 24 hours post first oral dose

    Article Snippet: Ivermectin compound (Lot # MKBZ1802V, Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) was dissolved in 100% DMSO and used at a final concentration of 100 µg/ml in an 8-point, 2-fold serial dilution.

    Techniques:

    In vitro Plasmodium cynomolgi liver-stage ivermectin inhibition prophylactic results. Prophylactic (days 1-3) exposure of P. cynomolgi to ivermectin demonstrated marginal inhibition of liver schizonts (IC 50 = 9.12 μg/ml) and hypnozoites (IC 50 = 25.59 μg/ml). LS = liver-stage. Graph bars represent means with standard deviation of biological replicates (n = 3) with experimental replicates (n = 2).

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Safety, pharmacokinetics, and liver-stage Plasmodium cynomolgi effect of high-dose ivermectin and chloroquine in Rhesus Macaques

    doi: 10.1101/2020.04.27.065409

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vitro Plasmodium cynomolgi liver-stage ivermectin inhibition prophylactic results. Prophylactic (days 1-3) exposure of P. cynomolgi to ivermectin demonstrated marginal inhibition of liver schizonts (IC 50 = 9.12 μg/ml) and hypnozoites (IC 50 = 25.59 μg/ml). LS = liver-stage. Graph bars represent means with standard deviation of biological replicates (n = 3) with experimental replicates (n = 2).

    Article Snippet: Ivermectin compound (Lot # MKBZ1802V, Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) was dissolved in 100% DMSO and used at a final concentration of 100 µg/ml in an 8-point, 2-fold serial dilution.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Inhibition, Standard Deviation

    Forest plot of comparison: 2 Ivermectin versus thiabendazole, outcome: 2.1 Parasitological cure.

    Journal: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

    Article Title: Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection

    doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007745.pub3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Forest plot of comparison: 2 Ivermectin versus thiabendazole, outcome: 2.1 Parasitological cure.

    Article Snippet: Three trials compared ivermectin versus thiabendazole (one specified MINTEZOL® from Merck Sharp Dome) (Gann ; Adenusi ; Bisoffi ) and four trials compared ivermectin versus albendazole (one specified ALBATEL® from TO Chemicals and one specified ZENTEL® from SmithKline Beecham) (Datry ; Marti ; Suputtamongkol ; Suputtamongkol ).

    Techniques:

    Comparison 2 Ivermectin versus thiabendazole, Outcome 4 Clinical adverse events.

    Journal: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

    Article Title: Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection

    doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007745.pub3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison 2 Ivermectin versus thiabendazole, Outcome 4 Clinical adverse events.

    Article Snippet: Three trials compared ivermectin versus thiabendazole (one specified MINTEZOL® from Merck Sharp Dome) (Gann ; Adenusi ; Bisoffi ) and four trials compared ivermectin versus albendazole (one specified ALBATEL® from TO Chemicals and one specified ZENTEL® from SmithKline Beecham) (Datry ; Marti ; Suputtamongkol ; Suputtamongkol ).

    Techniques:

    Forest plot of comparison: 2 Ivermectin versus thiabendazole, outcome: 2.4 Clinical adverse events.

    Journal: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

    Article Title: Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection

    doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007745.pub3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Forest plot of comparison: 2 Ivermectin versus thiabendazole, outcome: 2.4 Clinical adverse events.

    Article Snippet: Three trials compared ivermectin versus thiabendazole (one specified MINTEZOL® from Merck Sharp Dome) (Gann ; Adenusi ; Bisoffi ) and four trials compared ivermectin versus albendazole (one specified ALBATEL® from TO Chemicals and one specified ZENTEL® from SmithKline Beecham) (Datry ; Marti ; Suputtamongkol ; Suputtamongkol ).

    Techniques:

    Comparison 2 Ivermectin versus thiabendazole, Outcome 2 Parasitological cure (type of population).

    Journal: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

    Article Title: Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection

    doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007745.pub3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison 2 Ivermectin versus thiabendazole, Outcome 2 Parasitological cure (type of population).

    Article Snippet: Three trials compared ivermectin versus thiabendazole (one specified MINTEZOL® from Merck Sharp Dome) (Gann ; Adenusi ; Bisoffi ) and four trials compared ivermectin versus albendazole (one specified ALBATEL® from TO Chemicals and one specified ZENTEL® from SmithKline Beecham) (Datry ; Marti ; Suputtamongkol ; Suputtamongkol ).

    Techniques:

    Comparison 1 Ivermectin versus albendazole, Outcome 1 Parasitological cure.

    Journal: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

    Article Title: Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection

    doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007745.pub3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison 1 Ivermectin versus albendazole, Outcome 1 Parasitological cure.

    Article Snippet: Three trials compared ivermectin versus thiabendazole (one specified MINTEZOL® from Merck Sharp Dome) (Gann ; Adenusi ; Bisoffi ) and four trials compared ivermectin versus albendazole (one specified ALBATEL® from TO Chemicals and one specified ZENTEL® from SmithKline Beecham) (Datry ; Marti ; Suputtamongkol ; Suputtamongkol ).

    Techniques:

    Forest plot of comparison: 1 Ivermectin versus albendazole, outcome: 1.5 Clinical adverse events.

    Journal: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

    Article Title: Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection

    doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007745.pub3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Forest plot of comparison: 1 Ivermectin versus albendazole, outcome: 1.5 Clinical adverse events.

    Article Snippet: Three trials compared ivermectin versus thiabendazole (one specified MINTEZOL® from Merck Sharp Dome) (Gann ; Adenusi ; Bisoffi ) and four trials compared ivermectin versus albendazole (one specified ALBATEL® from TO Chemicals and one specified ZENTEL® from SmithKline Beecham) (Datry ; Marti ; Suputtamongkol ; Suputtamongkol ).

    Techniques:

    Comparison 1 Ivermectin versus albendazole, Outcome 3 Parasitological cure (doses of ivermectin).

    Journal: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

    Article Title: Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection

    doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007745.pub3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison 1 Ivermectin versus albendazole, Outcome 3 Parasitological cure (doses of ivermectin).

    Article Snippet: Three trials compared ivermectin versus thiabendazole (one specified MINTEZOL® from Merck Sharp Dome) (Gann ; Adenusi ; Bisoffi ) and four trials compared ivermectin versus albendazole (one specified ALBATEL® from TO Chemicals and one specified ZENTEL® from SmithKline Beecham) (Datry ; Marti ; Suputtamongkol ; Suputtamongkol ).

    Techniques:

    Comparison 2 Ivermectin versus thiabendazole, Outcome 1 Parasitological cure.

    Journal: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

    Article Title: Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection

    doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007745.pub3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison 2 Ivermectin versus thiabendazole, Outcome 1 Parasitological cure.

    Article Snippet: Three trials compared ivermectin versus thiabendazole (one specified MINTEZOL® from Merck Sharp Dome) (Gann ; Adenusi ; Bisoffi ) and four trials compared ivermectin versus albendazole (one specified ALBATEL® from TO Chemicals and one specified ZENTEL® from SmithKline Beecham) (Datry ; Marti ; Suputtamongkol ; Suputtamongkol ).

    Techniques:

    Forest plot of comparison: 1 Ivermectin versus albendazole, outcome: 1.1 Parasitological cure.

    Journal: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

    Article Title: Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection

    doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007745.pub3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Forest plot of comparison: 1 Ivermectin versus albendazole, outcome: 1.1 Parasitological cure.

    Article Snippet: Three trials compared ivermectin versus thiabendazole (one specified MINTEZOL® from Merck Sharp Dome) (Gann ; Adenusi ; Bisoffi ) and four trials compared ivermectin versus albendazole (one specified ALBATEL® from TO Chemicals and one specified ZENTEL® from SmithKline Beecham) (Datry ; Marti ; Suputtamongkol ; Suputtamongkol ).

    Techniques:

    Comparison 1 Ivermectin versus albendazole, Outcome 4 Parasitological cure (sensitivity analysis).

    Journal: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

    Article Title: Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection

    doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007745.pub3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison 1 Ivermectin versus albendazole, Outcome 4 Parasitological cure (sensitivity analysis).

    Article Snippet: Three trials compared ivermectin versus thiabendazole (one specified MINTEZOL® from Merck Sharp Dome) (Gann ; Adenusi ; Bisoffi ) and four trials compared ivermectin versus albendazole (one specified ALBATEL® from TO Chemicals and one specified ZENTEL® from SmithKline Beecham) (Datry ; Marti ; Suputtamongkol ; Suputtamongkol ).

    Techniques:

    Comparison 1 Ivermectin versus albendazole, Outcome 5 Clinical adverse events.

    Journal: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

    Article Title: Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection

    doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007745.pub3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison 1 Ivermectin versus albendazole, Outcome 5 Clinical adverse events.

    Article Snippet: Three trials compared ivermectin versus thiabendazole (one specified MINTEZOL® from Merck Sharp Dome) (Gann ; Adenusi ; Bisoffi ) and four trials compared ivermectin versus albendazole (one specified ALBATEL® from TO Chemicals and one specified ZENTEL® from SmithKline Beecham) (Datry ; Marti ; Suputtamongkol ; Suputtamongkol ).

    Techniques:

    Comparison 3 Ivermectin (single dose) vs ivermectin (double dose), Outcome 1 Parasitological cure.

    Journal: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

    Article Title: Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection

    doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007745.pub3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison 3 Ivermectin (single dose) vs ivermectin (double dose), Outcome 1 Parasitological cure.

    Article Snippet: Three trials compared ivermectin versus thiabendazole (one specified MINTEZOL® from Merck Sharp Dome) (Gann ; Adenusi ; Bisoffi ) and four trials compared ivermectin versus albendazole (one specified ALBATEL® from TO Chemicals and one specified ZENTEL® from SmithKline Beecham) (Datry ; Marti ; Suputtamongkol ; Suputtamongkol ).

    Techniques:

    Comparison 2 Ivermectin versus thiabendazole, Outcome 3 Parasitological cure (doses of ivermectin).

