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  • 99
    ATCC s aureus staphylococcal organisms
    Comparison of the orders of the genes that surround the chromosomal replication origins of S. carnosus and S. aureus <t>N315.</t> Sections of the oriC regions of S. aureus and S. carnosus illustrating the gene inversion observed in the staphylococcal genomes
    S Aureus Staphylococcal Organisms, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 18 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore staphylococcus aureus
    Comparison of the orders of the genes that surround the chromosomal replication origins of S. carnosus and S. aureus <t>N315.</t> Sections of the oriC regions of S. aureus and S. carnosus illustrating the gene inversion observed in the staphylococcal genomes
    Staphylococcus Aureus, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1143 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC staphylococcus aureus
    Results of the antimicrobial activity tests for the recombinant LPcin-I ( A ) and LPcin-II ( B ) against five microorganisms belonging to two Gram-positive ( Listeria innocua MC2 KCTC 3658 and Staphylococcus aureus <t>ATCC</t> 6538 ) and three Gram-negative ( Pseudomonas
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    ATCC s aureus pcx19ωhemb s aureus sa113
    Effects of SteLL on cell size of  S. aureus  8325-4. ( A ) Exponentially growing cells; ( B ) Cells treated with 0.78 µg/mL ciprofloxacin for 3 h; ( C ) Cells treated with 2 × MIC SteLL (4 µg/mL) for 3 h; ( D ) Cells treated with 8 × MIC (16 µg/mL) SteLL for 3 h.
    S Aureus Pcx19ωhemb S Aureus Sa113, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 17 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore unattached s aureus
    Effects of SteLL on cell size of  S. aureus  8325-4. ( A ) Exponentially growing cells; ( B ) Cells treated with 0.78 µg/mL ciprofloxacin for 3 h; ( C ) Cells treated with 2 × MIC SteLL (4 µg/mL) for 3 h; ( D ) Cells treated with 8 × MIC (16 µg/mL) SteLL for 3 h.
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    ATCC s aureus s aureus
    Increased expression of PIA/PNSG under anaerobic conditions in S. aureus and S. epidermidis in vitro. The ica -positive S. aureus strain <t>ATCC</t> 35556 (A), an isogenic ica -deletion mutant (ATCC 35556Δ ica :: tet ) (E), the ica -positive S. epidermidis strain O-47 (B), and an isogenic ica transposon mutant (O-47 ica ::Tn 917 ) (F) were grown under aerobic (+) and anaerobic (−) conditions for 96 h in CYPG plus Glc. PIA/PNSG expression was detected by indirect immunofluorescence using rabbit antibodies raised against S. epidermidis PIA and a Cy3-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG antibody. Magnifications for panels A, B, E, and F, ×1,000; bar = 10 μm. Cell surface extracts from S. aureus (C and G) and S. epidermidis (D and H) wild type and isogenic deletion mutants, grown overnight (14 to 18 h) under aerobic or anaerobic conditions in TSB plus Glc, were spotted on nitrocellulose filters, and PIA/PNSG was detected using the same anti- S. epidermidi s PIA antibody used for panels A, B, E, and F.
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    ATCC s aureus fda 209p
    Distribution of the pairwise SNP distance within <t>norA</t> sequences used in this study. The norA sequences include <t>norAI</t> (D90119.1), norAII (AB019536.1) and norAIII (M97169.1), the nine Portuguese isolates, 112 complete assemblies from GenBank, and 75 representative sequences of London isolates. The figure is annotated to show the pairwise SNP distance between isolates both within (blue) and between (red) each of the four major norA groups described in the main text: norAI group, norAII group, norAIII group, and CC121/CC59 group.
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    PerkinElmer s aureus xen36
    In vivo bioluminescence and EGFP-neutrophil fluorescence induced by the <t>Xen36</t> S. aureus strain during a spinal implant infection. 1 × 10 3 CFUs of S. aureus a strain possessing the bioluminescent construct in a stable plasmid (Xen36) or a saline control ( n =6 mice per group) were inoculated into the L4 spinous process of mice in the presence of a stainless steel implant. (A) Bacterial counts as measured by in vivo S. aureus bioluminescence (mean maximum flux [photons/s/cm2/sr] ± sem (logarithmic scale)). (B) Neutrophil infiltration (EGFP-neutrophil fluorescence) as measured by in vivo fluorescence (max radiant efficiency ([photons/s]/[μW/cm2]) ±sem [logarithmic scale]).
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    PerkinElmer staphylococcus aureus xen29
    The graphs shows bioluminescent signals in photons/second/cm 2 /steradian of S. aureus <t>Xen29</t> on the control and thermal cycled stainless steel ( a ) and titanium plates ( b ) at day 14 in culture
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    ATCC staphylococcus aureus s aureus
    Alignment of the nucleotide sequence of the katA gene of the patient's isolate and the deduced amino acid sequence of its product with those of S. aureus <t>subsp.</t> aureus <t>ATCC</t> 12600. The deduced amino acid sequence is designated in the single-letter code. Single-base substitutions are in boldface. The start codons are boxed, and stop codons are underlined. Numbers indicate relative nucleotide positions in the katA gene.
    Staphylococcus Aureus S Aureus, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 39 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC s aureus enterotoxin b
    Uniplex, duplex, and multiplex PCR screening for the detection of enterotoxin genes in CNS strains from salami. (a) Lane M, 100 bp DNA ladder plus (Fermentas, Foster City, CA, USA); lane 1, S. aureus ATCC 29231 harboring sea gene; lane 2, S. aureus NCTC 10654 harboring seb gene; lane 3, S. aureus ATCC19095 harboring the sec gene; lane 4, S. aureus <t>ATCC</t> 13563 harboring the sed gene; and lane 5, S. aureus ATCC 27664 harboring the see gene. (b) Lane M 100 bp DNA ladder plus; lane 1, Staphylococcus spp.; lane 2, S. carnosus NR116434; lane 3, S. carnosus KJ862002; lane 4, S. carnosus KJ862002; and lane 5, S. carnosus KJ862002.1. (c) Lane M, 100 bp DNA ladder plus; lane 1, S. aureus ATCC 19095 harboring seg , seh , and sei genes. (d) Lane M, 100 bp DNA ladder plus; lane 1, S. saprophyticus AB697717.1; lane 2, S. epidermidis KF 600589.1; and lane 3, S. sciuri JX966436.1. (e) Lane M, 100 bp DNA ladder plus; lane 1, S. xylosus KF198080.1; lane 2, S. saprophyticus KJ699151.1. (f) Lane M, 100 bp DNA ladder plus; lane 1, S. aureus ATCC 27154 harboring selj , slem , seln , and selo genes. (g) Lane M, 100 bp DNA ladder plus; lane 1, S. xylosus KF198080.1; and lane 2, S. saprophyticus subsp. bovis KJ699151.1.
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    ATCC s aureus smith
    Comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility of wild-type S. aureu s <t>ATCC</t> 13709 (hatched bars) and 5e -resistant organism (solid bars) to a range of bacteriostatic antibiotics with known mechanisms of action, and 5e . Bacteriostatics include trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (dihydrofolate reductase pathway), doxycycline and amikacin (30S ribosomal subunit), chloramphenicol (23S ribosomal subunit), erythromycin and tylosin (50S ribosomal subunit), nisin (lipid II), nitrofurantoin (bacterial DNA); also included were the bactericidal controls, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, and cefotaxime.
    S Aureus Smith, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 20 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC s aureus atcc51650
    Sub-inhibitory concentrations of clindamycin and azithromycin do not significantly affect bacterial growth following 24 h incubation. The OD600 absorbance values of S. aureus after 24 h culture. <t>ATCC51650,</t> CI1, CI2 were grown without (no antibiotic, grey) or with ½, ¼, ⅛ MIC clindamycin (blue) or azithromycin (green) ( p > 0.05). n = 3, bars represent standard error of means.
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    ATCC pathogens s aureus
    Sub-inhibitory concentrations of clindamycin and azithromycin do not significantly affect bacterial growth following 24 h incubation. The OD600 absorbance values of S. aureus after 24 h culture. <t>ATCC51650,</t> CI1, CI2 were grown without (no antibiotic, grey) or with ½, ¼, ⅛ MIC clindamycin (blue) or azithromycin (green) ( p > 0.05). n = 3, bars represent standard error of means.
    Pathogens S Aureus, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC s aureus n305
    Histological consequences of inoculation of S. aureus <t>N305-secreted</t> EVs in murine mammary glands. Left panel: Gross pathology of mammary glands. Representative photographs from dissected mice are shown. Conditions are PBS treatment (PBS) (negative control group), viable S. aureus N305 cells (N305) (positive control group), heat-killed S. aureus N305 cells (N305 HK ) (positive control group), 10 μg of purified staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA) (positive control group), 1 μg of EVs (EV 1 ) (test group) and 10 μg of EVs (EV 10 ) (test group). Arrows emphasize different morphological and histopathological manifestations in the mammary gland post-treatment: 1, healthy lactating mammary gland; 2, severely inflamed mammary gland with bacterial exudates; 3, slightly inflamed mammary gland; 4, moderately inflamed mammary gland. Macroscopic differences resulting from the different treatments of the mammary glands are clearly visible (e.g., prominent redness and inflammation in the S. aureus N305, LTA and EV 10 groups). Middle and right panels: Representative H E stained tissue sections of the mammary gland from each group acquired at two magnifications are shown; middle panel: 20x, scale bar = 50 μm; left panel: 40x, scale bar = 20 μm. Arrow labeled 5 highlights the milk secrete in the alveolar lumen; arrows labeled 6 marks red blood cells; arrows labeled 7 marks immune cells in the lumen of alveoli. At 24 h p.i. the PBS group did not show any immune cell influx in the alveolar space, the S. aureus N305 group alveolar lumen had a profound hemorrhage and a stronger immune cell influx compared to the S. aureus N305 HK and LTA groups. The EV 1 and EV 10 groups had a dose-dependent recruitment of immune cells with an influx for EV 10 similar to that observed in the LTA group.
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    ATCC s aureus sa113
    Effects of PGG on bacterial growth and biofilm formation. (A) S. aureus <t>SA113</t> was cultured in TSBg broth that contains PGG in 96-well microtiter plates at 37°C for 6 h (▪) and 24 h (□). The cell density was determined at A 578 .
    S Aureus Sa113, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 59 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC 49775 s aureus
    Resistance of AMPs against proteases secreted from S. <t>aureus</t> V8 or P. aeruginosa . (A and B) Proteolytic activity of the bacterial CS proteins. Each bacterial CS protein was measured with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated casein substrate. A
    49775 S Aureus, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 13 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC s aureus newbould
    Typical colony sizes for SCV and prototypic strains (left and right sides of the plates, respectively) for ( a ) S. aureus CF07-S and CF07-L, ( b ) S. aureus NewbouldΔ hemB and <t>Newbould,</t> ( c ) B. cereus ATCC 11778 (SCV#1 and prototypic), ( d ) B. subtilis ATCC 6333 (SCV#2 and prototypic), and ( e ) L. monocytogenes ATCC 13932 (SCV#1 and prototypic). In ( f ), a TSA plate was inoculated with L. monocytogenes ATCC 13932 SCV#2 and wells were filled with (i) 10 μg hemin, (ii) 10 μg menadione, (iii) 100 μg thymidine, and diluents (iv) DMSO, and (v) NH 4 OH 1.4 N. A zone of enhanced growth is observed around (i). The enhanced growth appears white and surrounds a small zone of growth inhibition
    S Aureus Newbould, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC s aureus specimens
    Typical colony sizes for SCV and prototypic strains (left and right sides of the plates, respectively) for ( a ) S. aureus CF07-S and CF07-L, ( b ) S. aureus NewbouldΔ hemB and <t>Newbould,</t> ( c ) B. cereus ATCC 11778 (SCV#1 and prototypic), ( d ) B. subtilis ATCC 6333 (SCV#2 and prototypic), and ( e ) L. monocytogenes ATCC 13932 (SCV#1 and prototypic). In ( f ), a TSA plate was inoculated with L. monocytogenes ATCC 13932 SCV#2 and wells were filled with (i) 10 μg hemin, (ii) 10 μg menadione, (iii) 100 μg thymidine, and diluents (iv) DMSO, and (v) NH 4 OH 1.4 N. A zone of enhanced growth is observed around (i). The enhanced growth appears white and surrounds a small zone of growth inhibition
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    ATCC s aureus mu3
    The PAP/AUC curve with teicoplanin alone and in combination with susceptible breakpoint concentration of four cephalosporins against eight h-VISA ( A ) and seven VISA ( B ) clinical isolates with <t>Mu3.</t>
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    ATCC s aureus dsmz11729
    Effect of NP108 on the survival of S. aureus <t>DSMZ11729</t> (MRSA), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (MSSA), S. aureus NCTC10442 (MRSA), and S. aureus NCTC10442 Mup r (low-level mupirocin-resistant MRSA) over 6 h of incubation. NP108 was added at 4× MIC to exponential-phase or stationary-phase cultures of the S. aureus isolates diluted to the 0.5 McFarland standard (∼10 8 CFU/ml) at 37°C in CA-MH broth (exponential phase) or conditioned CA-MH broth (stationary phase). Samples were taken every 60 min and viable counts established by plating on CA-MH agar and incubating for 24 h at 37°C. Untreated cultures were used as growth controls. Values in the table represent the time taken to kill the isolates of three replicates from 3 independent experiments. The graphs show representative data from a single experiment with each isolate. Data points represent the mean numbers of CFU/ml within the experiment. Horizontal dotted lines represent 3-log reduction in CFU/ml (complete kill). Conditioned CA-MH broth was medium derived from cultures of the relevant S. aureus isolate grown to stationary phase (48 to 54 h), and cells were removed by centrifugation (5 min at 17,000 × g ) and filter sterilized (0.22-μm PES filter).
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    ATCC s aureus wood46
    Screening the binding activity of recombinant antibodies generated from the plasmablasts of S. aureus -infected individuals. (A) Dot-blot analysis of antibody binding to lysates prepared from S. aureus <t>Wood46</t> at early-log and stationary growth phases.
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    ATCC s aureus ps80
    Forty-eight-hour densities of S. aureus and S. pneumoniae from nasal washes (a) and epithelia (b) of colonized rats. Five-day-old neonatal rats were colonized with 5 × 10 6 CFU of an S. pneumoniae strain which produces H 2 O 2 (TIGR4) or one that does not (SpxB) in the left nostril and with 1 × 10 6 CFU of either the S. aureus <t>PS80,</t> Newman, or catalase-deficient Newman (KatA) strain.
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    ATCC s aureus sa6
    Forty-eight-hour densities of S. aureus and S. pneumoniae from nasal washes (a) and epithelia (b) of colonized rats. Five-day-old neonatal rats were colonized with 5 × 10 6 CFU of an S. pneumoniae strain which produces H 2 O 2 (TIGR4) or one that does not (SpxB) in the left nostril and with 1 × 10 6 CFU of either the S. aureus <t>PS80,</t> Newman, or catalase-deficient Newman (KatA) strain.
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    ATCC s aureus l
    Growth inhibition of S. aureus and E. coli J5 in a broth microdilution assay. (A) S. <t>aureus</t> L form. (B) S. aureus bacterial form. (C) E. coli J5.
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    Thermo Fisher s aureus
    Growth inhibition of S. aureus and E. coli J5 in a broth microdilution assay. (A) S. <t>aureus</t> L form. (B) S. aureus bacterial form. (C) E. coli J5.
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    ATCC s aureus atcc
    Accumulation and efflux activity of Staphylococcus aureus <t>KACC</t> 10778, S. aureus <t>ATCC</t> 15564, and S. aureus CCARM 3080 on EtBr agar plates containing with and without efflux pump inhibitors (CCCP and PAβN)
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    ATCC s aureus clinical isolate
    Accumulation and efflux activity of Staphylococcus aureus <t>KACC</t> 10778, S. aureus <t>ATCC</t> 15564, and S. aureus CCARM 3080 on EtBr agar plates containing with and without efflux pump inhibitors (CCCP and PAβN)
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    ATCC methicillin susceptible s aureus
    Distribution of vancomycin MICs (VAN-MIC) by Etest (A) and broth microdilution (B), according to methicillin susceptibility. MRSA, methicillin-resistant  Staphylococcus aureus ; MSSA, methicillin-susceptible  S. aureus .
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    ATCC gram positive s aureus
    ( A ) Antimicrobial activities of four bovine  NK-lysin  peptides against Gram-negative  E .  coli  and Gram-positive  S .  aureus . Cell viability was analyzed by comparing the surviving cells after peptide treatment with the control cells. Error bars represented
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    Image Search Results