    Journal: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

    Article Title: Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection

    doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007745.pub3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison 2 Ivermectin versus thiabendazole, Outcome 3 Parasitological cure (doses of ivermectin).

    Article Snippet: Three trials compared ivermectin versus thiabendazole (one specified MINTEZOL® from Merck Sharp Dome) (Gann ; Adenusi ; Bisoffi ) and four trials compared ivermectin versus albendazole (one specified ALBATEL® from TO Chemicals and one specified ZENTEL® from SmithKline Beecham) (Datry ; Marti ; Suputtamongkol ; Suputtamongkol ).

    Techniques:

    Comparison 1 Ivermectin versus albendazole, Outcome 2 Parasitological cure (type of population).

    Journal: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

    Article Title: Ivermectin versus albendazole or thiabendazole for Strongyloides stercoralis infection

    doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007745.pub3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison 1 Ivermectin versus albendazole, Outcome 2 Parasitological cure (type of population).

    Article Snippet: Three trials compared ivermectin versus thiabendazole (one specified MINTEZOL® from Merck Sharp Dome) (Gann ; Adenusi ; Bisoffi ) and four trials compared ivermectin versus albendazole (one specified ALBATEL® from TO Chemicals and one specified ZENTEL® from SmithKline Beecham) (Datry ; Marti ; Suputtamongkol ; Suputtamongkol ).

    Techniques:

    Design and timeline of the randomized controlled trial to be implemented in each of three settings. The study is designed as a two-armed trial including one arm with a single drug administration (arm A; albendazole) and one arm with combined treatment through co-administration of separate tablets (arm B; ivermectin and albendazole). The trial will be conducted as a multi-country study with two settings in Africa and one in Asia, namely Côte d’Ivoire, Pemba (Zanzibar, Tanzania) and Lao PDR

    Journal: BMC Infectious Diseases

    Article Title: Efficacy and safety of ivermectin and albendazole co-administration in school-aged children and adults infected with Trichuris trichiura: study protocol for a multi-country randomized controlled double-blind trial

    doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-3882-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Design and timeline of the randomized controlled trial to be implemented in each of three settings. The study is designed as a two-armed trial including one arm with a single drug administration (arm A; albendazole) and one arm with combined treatment through co-administration of separate tablets (arm B; ivermectin and albendazole). The trial will be conducted as a multi-country study with two settings in Africa and one in Asia, namely Côte d’Ivoire, Pemba (Zanzibar, Tanzania) and Lao PDR

    Article Snippet: 3 mg tablets of ivermectin (Stromectol®) will be obtained from Merck, France and administered at a dose of 200 μg/kg body weight recorded for each participant.

    Techniques:

    Blood concentrations of ivermectin in pigs delivered via subcutaneous injection, oral and pour-on routes. Subcutaneous injection of 0.6 mg/kg ivermectin in experimental pigs resulted in much higher mean blood levels of the drug (18.2, 32.8, 26.1 and 15.3 ng/ml on week 1 and 2.4 ng/ml on week 2, (concentrations found lethal to mosquitoes) and longer residence time (up to 3 weeks) as compared to same drug concentration of 0.6 mg/kg delivered via oral and pour-on routes in experimental pigs. The mean lethal dose of 19.9 ng/ml delivered via oral route was detectable only after 24 h post-treatment of pigs and rapidly declined to 6.2 ng/ml after 3 days. This lethal dose was not reached by pour-on delivery

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Treatment of pigs with endectocides as a complementary tool for combating malaria transmission by Anopheles farauti (s.s.) in Papua New Guinea

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3392-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Blood concentrations of ivermectin in pigs delivered via subcutaneous injection, oral and pour-on routes. Subcutaneous injection of 0.6 mg/kg ivermectin in experimental pigs resulted in much higher mean blood levels of the drug (18.2, 32.8, 26.1 and 15.3 ng/ml on week 1 and 2.4 ng/ml on week 2, (concentrations found lethal to mosquitoes) and longer residence time (up to 3 weeks) as compared to same drug concentration of 0.6 mg/kg delivered via oral and pour-on routes in experimental pigs. The mean lethal dose of 19.9 ng/ml delivered via oral route was detectable only after 24 h post-treatment of pigs and rapidly declined to 6.2 ng/ml after 3 days. This lethal dose was not reached by pour-on delivery

    Article Snippet: Ivermectin via oral and pour-on routes of delivery To investigate the pharmacokinetic profile following other methods of ivermectin administration to pigs, four experimental pigs were treated with the same dose (0.6 mg/kg) of ivermectin via oral route (Ivomec Liquid, Merial Ltd; n = 2 pigs) and via pour-on (Ivomec Pour-On, Merial Ltd; n = 2 pigs) and periodic blood draws (Day 1, 3, 5, 8, 15, 22 and 28) were performed post-treatment to monitor blood levels.

    Techniques: Injection, Concentration Assay

    Impacts of endectocidal treatments on entomological inoculation rates (EIR) of P. falciparum ( a-b ) and P. vivax ( c-d ) following three months of fortnightly endectocidal (ivermectin) applications to pigs alone ( a, c ) or both pigs and dogs ( b, d ). Each point within the triangles refers to a relative EIR value that corresponds to a particular distribution of blood meals (human, pigs or dogs). In the absence of any control, annual EIR was set to equal 100 (Reimer, et al. [ 4 ]). Note the minimum proportion of human blood meals was 0.4 and 0.3 for P. falciparum and P. vivax to produce R 0 > 1. Within those limits, the relative EIR could be dramatically influenced by host choice. For example, in panel a , a mix of blood meal proportions from humans (0.4), treated pigs (0.4) and untreated dogs (0.2) results in a shift in relative EIR to 0.35

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Treatment of pigs with endectocides as a complementary tool for combating malaria transmission by Anopheles farauti (s.s.) in Papua New Guinea

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3392-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Impacts of endectocidal treatments on entomological inoculation rates (EIR) of P. falciparum ( a-b ) and P. vivax ( c-d ) following three months of fortnightly endectocidal (ivermectin) applications to pigs alone ( a, c ) or both pigs and dogs ( b, d ). Each point within the triangles refers to a relative EIR value that corresponds to a particular distribution of blood meals (human, pigs or dogs). In the absence of any control, annual EIR was set to equal 100 (Reimer, et al. [ 4 ]). Note the minimum proportion of human blood meals was 0.4 and 0.3 for P. falciparum and P. vivax to produce R 0 > 1. Within those limits, the relative EIR could be dramatically influenced by host choice. For example, in panel a , a mix of blood meal proportions from humans (0.4), treated pigs (0.4) and untreated dogs (0.2) results in a shift in relative EIR to 0.35

    Article Snippet: Ivermectin via oral and pour-on routes of delivery To investigate the pharmacokinetic profile following other methods of ivermectin administration to pigs, four experimental pigs were treated with the same dose (0.6 mg/kg) of ivermectin via oral route (Ivomec Liquid, Merial Ltd; n = 2 pigs) and via pour-on (Ivomec Pour-On, Merial Ltd; n = 2 pigs) and periodic blood draws (Day 1, 3, 5, 8, 15, 22 and 28) were performed post-treatment to monitor blood levels.

    Techniques:

    In vitro activity of ivermectin and moxidectin 24 h post-membrane feeding. Lower concentrations of ivermectin than moxidectin are necessary to achieve the same mortality level in mosquitoes

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Treatment of pigs with endectocides as a complementary tool for combating malaria transmission by Anopheles farauti (s.s.) in Papua New Guinea

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3392-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vitro activity of ivermectin and moxidectin 24 h post-membrane feeding. Lower concentrations of ivermectin than moxidectin are necessary to achieve the same mortality level in mosquitoes

    Article Snippet: Ivermectin via oral and pour-on routes of delivery To investigate the pharmacokinetic profile following other methods of ivermectin administration to pigs, four experimental pigs were treated with the same dose (0.6 mg/kg) of ivermectin via oral route (Ivomec Liquid, Merial Ltd; n = 2 pigs) and via pour-on (Ivomec Pour-On, Merial Ltd; n = 2 pigs) and periodic blood draws (Day 1, 3, 5, 8, 15, 22 and 28) were performed post-treatment to monitor blood levels.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Activity Assay

    Effect of sublethal ivermectin concentration on mosquito fecundity. The proportion of hatched eggs decreased as the ivermectin concentration increased in the blood meal of mosquitoes

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Treatment of pigs with endectocides as a complementary tool for combating malaria transmission by Anopheles farauti (s.s.) in Papua New Guinea

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3392-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of sublethal ivermectin concentration on mosquito fecundity. The proportion of hatched eggs decreased as the ivermectin concentration increased in the blood meal of mosquitoes

    Article Snippet: Ivermectin via oral and pour-on routes of delivery To investigate the pharmacokinetic profile following other methods of ivermectin administration to pigs, four experimental pigs were treated with the same dose (0.6 mg/kg) of ivermectin via oral route (Ivomec Liquid, Merial Ltd; n = 2 pigs) and via pour-on (Ivomec Pour-On, Merial Ltd; n = 2 pigs) and periodic blood draws (Day 1, 3, 5, 8, 15, 22 and 28) were performed post-treatment to monitor blood levels.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Mosquito survival probability after direct feeding on ivermectin- and moxidectin-treated pigs. a – d At week one post-treatment of pigs (by SC injection of ivermectin and moxidectin), mosquitoes were allowed to feed on pigs on Day 1 ( a ), Day 3 ( b ), Day 5 ( c ) and Day 8 ( d ) post-treatment. Mean ivermectin plasma concentration detected in pigs on these feeding days was 18.2, 32.8, 26.1 and 15.3 ng/ml, respectively. Mosquito mortality after feeding was recorded and expressed as survival probability. Zero survival probability of mosquitoes was recorded within 2–4 days of feeding on ivermectin-treated pigs. Survival probability of mosquitoes that fed on moxidectin-treated pigs only increased at Day 1 ( a ) and Day 3 ( b ) post-treatment with mean drug plasma concentration of 50.5 and 40.2 ng/ml, respectively. Mosquitoes that fed on moxidectin-treated pigs were frozen and checked after Day 5 ( a ) and Day 10 ( b ) of monitoring to ensure presence of moxidectin (data not shown). From Day 5 and onwards ( c – f ), post-treatment of pigs with moxidectin, mean plasma concentrations of 37.4, 27.4, 14.2, 9.8 ng/ml, respectively, had no impact on mosquito survival. e At week two or Day 15 post-treatment of pigs, mosquito survival probability of 0 was observed on Day 12 after feeding on ivermectin-treated pigs with decreased mean plasma concentration of 2.4 ng/ml. f At week three or 22 days post-treatment of pigs, very low mean ivermectin plasma concentration of 1.45 ng/ml had no impact on mosquito survival. Survival probability was similar to mosquitoes that fed on moxidectin-treated pigs and untreated pigs (control)

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Treatment of pigs with endectocides as a complementary tool for combating malaria transmission by Anopheles farauti (s.s.) in Papua New Guinea

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3392-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mosquito survival probability after direct feeding on ivermectin- and moxidectin-treated pigs. a – d At week one post-treatment of pigs (by SC injection of ivermectin and moxidectin), mosquitoes were allowed to feed on pigs on Day 1 ( a ), Day 3 ( b ), Day 5 ( c ) and Day 8 ( d ) post-treatment. Mean ivermectin plasma concentration detected in pigs on these feeding days was 18.2, 32.8, 26.1 and 15.3 ng/ml, respectively. Mosquito mortality after feeding was recorded and expressed as survival probability. Zero survival probability of mosquitoes was recorded within 2–4 days of feeding on ivermectin-treated pigs. Survival probability of mosquitoes that fed on moxidectin-treated pigs only increased at Day 1 ( a ) and Day 3 ( b ) post-treatment with mean drug plasma concentration of 50.5 and 40.2 ng/ml, respectively. Mosquitoes that fed on moxidectin-treated pigs were frozen and checked after Day 5 ( a ) and Day 10 ( b ) of monitoring to ensure presence of moxidectin (data not shown). From Day 5 and onwards ( c – f ), post-treatment of pigs with moxidectin, mean plasma concentrations of 37.4, 27.4, 14.2, 9.8 ng/ml, respectively, had no impact on mosquito survival. e At week two or Day 15 post-treatment of pigs, mosquito survival probability of 0 was observed on Day 12 after feeding on ivermectin-treated pigs with decreased mean plasma concentration of 2.4 ng/ml. f At week three or 22 days post-treatment of pigs, very low mean ivermectin plasma concentration of 1.45 ng/ml had no impact on mosquito survival. Survival probability was similar to mosquitoes that fed on moxidectin-treated pigs and untreated pigs (control)

    Article Snippet: Ivermectin via oral and pour-on routes of delivery To investigate the pharmacokinetic profile following other methods of ivermectin administration to pigs, four experimental pigs were treated with the same dose (0.6 mg/kg) of ivermectin via oral route (Ivomec Liquid, Merial Ltd; n = 2 pigs) and via pour-on (Ivomec Pour-On, Merial Ltd; n = 2 pigs) and periodic blood draws (Day 1, 3, 5, 8, 15, 22 and 28) were performed post-treatment to monitor blood levels.

    Techniques: Injection, Concentration Assay

    Pharmacokinetic profiles for plasma, red blood cells, and skin. Ivermectin and moxidectin attained the highest concentrations in plasma and lowest in skin ( n = 2 pigs per condition, dose = 0.6 mg/kg ivermectin or moxidectin)

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Treatment of pigs with endectocides as a complementary tool for combating malaria transmission by Anopheles farauti (s.s.) in Papua New Guinea

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3392-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pharmacokinetic profiles for plasma, red blood cells, and skin. Ivermectin and moxidectin attained the highest concentrations in plasma and lowest in skin ( n = 2 pigs per condition, dose = 0.6 mg/kg ivermectin or moxidectin)

    Article Snippet: Ivermectin via oral and pour-on routes of delivery To investigate the pharmacokinetic profile following other methods of ivermectin administration to pigs, four experimental pigs were treated with the same dose (0.6 mg/kg) of ivermectin via oral route (Ivomec Liquid, Merial Ltd; n = 2 pigs) and via pour-on (Ivomec Pour-On, Merial Ltd; n = 2 pigs) and periodic blood draws (Day 1, 3, 5, 8, 15, 22 and 28) were performed post-treatment to monitor blood levels.

    Techniques:

    The 26 Countries in Africa where Mass Treatment with Mectizan is Indicated and Ongoing for Onchocerciasis, as of the end of 2005 . Countries are colored coded according to their inclusion in the former-OCP ( ) or APOC ( ) regions. As of the end of 2005, there were mass treatment programs with Mectizan for onchocerciasis in all 26 African countries where such intervention is epidemiologically justified. These 26 countries, plus Niger and Mozambique, are eligible for Mectizan combined with albendazole for national PELFs. This map is reproduced with permission of the Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology , 2006, Volume 100, pages 733–46.

    Journal: Filaria Journal

    Article Title: The Mectizan® Donation Program - highlights from 2005

    doi: 10.1186/1475-2883-5-11

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The 26 Countries in Africa where Mass Treatment with Mectizan is Indicated and Ongoing for Onchocerciasis, as of the end of 2005 . Countries are colored coded according to their inclusion in the former-OCP ( ) or APOC ( ) regions. As of the end of 2005, there were mass treatment programs with Mectizan for onchocerciasis in all 26 African countries where such intervention is epidemiologically justified. These 26 countries, plus Niger and Mozambique, are eligible for Mectizan combined with albendazole for national PELFs. This map is reproduced with permission of the Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology , 2006, Volume 100, pages 733–46.

    Article Snippet: Through the Mectizan® Donation Program, Merck & Co., Inc. has donated Mectizan (ivermectin, MSD) for the treatment of onchocerciasis worldwide since 1987.

    Techniques:

    Treatments with Albendazole and Mectizan Approved for Programs to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (PELFs), 2000–2005 . The figure on the top of each bar refers to the number of treatments (in millions) with albendazole and Mectizan approved for national PELFs in Africa and Yemen in the calendar year indicated. All annual treatment approval figures have been rounded to the nearest 100,000. For any given year indicated in this figure, the year of treatment approval may be different from the year during which treatments actually occurred.

    Journal: Filaria Journal

    Article Title: The Mectizan® Donation Program - highlights from 2005

    doi: 10.1186/1475-2883-5-11

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Treatments with Albendazole and Mectizan Approved for Programs to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (PELFs), 2000–2005 . The figure on the top of each bar refers to the number of treatments (in millions) with albendazole and Mectizan approved for national PELFs in Africa and Yemen in the calendar year indicated. All annual treatment approval figures have been rounded to the nearest 100,000. For any given year indicated in this figure, the year of treatment approval may be different from the year during which treatments actually occurred.

    Article Snippet: Through the Mectizan® Donation Program, Merck & Co., Inc. has donated Mectizan (ivermectin, MSD) for the treatment of onchocerciasis worldwide since 1987.

    Techniques:

    Treatments with Mectizan Approved for Onchocerciasis, 1988–2005 (Humanitarian Donation and Mass Treatment Programs Combined) . The figure in the 2005 column refers to the total number of treatments with Mectizan approved (rounded to the nearest 10,000) during the 2005 calendar year for onchocerciasis for mass treatment programs and humanitarian donations combined. For any given year indicated in this figure, the year of treatment approval may be different from the year during which treatments actually occurred.

    Journal: Filaria Journal

    Article Title: The Mectizan® Donation Program - highlights from 2005

    doi: 10.1186/1475-2883-5-11

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Treatments with Mectizan Approved for Onchocerciasis, 1988–2005 (Humanitarian Donation and Mass Treatment Programs Combined) . The figure in the 2005 column refers to the total number of treatments with Mectizan approved (rounded to the nearest 10,000) during the 2005 calendar year for onchocerciasis for mass treatment programs and humanitarian donations combined. For any given year indicated in this figure, the year of treatment approval may be different from the year during which treatments actually occurred.

    Article Snippet: Through the Mectizan® Donation Program, Merck & Co., Inc. has donated Mectizan (ivermectin, MSD) for the treatment of onchocerciasis worldwide since 1987.

    Techniques:

    Foci in Latin America (OEPA region) where Onchocerciasis is Endemic and where Mass Treatment with Mectizan is Indicated and Ongoing, as of the end of 2005 . In Latin America (OEPA region), as of the end of 2005, all onchocerciasis endemic foci were indicated for twice-yearly mass treatment with Mectizan, regardless of endemicity, as a strategy for the elimination of onchocercal morbidity and transmission of infection. This map is reproduced with permission of the Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology , 2006, Volume 100, pages 733–46.

    Journal: Filaria Journal

    Article Title: The Mectizan® Donation Program - highlights from 2005

    doi: 10.1186/1475-2883-5-11

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Foci in Latin America (OEPA region) where Onchocerciasis is Endemic and where Mass Treatment with Mectizan is Indicated and Ongoing, as of the end of 2005 . In Latin America (OEPA region), as of the end of 2005, all onchocerciasis endemic foci were indicated for twice-yearly mass treatment with Mectizan, regardless of endemicity, as a strategy for the elimination of onchocercal morbidity and transmission of infection. This map is reproduced with permission of the Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology , 2006, Volume 100, pages 733–46.

    Article Snippet: Through the Mectizan® Donation Program, Merck & Co., Inc. has donated Mectizan (ivermectin, MSD) for the treatment of onchocerciasis worldwide since 1987.

    Techniques: Transmission Assay, Infection

    Treatments with Mectizan Approved for Onchocerciasis (Mass Treatment Programs Only) by Region, 2005 . The figure on top of each bar refers to the number of treatments (in millions) with Mectizan approved for delivery via mass treatment programs for onchocerciasis for the particular region or country indicated. All treatment approval figures have been rounded to the nearest 100,000, with the exception of that for Yemen (rounded to the nearest 10,000). The year of treatment approval may be different from the year during which treatments actually occurred.