    Comparison of the orders of the genes that surround the chromosomal replication origins of S. carnosus and S. aureus N315. Sections of the oriC regions of S. aureus and S. carnosus illustrating the gene inversion observed in the staphylococcal genomes

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Genome Analysis of the Meat Starter Culture Bacterium Staphylococcus carnosus TM300 ▿ TM300 ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.01982-08

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of the orders of the genes that surround the chromosomal replication origins of S. carnosus and S. aureus N315. Sections of the oriC regions of S. aureus and S. carnosus illustrating the gene inversion observed in the staphylococcal genomes

    Article Snippet: We compared the S. carnosus genome with those of the following representatives of sequenced staphylococcal species: S. aureus N315, Mu50, MW2, COL, MSSA476, MRSA252, and RF122; S. epidermidis RP62A and ATCC 12228; S. haemolyticus JCSC 1435; and S. saprophyticus ATCC 15305.

    Techniques:

    Staphylococci per phagocyte after 2 h versus the number of adhering bacteria initially present. (A) S. epidermidis 3399 after 1 h, 3.5 h, 14 h and 24 h of bacterial growth, (B) S. epidermidis 7391 after 3.5 h bacterial growth, (C) S. epidermidis 1457 after 3.5 h bacterial growth, (D) S. aureus ATCC 12600 GFP after 1 h and 3.5 h of bacterial growth, and (E) S. aureus 7323 after 3.5 h bacterial growth, (F) S. aureus LAC after 3.5 h bacterial growth. Solid lines indicate the best-fit to a linear function passing through origin.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Phagocytosis of Bacteria Adhering to a Biomaterial Surface in a Surface Thermodynamic Perspective

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070046

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Staphylococci per phagocyte after 2 h versus the number of adhering bacteria initially present. (A) S. epidermidis 3399 after 1 h, 3.5 h, 14 h and 24 h of bacterial growth, (B) S. epidermidis 7391 after 3.5 h bacterial growth, (C) S. epidermidis 1457 after 3.5 h bacterial growth, (D) S. aureus ATCC 12600 GFP after 1 h and 3.5 h of bacterial growth, and (E) S. aureus 7323 after 3.5 h bacterial growth, (F) S. aureus LAC after 3.5 h bacterial growth. Solid lines indicate the best-fit to a linear function passing through origin.

    Article Snippet: Bacterial Culture Conditions and Harvesting Six staphylococcal strains were used in this study: S. epidermidis 3399 (isolated from human skin), S. epidermidis 7391 (clinical isolate from an infected hip arthroplasty), S. epidermidis 1457 (isolated from an infected central venous catheter), S. aureus 7323 (clinical isolate from an infected joint arthroplasty), S. aureus LAC (also named USA300, a methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate) and S. aureus ATCC 12600 (isolated from pleural fluid), modified to express Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP in pMV158 plasmid) , and noted as S. aureus ATCC 12600GFP .

    Techniques:

    Phagocytosis rate versus the interfacial free energy of adhesion. (A) S. epidermidis 3399, (B) S. epidermidis 7391, (C) S. epidermidis 1457, (D) S. aureus ATCC 12600 GFP , (E) S. aureus 7323, and (F) S. aureus LAC. Note that phagocytosis rates increase when the interfacial free energy of adhesion becomes more favorable (more negative), but phagocytosis is not ruled out by unfavorable surface thermodynamic conditions (shaded regions). Dashed lines indicate the best-fit to a linear function through the data.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Phagocytosis of Bacteria Adhering to a Biomaterial Surface in a Surface Thermodynamic Perspective

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070046

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Phagocytosis rate versus the interfacial free energy of adhesion. (A) S. epidermidis 3399, (B) S. epidermidis 7391, (C) S. epidermidis 1457, (D) S. aureus ATCC 12600 GFP , (E) S. aureus 7323, and (F) S. aureus LAC. Note that phagocytosis rates increase when the interfacial free energy of adhesion becomes more favorable (more negative), but phagocytosis is not ruled out by unfavorable surface thermodynamic conditions (shaded regions). Dashed lines indicate the best-fit to a linear function through the data.

    Article Snippet: Bacterial Culture Conditions and Harvesting Six staphylococcal strains were used in this study: S. epidermidis 3399 (isolated from human skin), S. epidermidis 7391 (clinical isolate from an infected hip arthroplasty), S. epidermidis 1457 (isolated from an infected central venous catheter), S. aureus 7323 (clinical isolate from an infected joint arthroplasty), S. aureus LAC (also named USA300, a methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolate) and S. aureus ATCC 12600 (isolated from pleural fluid), modified to express Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP in pMV158 plasmid) , and noted as S. aureus ATCC 12600GFP .

    Techniques:

    Sequence alignment of CwlT homologs from bacteria pathogens. Sa, S. aureus strain Mu50 (SAV0400, SaCwlT); Lm, Listeria monocytogenes serovar 1/2a strain ATCC BAA-679/EGD-e (LMO1104); Ef, E. faecalis (ORF14); Cd, C. difficile 630 (CD0372, CdCwlT); Bc,

    Journal: Journal of molecular biology

    Article Title: Structures of a bifunctional cell-wall hydrolase CwlT containing a novel bacterial lysozyme and an NlpC/P60 dl-endopeptidase

    doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2013.09.011

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sequence alignment of CwlT homologs from bacteria pathogens. Sa, S. aureus strain Mu50 (SAV0400, SaCwlT); Lm, Listeria monocytogenes serovar 1/2a strain ATCC BAA-679/EGD-e (LMO1104); Ef, E. faecalis (ORF14); Cd, C. difficile 630 (CD0372, CdCwlT); Bc,

    Article Snippet: Genomic DNA from Clostridium difficile (ATCC Number BAA-1382D-5) and Staphylococcus aureus Mu50 (ATCC Number 700699D) were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC).

    Techniques: Sequencing

    The proteolytic cleavage sites induced after treatment of bCAT, hCAT and CTL with different  S. aureus  strains (ATCC25923, ATCC49775, S1 and S2). The experimental molecular masses obtained after MALDI-TOF analysis, are indicated.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Cateslytin, a Chromogranin A Derived Peptide Is Active against Staphylococcus aureus and Resistant to Degradation by Its Proteases

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068993

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The proteolytic cleavage sites induced after treatment of bCAT, hCAT and CTL with different S. aureus strains (ATCC25923, ATCC49775, S1 and S2). The experimental molecular masses obtained after MALDI-TOF analysis, are indicated.

    Article Snippet: Isolation and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains Different S. aureus strains were used to demonstrate the peptide antimicrobial activity and subsequently, the peptide degradation: strains ATCC 25923, ATCC49775, S1 and S2, were provided by the Institute of Bacteriology, Strasbourg, France.

    Techniques: CTL Assay

    Balanced P. aeruginosa PA14 and S. aureus Newman populations growing in a coculture biofilm is dependent on the air availability. Total PA14 and Newman biomass grown in monoculture or coculture biofilms and stained with crystal violet. ( a ) Pictures show the biofilm growth of monoculture and coculture biofilms in the air-liquid interphase area (ALI area) of a 96-well plate. A zoomed image highlighting a region of interest of each biofilm is included in the figure. ( b ) Schematic representation of the coverslip position within the well during incubation of the PA14-Newman coculture biofilm immersed in the medium or in the ALI area. ( c ) Biofilm biomass staining of PA14 and Newman mono- and coculture biofilm growth over a coverslip immersed or in the ALI area. The length of the stained area in the coverslip is included on the plot. ( d , e ) PA14-Newman coculture biofilms grown in the ALI area or immersed in DMEM (control) and DMEM + NADPH, BSA, AMP and L-arg. ( d ) Confocal images of the mixed biofilms at the different time points were taken at 63X magnification, PA14 is shown in blue (DAPI) and Newman in green (CF TM -488A). A representative image of each biofilm from three independent experiments. ( e ) Plots show the different log 10 value of PA14 and Newman CFUs covering each coverslip after 3 days of incubation. The results show the mean of three independent experiments with the corresponding standard error of the mean. Statistical significance ( p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Optimal environmental and culture conditions allow the in vitro coexistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in stable biofilms

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-52726-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Balanced P. aeruginosa PA14 and S. aureus Newman populations growing in a coculture biofilm is dependent on the air availability. Total PA14 and Newman biomass grown in monoculture or coculture biofilms and stained with crystal violet. ( a ) Pictures show the biofilm growth of monoculture and coculture biofilms in the air-liquid interphase area (ALI area) of a 96-well plate. A zoomed image highlighting a region of interest of each biofilm is included in the figure. ( b ) Schematic representation of the coverslip position within the well during incubation of the PA14-Newman coculture biofilm immersed in the medium or in the ALI area. ( c ) Biofilm biomass staining of PA14 and Newman mono- and coculture biofilm growth over a coverslip immersed or in the ALI area. The length of the stained area in the coverslip is included on the plot. ( d , e ) PA14-Newman coculture biofilms grown in the ALI area or immersed in DMEM (control) and DMEM + NADPH, BSA, AMP and L-arg. ( d ) Confocal images of the mixed biofilms at the different time points were taken at 63X magnification, PA14 is shown in blue (DAPI) and Newman in green (CF TM -488A). A representative image of each biofilm from three independent experiments. ( e ) Plots show the different log 10 value of PA14 and Newman CFUs covering each coverslip after 3 days of incubation. The results show the mean of three independent experiments with the corresponding standard error of the mean. Statistical significance ( p

    Article Snippet: Bacterial strains and growth conditions Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 wild type and Staphylococcus aureus Newman (ATCC 13420) were used throughout this study, although S. aureus ATCC 12600 and ATCC 29213 were also initially tested.

    Techniques: Staining, Incubation

    pH evolution during coculture biofilm growth in different culture media. The plot shows the pH measurements of the different supernatant phases of P. aeruginosa PA14 and S. aureus Newman coculture biofilms grown in LB, TSB, SCFM2 and DMEM. Measurements were performed at the time of initial inoculation (0 h) and after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation at 37 °C. Statistical significance of the pH measured in DMEM at different time points compared to the pH measured in the other media at the same time points is denoted with asterisks ( ***p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Optimal environmental and culture conditions allow the in vitro coexistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in stable biofilms

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-52726-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: pH evolution during coculture biofilm growth in different culture media. The plot shows the pH measurements of the different supernatant phases of P. aeruginosa PA14 and S. aureus Newman coculture biofilms grown in LB, TSB, SCFM2 and DMEM. Measurements were performed at the time of initial inoculation (0 h) and after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation at 37 °C. Statistical significance of the pH measured in DMEM at different time points compared to the pH measured in the other media at the same time points is denoted with asterisks ( ***p

    Article Snippet: Bacterial strains and growth conditions Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 wild type and Staphylococcus aureus Newman (ATCC 13420) were used throughout this study, although S. aureus ATCC 12600 and ATCC 29213 were also initially tested.

    Techniques: Incubation

    Oxygen stratification within the cocultured biofilm determines the spatial distribution of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus and their coexistence. ( a ) XZ-orthogonal view of a P. aeruginosa and S. aureus coculture biofilm grown in DMEM + BSA (see Fig. 6d ). The image shows the separate position of Newman and PA14 within the ∼16 μm-biofilm and the possible oxygen gradient present in the system. ( b ) Graph shows the average pixel intensities of PA14 (blue) and Newman (Green) biomasses (plotted on the upper Y-axis) compared to the oxygen-related red intensity (plotted on the lower Y-axis) along the different thicknesses (μm) of a 3-day-old cocultured biofilm in flow. Pixel intensity averages were calculated from ten different images using ImageJ software. Included in the figure, is a sequential set of micrographs showing the red fluorescence emission given by the hypoxia probe through the different biofilm layers, indicating the oxygen stratification present along the thickness of the continuous-flow cocultured biofilm. Intense red emission relates to the hypoxic environment through the different biofilm depths (μm), from the bottom to the surface, additionally indicated with a schematic of the oxygen gradient present in the system.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Optimal environmental and culture conditions allow the in vitro coexistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in stable biofilms

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-52726-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Oxygen stratification within the cocultured biofilm determines the spatial distribution of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus and their coexistence. ( a ) XZ-orthogonal view of a P. aeruginosa and S. aureus coculture biofilm grown in DMEM + BSA (see Fig. 6d ). The image shows the separate position of Newman and PA14 within the ∼16 μm-biofilm and the possible oxygen gradient present in the system. ( b ) Graph shows the average pixel intensities of PA14 (blue) and Newman (Green) biomasses (plotted on the upper Y-axis) compared to the oxygen-related red intensity (plotted on the lower Y-axis) along the different thicknesses (μm) of a 3-day-old cocultured biofilm in flow. Pixel intensity averages were calculated from ten different images using ImageJ software. Included in the figure, is a sequential set of micrographs showing the red fluorescence emission given by the hypoxia probe through the different biofilm layers, indicating the oxygen stratification present along the thickness of the continuous-flow cocultured biofilm. Intense red emission relates to the hypoxic environment through the different biofilm depths (μm), from the bottom to the surface, additionally indicated with a schematic of the oxygen gradient present in the system.