    Journal: Filaria Journal

    Article Title: The Mectizan® Donation Program - highlights from 2005

    doi: 10.1186/1475-2883-5-11

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Treatments with Mectizan Approved for Onchocerciasis (Mass Treatment Programs Only) by Region, 2005 . The figure on top of each bar refers to the number of treatments (in millions) with Mectizan approved for delivery via mass treatment programs for onchocerciasis for the particular region or country indicated. All treatment approval figures have been rounded to the nearest 100,000, with the exception of that for Yemen (rounded to the nearest 10,000). The year of treatment approval may be different from the year during which treatments actually occurred.

    Article Snippet: Through the Mectizan® Donation Program, Merck & Co., Inc. has donated Mectizan (ivermectin, MSD) for the treatment of onchocerciasis worldwide since 1987.

    Techniques:

    Overall efficacy of six anthelmintics against gastrointestinal nematodes of alpacas on 20 farms in Australia. Each circle shows percentage of the faecal egg count reduction while each horizontal line shows upper and lower 95% confidence intervals. Abbreviations : CLO, closantel; CYD, cydectin; IVM, ivermectin; FBZ, fenbendazole; QDR, Q-drench (a combination of abamectin, albendazole, closantel and levamisole); MON, monepantel

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Australia

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-2949-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Overall efficacy of six anthelmintics against gastrointestinal nematodes of alpacas on 20 farms in Australia. Each circle shows percentage of the faecal egg count reduction while each horizontal line shows upper and lower 95% confidence intervals. Abbreviations : CLO, closantel; CYD, cydectin; IVM, ivermectin; FBZ, fenbendazole; QDR, Q-drench (a combination of abamectin, albendazole, closantel and levamisole); MON, monepantel

    Article Snippet: Ltd., Milperra, New South Wales, Australia); (iv) ivermectin (Ivomec®, Boehringer Ingelheim Pty.

    Techniques:

    Gastrointestinal nematodes found in faeces of alpacas pre- and post-treatment with six anthelmintics on alpaca farms in Australia. The nematodes were identified using the multiplexed-tandem PCR. Abbreviations : CLO, closantel; CON, negative control; CYD, cydectin; IVM, ivermectin; FBZ, fenbendazole; QDR, Q-drench (a combination of abamectin, albendazole, closantel and levamisole); MON, monepantel

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Australia

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-2949-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Gastrointestinal nematodes found in faeces of alpacas pre- and post-treatment with six anthelmintics on alpaca farms in Australia. The nematodes were identified using the multiplexed-tandem PCR. Abbreviations : CLO, closantel; CON, negative control; CYD, cydectin; IVM, ivermectin; FBZ, fenbendazole; QDR, Q-drench (a combination of abamectin, albendazole, closantel and levamisole); MON, monepantel

    Article Snippet: Ltd., Milperra, New South Wales, Australia); (iv) ivermectin (Ivomec®, Boehringer Ingelheim Pty.

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Negative Control

    The proportion of farms with resistance, suspected resistance and susceptibility of gastrointestinal nematodes of alpacas to six anthelmintics on 20 farms in Australia. Abbreviations : CLO, closantel; CYD, cydectin; IVM, ivermectin; FBZ, fenbendazole; QDR, Q-drench (a combination of abamectin, albendazole, closantel and levamisole); MON, monepantel

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Australia

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-018-2949-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The proportion of farms with resistance, suspected resistance and susceptibility of gastrointestinal nematodes of alpacas to six anthelmintics on 20 farms in Australia. Abbreviations : CLO, closantel; CYD, cydectin; IVM, ivermectin; FBZ, fenbendazole; QDR, Q-drench (a combination of abamectin, albendazole, closantel and levamisole); MON, monepantel

    Article Snippet: Ltd., Milperra, New South Wales, Australia); (iv) ivermectin (Ivomec®, Boehringer Ingelheim Pty.

    Techniques:

    P2X4 responses in gene-edited BV-2 cells to eliminate P2X7 receptors. BV-2 cells deficient for P2X7 were generated using CRISPR/Cas9 editing. (A) Flow cytometry data indicating parental BV-2 cells express P2X7 (black histogram), whereas P2X7-deficient BV-2 cells show no P2X7-positive stain (green histogram) using Hano43 antibody labeling. Red histogram indicates negative control, cells labeled with secondary antibody only. (B) Western blots showing no anti-P2X7 reactive protein band in P2X7-deficient BV-2 cells compared with parental BV-2 and J774 macrophages. Equal amounts of protein (25 μ g) were loaded per lane as indicated by the β -actin loading control on stripped and reprobed blots. P2X4 protein levels were unchanged following knockout of P2X7. (C) Staining for P2X4 receptors was performed using a fix/perm method with cells grown on 13-mm glass coverslips. Rabbit anti-P2X4 (1:200) was used to label all P2X4 receptors in BV-2 parental and P2X7-deficient BV-2 cells. Images are representative of two independent experiments. (D) Intracellular calcium measurements in Fura-2 acetoxymethyl ester–loaded BV-2 and P2X7-deficient BV-2 show identical ATP (25 µ M) responses. ATP + ivermectin (3 µ M) responses were reduced by pretreatment of cells with 5-BDBD (10 µ M) or PSB-12062 (1 µ M). Error bars are S.D. and * P

    Journal: Molecular Pharmacology

    Article Title:

    doi: 10.1124/mol.118.113696

    Figure Lengend Snippet: P2X4 responses in gene-edited BV-2 cells to eliminate P2X7 receptors. BV-2 cells deficient for P2X7 were generated using CRISPR/Cas9 editing. (A) Flow cytometry data indicating parental BV-2 cells express P2X7 (black histogram), whereas P2X7-deficient BV-2 cells show no P2X7-positive stain (green histogram) using Hano43 antibody labeling. Red histogram indicates negative control, cells labeled with secondary antibody only. (B) Western blots showing no anti-P2X7 reactive protein band in P2X7-deficient BV-2 cells compared with parental BV-2 and J774 macrophages. Equal amounts of protein (25 μ g) were loaded per lane as indicated by the β -actin loading control on stripped and reprobed blots. P2X4 protein levels were unchanged following knockout of P2X7. (C) Staining for P2X4 receptors was performed using a fix/perm method with cells grown on 13-mm glass coverslips. Rabbit anti-P2X4 (1:200) was used to label all P2X4 receptors in BV-2 parental and P2X7-deficient BV-2 cells. Images are representative of two independent experiments. (D) Intracellular calcium measurements in Fura-2 acetoxymethyl ester–loaded BV-2 and P2X7-deficient BV-2 show identical ATP (25 µ M) responses. ATP + ivermectin (3 µ M) responses were reduced by pretreatment of cells with 5-BDBD (10 µ M) or PSB-12062 (1 µ M). Error bars are S.D. and * P

    Article Snippet: Ivermectin (Tocris Biosciences) was prepared at 30 mM in DMSO and stored at −20°C.

    Techniques: Generated, CRISPR, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining, Antibody Labeling, Negative Control, Labeling, Western Blot, Knock-Out

    Ginsenosides enhance ATP responses at recombinant hP2X4. (A) Various concentrations of ATP (100 nM to 100 µ M) were used to activate hP2X4, and YOPRO-1 uptake over 200 seconds was measured on a Flexstation 3. Concentration response to ATP is shown in black, ATP in the presence of 10 µ M CK is shown in red, and ATP in the presence of ivermectin (IVM; 5 µ M) is shown in orange. Data are taken from three independent experiments, and error bars represent S.E.M. Transformed data were curve fit using nonlinear regression, and EC 50 values were 1.92 µ M ATP, 1.22 µ M for ATP + CK, and 1.3 µ M for ATP + IVM. (B) Concentration response relationship for select ginsenosides on YOPRO-1 dye uptake to 5 µ M ATP in HEK-hP2X4 cells. Ginsenosides were tested over the range 0.1–50 µ M. EC 50 values were 7.5 µ M Rd, 8.5 µ M CK, and 10.5 µ M Rb1. Data were taken from three independent experiments.

    Journal: Molecular Pharmacology

    Article Title:

    doi: 10.1124/mol.118.113696

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ginsenosides enhance ATP responses at recombinant hP2X4. (A) Various concentrations of ATP (100 nM to 100 µ M) were used to activate hP2X4, and YOPRO-1 uptake over 200 seconds was measured on a Flexstation 3. Concentration response to ATP is shown in black, ATP in the presence of 10 µ M CK is shown in red, and ATP in the presence of ivermectin (IVM; 5 µ M) is shown in orange. Data are taken from three independent experiments, and error bars represent S.E.M. Transformed data were curve fit using nonlinear regression, and EC 50 values were 1.92 µ M ATP, 1.22 µ M for ATP + CK, and 1.3 µ M for ATP + IVM. (B) Concentration response relationship for select ginsenosides on YOPRO-1 dye uptake to 5 µ M ATP in HEK-hP2X4 cells. Ginsenosides were tested over the range 0.1–50 µ M. EC 50 values were 7.5 µ M Rd, 8.5 µ M CK, and 10.5 µ M Rb1. Data were taken from three independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: Ivermectin (Tocris Biosciences) was prepared at 30 mM in DMSO and stored at −20°C.

    Techniques: Recombinant, Concentration Assay, Transformation Assay

    Protopanaxadiol ginsenosides and G115 increase hP2X4-mediated YOPRO-1 uptake responses. (A) Representative data showing YOPRO-1 uptake in response to ATP (5 µ M) in the presence of ivermectin (IVM, 3 µ M) or 5-BDBD (20 µ M). (B) Summary area under curve data from normalized YOPRO-1 uptake in HEK-hP2X4 cells ( n = 3 independent experiments). Error bars represent S.D.; *represents P

    Journal: Molecular Pharmacology

    Article Title:

    doi: 10.1124/mol.118.113696

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Protopanaxadiol ginsenosides and G115 increase hP2X4-mediated YOPRO-1 uptake responses. (A) Representative data showing YOPRO-1 uptake in response to ATP (5 µ M) in the presence of ivermectin (IVM, 3 µ M) or 5-BDBD (20 µ M). (B) Summary area under curve data from normalized YOPRO-1 uptake in HEK-hP2X4 cells ( n = 3 independent experiments). Error bars represent S.D.; *represents P

    Article Snippet: Ivermectin (Tocris Biosciences) was prepared at 30 mM in DMSO and stored at −20°C.

    Techniques:

    Reduction of circulating antigen levels (CAg) after high-dose, twice-yearly albendazole and ivermectin ( A ), compared with standard-dose, annual treatment ( B ). Each solid line represents the percentage of pretreatment microfilarial level for an individual

    Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

    Article Title: Use of High-Dose, Twice-Yearly Albendazole and Ivermectin to Suppress Wuchereria bancrofti Microfilarial Levels

    doi: 10.1086/657063

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Reduction of circulating antigen levels (CAg) after high-dose, twice-yearly albendazole and ivermectin ( A ), compared with standard-dose, annual treatment ( B ). Each solid line represents the percentage of pretreatment microfilarial level for an individual

    Article Snippet: This distinction is particularly important from an economic standpoint, because albendazole and ivermectin are donated by Merck and GlaxoSmithKline, respectively, whereas the cost of drug distribution is borne by the lymphatic filariasis elimination programs themselves.

    Techniques:

    Reduction of Mansonella perstans microfilarial levels after high-dose, twice-yearly albendazole and ivermectin ( A ), compared with standard-dose, annual treatment ( B ). Each solid line represents the percentage of pretreatment microfilarial levels for an

    Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

    Article Title: Use of High-Dose, Twice-Yearly Albendazole and Ivermectin to Suppress Wuchereria bancrofti Microfilarial Levels

    doi: 10.1086/657063

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Reduction of Mansonella perstans microfilarial levels after high-dose, twice-yearly albendazole and ivermectin ( A ), compared with standard-dose, annual treatment ( B ). Each solid line represents the percentage of pretreatment microfilarial levels for an

    Article Snippet: This distinction is particularly important from an economic standpoint, because albendazole and ivermectin are donated by Merck and GlaxoSmithKline, respectively, whereas the cost of drug distribution is borne by the lymphatic filariasis elimination programs themselves.

    Techniques:

    Clearance of microfilaremia after high-dose, twice-yearly albendazole and ivermectin, compared with standard-dose annual treatment. The bars represent the percentage of patients with detectable Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae at baseline and 6, 12,

    Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

    Article Title: Use of High-Dose, Twice-Yearly Albendazole and Ivermectin to Suppress Wuchereria bancrofti Microfilarial Levels

    doi: 10.1086/657063

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Clearance of microfilaremia after high-dose, twice-yearly albendazole and ivermectin, compared with standard-dose annual treatment. The bars represent the percentage of patients with detectable Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae at baseline and 6, 12,

    Article Snippet: This distinction is particularly important from an economic standpoint, because albendazole and ivermectin are donated by Merck and GlaxoSmithKline, respectively, whereas the cost of drug distribution is borne by the lymphatic filariasis elimination programs themselves.

    Techniques:

    Reduction of microfilaremia after high-dose, twice-yearly albendazole and ivermectin ( A ), compared with standard-dose annual treatment ( B ). Each symbol represents the value for an individual patient. The horizontal line indicates the geometric mean for

    Journal: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America

    Article Title: Use of High-Dose, Twice-Yearly Albendazole and Ivermectin to Suppress Wuchereria bancrofti Microfilarial Levels

    doi: 10.1086/657063

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Reduction of microfilaremia after high-dose, twice-yearly albendazole and ivermectin ( A ), compared with standard-dose annual treatment ( B ). Each symbol represents the value for an individual patient. The horizontal line indicates the geometric mean for

    Article Snippet: This distinction is particularly important from an economic standpoint, because albendazole and ivermectin are donated by Merck and GlaxoSmithKline, respectively, whereas the cost of drug distribution is borne by the lymphatic filariasis elimination programs themselves.

    Techniques:

    Effects of ivermectin on the reproductive fitness of Anopheles aquasalis. a Effects on number of eggs per female (fecundity); b Effects on eggs that produced larvae (eggs hatch rate); c Effects on number of pupae that developed from larvae

    Journal: Malaria Journal

    Article Title: Filling gaps on ivermectin knowledge: effects on the survival and reproduction of Anopheles aquasalis, a Latin American malaria vector

    doi: 10.1186/s12936-016-1540-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of ivermectin on the reproductive fitness of Anopheles aquasalis. a Effects on number of eggs per female (fecundity); b Effects on eggs that produced larvae (eggs hatch rate); c Effects on number of pupae that developed from larvae

    Article Snippet: Future investigation concerning ivermectin effects on other important Amazonian species, such as Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles albitarsis , should be assessed prior to widespread adoption of ivermectin as a malaria elimination tool in the Amazon.

    Techniques: Produced

    Mortality proportion of mosquitoes fed with blood containing ivermectin at the second day after blood meals. Comparison of MFA and DFA methods (p

    Journal: Malaria Journal

    Article Title: Filling gaps on ivermectin knowledge: effects on the survival and reproduction of Anopheles aquasalis, a Latin American malaria vector

    doi: 10.1186/s12936-016-1540-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mortality proportion of mosquitoes fed with blood containing ivermectin at the second day after blood meals. Comparison of MFA and DFA methods (p

    Article Snippet: Future investigation concerning ivermectin effects on other important Amazonian species, such as Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles albitarsis , should be assessed prior to widespread adoption of ivermectin as a malaria elimination tool in the Amazon.

    Techniques: Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test

    Effects of ivermectin on the survivorship of Anopheles aquasalis. a Mosquitoes fed on a volunteer blood meal with ivermectin 4 h post ingestion (HPI 4); b Mosquitoes fed on volunteers’ blood meal with ivermectin 2 days post ingestion (DPI 2); c Mosquitoes fed on volunteers’ blood meal with ivermectin 7 days post ingestion (DPI 7); d Mosquitoes fed on volunteers’ blood meal with ivermectin 14 days post ingestion (DPI 14)

    Journal: Malaria Journal

    Article Title: Filling gaps on ivermectin knowledge: effects on the survival and reproduction of Anopheles aquasalis, a Latin American malaria vector

    doi: 10.1186/s12936-016-1540-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of ivermectin on the survivorship of Anopheles aquasalis. a Mosquitoes fed on a volunteer blood meal with ivermectin 4 h post ingestion (HPI 4); b Mosquitoes fed on volunteers’ blood meal with ivermectin 2 days post ingestion (DPI 2); c Mosquitoes fed on volunteers’ blood meal with ivermectin 7 days post ingestion (DPI 7); d Mosquitoes fed on volunteers’ blood meal with ivermectin 14 days post ingestion (DPI 14)

    Article Snippet: Future investigation concerning ivermectin effects on other important Amazonian species, such as Anopheles darlingi and Anopheles albitarsis , should be assessed prior to widespread adoption of ivermectin as a malaria elimination tool in the Amazon.

    Techniques:

    Bed bug incapacitation rates after feeding on a rabbit injected with 0.3 mg/kg of ivermectin (Test 1 and Test 2).

    Journal: Scientifica

    Article Title: Xenointoxication of a Rabbit for the Control of the Common Bed Bug Cimex lectularius L. Using Ivermectin

    doi: 10.1155/2019/4793569

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bed bug incapacitation rates after feeding on a rabbit injected with 0.3 mg/kg of ivermectin (Test 1 and Test 2).

    Article Snippet: Ivermectin was detected by a Thermo Scientific TSQ Quantum Ultra with HESI-II probe using ESI positive ionization mode; spray voltage of 3000 V; capillary temperature of 200°C; vaporizer temperature of 300°C; sheath gas pressure of 40; aux gas pressure 10; skimmer offset 10 V; SRM setup: Q1: 0.7 FWHM, Q3: 0.7 FWHM, and Q2: 1.5 mTorr (Ar); scan width: 0.002 m/z; scan time at 0.02 s.

    Techniques: Injection

    Nymph showing incomplete molt after taking an ivermectin blood meal.

    Journal: Scientifica

    Article Title: Xenointoxication of a Rabbit for the Control of the Common Bed Bug Cimex lectularius L. Using Ivermectin

    doi: 10.1155/2019/4793569

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Nymph showing incomplete molt after taking an ivermectin blood meal.

    Article Snippet: Ivermectin was detected by a Thermo Scientific TSQ Quantum Ultra with HESI-II probe using ESI positive ionization mode; spray voltage of 3000 V; capillary temperature of 200°C; vaporizer temperature of 300°C; sheath gas pressure of 40; aux gas pressure 10; skimmer offset 10 V; SRM setup: Q1: 0.7 FWHM, Q3: 0.7 FWHM, and Q2: 1.5 mTorr (Ar); scan width: 0.002 m/z; scan time at 0.02 s.

    Techniques:

    Percentage of irradiated males remaining in control cages and treatment cages. Irradiated males remaining in cages for the duration of 4 days in control cages (solid line) and in cages fed with 7.5 ppm ivermectin-spiked blood (semi-dotted line). Error ba represent SEM.

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Eliminating female Anopheles arabiensis by spiking blood meals with toxicants as a sex separation method in the context of the sterile insect technique

    doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-197

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Percentage of irradiated males remaining in control cages and treatment cages. Irradiated males remaining in cages for the duration of 4 days in control cages (solid line) and in cages fed with 7.5 ppm ivermectin-spiked blood (semi-dotted line). Error ba represent SEM.

    Article Snippet: Preliminary tests: selecting a toxicant Blood meals (defrosted bovine blood) were prepared in 45 ml centrifuge tubes containing the following substances at various concentrations: Detergent Pril Original (Henkel KGaA, Düsseldorf, Germany) (1000 ppm, 5000 ppm, 10000 ppm (0.1, 0.5, and 1% solutions)), boric acid (Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (1000 ppm, 5000 ppm, 10000 ppm), dieldrin (Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (1, 1.5 and 2 ppm solutions), malathion (Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (0.5, and 2 ppm solution), ivermectin (Virbamec, Virbac Oesterreich GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (0.5, 2, 5, and 7.5 ppm solutions), and spinosad (spynosin A and D, Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (1, 5, and 10 ppm solutions).