    Article Snippet: Bacterial strains and growth conditions Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 wild type and Staphylococcus aureus Newman (ATCC 13420) were used throughout this study, although S. aureus ATCC 12600 and ATCC 29213 were also initially tested.

    Techniques: Flow Cytometry, Software, Fluorescence

    P. aeruginosa PA14 and S. aureus Newman coculture biofilms induce enhanced tolerance to antibiotic treatment compared to monoculture biofilms. After 48 h, matured mono- and cocultured PA14 and Newman biofilms grown in microtiter plates were treated with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 μg/mL gentamicin ( a ) and 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 μg/mL ciprofloxacin ( b ) for 15 h. Symbols in the plots represent the remaining percentage of CFUs of each strain in the biofilm after different antibiotic treatments compared to the relative untreated biofilm. Each graph shows the percentages of PA14 and Newman CFUs compared according to whether the biofilms were grown in mono- or coculture. Percentages were calculated according to the bacterial CFUs counted on selective agar plates after different antimicrobial treatments (Supplementary Table S3 ). Analysis of the statistical significance between the calculated percentages of bacterial CFUs that remained in the cocultured biofilm (after each antibiotic treatment) and those calculated in the monocultured biofilms revealed significance with p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Optimal environmental and culture conditions allow the in vitro coexistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in stable biofilms

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-52726-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: P. aeruginosa PA14 and S. aureus Newman coculture biofilms induce enhanced tolerance to antibiotic treatment compared to monoculture biofilms. After 48 h, matured mono- and cocultured PA14 and Newman biofilms grown in microtiter plates were treated with 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 μg/mL gentamicin ( a ) and 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 μg/mL ciprofloxacin ( b ) for 15 h. Symbols in the plots represent the remaining percentage of CFUs of each strain in the biofilm after different antibiotic treatments compared to the relative untreated biofilm. Each graph shows the percentages of PA14 and Newman CFUs compared according to whether the biofilms were grown in mono- or coculture. Percentages were calculated according to the bacterial CFUs counted on selective agar plates after different antimicrobial treatments (Supplementary Table S3 ). Analysis of the statistical significance between the calculated percentages of bacterial CFUs that remained in the cocultured biofilm (after each antibiotic treatment) and those calculated in the monocultured biofilms revealed significance with p

    Article Snippet: Bacterial strains and growth conditions Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 wild type and Staphylococcus aureus Newman (ATCC 13420) were used throughout this study, although S. aureus ATCC 12600 and ATCC 29213 were also initially tested.

    Techniques:

    Effect of NADPH, BSA, AMP and L-arg on extending S. aureus survival during coculture biofilm growth with P. aeruginosa . Coculture biofilms were grown in vitro on 96-well polystyrene plates for 72 h in static conditions at 37 °C. The different graphs show biofilm cells of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus log 10 CFUs/well during biofilm growth in DMEM supplemented with NADPH at 0.2 mM ( a ), BSA at 5% w/v ( b ), AMP at 10 mM ( c ) and L-arg at 0.4% w/v ( d ) after 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h. Conditions were tested in triplicate, and bars represent the mean of three independent experiments. The standard error of the mean is included in the plots. Significant differences between PA14 and Newman CFUs/well at the different incubation times are indicated by asterisks (* p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Optimal environmental and culture conditions allow the in vitro coexistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in stable biofilms

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-52726-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of NADPH, BSA, AMP and L-arg on extending S. aureus survival during coculture biofilm growth with P. aeruginosa . Coculture biofilms were grown in vitro on 96-well polystyrene plates for 72 h in static conditions at 37 °C. The different graphs show biofilm cells of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus log 10 CFUs/well during biofilm growth in DMEM supplemented with NADPH at 0.2 mM ( a ), BSA at 5% w/v ( b ), AMP at 10 mM ( c ) and L-arg at 0.4% w/v ( d ) after 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h. Conditions were tested in triplicate, and bars represent the mean of three independent experiments. The standard error of the mean is included in the plots. Significant differences between PA14 and Newman CFUs/well at the different incubation times are indicated by asterisks (* p

    Article Snippet: Bacterial strains and growth conditions Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 wild type and Staphylococcus aureus Newman (ATCC 13420) were used throughout this study, although S. aureus ATCC 12600 and ATCC 29213 were also initially tested.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Incubation

    Differences in oxygen concentration depending on the position in the well where PA14 and Newman are cocultured and growing. Dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) was determined in the different areas of interest in the PA14 and Newman in vitro coculture biofilm model. ( a ) Plot shows the DO (mg/L; ppm) given by the optical fiber microsensor, depending on the position placed in the coculture system: top, immersed and in the ALI area. A schematic showing the approximate position of each measurement is included in the plot. The equivalence of significant DO values to the percentage of dissolved oxygen saturation (gray numbers) is provided as a reference. ( b ) DO at different depths of the culture well after the immersed area reached a DO of 0 mg/L (approximately 85 min of incubation). An interpretation of the oxygenation states across the different layers is provided on the right: 1 , humid air (the oxygen value is a result of the saturation of the sensor); 2 , oxygenated interphase; and 3 , anaerobic culture.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Optimal environmental and culture conditions allow the in vitro coexistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in stable biofilms

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-52726-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Differences in oxygen concentration depending on the position in the well where PA14 and Newman are cocultured and growing. Dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) was determined in the different areas of interest in the PA14 and Newman in vitro coculture biofilm model. ( a ) Plot shows the DO (mg/L; ppm) given by the optical fiber microsensor, depending on the position placed in the coculture system: top, immersed and in the ALI area. A schematic showing the approximate position of each measurement is included in the plot. The equivalence of significant DO values to the percentage of dissolved oxygen saturation (gray numbers) is provided as a reference. ( b ) DO at different depths of the culture well after the immersed area reached a DO of 0 mg/L (approximately 85 min of incubation). An interpretation of the oxygenation states across the different layers is provided on the right: 1 , humid air (the oxygen value is a result of the saturation of the sensor); 2 , oxygenated interphase; and 3 , anaerobic culture.

    Article Snippet: Bacterial strains and growth conditions Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 wild type and Staphylococcus aureus Newman (ATCC 13420) were used throughout this study, although S. aureus ATCC 12600 and ATCC 29213 were also initially tested.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, In Vitro, Incubation

    Time-course planktonic and biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa PA14 and S. aureus Newman in LB, SCFM2, TSB and DMEM. ( a-d ) log 10 CFUs/mL of each bacterial strain during planktonic growth in coculture at the time of initial inoculation and after 12, 24, 36 and 48 h of incubation at 37 °C with shaking. ( e-h ) log 10 CFUs/well of PA14 and Newman strains during coculture biofilm growth on 96-well polystyrene plates over 72 h of static incubation at 37 °C. Three independent experiments were performed for both experiments, and error bars indicate the standard error of the mean from the representative triplicate. Statistical significance between log 10 CFUs/mL and between log 10 CFUs/well at the different time points is indicated with an asterisk (* p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Optimal environmental and culture conditions allow the in vitro coexistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in stable biofilms

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-52726-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Time-course planktonic and biofilm growth of P. aeruginosa PA14 and S. aureus Newman in LB, SCFM2, TSB and DMEM. ( a-d ) log 10 CFUs/mL of each bacterial strain during planktonic growth in coculture at the time of initial inoculation and after 12, 24, 36 and 48 h of incubation at 37 °C with shaking. ( e-h ) log 10 CFUs/well of PA14 and Newman strains during coculture biofilm growth on 96-well polystyrene plates over 72 h of static incubation at 37 °C. Three independent experiments were performed for both experiments, and error bars indicate the standard error of the mean from the representative triplicate. Statistical significance between log 10 CFUs/mL and between log 10 CFUs/well at the different time points is indicated with an asterisk (* p

    Article Snippet: Bacterial strains and growth conditions Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 wild type and Staphylococcus aureus Newman (ATCC 13420) were used throughout this study, although S. aureus ATCC 12600 and ATCC 29213 were also initially tested.

    Techniques: Incubation

    Balanced and stable P. aeruginosa PA14 and S. aureus Newman strain populations within a three-day-old mixed biofilm grown in continuous flow. PA14 and Newman were grown simultaneously in a continuous-flow biofilm in TSB ( a ), TSB + BSA ( b ), DMEM ( c ) and DMEM + BSA ( d ) for three days. At the indicated time point, the biomass growing over the different channels was stained with DAPI (blue, PA14) and CF TM -488A (green, Newman) and visualized using confocal microscopy. The figure shows the composite of the sum of the slices (Z Stack), with the respective orthogonal views, and the 3D representation of each mixed biofilm formed using both ImageJ and ZEN software. Mixed biofilms were tested in triplicate, and a representative image from those taken at magnifications of 40X and 63X is shown. A region of interest (ROI), including the different microscope projections and representations, is also presented in the figure. Red arrows indicate PA14 and Newman strains within the mixed biofilm. ( e ) Schematic representations of the cocultured biofilm depending on growth in DMEM or DMEM + BSA from the previous confocal microscope Z-stacks and orthogonal views. P. aeruginosa is represented in blue, and S. aureus is represented in green. ( f ) Table shows the percentage of blue Pseudomonas and green Staphylococcus present in the different cocultured biofilms calculated from an average of 5–15 different microscope stacks using the COMSTAT 2 and ImageJ software.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Optimal environmental and culture conditions allow the in vitro coexistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in stable biofilms

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-52726-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Balanced and stable P. aeruginosa PA14 and S. aureus Newman strain populations within a three-day-old mixed biofilm grown in continuous flow. PA14 and Newman were grown simultaneously in a continuous-flow biofilm in TSB ( a ), TSB + BSA ( b ), DMEM ( c ) and DMEM + BSA ( d ) for three days. At the indicated time point, the biomass growing over the different channels was stained with DAPI (blue, PA14) and CF TM -488A (green, Newman) and visualized using confocal microscopy. The figure shows the composite of the sum of the slices (Z Stack), with the respective orthogonal views, and the 3D representation of each mixed biofilm formed using both ImageJ and ZEN software. Mixed biofilms were tested in triplicate, and a representative image from those taken at magnifications of 40X and 63X is shown. A region of interest (ROI), including the different microscope projections and representations, is also presented in the figure. Red arrows indicate PA14 and Newman strains within the mixed biofilm. ( e ) Schematic representations of the cocultured biofilm depending on growth in DMEM or DMEM + BSA from the previous confocal microscope Z-stacks and orthogonal views. P. aeruginosa is represented in blue, and S. aureus is represented in green. ( f ) Table shows the percentage of blue Pseudomonas and green Staphylococcus present in the different cocultured biofilms calculated from an average of 5–15 different microscope stacks using the COMSTAT 2 and ImageJ software.

    Article Snippet: Bacterial strains and growth conditions Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 wild type and Staphylococcus aureus Newman (ATCC 13420) were used throughout this study, although S. aureus ATCC 12600 and ATCC 29213 were also initially tested.

    Techniques: Flow Cytometry, Staining, Confocal Microscopy, Software, Microscopy

    Results of the antimicrobial activity tests for the recombinant LPcin-I ( A ) and LPcin-II ( B ) against five microorganisms belonging to two Gram-positive ( Listeria innocua MC2 KCTC 3658 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 ) and three Gram-negative ( Pseudomonas

    Journal: Biophysical Journal

    Article Title: Solution and Solid-State NMR Structural Studies of Antimicrobial Peptides LPcin-I and LPcin-II

    doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2011.06.067

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Results of the antimicrobial activity tests for the recombinant LPcin-I ( A ) and LPcin-II ( B ) against five microorganisms belonging to two Gram-positive ( Listeria innocua MC2 KCTC 3658 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 ) and three Gram-negative ( Pseudomonas

    Article Snippet: Five microorganisms belonging to two Gram-positive ( Listeria innocua MC2 KCTC (Daejon, Korea) 3658 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538) and three Gram-negative ( Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC27853, Salmonella ATCC (Manassas, VA) 19430, Escherichia coli KCTC 1682) bacterial species were tested for their susceptibility to the recombinant peptide based on the agar hole diffusion test.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Recombinant

    Effects of SteLL on cell size of  S. aureus  8325-4. ( A ) Exponentially growing cells; ( B ) Cells treated with 0.78 µg/mL ciprofloxacin for 3 h; ( C ) Cells treated with 2 × MIC SteLL (4 µg/mL) for 3 h; ( D ) Cells treated with 8 × MIC (16 µg/mL) SteLL for 3 h.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Schinus terebinthifolia leaf lectin (SteLL) has anti-infective action and modulates the response of Staphylococcus aureus-infected macrophages

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-54616-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of SteLL on cell size of S. aureus 8325-4. ( A ) Exponentially growing cells; ( B ) Cells treated with 0.78 µg/mL ciprofloxacin for 3 h; ( C ) Cells treated with 2 × MIC SteLL (4 µg/mL) for 3 h; ( D ) Cells treated with 8 × MIC (16 µg/mL) SteLL for 3 h.

    Article Snippet: The MIC values for these two drugs towards S. aureus 8325-4 were 0.78 µg/mL and 25 µg/mL, respectively.

    Techniques:

    Effects of SteLL on survival ( A ) and bacteria load in hemolymph ( B ) of  G. mellonella  larvae infected with  S. aureus . In all experiments the larvae were infected with a  S. aureus  8325-4 suspension (10 μL of 1.0 × 10 5  CFU/mL) and treated with SteLL at 0.2 mg/kg. (*) Indicates significant differences in relation to control cells (p 

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Schinus terebinthifolia leaf lectin (SteLL) has anti-infective action and modulates the response of Staphylococcus aureus-infected macrophages

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-54616-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of SteLL on survival ( A ) and bacteria load in hemolymph ( B ) of G. mellonella larvae infected with S. aureus . In all experiments the larvae were infected with a S. aureus 8325-4 suspension (10 μL of 1.0 × 10 5 CFU/mL) and treated with SteLL at 0.2 mg/kg. (*) Indicates significant differences in relation to control cells (p 

    Article Snippet: The MIC values for these two drugs towards S. aureus 8325-4 were 0.78 µg/mL and 25 µg/mL, respectively.

    Techniques: Infection

    Effects of SteLL on  recA  expression of  S. aureus . The expression of  recA  were performed using a derivative  S. aureus  8325-4 strain carrying a  recA::lacZ  fusion. β-galactosidase activity was measured using ONPG. (*) Indicates significant differences in relation to control cells (p 

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Schinus terebinthifolia leaf lectin (SteLL) has anti-infective action and modulates the response of Staphylococcus aureus-infected macrophages

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-54616-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of SteLL on recA expression of S. aureus . The expression of recA were performed using a derivative S. aureus 8325-4 strain carrying a recA::lacZ fusion. β-galactosidase activity was measured using ONPG. (*) Indicates significant differences in relation to control cells (p 

    Article Snippet: The MIC values for these two drugs towards S. aureus 8325-4 were 0.78 µg/mL and 25 µg/mL, respectively.