    Techniques: Irradiation

    Percentage of males remaining in control cages and treatment cages. Males remaining in cages for the duration of 5 days in control cages (solid line), in cages fed with 10 ppm spinosad-spiked blood (dotted line), and 7.5 ppm ivermectin-spiked blood (semi-dotted line). (Cages contained 500 females and 500 males). Error bars represent SEM.

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Eliminating female Anopheles arabiensis by spiking blood meals with toxicants as a sex separation method in the context of the sterile insect technique

    doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-197

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Percentage of males remaining in control cages and treatment cages. Males remaining in cages for the duration of 5 days in control cages (solid line), in cages fed with 10 ppm spinosad-spiked blood (dotted line), and 7.5 ppm ivermectin-spiked blood (semi-dotted line). (Cages contained 500 females and 500 males). Error bars represent SEM.

    Article Snippet: Preliminary tests: selecting a toxicant Blood meals (defrosted bovine blood) were prepared in 45 ml centrifuge tubes containing the following substances at various concentrations: Detergent Pril Original (Henkel KGaA, Düsseldorf, Germany) (1000 ppm, 5000 ppm, 10000 ppm (0.1, 0.5, and 1% solutions)), boric acid (Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (1000 ppm, 5000 ppm, 10000 ppm), dieldrin (Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (1, 1.5 and 2 ppm solutions), malathion (Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (0.5, and 2 ppm solution), ivermectin (Virbamec, Virbac Oesterreich GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (0.5, 2, 5, and 7.5 ppm solutions), and spinosad (spynosin A and D, Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (1, 5, and 10 ppm solutions).

    Techniques:

    Insemination rates of females by virgin males (v ♂), males from treatment cages (ivermectin ) (Tx ♂), and males from control cages (C ♂). Each group consisted of 100 males and 100 females. Groups that are statistically different are labelled with different letters. Error bars represent SEM.

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Eliminating female Anopheles arabiensis by spiking blood meals with toxicants as a sex separation method in the context of the sterile insect technique

    doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-197

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Insemination rates of females by virgin males (v ♂), males from treatment cages (ivermectin ) (Tx ♂), and males from control cages (C ♂). Each group consisted of 100 males and 100 females. Groups that are statistically different are labelled with different letters. Error bars represent SEM.

    Article Snippet: Preliminary tests: selecting a toxicant Blood meals (defrosted bovine blood) were prepared in 45 ml centrifuge tubes containing the following substances at various concentrations: Detergent Pril Original (Henkel KGaA, Düsseldorf, Germany) (1000 ppm, 5000 ppm, 10000 ppm (0.1, 0.5, and 1% solutions)), boric acid (Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (1000 ppm, 5000 ppm, 10000 ppm), dieldrin (Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (1, 1.5 and 2 ppm solutions), malathion (Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (0.5, and 2 ppm solution), ivermectin (Virbamec, Virbac Oesterreich GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (0.5, 2, 5, and 7.5 ppm solutions), and spinosad (spynosin A and D, Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (1, 5, and 10 ppm solutions).

    Techniques:

    Percentage of irradiated females remaining in control cages and treatment cages. Elimination of irradiated females from the population (approximately 500 females and 500 males) over 4 days in control cages (solid line) and in cages fed with 7.5 ppm ivermectin-spiked blood (semi-dotted line). Error bars represent SEM.

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Eliminating female Anopheles arabiensis by spiking blood meals with toxicants as a sex separation method in the context of the sterile insect technique

    doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-197

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Percentage of irradiated females remaining in control cages and treatment cages. Elimination of irradiated females from the population (approximately 500 females and 500 males) over 4 days in control cages (solid line) and in cages fed with 7.5 ppm ivermectin-spiked blood (semi-dotted line). Error bars represent SEM.

    Article Snippet: Preliminary tests: selecting a toxicant Blood meals (defrosted bovine blood) were prepared in 45 ml centrifuge tubes containing the following substances at various concentrations: Detergent Pril Original (Henkel KGaA, Düsseldorf, Germany) (1000 ppm, 5000 ppm, 10000 ppm (0.1, 0.5, and 1% solutions)), boric acid (Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (1000 ppm, 5000 ppm, 10000 ppm), dieldrin (Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (1, 1.5 and 2 ppm solutions), malathion (Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (0.5, and 2 ppm solution), ivermectin (Virbamec, Virbac Oesterreich GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (0.5, 2, 5, and 7.5 ppm solutions), and spinosad (spynosin A and D, Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (1, 5, and 10 ppm solutions).

    Techniques: Irradiation

    Insemination rates of females by irradiated males from control cages (C ♂), irradiated males from ivermectin treatment cages (Tx ♂), irradiated virgin males (v. ♂ Ster), and fertile virgin males (v. ♂ Fert). Each group consisted of 100 males and 100 females. Groups that are statistically different are labelled with different letters. Error bars represent SEM.

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Eliminating female Anopheles arabiensis by spiking blood meals with toxicants as a sex separation method in the context of the sterile insect technique

    doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-197

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Insemination rates of females by irradiated males from control cages (C ♂), irradiated males from ivermectin treatment cages (Tx ♂), irradiated virgin males (v. ♂ Ster), and fertile virgin males (v. ♂ Fert). Each group consisted of 100 males and 100 females. Groups that are statistically different are labelled with different letters. Error bars represent SEM.

    Article Snippet: Preliminary tests: selecting a toxicant Blood meals (defrosted bovine blood) were prepared in 45 ml centrifuge tubes containing the following substances at various concentrations: Detergent Pril Original (Henkel KGaA, Düsseldorf, Germany) (1000 ppm, 5000 ppm, 10000 ppm (0.1, 0.5, and 1% solutions)), boric acid (Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (1000 ppm, 5000 ppm, 10000 ppm), dieldrin (Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (1, 1.5 and 2 ppm solutions), malathion (Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (0.5, and 2 ppm solution), ivermectin (Virbamec, Virbac Oesterreich GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (0.5, 2, 5, and 7.5 ppm solutions), and spinosad (spynosin A and D, Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (1, 5, and 10 ppm solutions).

    Techniques: Irradiation

    Percentage of females remaining in control cages and treatment cages. Elimination of females from the cage population (approximately 500 females and 500 males) over 5 days in control cages (solid line), in cages fed with 10 ppm spinosad-spiked blood (dotted line), and 7.5 ppm ivermectin-spiked blood (semi-dotted line). Error bars represent SEM.

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Eliminating female Anopheles arabiensis by spiking blood meals with toxicants as a sex separation method in the context of the sterile insect technique

    doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-197

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Percentage of females remaining in control cages and treatment cages. Elimination of females from the cage population (approximately 500 females and 500 males) over 5 days in control cages (solid line), in cages fed with 10 ppm spinosad-spiked blood (dotted line), and 7.5 ppm ivermectin-spiked blood (semi-dotted line). Error bars represent SEM.

    Article Snippet: Preliminary tests: selecting a toxicant Blood meals (defrosted bovine blood) were prepared in 45 ml centrifuge tubes containing the following substances at various concentrations: Detergent Pril Original (Henkel KGaA, Düsseldorf, Germany) (1000 ppm, 5000 ppm, 10000 ppm (0.1, 0.5, and 1% solutions)), boric acid (Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (1000 ppm, 5000 ppm, 10000 ppm), dieldrin (Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (1, 1.5 and 2 ppm solutions), malathion (Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (0.5, and 2 ppm solution), ivermectin (Virbamec, Virbac Oesterreich GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (0.5, 2, 5, and 7.5 ppm solutions), and spinosad (spynosin A and D, Sigma Aldrich Handels GmbH, Vienna, Austria) (1, 5, and 10 ppm solutions).

    Techniques:

    Comparative mean (±SD) ( n = 4) moxidectin, (MXD), abamectin (ABM) and ivermectin (IVM) concentrations measured within adult H. contortus recovered from intaruminally (IR) treated (0.2 mg/kg) infected lambs. ( ∗ ) Values for MXD are statistically different from those obtained after the administration of both ABM and IVM at P

    Journal: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance

    Article Title: Comparative tissue pharmacokinetics and efficacy of moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin in lambs infected with resistant nematodes: Impact of drug treatments on parasite P-glycoprotein expression

    doi: 10.1016/j.ijpddr.2012.11.001

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparative mean (±SD) ( n = 4) moxidectin, (MXD), abamectin (ABM) and ivermectin (IVM) concentrations measured within adult H. contortus recovered from intaruminally (IR) treated (0.2 mg/kg) infected lambs. ( ∗ ) Values for MXD are statistically different from those obtained after the administration of both ABM and IVM at P

    Article Snippet: Animals in group B–D (n = 18 in each group) received MXD (Cydectin®, Fort Dodge, Argentina), ABM (Abamin®, Rosenbusch, Argentina) or IVM (Ivomec® Oral, Merial, Uruguay) intraruminally at 0.2 mg/kg, respectively.

    Techniques: Infection

    Comparative mean (±SD) ( n = 4) moxidectin, (MXD), abamectin (ABM) and ivermectin (IVM) concentrations in abomasal and intestinal contents measured after their intraruminal (IR) administration (0.2 mg/kg) to nematode infected lambs. ( ∗ ) Values for MXD are statistically different from those obtained after the administration of ABM and IVM at P

    Journal: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance

    Article Title: Comparative tissue pharmacokinetics and efficacy of moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin in lambs infected with resistant nematodes: Impact of drug treatments on parasite P-glycoprotein expression

    doi: 10.1016/j.ijpddr.2012.11.001

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparative mean (±SD) ( n = 4) moxidectin, (MXD), abamectin (ABM) and ivermectin (IVM) concentrations in abomasal and intestinal contents measured after their intraruminal (IR) administration (0.2 mg/kg) to nematode infected lambs. ( ∗ ) Values for MXD are statistically different from those obtained after the administration of ABM and IVM at P

    Article Snippet: Animals in group B–D (n = 18 in each group) received MXD (Cydectin®, Fort Dodge, Argentina), ABM (Abamin®, Rosenbusch, Argentina) or IVM (Ivomec® Oral, Merial, Uruguay) intraruminally at 0.2 mg/kg, respectively.

    Techniques: Infection

    Mean (±SD) ( n = 6) moxidectin, (MXD), abamectin (ABM) and ivermectin (IVM) plasma concentrations obtained after their intraruminal (IR) administration (0.2 mg/kg) to nematode infected lambs. The insert shows the comparative plasma mean residence time obtained for the three compounds under study. ( ∗ ) Values for MXD are statistically different from those obtained after the administration of ABM and IVM at P

    Journal: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance

    Article Title: Comparative tissue pharmacokinetics and efficacy of moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin in lambs infected with resistant nematodes: Impact of drug treatments on parasite P-glycoprotein expression

    doi: 10.1016/j.ijpddr.2012.11.001

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mean (±SD) ( n = 6) moxidectin, (MXD), abamectin (ABM) and ivermectin (IVM) plasma concentrations obtained after their intraruminal (IR) administration (0.2 mg/kg) to nematode infected lambs. The insert shows the comparative plasma mean residence time obtained for the three compounds under study. ( ∗ ) Values for MXD are statistically different from those obtained after the administration of ABM and IVM at P

    Article Snippet: Animals in group B–D (n = 18 in each group) received MXD (Cydectin®, Fort Dodge, Argentina), ABM (Abamin®, Rosenbusch, Argentina) or IVM (Ivomec® Oral, Merial, Uruguay) intraruminally at 0.2 mg/kg, respectively.

    Techniques: Infection

    Percentage reduction from pre-treatment in skin microfilariae density (mean, standard deviation) 8 days, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after treatment by treatment group. A Total e-mITT population, B Severely infected in the e-mITT population treated with ivermectin or 8 mg moxidectin. For the ivermectin treatment group, means and standard deviations are shown across all severely infected and without the suboptimal microfilariae responders (Ivermectin - SOMR). Tx – treatment, SD – standard deviation shown in one direction. Marker positions for different treatment groups have been placed around the measurement time point to allow, to the extent possible, differentiation between overlapping means and SD.

    Journal: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Article Title: A Randomized, Single-Ascending-Dose, Ivermectin-Controlled, Double-Blind Study of Moxidectin in Onchocerca volvulus Infection

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002953

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Percentage reduction from pre-treatment in skin microfilariae density (mean, standard deviation) 8 days, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months after treatment by treatment group. A Total e-mITT population, B Severely infected in the e-mITT population treated with ivermectin or 8 mg moxidectin. For the ivermectin treatment group, means and standard deviations are shown across all severely infected and without the suboptimal microfilariae responders (Ivermectin - SOMR). Tx – treatment, SD – standard deviation shown in one direction. Marker positions for different treatment groups have been placed around the measurement time point to allow, to the extent possible, differentiation between overlapping means and SD.

    Article Snippet: Interventions, randomized treatment allocation, blinding and treatment The 3 mg ivermectin tablets (purchased from Merck and Co. Inc), 2 mg moxidectin tablets developed for human use, as well as placebo were provided by Wyeth in identical looking capsules.

    Techniques: Standard Deviation, Infection, Marker

    Number of participants by cohort screened, randomized, treated and analyzed. 1. Cohorts were screened for and eligible participants randomized and treated in sequential order. 2. In each dose group, subjects were randomized 3∶1 to the dose of moxidectin (Moxi) specified and ivermectin (IVM). 3. Mild:

    Journal: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Article Title: A Randomized, Single-Ascending-Dose, Ivermectin-Controlled, Double-Blind Study of Moxidectin in Onchocerca volvulus Infection

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002953

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Number of participants by cohort screened, randomized, treated and analyzed. 1. Cohorts were screened for and eligible participants randomized and treated in sequential order. 2. In each dose group, subjects were randomized 3∶1 to the dose of moxidectin (Moxi) specified and ivermectin (IVM). 3. Mild:

    Article Snippet: Interventions, randomized treatment allocation, blinding and treatment The 3 mg ivermectin tablets (purchased from Merck and Co. Inc), 2 mg moxidectin tablets developed for human use, as well as placebo were provided by Wyeth in identical looking capsules.

    Techniques:

    Skin microfilariae density in individual participants pre-treatment (0) and at the different times post-treatment (e-mITT population) in the four treatment groups. A Ivermectin. The data for the three participants treated with ivermectin whose decrease in skin microfilariae levels did not meet the criteria of ‘adequate response’ are indicated by markers at the evaluation time points. B 2 mg moxidectin, C 4 mg moxidectin, D 8 mg moxidectin.

    Journal: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Article Title: A Randomized, Single-Ascending-Dose, Ivermectin-Controlled, Double-Blind Study of Moxidectin in Onchocerca volvulus Infection

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002953

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Skin microfilariae density in individual participants pre-treatment (0) and at the different times post-treatment (e-mITT population) in the four treatment groups. A Ivermectin. The data for the three participants treated with ivermectin whose decrease in skin microfilariae levels did not meet the criteria of ‘adequate response’ are indicated by markers at the evaluation time points. B 2 mg moxidectin, C 4 mg moxidectin, D 8 mg moxidectin.

    Article Snippet: Interventions, randomized treatment allocation, blinding and treatment The 3 mg ivermectin tablets (purchased from Merck and Co. Inc), 2 mg moxidectin tablets developed for human use, as well as placebo were provided by Wyeth in identical looking capsules.

    Techniques:

    Number of live female macrofilaria, live young female macrofilaria and live male macrofilaria in excised nodules vs skin mf density 18 months after treatment by treatment. A. Ivermectin, B. 2×axis maximum was set to 7. The data for one participant treated with 2 mg moxidectin who had 13 live female macrofilaria and a skin mf density of 8.2 mf/mg are thus not displayed. Participants with 0 macrofilaria in excised nodules either had no palpable nodules or all excised nodules were non-onchocercal based on histological evaluation. Abbreviations: LI FM – live female macrofilariae, Y FM – live young female macrofilariae, LI MW – live male macrofilariae.

    Journal: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Article Title: A Randomized, Single-Ascending-Dose, Ivermectin-Controlled, Double-Blind Study of Moxidectin in Onchocerca volvulus Infection

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002953

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Number of live female macrofilaria, live young female macrofilaria and live male macrofilaria in excised nodules vs skin mf density 18 months after treatment by treatment. A. Ivermectin, B. 2×axis maximum was set to 7. The data for one participant treated with 2 mg moxidectin who had 13 live female macrofilaria and a skin mf density of 8.2 mf/mg are thus not displayed. Participants with 0 macrofilaria in excised nodules either had no palpable nodules or all excised nodules were non-onchocercal based on histological evaluation. Abbreviations: LI FM – live female macrofilariae, Y FM – live young female macrofilariae, LI MW – live male macrofilariae.

    Article Snippet: Interventions, randomized treatment allocation, blinding and treatment The 3 mg ivermectin tablets (purchased from Merck and Co. Inc), 2 mg moxidectin tablets developed for human use, as well as placebo were provided by Wyeth in identical looking capsules.

    Techniques:

    Percentage of participants with undetectable levels of skin microfilariae by treatment group and time post-treatment. A total e-mITT population, B Severely infected in the e-mITT population treated with ivermectin or 8 mg moxidectin.

    Journal: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Article Title: A Randomized, Single-Ascending-Dose, Ivermectin-Controlled, Double-Blind Study of Moxidectin in Onchocerca volvulus Infection

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002953

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Percentage of participants with undetectable levels of skin microfilariae by treatment group and time post-treatment. A total e-mITT population, B Severely infected in the e-mITT population treated with ivermectin or 8 mg moxidectin.

    Article Snippet: Interventions, randomized treatment allocation, blinding and treatment The 3 mg ivermectin tablets (purchased from Merck and Co. Inc), 2 mg moxidectin tablets developed for human use, as well as placebo were provided by Wyeth in identical looking capsules.

    Techniques: Infection

    In vitro activity of ivermectin and moxidectin 24 h post-membrane feeding. Lower concentrations of ivermectin than moxidectin are necessary to achieve the same mortality level in mosquitoes

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Treatment of pigs with endectocides as a complementary tool for combating malaria transmission by Anopheles farauti (s.s.) in Papua New Guinea

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3392-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vitro activity of ivermectin and moxidectin 24 h post-membrane feeding. Lower concentrations of ivermectin than moxidectin are necessary to achieve the same mortality level in mosquitoes

    Article Snippet: Treated pigs were injected subcutaneously with either Ivermectin (Ivomec, Merial Ltd, Duluth, Georgia, USA) or Moxidectin (Cydectin, Virbac, Sydney,NSW, Australia) at 0.6 mg/kg body weight.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Activity Assay

    Mosquito survival probability after direct feeding on ivermectin- and moxidectin-treated pigs. a – d At week one post-treatment of pigs (by SC injection of ivermectin and moxidectin), mosquitoes were allowed to feed on pigs on Day 1 ( a ), Day 3 ( b ), Day 5 ( c ) and Day 8 ( d ) post-treatment. Mean ivermectin plasma concentration detected in pigs on these feeding days was 18.2, 32.8, 26.1 and 15.3 ng/ml, respectively. Mosquito mortality after feeding was recorded and expressed as survival probability. Zero survival probability of mosquitoes was recorded within 2–4 days of feeding on ivermectin-treated pigs. Survival probability of mosquitoes that fed on moxidectin-treated pigs only increased at Day 1 ( a ) and Day 3 ( b ) post-treatment with mean drug plasma concentration of 50.5 and 40.2 ng/ml, respectively. Mosquitoes that fed on moxidectin-treated pigs were frozen and checked after Day 5 ( a ) and Day 10 ( b ) of monitoring to ensure presence of moxidectin (data not shown). From Day 5 and onwards ( c – f ), post-treatment of pigs with moxidectin, mean plasma concentrations of 37.4, 27.4, 14.2, 9.8 ng/ml, respectively, had no impact on mosquito survival. e At week two or Day 15 post-treatment of pigs, mosquito survival probability of 0 was observed on Day 12 after feeding on ivermectin-treated pigs with decreased mean plasma concentration of 2.4 ng/ml. f At week three or 22 days post-treatment of pigs, very low mean ivermectin plasma concentration of 1.45 ng/ml had no impact on mosquito survival. Survival probability was similar to mosquitoes that fed on moxidectin-treated pigs and untreated pigs (control)