    Techniques: Expressing, Activity Assay

    Effects of SteLL and selected antimicrobials on DNA content of  S. aureus  8325-4. ( A ) Exponentially growing cells; ( B ) Cells treated with 0.78 µg/mL ciprofloxacin for 3 h; ( C ) Cells treated with 12.5 µg/mL chloramphenicol for 3 h; ( D ) Cells treated with 2 × MIC SteLL (4 µg/mL) for 3 h; ( E ) Cells treated with 8 × MIC (16 µg/mL) SteLL for 3 h.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Schinus terebinthifolia leaf lectin (SteLL) has anti-infective action and modulates the response of Staphylococcus aureus-infected macrophages

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-54616-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of SteLL and selected antimicrobials on DNA content of S. aureus 8325-4. ( A ) Exponentially growing cells; ( B ) Cells treated with 0.78 µg/mL ciprofloxacin for 3 h; ( C ) Cells treated with 12.5 µg/mL chloramphenicol for 3 h; ( D ) Cells treated with 2 × MIC SteLL (4 µg/mL) for 3 h; ( E ) Cells treated with 8 × MIC (16 µg/mL) SteLL for 3 h.

    Article Snippet: The MIC values for these two drugs towards S. aureus 8325-4 were 0.78 µg/mL and 25 µg/mL, respectively.

    Techniques:

    Height images and profiles of individual staphylococci immobilized on a glass surface in the AFM peak force-QNM mode for two wild-type S. aureus strains (NCTC 8325-4 and ATCC 12600) and their isogenic Δ pbp4 mutants. Five examples of height profiles

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Nanoscale Cell Wall Deformation Impacts Long-Range Bacterial Adhesion Forces on Surfaces

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02745-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Height images and profiles of individual staphylococci immobilized on a glass surface in the AFM peak force-QNM mode for two wild-type S. aureus strains (NCTC 8325-4 and ATCC 12600) and their isogenic Δ pbp4 mutants. Five examples of height profiles

    Article Snippet: The Δ pbp4 mutant of S. aureus NCTC 8325-4 was kindly provided by Mariana G. Pinho (Universidade Nova de Lisboa), while the Δ pbp4 mutant of S. aureus ATCC 12600 was our own construct, prepared as described by Atilano et al. ( ).

    Techniques:

    Adhesion force ( F adh ) as a function of the loading force ( F ld ) applied during AFM measurements for two wild-type S. aureus strains (NCTC 8325-4 and ATCC 12600) and their isogenic Δ pbp4 mutants. Error bars denote the standard deviations over at

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Nanoscale Cell Wall Deformation Impacts Long-Range Bacterial Adhesion Forces on Surfaces

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02745-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Adhesion force ( F adh ) as a function of the loading force ( F ld ) applied during AFM measurements for two wild-type S. aureus strains (NCTC 8325-4 and ATCC 12600) and their isogenic Δ pbp4 mutants. Error bars denote the standard deviations over at

    Article Snippet: The Δ pbp4 mutant of S. aureus NCTC 8325-4 was kindly provided by Mariana G. Pinho (Universidade Nova de Lisboa), while the Δ pbp4 mutant of S. aureus ATCC 12600 was our own construct, prepared as described by Atilano et al. ( ).

    Techniques:

    Detachment of S. aureus biofilms by restriction endonucleases. (A) S. aureus SH1000 biofilms grown in microtiter plates were treated for 1 h with 100 U/ml of various restriction endonucleases and then rinsed and stained with crystal violet. Percent detachment

    Journal:

    Article Title: Differential Roles of Poly-N-Acetylglucosamine Surface Polysaccharide and Extracellular DNA in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilms ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02073-07

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Detachment of S. aureus biofilms by restriction endonucleases. (A) S. aureus SH1000 biofilms grown in microtiter plates were treated for 1 h with 100 U/ml of various restriction endonucleases and then rinsed and stained with crystal violet. Percent detachment

    Article Snippet: The bacterial strains used in this study were S. aureus SH1000 , 8325 , MRSA252 , MZ100 , and ATCC 6341 (American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA), as well as S. epidermidis NJ9709 ( ) and 1467 ( ).

    Techniques: Staining

    Pretreatment of S. epidermidis biofilms with dispersin B renders them sensitive to killing by CPC. (A) S. aureus SH1000 and S. epidermidis NJ9709 biofilms grown in 96-well microtiter plates were treated with 0.3% CPC (for S. aureus ) or 0.1%

    Journal:

    Article Title: Differential Roles of Poly-N-Acetylglucosamine Surface Polysaccharide and Extracellular DNA in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilms ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02073-07

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pretreatment of S. epidermidis biofilms with dispersin B renders them sensitive to killing by CPC. (A) S. aureus SH1000 and S. epidermidis NJ9709 biofilms grown in 96-well microtiter plates were treated with 0.3% CPC (for S. aureus ) or 0.1%

    Article Snippet: The bacterial strains used in this study were S. aureus SH1000 , 8325 , MRSA252 , MZ100 , and ATCC 6341 (American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA), as well as S. epidermidis NJ9709 ( ) and 1467 ( ).

    Techniques:

    Pretreatment of S. aureus biofilms with DNase I renders them sensitive to killing by CPC. (A) S. aureus SH1000 and S. epidermidis NJ9709 biofilms grown in microtiter plates were treated with 0.3% CPC (for S. aureus ) or 0.1% CPC (for S.

    Journal:

    Article Title: Differential Roles of Poly-N-Acetylglucosamine Surface Polysaccharide and Extracellular DNA in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilms ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02073-07

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pretreatment of S. aureus biofilms with DNase I renders them sensitive to killing by CPC. (A) S. aureus SH1000 and S. epidermidis NJ9709 biofilms grown in microtiter plates were treated with 0.3% CPC (for S. aureus ) or 0.1% CPC (for S.

    Article Snippet: The bacterial strains used in this study were S. aureus SH1000 , 8325 , MRSA252 , MZ100 , and ATCC 6341 (American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA), as well as S. epidermidis NJ9709 ( ) and 1467 ( ).

    Techniques:

    Increased expression of PIA/PNSG under anaerobic conditions in S. aureus and S. epidermidis in vitro. The ica -positive S. aureus strain ATCC 35556 (A), an isogenic ica -deletion mutant (ATCC 35556Δ ica :: tet ) (E), the ica -positive S. epidermidis strain O-47 (B), and an isogenic ica transposon mutant (O-47 ica ::Tn 917 ) (F) were grown under aerobic (+) and anaerobic (−) conditions for 96 h in CYPG plus Glc. PIA/PNSG expression was detected by indirect immunofluorescence using rabbit antibodies raised against S. epidermidis PIA and a Cy3-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG antibody. Magnifications for panels A, B, E, and F, ×1,000; bar = 10 μm. Cell surface extracts from S. aureus (C and G) and S. epidermidis (D and H) wild type and isogenic deletion mutants, grown overnight (14 to 18 h) under aerobic or anaerobic conditions in TSB plus Glc, were spotted on nitrocellulose filters, and PIA/PNSG was detected using the same anti- S. epidermidi s PIA antibody used for panels A, B, E, and F.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Anaerobic Conditions Induce Expression of Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.69.6.4079-4085.2001

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Increased expression of PIA/PNSG under anaerobic conditions in S. aureus and S. epidermidis in vitro. The ica -positive S. aureus strain ATCC 35556 (A), an isogenic ica -deletion mutant (ATCC 35556Δ ica :: tet ) (E), the ica -positive S. epidermidis strain O-47 (B), and an isogenic ica transposon mutant (O-47 ica ::Tn 917 ) (F) were grown under aerobic (+) and anaerobic (−) conditions for 96 h in CYPG plus Glc. PIA/PNSG expression was detected by indirect immunofluorescence using rabbit antibodies raised against S. epidermidis PIA and a Cy3-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG antibody. Magnifications for panels A, B, E, and F, ×1,000; bar = 10 μm. Cell surface extracts from S. aureus (C and G) and S. epidermidis (D and H) wild type and isogenic deletion mutants, grown overnight (14 to 18 h) under aerobic or anaerobic conditions in TSB plus Glc, were spotted on nitrocellulose filters, and PIA/PNSG was detected using the same anti- S. epidermidi s PIA antibody used for panels A, B, E, and F.

    Article Snippet: As shown in Fig. A, for S. aureus ATCC 35556 grown in CYPG medium supplemented with 2% glucose (CYPG plus Glc) for 96 h, PIA/PNSG expression was detectable only under anaerobic conditions.

    Techniques: Expressing, In Vitro, Mutagenesis, Gas Chromatography, Immunofluorescence

    Increased PIA/PNSG expression under anaerobic conditions correlates with  ica  operon transcript levels in  S. aureus  and  S. epidermidis . Cell surface extracts from  S. aureus  ATCC 35556,  S. epidermidis  O-47, and their respective isogenic  ica  deletion mutants were grown to an OD 578  of 2.0 under aerobic (+) or anaerobic (−) conditions in TSB plus Glc. Cell surface extracts from an equal number of cells from each strain were spotted onto a nitrocellulose filter, and PIA/PNSG was detected using a polyclonal anti- S. epidermidis  PIA antibody (PIA/PNSG). RNA was extracted from cells from the same cultures, spotted onto a nylon filter, and hybridized with an  ica -specific DNA probe (RNA).

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Anaerobic Conditions Induce Expression of Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.69.6.4079-4085.2001

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Increased PIA/PNSG expression under anaerobic conditions correlates with ica operon transcript levels in S. aureus and S. epidermidis . Cell surface extracts from S. aureus ATCC 35556, S. epidermidis O-47, and their respective isogenic ica deletion mutants were grown to an OD 578 of 2.0 under aerobic (+) or anaerobic (−) conditions in TSB plus Glc. Cell surface extracts from an equal number of cells from each strain were spotted onto a nitrocellulose filter, and PIA/PNSG was detected using a polyclonal anti- S. epidermidis PIA antibody (PIA/PNSG). RNA was extracted from cells from the same cultures, spotted onto a nylon filter, and hybridized with an ica -specific DNA probe (RNA).

    Article Snippet: As shown in Fig. A, for S. aureus ATCC 35556 grown in CYPG medium supplemented with 2% glucose (CYPG plus Glc) for 96 h, PIA/PNSG expression was detectable only under anaerobic conditions.

    Techniques: Expressing, Gas Chromatography

    Distribution of the pairwise SNP distance within norA sequences used in this study. The norA sequences include norAI (D90119.1), norAII (AB019536.1) and norAIII (M97169.1), the nine Portuguese isolates, 112 complete assemblies from GenBank, and 75 representative sequences of London isolates. The figure is annotated to show the pairwise SNP distance between isolates both within (blue) and between (red) each of the four major norA groups described in the main text: norAI group, norAII group, norAIII group, and CC121/CC59 group.

    Journal: Frontiers in Genetics

    Article Title: Genetic Diversity of norA, Coding for a Main Efflux Pump of Staphylococcus aureus

    doi: 10.3389/fgene.2018.00710

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Distribution of the pairwise SNP distance within norA sequences used in this study. The norA sequences include norAI (D90119.1), norAII (AB019536.1) and norAIII (M97169.1), the nine Portuguese isolates, 112 complete assemblies from GenBank, and 75 representative sequences of London isolates. The figure is annotated to show the pairwise SNP distance between isolates both within (blue) and between (red) each of the four major norA groups described in the main text: norAI group, norAII group, norAIII group, and CC121/CC59 group.

    Article Snippet: We also compared the S. aureus NorAI variant with the NorA efflux pump encoded in the Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 chromosome, which presents the same substrate profile ( ; Supplementary Information ).

    Techniques:

    Maximum likelihood phylogeny of the norA sequences analyzed in this study. Identical norA sequences among all samples used in this study have been collapsed and represented by a single label, which denotes a representative ST/CC of that group. The number of sequences is denoted by the last number of the tip label. Four major groups are found, clustering with the norA alleles described in literature, norAI (D90119.1), norAII (AB019536.1), norAIII (M97169.1), and the allelic variant norA -CC59/121. The norAI associated group is the most diverse, including samples belonging to CC1, CC5, CC8, CC15, CC80, and a wide range of sequence types. The norAII associated group contains samples belonging to clonal complexes CC22, CC30, CC36, and CC398. Major nodes supported with bootstrap values above 75% are denoted with a star.

    Journal: Frontiers in Genetics

    Article Title: Genetic Diversity of norA, Coding for a Main Efflux Pump of Staphylococcus aureus

    doi: 10.3389/fgene.2018.00710

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Maximum likelihood phylogeny of the norA sequences analyzed in this study. Identical norA sequences among all samples used in this study have been collapsed and represented by a single label, which denotes a representative ST/CC of that group. The number of sequences is denoted by the last number of the tip label. Four major groups are found, clustering with the norA alleles described in literature, norAI (D90119.1), norAII (AB019536.1), norAIII (M97169.1), and the allelic variant norA -CC59/121. The norAI associated group is the most diverse, including samples belonging to CC1, CC5, CC8, CC15, CC80, and a wide range of sequence types. The norAII associated group contains samples belonging to clonal complexes CC22, CC30, CC36, and CC398. Major nodes supported with bootstrap values above 75% are denoted with a star.

    Article Snippet: We also compared the S. aureus NorAI variant with the NorA efflux pump encoded in the Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 chromosome, which presents the same substrate profile ( ; Supplementary Information ).

    Techniques: Variant Assay, Sequencing

    Multiple alignment of NorA polypeptide sequences derived from alleles norAI ), norAII ), and norAIII ) and from the norA alleles from selected S. aureus strains. The MRSA strains displayed were selected to represent the main S. aureus clonal lineages found for the strains with genomes publicly available and for the Portuguese strains (SM10 – CC5; SM39 – CC88). Sequences are grouped according to the respective norA allele (orange – norAI ; green – norAII ; blue - norAIII ; yellow – norA-CC59/121 ). The red box corresponds to the amino acid substitution likely to affect NorA function.

    Journal: Frontiers in Genetics

    Article Title: Genetic Diversity of norA, Coding for a Main Efflux Pump of Staphylococcus aureus

    doi: 10.3389/fgene.2018.00710

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Multiple alignment of NorA polypeptide sequences derived from alleles norAI ), norAII ), and norAIII ) and from the norA alleles from selected S. aureus strains. The MRSA strains displayed were selected to represent the main S. aureus clonal lineages found for the strains with genomes publicly available and for the Portuguese strains (SM10 – CC5; SM39 – CC88). Sequences are grouped according to the respective norA allele (orange – norAI ; green – norAII ; blue - norAIII ; yellow – norA-CC59/121 ). The red box corresponds to the amino acid substitution likely to affect NorA function.