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Treatment of pigs with endectocides as a complementary tool for combating malaria transmission by Anopheles farauti (s.s.) in Papua New Guinea

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3392-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mosquito survival probability after direct feeding on ivermectin- and moxidectin-treated pigs. a – d At week one post-treatment of pigs (by SC injection of ivermectin and moxidectin), mosquitoes were allowed to feed on pigs on Day 1 ( a ), Day 3 ( b ), Day 5 ( c ) and Day 8 ( d ) post-treatment. Mean ivermectin plasma concentration detected in pigs on these feeding days was 18.2, 32.8, 26.1 and 15.3 ng/ml, respectively. Mosquito mortality after feeding was recorded and expressed as survival probability. Zero survival probability of mosquitoes was recorded within 2–4 days of feeding on ivermectin-treated pigs. Survival probability of mosquitoes that fed on moxidectin-treated pigs only increased at Day 1 ( a ) and Day 3 ( b ) post-treatment with mean drug plasma concentration of 50.5 and 40.2 ng/ml, respectively. Mosquitoes that fed on moxidectin-treated pigs were frozen and checked after Day 5 ( a ) and Day 10 ( b ) of monitoring to ensure presence of moxidectin (data not shown). From Day 5 and onwards ( c – f ), post-treatment of pigs with moxidectin, mean plasma concentrations of 37.4, 27.4, 14.2, 9.8 ng/ml, respectively, had no impact on mosquito survival. e At week two or Day 15 post-treatment of pigs, mosquito survival probability of 0 was observed on Day 12 after feeding on ivermectin-treated pigs with decreased mean plasma concentration of 2.4 ng/ml. f At week three or 22 days post-treatment of pigs, very low mean ivermectin plasma concentration of 1.45 ng/ml had no impact on mosquito survival. Survival probability was similar to mosquitoes that fed on moxidectin-treated pigs and untreated pigs (control)

    Article Snippet: Treated pigs were injected subcutaneously with either Ivermectin (Ivomec, Merial Ltd, Duluth, Georgia, USA) or Moxidectin (Cydectin, Virbac, Sydney,NSW, Australia) at 0.6 mg/kg body weight.

    Techniques: Injection, Concentration Assay

    Pharmacokinetic profiles for plasma, red blood cells, and skin. Ivermectin and moxidectin attained the highest concentrations in plasma and lowest in skin ( n = 2 pigs per condition, dose = 0.6 mg/kg ivermectin or moxidectin)

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Treatment of pigs with endectocides as a complementary tool for combating malaria transmission by Anopheles farauti (s.s.) in Papua New Guinea

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3392-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pharmacokinetic profiles for plasma, red blood cells, and skin. Ivermectin and moxidectin attained the highest concentrations in plasma and lowest in skin ( n = 2 pigs per condition, dose = 0.6 mg/kg ivermectin or moxidectin)

    Article Snippet: Treated pigs were injected subcutaneously with either Ivermectin (Ivomec, Merial Ltd, Duluth, Georgia, USA) or Moxidectin (Cydectin, Virbac, Sydney,NSW, Australia) at 0.6 mg/kg body weight.

    Techniques:

    Diagram of feline heartworm disease and HARD. Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) is induced at the first arrival of immature adult worms as early as 70 to 90 days after infection. The inflammation develops even if the cat “self-cures” and all immature adults die, and no adult heartworms develop. The lung lesions continue for up to 8 months after infection and perhaps longer. The antibody (Ab) response is present if cats are started on selamectin 28 days after the infection even if immature adults do not reach the heart. The antibody response continues after the arrival of immature adults; in cats which develop only the immature adults with HARD, the antibody response is present in 50% of the cats 8 months after the infection. Cats that develop the adult heartworms continue to live for up to 4 years, often with no symptoms, and the cats develop a decreased responsiveness of their pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIM). When adult heartworms eventually die, acute symptoms may develop

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) induced by immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in cats

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-017-2452-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Diagram of feline heartworm disease and HARD. Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) is induced at the first arrival of immature adult worms as early as 70 to 90 days after infection. The inflammation develops even if the cat “self-cures” and all immature adults die, and no adult heartworms develop. The lung lesions continue for up to 8 months after infection and perhaps longer. The antibody (Ab) response is present if cats are started on selamectin 28 days after the infection even if immature adults do not reach the heart. The antibody response continues after the arrival of immature adults; in cats which develop only the immature adults with HARD, the antibody response is present in 50% of the cats 8 months after the infection. Cats that develop the adult heartworms continue to live for up to 4 years, often with no symptoms, and the cats develop a decreased responsiveness of their pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIM). When adult heartworms eventually die, acute symptoms may develop

    Article Snippet: Group A cats were treated topically with selamectin (Revolution®; Zoetis) per label directions at 28 days post infection (PI) and once monthly for 8 months.

    Techniques: Infection

    Percentage of cats with radiographic bronchial-interstitial scores of ≥1 (Score 0–3) after L3 D. immitis infection . Percentage of cats in each group with score ≥ 1 (Score 0–3). Treatment groups: Group A, selamectin monthly initiated on Day 28; Group B, oral ivermectin every 2 weeks initiated on Day 70 PI; Group C, infected, untreated. Days after infection listed on bottom axis

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) induced by immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in cats

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-017-2452-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Percentage of cats with radiographic bronchial-interstitial scores of ≥1 (Score 0–3) after L3 D. immitis infection . Percentage of cats in each group with score ≥ 1 (Score 0–3). Treatment groups: Group A, selamectin monthly initiated on Day 28; Group B, oral ivermectin every 2 weeks initiated on Day 70 PI; Group C, infected, untreated. Days after infection listed on bottom axis

    Article Snippet: Group A cats were treated topically with selamectin (Revolution®; Zoetis) per label directions at 28 days post infection (PI) and once monthly for 8 months.

    Techniques: Infection

    Group A (infected, selamectin monthly initiated on Day 28) cat. Lateral Radiograph on Day 240. Normal lateral thoracic radiographs in a cat from Group A (selamectin monthly initiated Day 28 PI) on Day 240 after L3 D. immitis infection. There was no significant change in radiographs in any cat from Day 0, 110, 175, or 240. All Day 0 radiographs were normal for all cats

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) induced by immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in cats

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-017-2452-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Group A (infected, selamectin monthly initiated on Day 28) cat. Lateral Radiograph on Day 240. Normal lateral thoracic radiographs in a cat from Group A (selamectin monthly initiated Day 28 PI) on Day 240 after L3 D. immitis infection. There was no significant change in radiographs in any cat from Day 0, 110, 175, or 240. All Day 0 radiographs were normal for all cats

    Article Snippet: Group A cats were treated topically with selamectin (Revolution®; Zoetis) per label directions at 28 days post infection (PI) and once monthly for 8 months.

    Techniques: Infection

    Serology results in cats after D. immitis infection. Treatment groups: Group A, selamectin monthly initiated on Day 28; Group B, oral ivermectin every 2 weeks initiated on Day 70 PI; Group C, infected, untreated. Percentage of cats in each group that were positive at any time point for heartworm antibody (AB Pos Days 70–240) or antigen (ANG Pos Days 70–240). Percentage of cats that had heartworms or worm fragments at necropsy (Adult HW)

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) induced by immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in cats

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-017-2452-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Serology results in cats after D. immitis infection. Treatment groups: Group A, selamectin monthly initiated on Day 28; Group B, oral ivermectin every 2 weeks initiated on Day 70 PI; Group C, infected, untreated. Percentage of cats in each group that were positive at any time point for heartworm antibody (AB Pos Days 70–240) or antigen (ANG Pos Days 70–240). Percentage of cats that had heartworms or worm fragments at necropsy (Adult HW)

    Article Snippet: Group A cats were treated topically with selamectin (Revolution®; Zoetis) per label directions at 28 days post infection (PI) and once monthly for 8 months.

    Techniques: Infection

    Percentage of cats heartworm antibody positive in each group at days after L3 D. immitis infection . Treatment groups: Group A, selamectin monthly initiated on Day 28; Group B, oral ivermectin every 2 weeks initiated on Day 70 PI; Group C, infected, untreated. Days after infection listed on bottom axis and RV 245 is sample collected from right ventricle immediately post mortem

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) induced by immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in cats

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-017-2452-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Percentage of cats heartworm antibody positive in each group at days after L3 D. immitis infection . Treatment groups: Group A, selamectin monthly initiated on Day 28; Group B, oral ivermectin every 2 weeks initiated on Day 70 PI; Group C, infected, untreated. Days after infection listed on bottom axis and RV 245 is sample collected from right ventricle immediately post mortem

    Article Snippet: Group A cats were treated topically with selamectin (Revolution®; Zoetis) per label directions at 28 days post infection (PI) and once monthly for 8 months.

    Techniques: Infection

    Group A cat (infected, selamectin monthly initiated on Day 28). Ventrodorsal radiograph on Day 240. Normal lateral thoracic radiographs in a Group A cat (selamectin monthly initiated on Day 28 PI) on Day 240 after L3 D. immitis infection. There was no significant change in radiographs in any cat from Day 0, 110, 175, or 240. All Day 0 radiographs were normal for all cats

    Journal: Parasites & Vectors

    Article Title: Heartworm-associated respiratory disease (HARD) induced by immature adult Dirofilaria immitis in cats

    doi: 10.1186/s13071-017-2452-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Group A cat (infected, selamectin monthly initiated on Day 28). Ventrodorsal radiograph on Day 240. Normal lateral thoracic radiographs in a Group A cat (selamectin monthly initiated on Day 28 PI) on Day 240 after L3 D. immitis infection. There was no significant change in radiographs in any cat from Day 0, 110, 175, or 240. All Day 0 radiographs were normal for all cats

    Article Snippet: Group A cats were treated topically with selamectin (Revolution®; Zoetis) per label directions at 28 days post infection (PI) and once monthly for 8 months.

    Techniques: Infection