    Article Snippet: We also compared the S. aureus NorAI variant with the NorA efflux pump encoded in the Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228 chromosome, which presents the same substrate profile ( ; Supplementary Information ).

    Techniques: Derivative Assay

    In vivo bioluminescence and EGFP-neutrophil fluorescence induced by the Xen36 S. aureus strain during a spinal implant infection. 1 × 10 3 CFUs of S. aureus a strain possessing the bioluminescent construct in a stable plasmid (Xen36) or a saline control ( n =6 mice per group) were inoculated into the L4 spinous process of mice in the presence of a stainless steel implant. (A) Bacterial counts as measured by in vivo S. aureus bioluminescence (mean maximum flux [photons/s/cm2/sr] ± sem (logarithmic scale)). (B) Neutrophil infiltration (EGFP-neutrophil fluorescence) as measured by in vivo fluorescence (max radiant efficiency ([photons/s]/[μW/cm2]) ±sem [logarithmic scale]).

    Journal: Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society

    Article Title: Novel In Vivo Mouse Model of Implant Related Spine Infection

    doi: 10.1002/jor.23273

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vivo bioluminescence and EGFP-neutrophil fluorescence induced by the Xen36 S. aureus strain during a spinal implant infection. 1 × 10 3 CFUs of S. aureus a strain possessing the bioluminescent construct in a stable plasmid (Xen36) or a saline control ( n =6 mice per group) were inoculated into the L4 spinous process of mice in the presence of a stainless steel implant. (A) Bacterial counts as measured by in vivo S. aureus bioluminescence (mean maximum flux [photons/s/cm2/sr] ± sem (logarithmic scale)). (B) Neutrophil infiltration (EGFP-neutrophil fluorescence) as measured by in vivo fluorescence (max radiant efficiency ([photons/s]/[μW/cm2]) ±sem [logarithmic scale]).

    Article Snippet: S. aureus Xen36, (PerkinElmer, Hopkinton, MA) is a bioluminescent derivative of the parental strain S. aureus ATCC 49525 (Wright), a clinical isolate from a bacteremia patient.

    Techniques: In Vivo, Fluorescence, Infection, Construct, Plasmid Preparation, Mouse Assay

    Mouse surgical procedures. (A) A 2 cm midline incision was made in the skin overlying the spine. (B) The dissection was directed laterally along the L4 spinous process. (C) The L4 spinous process was manually reamed with a 25-gauge needle. (D) An orthopaedic-grade stainless steel K-wire (diameter 0.1 mm) was surgically placed into the L4 spinous process and placed lengthwise along the spine. (E) An inoculum of S. aureus Xen36 in a 0.2 ml volume was pipetted onto the implant. (F) The surgical site was closed with subcutaneous 4–0 Vicryl sutures. (G) A representative radiographic image demonstrating the placement of the implant in the L4 spinous process and lying lengthwise along the spine.

    Journal: Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society

    Article Title: Novel In Vivo Mouse Model of Implant Related Spine Infection

    doi: 10.1002/jor.23273

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mouse surgical procedures. (A) A 2 cm midline incision was made in the skin overlying the spine. (B) The dissection was directed laterally along the L4 spinous process. (C) The L4 spinous process was manually reamed with a 25-gauge needle. (D) An orthopaedic-grade stainless steel K-wire (diameter 0.1 mm) was surgically placed into the L4 spinous process and placed lengthwise along the spine. (E) An inoculum of S. aureus Xen36 in a 0.2 ml volume was pipetted onto the implant. (F) The surgical site was closed with subcutaneous 4–0 Vicryl sutures. (G) A representative radiographic image demonstrating the placement of the implant in the L4 spinous process and lying lengthwise along the spine.

    Article Snippet: S. aureus Xen36, (PerkinElmer, Hopkinton, MA) is a bioluminescent derivative of the parental strain S. aureus ATCC 49525 (Wright), a clinical isolate from a bacteremia patient.

    Techniques: Dissection

    Images of the dorsal skin of mice inoculated with S. aureus Xen36 during a spine implant infection. (A) Mouse inoculated with 1 × 10 3 CFUs, and intact dorsal skin (B) Mouse inoculated with 1 × 10 4 CFUs, and evidence of considerable wound breakdown.

    Journal: Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society

    Article Title: Novel In Vivo Mouse Model of Implant Related Spine Infection

    doi: 10.1002/jor.23273

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Images of the dorsal skin of mice inoculated with S. aureus Xen36 during a spine implant infection. (A) Mouse inoculated with 1 × 10 3 CFUs, and intact dorsal skin (B) Mouse inoculated with 1 × 10 4 CFUs, and evidence of considerable wound breakdown.

    Article Snippet: S. aureus Xen36, (PerkinElmer, Hopkinton, MA) is a bioluminescent derivative of the parental strain S. aureus ATCC 49525 (Wright), a clinical isolate from a bacteremia patient.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection

    T2D mice have more severe  S. aureus  infections than T1D mice. Xen36  S. aureus -derived bioluminescence was measured at the site of the infected tibiae of T2D versus lean control mice (A) and T1D versus vehicle control mice (B). Area-under-the-curve measurements

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: A Humoral Immune Defect Distinguishes the Response to Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Mice with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes from That in Mice with Type 1 Diabetes

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.03074-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: T2D mice have more severe S. aureus infections than T1D mice. Xen36 S. aureus -derived bioluminescence was measured at the site of the infected tibiae of T2D versus lean control mice (A) and T1D versus vehicle control mice (B). Area-under-the-curve measurements

    Article Snippet: It should be noted that Xen36 S. aureus , while a clinical isolate, has been less extensively characterized than more frequently used strains such as UAMS-1 or USA300.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Derivative Assay, Infection

    The spread of  S. aureus  infection to urinary tracts and nares is more frequent and severe in T2D mice. The spread of Xen36  S. aureus  infection in T1D and T2D mice was monitored by bioluminescence (BLI). (A) BLI was measured in the nares of T2D mice and

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: A Humoral Immune Defect Distinguishes the Response to Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Mice with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes from That in Mice with Type 1 Diabetes

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.03074-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The spread of S. aureus infection to urinary tracts and nares is more frequent and severe in T2D mice. The spread of Xen36 S. aureus infection in T1D and T2D mice was monitored by bioluminescence (BLI). (A) BLI was measured in the nares of T2D mice and

    Article Snippet: It should be noted that Xen36 S. aureus , while a clinical isolate, has been less extensively characterized than more frequently used strains such as UAMS-1 or USA300.

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay

    The graphs shows bioluminescent signals in photons/second/cm 2 /steradian of S. aureus Xen29 on the control and thermal cycled stainless steel ( a ) and titanium plates ( b ) at day 14 in culture

    Journal: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders

    Article Title: The impact of thermal cycling on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm growth on stainless steel and titanium orthopaedic plates

    doi: 10.1186/s12891-018-2199-z

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The graphs shows bioluminescent signals in photons/second/cm 2 /steradian of S. aureus Xen29 on the control and thermal cycled stainless steel ( a ) and titanium plates ( b ) at day 14 in culture

    Article Snippet: Biofilm formation A genetically engineered bioluminescent strain of Staphylococcus aureus - Xen29 - (PerkinElmer, Woodbridge, Canada) able to produce a biofilm was used in all experiments.

    Techniques:

    Growth of S. aureus Xen29 was assessed on control and thermal cycled stainless steel ( a ) and titanium plates ( b ) quantifying CFUs. Data represent the mean of three (stainless steel) or two (titanium plates) repeats, respectively. Error bars show standard deviation

    Journal: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders

    Article Title: The impact of thermal cycling on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm growth on stainless steel and titanium orthopaedic plates

    doi: 10.1186/s12891-018-2199-z

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth of S. aureus Xen29 was assessed on control and thermal cycled stainless steel ( a ) and titanium plates ( b ) quantifying CFUs. Data represent the mean of three (stainless steel) or two (titanium plates) repeats, respectively. Error bars show standard deviation

    Article Snippet: Biofilm formation A genetically engineered bioluminescent strain of Staphylococcus aureus - Xen29 - (PerkinElmer, Woodbridge, Canada) able to produce a biofilm was used in all experiments.

    Techniques: Standard Deviation

    S. aureus Xen29 has been exposed to stainless steel plates for 14d. The control plate ( a ) shows a higher amount of biofilm accumulation compared to the thermal cycled plate ( b ). A new plate prior to bacteria exposure ( c )

    Journal: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders

    Article Title: The impact of thermal cycling on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm growth on stainless steel and titanium orthopaedic plates

    doi: 10.1186/s12891-018-2199-z

    Figure Lengend Snippet: S. aureus Xen29 has been exposed to stainless steel plates for 14d. The control plate ( a ) shows a higher amount of biofilm accumulation compared to the thermal cycled plate ( b ). A new plate prior to bacteria exposure ( c )

    Article Snippet: Biofilm formation A genetically engineered bioluminescent strain of Staphylococcus aureus - Xen29 - (PerkinElmer, Woodbridge, Canada) able to produce a biofilm was used in all experiments.

    Techniques:

    Alignment of the nucleotide sequence of the katA gene of the patient's isolate and the deduced amino acid sequence of its product with those of S. aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 12600. The deduced amino acid sequence is designated in the single-letter code. Single-base substitutions are in boldface. The start codons are boxed, and stop codons are underlined. Numbers indicate relative nucleotide positions in the katA gene.

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    Article Title: Molecular Characterization of a Catalase-Negative Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Strain Collected from a Patient with Mitral Valve Endocarditis and Pericarditis Revealed a Novel Nonsense Mutation in the katA Gene ▿

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.00849-11

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Alignment of the nucleotide sequence of the katA gene of the patient's isolate and the deduced amino acid sequence of its product with those of S. aureus subsp. aureus ATCC 12600. The deduced amino acid sequence is designated in the single-letter code. Single-base substitutions are in boldface. The start codons are boxed, and stop codons are underlined. Numbers indicate relative nucleotide positions in the katA gene.

    Article Snippet: Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of the isolate showed that there was no base difference between the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate and that of S. aureus subsp. aureus strain ATCC 12600 (GenBank accession no. ), 1 (0.08%) base difference between the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate and that of S. aureus subsp. anaerobius (GenBank accession no. ), 4 (0.3%) base differences between the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate and that of Staphylococcus simiae (GenBank accession no. ), 15 (1.2%) base differences between the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate and that of Staphylococcus caprae (GenBank accession no. ) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (GenBank accession no. ), 17 (1.3%) base differences between the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate and those of Staphylococcus capitis (GenBank accession no. ) and Staphylococcus pasteuri (GenBank accession no. ), and 18 (1.4%) base differences between the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate and that of Staphylococcus saccharolyticus (GenBank accession no. ), indicating that the isolate was most compatible with being a strain of S. aureus ( ).

    Techniques: Sequencing

    Inhibition of recombinant Scorpine against the biofilm formation indices of bacteria. (A) S. aureus ATCC 29213 (B) S. aureus S (C) S. aureus R (D) A. baumannii ATCC 19606 (E) A. baumannii S (F) A. baumannii R cultured in the presence of recombinant Scorpine for 24 h. Different letters (A–C) are significantly different within treatments at p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Recombinant Scorpine Produced Using SUMO Fusion Partner in Escherichia coli Has the Activities against Clinically Isolated Bacteria and Inhibits the Plasmodium falciparum Parasitemia In Vitro

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103456

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Inhibition of recombinant Scorpine against the biofilm formation indices of bacteria. (A) S. aureus ATCC 29213 (B) S. aureus S (C) S. aureus R (D) A. baumannii ATCC 19606 (E) A. baumannii S (F) A. baumannii R cultured in the presence of recombinant Scorpine for 24 h. Different letters (A–C) are significantly different within treatments at p

    Article Snippet: We investigated effects of recombinant Scorpine on the biofilm formation ability of two standard bacteria including S. aureus ATCC 29213 and A. baumannii ATCC 19606, and clinically isolated bacteria including S. aureus S, S. aureus R, A. baumannii S, and A. baumannii R. As shown in , recombinant Scorpine was able to significantly inhibit the biofilm formation of bacteria, including (A) S. aureus ATCC 29213 (B) S. aureus S (C) S. aureus R (D) A. baumannii ATCC 19606 (E) A. baumannii S, except that inhibition of recombinant Scorpine against the biofilm formation of (F) A. baumannii R did not appear to be significant.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Recombinant, Cell Culture

    Inhibition of recombinant Scorpine against the growth of planktonic bacteria. (A) S. aureus ATCC 29213 (B) S. aureus S (C) S. aureus R (D) A. baumannii ATCC 19606 (E) A. baumannii S (F) A. baumannii R cultured in the presence of recombinant Scorpine for 24 h. Different letters (A–C) are significantly different within treatments at p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Recombinant Scorpine Produced Using SUMO Fusion Partner in Escherichia coli Has the Activities against Clinically Isolated Bacteria and Inhibits the Plasmodium falciparum Parasitemia In Vitro

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103456

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Inhibition of recombinant Scorpine against the growth of planktonic bacteria. (A) S. aureus ATCC 29213 (B) S. aureus S (C) S. aureus R (D) A. baumannii ATCC 19606 (E) A. baumannii S (F) A. baumannii R cultured in the presence of recombinant Scorpine for 24 h. Different letters (A–C) are significantly different within treatments at p

    Article Snippet: We investigated effects of recombinant Scorpine on the biofilm formation ability of two standard bacteria including S. aureus ATCC 29213 and A. baumannii ATCC 19606, and clinically isolated bacteria including S. aureus S, S. aureus R, A. baumannii S, and A. baumannii R. As shown in , recombinant Scorpine was able to significantly inhibit the biofilm formation of bacteria, including (A) S. aureus ATCC 29213 (B) S. aureus S (C) S. aureus R (D) A. baumannii ATCC 19606 (E) A. baumannii S, except that inhibition of recombinant Scorpine against the biofilm formation of (F) A. baumannii R did not appear to be significant.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Recombinant, Cell Culture

    Uniplex, duplex, and multiplex PCR screening for the detection of enterotoxin genes in CNS strains from salami. (a) Lane M, 100 bp DNA ladder plus (Fermentas, Foster City, CA, USA); lane 1, S. aureus ATCC 29231 harboring sea gene; lane 2, S. aureus NCTC 10654 harboring seb gene; lane 3, S. aureus ATCC19095 harboring the sec gene; lane 4, S. aureus ATCC 13563 harboring the sed gene; and lane 5, S. aureus ATCC 27664 harboring the see gene. (b) Lane M 100 bp DNA ladder plus; lane 1, Staphylococcus spp.; lane 2, S. carnosus NR116434; lane 3, S. carnosus KJ862002; lane 4, S. carnosus KJ862002; and lane 5, S. carnosus KJ862002.1. (c) Lane M, 100 bp DNA ladder plus; lane 1, S. aureus ATCC 19095 harboring seg , seh , and sei genes. (d) Lane M, 100 bp DNA ladder plus; lane 1, S. saprophyticus AB697717.1; lane 2, S. epidermidis KF 600589.1; and lane 3, S. sciuri JX966436.1. (e) Lane M, 100 bp DNA ladder plus; lane 1, S. xylosus KF198080.1; lane 2, S. saprophyticus KJ699151.1. (f) Lane M, 100 bp DNA ladder plus; lane 1, S. aureus ATCC 27154 harboring selj , slem , seln , and selo genes. (g) Lane M, 100 bp DNA ladder plus; lane 1, S. xylosus KF198080.1; and lane 2, S. saprophyticus subsp. bovis KJ699151.1.

    Journal: BioMed Research International

    Article Title: Safety Evaluation of the Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Microbiota of Salami: Superantigenic Toxin Production and Antimicrobial Resistance

    doi: 10.1155/2015/483548

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Uniplex, duplex, and multiplex PCR screening for the detection of enterotoxin genes in CNS strains from salami. (a) Lane M, 100 bp DNA ladder plus (Fermentas, Foster City, CA, USA); lane 1, S. aureus ATCC 29231 harboring sea gene; lane 2, S. aureus NCTC 10654 harboring seb gene; lane 3, S. aureus ATCC19095 harboring the sec gene; lane 4, S. aureus ATCC 13563 harboring the sed gene; and lane 5, S. aureus ATCC 27664 harboring the see gene. (b) Lane M 100 bp DNA ladder plus; lane 1, Staphylococcus spp.; lane 2, S. carnosus NR116434; lane 3, S. carnosus KJ862002; lane 4, S. carnosus KJ862002; and lane 5, S. carnosus KJ862002.1. (c) Lane M, 100 bp DNA ladder plus; lane 1, S. aureus ATCC 19095 harboring seg , seh , and sei genes. (d) Lane M, 100 bp DNA ladder plus; lane 1, S. saprophyticus AB697717.1; lane 2, S. epidermidis KF 600589.1; and lane 3, S. sciuri JX966436.1. (e) Lane M, 100 bp DNA ladder plus; lane 1, S. xylosus KF198080.1; lane 2, S. saprophyticus KJ699151.1. (f) Lane M, 100 bp DNA ladder plus; lane 1, S. aureus ATCC 27154 harboring selj , slem , seln , and selo genes. (g) Lane M, 100 bp DNA ladder plus; lane 1, S. xylosus KF198080.1; and lane 2, S. saprophyticus subsp. bovis KJ699151.1.

    Article Snippet: DNA templates from the following reference strains were used: S. aureus ATCC 29231 (sea ), S. aureus ATCC 14458 (seb, tstH, selk, selq, selr, and selu ); S. aureus ATCC 19095 (sec, seg, seh, and sei ), S. aureus ATCC 13563 (sed ), S. aureus ATCC 27664 (see ), and S. aureus ATCC 27154 (selj, selm, seln, and selo ) and S. xylosus ATCC 29971.

    Techniques: Multiplex Assay, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Size-exclusion Chromatography

    Comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility of wild-type S. aureu s ATCC 13709 (hatched bars) and 5e -resistant organism (solid bars) to a range of bacteriostatic antibiotics with known mechanisms of action, and 5e . Bacteriostatics include trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (dihydrofolate reductase pathway), doxycycline and amikacin (30S ribosomal subunit), chloramphenicol (23S ribosomal subunit), erythromycin and tylosin (50S ribosomal subunit), nisin (lipid II), nitrofurantoin (bacterial DNA); also included were the bactericidal controls, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, and cefotaxime.

    Journal: Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry

    Article Title: Antibacterial activities of Groebke-Blackburn-Bienaym? derived imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-amines

    doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2012.07.052

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility of wild-type S. aureu s ATCC 13709 (hatched bars) and 5e -resistant organism (solid bars) to a range of bacteriostatic antibiotics with known mechanisms of action, and 5e . Bacteriostatics include trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole (dihydrofolate reductase pathway), doxycycline and amikacin (30S ribosomal subunit), chloramphenicol (23S ribosomal subunit), erythromycin and tylosin (50S ribosomal subunit), nisin (lipid II), nitrofurantoin (bacterial DNA); also included were the bactericidal controls, ciprofloxacin, amoxicillin, and cefotaxime.

    Article Snippet: 5e -resistant S. aureus organisms were generated by exposing S. aureus ATCC 13709 to escalating doses of the compound.

    Techniques:

    Sub-inhibitory concentrations of clindamycin and azithromycin do not significantly affect bacterial growth following 24 h incubation. The OD600 absorbance values of S. aureus after 24 h culture. ATCC51650, CI1, CI2 were grown without (no antibiotic, grey) or with ½, ¼, ⅛ MIC clindamycin (blue) or azithromycin (green) ( p > 0.05). n = 3, bars represent standard error of means.

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Medicine

    Article Title: Sub-Inhibitory Clindamycin and Azithromycin reduce S. aureus Exoprotein Induced Toxicity, Inflammation, Barrier Disruption and Invasion

    doi: 10.3390/jcm8101617

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sub-inhibitory concentrations of clindamycin and azithromycin do not significantly affect bacterial growth following 24 h incubation. The OD600 absorbance values of S. aureus after 24 h culture. ATCC51650, CI1, CI2 were grown without (no antibiotic, grey) or with ½, ¼, ⅛ MIC clindamycin (blue) or azithromycin (green) ( p > 0.05). n = 3, bars represent standard error of means.

    Article Snippet: S. aureus ATCC51650 was obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, USA).

    Techniques: Incubation

    ½ MIC clindamycin treatment of S. aureus reduced intracellular infection of HNECs. a : Giemsa staining of HNECs with different antibiotic treated S. aureus ATCC51650 and CI1 showing the presence of intracellular cocci (arrow). b : Colony Forming Units (log CFU/mL) of intracellular S. aureus ATCC 51560 and CI1 in HNECs. ** p

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Medicine

    Article Title: Sub-Inhibitory Clindamycin and Azithromycin reduce S. aureus Exoprotein Induced Toxicity, Inflammation, Barrier Disruption and Invasion

    doi: 10.3390/jcm8101617

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ½ MIC clindamycin treatment of S. aureus reduced intracellular infection of HNECs. a : Giemsa staining of HNECs with different antibiotic treated S. aureus ATCC51650 and CI1 showing the presence of intracellular cocci (arrow). b : Colony Forming Units (log CFU/mL) of intracellular S. aureus ATCC 51560 and CI1 in HNECs. ** p

    Article Snippet: S. aureus ATCC51650 was obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, USA).

    Techniques: Infection, Staining

    Histological consequences of inoculation of S. aureus N305-secreted EVs in murine mammary glands. Left panel: Gross pathology of mammary glands. Representative photographs from dissected mice are shown. Conditions are PBS treatment (PBS) (negative control group), viable S. aureus N305 cells (N305) (positive control group), heat-killed S. aureus N305 cells (N305 HK ) (positive control group), 10 μg of purified staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA) (positive control group), 1 μg of EVs (EV 1 ) (test group) and 10 μg of EVs (EV 10 ) (test group). Arrows emphasize different morphological and histopathological manifestations in the mammary gland post-treatment: 1, healthy lactating mammary gland; 2, severely inflamed mammary gland with bacterial exudates; 3, slightly inflamed mammary gland; 4, moderately inflamed mammary gland. Macroscopic differences resulting from the different treatments of the mammary glands are clearly visible (e.g., prominent redness and inflammation in the S. aureus N305, LTA and EV 10 groups). Middle and right panels: Representative H E stained tissue sections of the mammary gland from each group acquired at two magnifications are shown; middle panel: 20x, scale bar = 50 μm; left panel: 40x, scale bar = 20 μm. Arrow labeled 5 highlights the milk secrete in the alveolar lumen; arrows labeled 6 marks red blood cells; arrows labeled 7 marks immune cells in the lumen of alveoli. At 24 h p.i. the PBS group did not show any immune cell influx in the alveolar space, the S. aureus N305 group alveolar lumen had a profound hemorrhage and a stronger immune cell influx compared to the S. aureus N305 HK and LTA groups. The EV 1 and EV 10 groups had a dose-dependent recruitment of immune cells with an influx for EV 10 similar to that observed in the LTA group.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: Staphylococcus aureus Extracellular Vesicles Elicit an Immunostimulatory Response in vivo on the Murine Mammary Gland

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00277

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Histological consequences of inoculation of S. aureus N305-secreted EVs in murine mammary glands. Left panel: Gross pathology of mammary glands. Representative photographs from dissected mice are shown. Conditions are PBS treatment (PBS) (negative control group), viable S. aureus N305 cells (N305) (positive control group), heat-killed S. aureus N305 cells (N305 HK ) (positive control group), 10 μg of purified staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA) (positive control group), 1 μg of EVs (EV 1 ) (test group) and 10 μg of EVs (EV 10 ) (test group). Arrows emphasize different morphological and histopathological manifestations in the mammary gland post-treatment: 1, healthy lactating mammary gland; 2, severely inflamed mammary gland with bacterial exudates; 3, slightly inflamed mammary gland; 4, moderately inflamed mammary gland. Macroscopic differences resulting from the different treatments of the mammary glands are clearly visible (e.g., prominent redness and inflammation in the S. aureus N305, LTA and EV 10 groups). Middle and right panels: Representative H E stained tissue sections of the mammary gland from each group acquired at two magnifications are shown; middle panel: 20x, scale bar = 50 μm; left panel: 40x, scale bar = 20 μm. Arrow labeled 5 highlights the milk secrete in the alveolar lumen; arrows labeled 6 marks red blood cells; arrows labeled 7 marks immune cells in the lumen of alveoli. At 24 h p.i. the PBS group did not show any immune cell influx in the alveolar space, the S. aureus N305 group alveolar lumen had a profound hemorrhage and a stronger immune cell influx compared to the S. aureus N305 HK and LTA groups. The EV 1 and EV 10 groups had a dose-dependent recruitment of immune cells with an influx for EV 10 similar to that observed in the LTA group.

    Article Snippet: Six groups of mice were inoculated with either PBS (negative control), live S. aureus N305 (first positive control), heat-killed S. aureus N305 ( S. aureus N305HK , second positive control), LTA (third positive control), S. aureus N305-secreted EVs (1 μg, EV1 or 10 μg, EV10 ).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Negative Control, Positive Control, Purification, Staining, Labeling

    S. aureus N305-secreted EVs are not cytotoxic in vitro on MAC-T and PS bovine mammary epithelial cells. Either MAC-T or PS cells were treated with different EVs doses: 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 μg for 24 h. DMEM alone was used as mock control. Cellular metabolic activity was evaluated by MTT. The results are shown as the percentage of the control. Data are presented as mean ± SD. Each experiment was done in triplicate. The differences among the groups were assessed by ANOVA. Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference test was applied for comparison of means. No cytotoxic effect of EVs in MAC-T or PS cells was observed after 24 h of treatment. *** P

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: Staphylococcus aureus Extracellular Vesicles Elicit an Immunostimulatory Response in vivo on the Murine Mammary Gland

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00277

    Figure Lengend Snippet: S. aureus N305-secreted EVs are not cytotoxic in vitro on MAC-T and PS bovine mammary epithelial cells. Either MAC-T or PS cells were treated with different EVs doses: 0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 μg for 24 h. DMEM alone was used as mock control. Cellular metabolic activity was evaluated by MTT. The results are shown as the percentage of the control. Data are presented as mean ± SD. Each experiment was done in triplicate. The differences among the groups were assessed by ANOVA. Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference test was applied for comparison of means. No cytotoxic effect of EVs in MAC-T or PS cells was observed after 24 h of treatment. *** P

    Article Snippet: Six groups of mice were inoculated with either PBS (negative control), live S. aureus N305 (first positive control), heat-killed S. aureus N305 ( S. aureus N305HK , second positive control), LTA (third positive control), S. aureus N305-secreted EVs (1 μg, EV1 or 10 μg, EV10 ).

    Techniques: In Vitro, Activity Assay, MTT Assay

    S. aureus N305-secreted EVs induce an immunostimulatory response in vitro on PS bovine mammary epithelial cells. Expression of IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, and DEFβ1 by bovine mammary epithelial PS cells shown as fold changes at mRNA level measured by RT-qPCR after 3 h post stimulation with either viable S. aureus N305 cells (N305, green), heat-killed S. aureus N305 cells (N305 HK , yellow), 10 μg of purified staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA, blue), 10 μg and 20 μg of N305 EVs (EV 10 , white; EV 20 , red). Values were calculated as the mean ± SD obtained from three independent experiments after normalization to mock control DMEM. Asterisks indicate statistical significance as evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). **** P

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: Staphylococcus aureus Extracellular Vesicles Elicit an Immunostimulatory Response in vivo on the Murine Mammary Gland

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00277

    Figure Lengend Snippet: S. aureus N305-secreted EVs induce an immunostimulatory response in vitro on PS bovine mammary epithelial cells. Expression of IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, and DEFβ1 by bovine mammary epithelial PS cells shown as fold changes at mRNA level measured by RT-qPCR after 3 h post stimulation with either viable S. aureus N305 cells (N305, green), heat-killed S. aureus N305 cells (N305 HK , yellow), 10 μg of purified staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA, blue), 10 μg and 20 μg of N305 EVs (EV 10 , white; EV 20 , red). Values were calculated as the mean ± SD obtained from three independent experiments after normalization to mock control DMEM. Asterisks indicate statistical significance as evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). **** P

    Article Snippet: Six groups of mice were inoculated with either PBS (negative control), live S. aureus N305 (first positive control), heat-killed S. aureus N305 ( S. aureus N305HK , second positive control), LTA (third positive control), S. aureus N305-secreted EVs (1 μg, EV1 or 10 μg, EV10 ).

    Techniques: In Vitro, Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Purification

    Immunological consequences of inoculation of S. aureus N305-secreted EVs in murine mammary glands. Cytokines were quantified from mammary gland lysates using multiplex immunoassay. Conditions are PBS treatment (PBS, gray) (negative control group), live S. aureus N305 (N305, green) (positive control group), heat-killed S. aureus N305 (N305 HK , yellow) (positive control group), purified staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA, blue) (positive control group), 1 μg of S. aureus N305-secreted EVs (EV 1 , white) and 10 μg of EVs (EV 10 , red). EVs induced significantly the secretion of MIP-2, MCP-1, KC, RANTES, and BAFF. The induction of MIP-2, KC and MCP-1 secretion was dose-dependent. The secretion of the cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17A was only induced by S. aureus N305. The secretion of TNF-α was only induced by LTA. Asterisks indicate statistical significance compared to the negative control (PBS) as evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). **** P

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: Staphylococcus aureus Extracellular Vesicles Elicit an Immunostimulatory Response in vivo on the Murine Mammary Gland

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00277

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunological consequences of inoculation of S. aureus N305-secreted EVs in murine mammary glands. Cytokines were quantified from mammary gland lysates using multiplex immunoassay. Conditions are PBS treatment (PBS, gray) (negative control group), live S. aureus N305 (N305, green) (positive control group), heat-killed S. aureus N305 (N305 HK , yellow) (positive control group), purified staphylococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA, blue) (positive control group), 1 μg of S. aureus N305-secreted EVs (EV 1 , white) and 10 μg of EVs (EV 10 , red). EVs induced significantly the secretion of MIP-2, MCP-1, KC, RANTES, and BAFF. The induction of MIP-2, KC and MCP-1 secretion was dose-dependent. The secretion of the cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-17A was only induced by S. aureus N305. The secretion of TNF-α was only induced by LTA. Asterisks indicate statistical significance compared to the negative control (PBS) as evaluated by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). **** P

    Article Snippet: Six groups of mice were inoculated with either PBS (negative control), live S. aureus N305 (first positive control), heat-killed S. aureus N305 ( S. aureus N305HK , second positive control), LTA (third positive control), S. aureus N305-secreted EVs (1 μg, EV1 or 10 μg, EV10 ).

    Techniques: Multiplex Assay, Negative Control, Positive Control, Purification

    Bovine S. aureus Newbould 305 (N305) releases EVs in vitro . TEM of S. aureus Newbould 305 (N305) purified EVs after negative staining (A) and selected EVs. (B) Slice through a cryo-electron tomogram obtained from S. aureus N305 EVs. (C) Representative graph of size distribution of S. aureus N305-secreted EVs measured with tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA).

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: Staphylococcus aureus Extracellular Vesicles Elicit an Immunostimulatory Response in vivo on the Murine Mammary Gland

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2018.00277

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bovine S. aureus Newbould 305 (N305) releases EVs in vitro . TEM of S. aureus Newbould 305 (N305) purified EVs after negative staining (A) and selected EVs. (B) Slice through a cryo-electron tomogram obtained from S. aureus N305 EVs. (C) Representative graph of size distribution of S. aureus N305-secreted EVs measured with tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA).

    Article Snippet: Six groups of mice were inoculated with either PBS (negative control), live S. aureus N305 (first positive control), heat-killed S. aureus N305 ( S. aureus N305HK , second positive control), LTA (third positive control), S. aureus N305-secreted EVs (1 μg, EV1 or 10 μg, EV10 ).

    Techniques: In Vitro, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Purification, Negative Staining, Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing

    Effects of PGG on bacterial growth and biofilm formation. (A) S. aureus SA113 was cultured in TSBg broth that contains PGG in 96-well microtiter plates at 37°C for 6 h (▪) and 24 h (□). The cell density was determined at A 578 .

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Inhibitory Effects of 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-Galloyl-?-d-Glucopyranose on Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus aureus ▿ ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00843-10

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of PGG on bacterial growth and biofilm formation. (A) S. aureus SA113 was cultured in TSBg broth that contains PGG in 96-well microtiter plates at 37°C for 6 h (▪) and 24 h (□). The cell density was determined at A 578 .

    Article Snippet: A total of 48 compounds isolated from plants commonly used in Chinese medicine were screened for their activity to prevent biofilm formation by S. aureus SA113 at 6 h after seeding the bacteria in a 96-well polystyrene microtiter plate.

    Techniques: Cell Culture

    Kinetics of the antiadherence activity of PGG. (A) S. aureus SA113 was seeded in a 96-well microtiter plate. PGG at 6.25 μM (▪) and 12.5 μM (□) was added to the culturing medium at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2 h after inoculation.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Inhibitory Effects of 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-Galloyl-?-d-Glucopyranose on Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus aureus ▿ ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00843-10

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Kinetics of the antiadherence activity of PGG. (A) S. aureus SA113 was seeded in a 96-well microtiter plate. PGG at 6.25 μM (▪) and 12.5 μM (□) was added to the culturing medium at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2 h after inoculation.

    Article Snippet: A total of 48 compounds isolated from plants commonly used in Chinese medicine were screened for their activity to prevent biofilm formation by S. aureus SA113 at 6 h after seeding the bacteria in a 96-well polystyrene microtiter plate.

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Inhibition of PIA expression by PGG. SEM images of S. aureus SA113 cultured on polycarbonate discs in the absence (A) or presence (B) of 3.13 μM PGG for 6 h. The images shown were taken at a magnification of ×30,000. Bar, 1.0 μm.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Inhibitory Effects of 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-Galloyl-?-d-Glucopyranose on Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus aureus ▿ ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00843-10

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Inhibition of PIA expression by PGG. SEM images of S. aureus SA113 cultured on polycarbonate discs in the absence (A) or presence (B) of 3.13 μM PGG for 6 h. The images shown were taken at a magnification of ×30,000. Bar, 1.0 μm.

    Article Snippet: A total of 48 compounds isolated from plants commonly used in Chinese medicine were screened for their activity to prevent biofilm formation by S. aureus SA113 at 6 h after seeding the bacteria in a 96-well polystyrene microtiter plate.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Expressing, Cell Culture

    Expression of ica genes in different staphylococci. Hybridization results for an icaA probe specific for S. epidermidis are shown. Lanes 1 and 8, S. capitis St13; lane 2, S. saprophyticus St28; lane 3, S. aureus RN4220; 4, S. epidermidis RP62A; lanes 5 and 9, S. epidermidis N15.1; lane 6, S. epidermidis N5.5; lane 7, S. capitis NCTC11045. Cells were grown in BHI broth with additional sodium chloride and glucose (+NaCl +G) or without additional sodium chloride and glucose (−NaCl −G) as indicated. +B, biofilm formation capabilities; −B, no biofilm formation capabilities. Unspecific hybridization signals were from 16S and 23S rRNA.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Biofilm Formation and the Presence of the Intercellular Adhesion Locus ica among Staphylococci from Food and Food Processing Environments

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.69.9.5648-5655.2003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of ica genes in different staphylococci. Hybridization results for an icaA probe specific for S. epidermidis are shown. Lanes 1 and 8, S. capitis St13; lane 2, S. saprophyticus St28; lane 3, S. aureus RN4220; 4, S. epidermidis RP62A; lanes 5 and 9, S. epidermidis N15.1; lane 6, S. epidermidis N5.5; lane 7, S. capitis NCTC11045. Cells were grown in BHI broth with additional sodium chloride and glucose (+NaCl +G) or without additional sodium chloride and glucose (−NaCl −G) as indicated. +B, biofilm formation capabilities; −B, no biofilm formation capabilities. Unspecific hybridization signals were from 16S and 23S rRNA.

    Article Snippet: Expression of the ica genes by the strong biofilm formers S. capitis St13, S. saprophyticus St28, S. aureus RN4220, and S. epidermidis RP62A and the non-biofilm formers S. epidermidis N15.1, S. epidermidis N5.5, and S. capitis NCTC11045 (cultivated in BHI broth with a final concentration of 2.5% glucose and 2.5% sodium chloride) was investigated (Fig. ).

    Techniques: Expressing, Hybridization

    In vitro dispersal of 48 h S. pneumoniae EF3030 (A) and S. aureus UAMS-1 (B) single-species and dual-species biofilms following 4 h of heat treatment (38.5°C). Dispersal values are presented as the ratio of supernatant to biofilm from a minimum of four independent experiments (means ± standard errors of the means). Statistical analysis of the effect heat dispersal compared to controls was performed with the unpaired Student t test. *, P

    Journal: mBio

    Article Title: Streptococcus pneumoniae Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Dispersion and the Transition from Colonization to Invasive Disease

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.02089-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vitro dispersal of 48 h S. pneumoniae EF3030 (A) and S. aureus UAMS-1 (B) single-species and dual-species biofilms following 4 h of heat treatment (38.5°C). Dispersal values are presented as the ratio of supernatant to biofilm from a minimum of four independent experiments (means ± standard errors of the means). Statistical analysis of the effect heat dispersal compared to controls was performed with the unpaired Student t test. *, P

    Article Snippet: We grew dual-species biofilms of S. aureus UAMS-1 and S. mitis strain NS51, an ATCC type strain shown in previous studies to form biofilms ( ). shows that S. aureus UAMS-1 dispersal was unaffected by the presence of S. mitis , suggesting that the previously noted inhibition may be pneumococcus specific.

    Techniques: In Vitro

    Dissemination following IAV coinfection. Forty-eight hours post-bacterial colonization, IAV cohorts received intranasal virus inoculations while control cohorts (CTRL) received only saline, and the infection was allowed to progress an additional 48 h prior to harvest. Each point represents the CFU recovered from nasal tissues (NT) and lung tissues (LT) harvested from individual mice ( n = 16) 96 h after cocolonization with S. pneumoniae EF3030 (blue circles) and S. aureus UAMS-1 (black squares). The dashed line indicates the limit of CFU detection. Solid bars indicate the standard deviations. Statistical analysis was performed with the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. *, P

    Journal: mBio

    Article Title: Streptococcus pneumoniae Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Dispersion and the Transition from Colonization to Invasive Disease

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.02089-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dissemination following IAV coinfection. Forty-eight hours post-bacterial colonization, IAV cohorts received intranasal virus inoculations while control cohorts (CTRL) received only saline, and the infection was allowed to progress an additional 48 h prior to harvest. Each point represents the CFU recovered from nasal tissues (NT) and lung tissues (LT) harvested from individual mice ( n = 16) 96 h after cocolonization with S. pneumoniae EF3030 (blue circles) and S. aureus UAMS-1 (black squares). The dashed line indicates the limit of CFU detection. Solid bars indicate the standard deviations. Statistical analysis was performed with the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. *, P

    Article Snippet: We grew dual-species biofilms of S. aureus UAMS-1 and S. mitis strain NS51, an ATCC type strain shown in previous studies to form biofilms ( ). shows that S. aureus UAMS-1 dispersal was unaffected by the presence of S. mitis , suggesting that the previously noted inhibition may be pneumococcus specific.

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay, MANN-WHITNEY

    In vitro dispersal of S. aureus UAMS-1 from 48-h single-species biofilms compared to dual-species biofilms with S. mitis NS5S following 4 h of heat treatment (38.5°C). Dispersal values are presented as the ratio of supernatant to biofilm from a minimum of four independent experiments (mean result ± standard deviation). Statistical analysis on heat dispersal versus that in controls was performed with the unpaired Student t test. *, P

    Journal: mBio

    Article Title: Streptococcus pneumoniae Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Dispersion and the Transition from Colonization to Invasive Disease

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.02089-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vitro dispersal of S. aureus UAMS-1 from 48-h single-species biofilms compared to dual-species biofilms with S. mitis NS5S following 4 h of heat treatment (38.5°C). Dispersal values are presented as the ratio of supernatant to biofilm from a minimum of four independent experiments (mean result ± standard deviation). Statistical analysis on heat dispersal versus that in controls was performed with the unpaired Student t test. *, P

    Article Snippet: We grew dual-species biofilms of S. aureus UAMS-1 and S. mitis strain NS51, an ATCC type strain shown in previous studies to form biofilms ( ). shows that S. aureus UAMS-1 dispersal was unaffected by the presence of S. mitis , suggesting that the previously noted inhibition may be pneumococcus specific.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Standard Deviation

    Dual-species colonization of the murine nasal mucosa. Samples were harvested 48 h after colonization; each point presents the CFU recovered from individual mice ( n = 12). Blue circles represent S. pneumoniae EF3030, and the black squares represent S. aureus UAMS-1. The dashed line indicates the limit of detection. Bars indicate standard deviations.

    Journal: mBio

    Article Title: Streptococcus pneumoniae Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Dispersion and the Transition from Colonization to Invasive Disease

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.02089-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dual-species colonization of the murine nasal mucosa. Samples were harvested 48 h after colonization; each point presents the CFU recovered from individual mice ( n = 12). Blue circles represent S. pneumoniae EF3030, and the black squares represent S. aureus UAMS-1. The dashed line indicates the limit of detection. Bars indicate standard deviations.

    Article Snippet: We grew dual-species biofilms of S. aureus UAMS-1 and S. mitis strain NS51, an ATCC type strain shown in previous studies to form biofilms ( ). shows that S. aureus UAMS-1 dispersal was unaffected by the presence of S. mitis , suggesting that the previously noted inhibition may be pneumococcus specific.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    S. pneumoniae EF3030 and S. aureus UAMS-1 form dual-species biofilms in vitro . Biofilm-associated EF3030 and UAMS-1 were enumerated from cocultured biofilms after 48 h ( n = 8). Both species of bacteria were recovered from each well. The dashed line indicates the limit of detection. Solid bars are means ± standard deviations.

    Journal: mBio

    Article Title: Streptococcus pneumoniae Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Dispersion and the Transition from Colonization to Invasive Disease

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.02089-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: S. pneumoniae EF3030 and S. aureus UAMS-1 form dual-species biofilms in vitro . Biofilm-associated EF3030 and UAMS-1 were enumerated from cocultured biofilms after 48 h ( n = 8). Both species of bacteria were recovered from each well. The dashed line indicates the limit of detection. Solid bars are means ± standard deviations.

    Article Snippet: We grew dual-species biofilms of S. aureus UAMS-1 and S. mitis strain NS51, an ATCC type strain shown in previous studies to form biofilms ( ). shows that S. aureus UAMS-1 dispersal was unaffected by the presence of S. mitis , suggesting that the previously noted inhibition may be pneumococcus specific.

    Techniques: In Vitro

    Resistance of AMPs against proteases secreted from S. aureus V8 or P. aeruginosa . (A and B) Proteolytic activity of the bacterial CS proteins. Each bacterial CS protein was measured with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated casein substrate. A

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Antimicrobial Activity of a Halocidin-Derived Peptide Resistant to Attacks by Proteases ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.01790-09

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Resistance of AMPs against proteases secreted from S. aureus V8 or P. aeruginosa . (A and B) Proteolytic activity of the bacterial CS proteins. Each bacterial CS protein was measured with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated casein substrate. A

    Article Snippet: In an effort to obtain bacterial culture supernatants (CS), we utilized S. aureus V8 (ATCC 49775) and multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa (MDRPA) strain CCARM 2161, provided by the Culture Collection of Antibiotic Resistant Microbes (CCARM) at Seoul Women's University in Korea.

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Typical colony sizes for SCV and prototypic strains (left and right sides of the plates, respectively) for ( a ) S. aureus CF07-S and CF07-L, ( b ) S. aureus NewbouldΔ hemB and Newbould, ( c ) B. cereus ATCC 11778 (SCV#1 and prototypic), ( d ) B. subtilis ATCC 6333 (SCV#2 and prototypic), and ( e ) L. monocytogenes ATCC 13932 (SCV#1 and prototypic). In ( f ), a TSA plate was inoculated with L. monocytogenes ATCC 13932 SCV#2 and wells were filled with (i) 10 μg hemin, (ii) 10 μg menadione, (iii) 100 μg thymidine, and diluents (iv) DMSO, and (v) NH 4 OH 1.4 N. A zone of enhanced growth is observed around (i). The enhanced growth appears white and surrounds a small zone of growth inhibition

    Journal: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology

    Article Title: Tomatidine and analog FC04–100 possess bactericidal activities against Listeria, Bacillus and Staphylococcus spp

    doi: 10.1186/s40360-018-0197-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Typical colony sizes for SCV and prototypic strains (left and right sides of the plates, respectively) for ( a ) S. aureus CF07-S and CF07-L, ( b ) S. aureus NewbouldΔ hemB and Newbould, ( c ) B. cereus ATCC 11778 (SCV#1 and prototypic), ( d ) B. subtilis ATCC 6333 (SCV#2 and prototypic), and ( e ) L. monocytogenes ATCC 13932 (SCV#1 and prototypic). In ( f ), a TSA plate was inoculated with L. monocytogenes ATCC 13932 SCV#2 and wells were filled with (i) 10 μg hemin, (ii) 10 μg menadione, (iii) 100 μg thymidine, and diluents (iv) DMSO, and (v) NH 4 OH 1.4 N. A zone of enhanced growth is observed around (i). The enhanced growth appears white and surrounds a small zone of growth inhibition

    Article Snippet: Bacterial strains and growth conditions Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, S. aureus Newbould (ATCC 29740), S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 13932, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6333 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 were used as prototypic strains.

    Techniques: Inhibition

    Effect of treatment on  in vivo  susceptibility of  S. aureus . ( a ) Log CFU/nematode (average ± s.d.) in  C. elegans  nematodes infected with  S. aureus  Mu50 or Newbould 305, receiving no treatment or a treatment with HAM, VAN or a combination of VAN and HAM (COMB). ( b ) Log CFU/g mammary gland (average ± s.d.) of mice infected with  S. aureus  Newbould305 receiving no treatment or a treatment with HAM, CFL or a combination of CFL and HAM (COMB). ( c ) Histological evaluation of mammary glands of mice infected with  S. aureus  Newbould305 receiving no treatment or a treatment with HAM, CFL or a combination of CFL and HAM (COMB). Arrows indicate influx of neutrophils. *significant differences in log CFU/nematode ( a ) or log CFU/g mammary gland ( b ) between the indicated samples (p 

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: The Quorum Sensing Inhibitor Hamamelitannin Increases Antibiotic Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms by Affecting Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis and eDNA Release

    doi: 10.1038/srep20321

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of treatment on in vivo susceptibility of S. aureus . ( a ) Log CFU/nematode (average ± s.d.) in C. elegans nematodes infected with S. aureus Mu50 or Newbould 305, receiving no treatment or a treatment with HAM, VAN or a combination of VAN and HAM (COMB). ( b ) Log CFU/g mammary gland (average ± s.d.) of mice infected with S. aureus Newbould305 receiving no treatment or a treatment with HAM, CFL or a combination of CFL and HAM (COMB). ( c ) Histological evaluation of mammary glands of mice infected with S. aureus Newbould305 receiving no treatment or a treatment with HAM, CFL or a combination of CFL and HAM (COMB). Arrows indicate influx of neutrophils. *significant differences in log CFU/nematode ( a ) or log CFU/g mammary gland ( b ) between the indicated samples (p 

    Article Snippet: Bacterial strains and growth conditions The following strains were used as previously described: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Mu50 (MRSA Mu50), Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Burkholderia cenocepacia LMG16656 , Staphylococcus capitis ET005, Staphylococcus caprae NW003, Staphylococcus cohnii ET027, Staphylococcus chromogenes NW110, Staphylococcus epidermidis ET013 and ET041, Staphylococcus haemolyticus ET070, Staphylococcus hyicus ET053, Staphylococcus hominis ET056, Staphylococcus lentus ET004, Staphylococcus lugdunensis NW045, Staphylococcus saprophyticus ET094, Staphylococcus pasteuri ET054, Staphylococcus schleiferi NW139, Staphylococcus warneri ET019 and Staphylococcus xylosus ET018 , and S. aureus Newbould 305 (ATCC 29740) .

    Techniques: In Vivo, Infection, Mouse Assay

    The PAP/AUC curve with teicoplanin alone and in combination with susceptible breakpoint concentration of four cephalosporins against eight h-VISA ( A ) and seven VISA ( B ) clinical isolates with Mu3.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Combination of cephalosporins with vancomycin or teicoplanin enhances antibacterial effect of glycopeptides against heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) and VISA

    doi: 10.1038/srep41758

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The PAP/AUC curve with teicoplanin alone and in combination with susceptible breakpoint concentration of four cephalosporins against eight h-VISA ( A ) and seven VISA ( B ) clinical isolates with Mu3.

    Article Snippet: The v-PAP graph was used to calculate the AUC of each isolate, and the ratio of the AUC of the test isolate to the AUC of S. aureus Mu3 (ATCC 700698) was calculated.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    The PAP/AUC curve with vancomycin alone and in combination with susceptible breakpoint concentration of four cephalosporins against eight h-VISA ( A ) and seven VISA ( B ) clinical isolates with Mu3.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Combination of cephalosporins with vancomycin or teicoplanin enhances antibacterial effect of glycopeptides against heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) and VISA

    doi: 10.1038/srep41758

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The PAP/AUC curve with vancomycin alone and in combination with susceptible breakpoint concentration of four cephalosporins against eight h-VISA ( A ) and seven VISA ( B ) clinical isolates with Mu3.

    Article Snippet: The v-PAP graph was used to calculate the AUC of each isolate, and the ratio of the AUC of the test isolate to the AUC of S. aureus Mu3 (ATCC 700698) was calculated.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Effect of NP108 on the survival of S. aureus DSMZ11729 (MRSA), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (MSSA), S. aureus NCTC10442 (MRSA), and S. aureus NCTC10442 Mup r (low-level mupirocin-resistant MRSA) over 6 h of incubation. NP108 was added at 4× MIC to exponential-phase or stationary-phase cultures of the S. aureus isolates diluted to the 0.5 McFarland standard (∼10 8 CFU/ml) at 37°C in CA-MH broth (exponential phase) or conditioned CA-MH broth (stationary phase). Samples were taken every 60 min and viable counts established by plating on CA-MH agar and incubating for 24 h at 37°C. Untreated cultures were used as growth controls. Values in the table represent the time taken to kill the isolates of three replicates from 3 independent experiments. The graphs show representative data from a single experiment with each isolate. Data points represent the mean numbers of CFU/ml within the experiment. Horizontal dotted lines represent 3-log reduction in CFU/ml (complete kill). Conditioned CA-MH broth was medium derived from cultures of the relevant S. aureus isolate grown to stationary phase (48 to 54 h), and cells were removed by centrifugation (5 min at 17,000 × g ) and filter sterilized (0.22-μm PES filter).

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: NP108, an Antimicrobial Polymer with Activity against Methicillin- and Mupirocin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00502-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of NP108 on the survival of S. aureus DSMZ11729 (MRSA), S. aureus ATCC 25923 (MSSA), S. aureus NCTC10442 (MRSA), and S. aureus NCTC10442 Mup r (low-level mupirocin-resistant MRSA) over 6 h of incubation. NP108 was added at 4× MIC to exponential-phase or stationary-phase cultures of the S. aureus isolates diluted to the 0.5 McFarland standard (∼10 8 CFU/ml) at 37°C in CA-MH broth (exponential phase) or conditioned CA-MH broth (stationary phase). Samples were taken every 60 min and viable counts established by plating on CA-MH agar and incubating for 24 h at 37°C. Untreated cultures were used as growth controls. Values in the table represent the time taken to kill the isolates of three replicates from 3 independent experiments. The graphs show representative data from a single experiment with each isolate. Data points represent the mean numbers of CFU/ml within the experiment. Horizontal dotted lines represent 3-log reduction in CFU/ml (complete kill). Conditioned CA-MH broth was medium derived from cultures of the relevant S. aureus isolate grown to stationary phase (48 to 54 h), and cells were removed by centrifugation (5 min at 17,000 × g ) and filter sterilized (0.22-μm PES filter).

    Article Snippet: S. aureus DSMZ11729 (ATCC 33592) was obtained from the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH (Germany).

    Techniques: Incubation, Derivative Assay, Centrifugation

    Effect of NP108 on prevention of biofilm formation by S. aureus DSMZ11729 (A) and S. aureus ATCC 25923 (B) under low-nutrient conditions simulating the anterior nares. Exponentially growing S. aureus isolates were diluted to the 0.5 McFarland standard in 0.1× TSB supplemented with 0.05% (wt/vol) glucose, 0.3% (wt/vol) NaCl, and 0 to 16 mg/liter NP108. Biofilms were allowed to establish statically for 96 h at 37°C before biomass formation was assessed by the crystal violet method. Data sets represent the means from triplicate experiments and error bars represent the standard errors of the means. Dotted lines represent the limit of detection. Effect of NP108 on established biofilms of S. aureus DSMZ11729 (C) and S. aureus ATCC 25923 (D) under low-nutrient conditions simulating the anterior nares. S. aureus biofilms were prepared in 0.1× TSB supplemented with 0.05% (wt/vol) glucose and 0.3% (wt/vol) NaCl and allowed to establish statically for 96 h at 37°C. Subsequently, biofilms were treated with different concentrations of NP108 in 0.1× TSB supplemented with 0.05% (wt/vol) glucose and 0.3% (wt/vol) NaCl for a further 24 h at 37°C before biofilm biomass eradication was assessed by the crystal violet method. Data points represent the mean optical densities (at 595 nm) from single experiments and error bars represent the standard errors of the means.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: NP108, an Antimicrobial Polymer with Activity against Methicillin- and Mupirocin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00502-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of NP108 on prevention of biofilm formation by S. aureus DSMZ11729 (A) and S. aureus ATCC 25923 (B) under low-nutrient conditions simulating the anterior nares. Exponentially growing S. aureus isolates were diluted to the 0.5 McFarland standard in 0.1× TSB supplemented with 0.05% (wt/vol) glucose, 0.3% (wt/vol) NaCl, and 0 to 16 mg/liter NP108. Biofilms were allowed to establish statically for 96 h at 37°C before biomass formation was assessed by the crystal violet method. Data sets represent the means from triplicate experiments and error bars represent the standard errors of the means. Dotted lines represent the limit of detection. Effect of NP108 on established biofilms of S. aureus DSMZ11729 (C) and S. aureus ATCC 25923 (D) under low-nutrient conditions simulating the anterior nares. S. aureus biofilms were prepared in 0.1× TSB supplemented with 0.05% (wt/vol) glucose and 0.3% (wt/vol) NaCl and allowed to establish statically for 96 h at 37°C. Subsequently, biofilms were treated with different concentrations of NP108 in 0.1× TSB supplemented with 0.05% (wt/vol) glucose and 0.3% (wt/vol) NaCl for a further 24 h at 37°C before biofilm biomass eradication was assessed by the crystal violet method. Data points represent the mean optical densities (at 595 nm) from single experiments and error bars represent the standard errors of the means.

    Article Snippet: S. aureus DSMZ11729 (ATCC 33592) was obtained from the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH (Germany).

    Techniques:

    Screening the binding activity of recombinant antibodies generated from the plasmablasts of S. aureus -infected individuals. (A) Dot-blot analysis of antibody binding to lysates prepared from S. aureus Wood46 at early-log and stationary growth phases.

    Journal: Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.)

    Article Title: Identification of Functional Anti-Staphylococcus aureus Antibodies by Sequencing Patient Plasmablast Antibody Repertoires

    doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2014.02.010

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Screening the binding activity of recombinant antibodies generated from the plasmablasts of S. aureus -infected individuals. (A) Dot-blot analysis of antibody binding to lysates prepared from S. aureus Wood46 at early-log and stationary growth phases.

    Article Snippet: S. aureus Wood46 were grown in LB overnight at 37°C, resuspended in HBSS with 10% human AB serum at 106 bacteria/ml, and 10 µg/ml recombinant test antibody was added to the bacteria.

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Activity Assay, Recombinant, Generated, Infection, Dot Blot

    Agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR amplification of fibrinolysin gene ( sak ) product. M molecular size marker (pUC19 DNA/MspI enzyme, Fermentas, Lithuania), lane 1 negative control (PCR mixture), lanes 2 – 3 positive control ( S. aureus Wood 46 and S. aureus ATCC 25923), lanes 4 – 8 P-like pA+ S. aureus strains

    Journal: Current Microbiology

    Article Title: Poultry-Like pA+ Biotype of Staphylococcus aureus CC346/084 Clone in Human Population

    doi: 10.1007/s00284-016-1033-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR amplification of fibrinolysin gene ( sak ) product. M molecular size marker (pUC19 DNA/MspI enzyme, Fermentas, Lithuania), lane 1 negative control (PCR mixture), lanes 2 – 3 positive control ( S. aureus Wood 46 and S. aureus ATCC 25923), lanes 4 – 8 P-like pA+ S. aureus strains

    Article Snippet: S. aureus Wood 46 and S. aureus ATCC 25923 were used as a positive control for sak gene.

    Techniques: Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Marker, Negative Control, Positive Control

    Forty-eight-hour densities of S. aureus and S. pneumoniae from nasal washes (a) and epithelia (b) of colonized rats. Five-day-old neonatal rats were colonized with 5 × 10 6 CFU of an S. pneumoniae strain which produces H 2 O 2 (TIGR4) or one that does not (SpxB) in the left nostril and with 1 × 10 6 CFU of either the S. aureus PS80, Newman, or catalase-deficient Newman (KatA) strain.

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: Hydrogen Peroxide-Mediated Interference Competition by Streptococcus pneumoniae Has No Significant Effect on Staphylococcus aureus Nasal Colonization of Neonatal Rats ▿

    doi: 10.1128/JB.00950-08

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Forty-eight-hour densities of S. aureus and S. pneumoniae from nasal washes (a) and epithelia (b) of colonized rats. Five-day-old neonatal rats were colonized with 5 × 10 6 CFU of an S. pneumoniae strain which produces H 2 O 2 (TIGR4) or one that does not (SpxB) in the left nostril and with 1 × 10 6 CFU of either the S. aureus PS80, Newman, or catalase-deficient Newman (KatA) strain.

    Article Snippet: S. aureus PS80 (serotype 8, ATTC 27700) and Newman (NCTC 8178) were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection.

    Techniques:

    Growth inhibition of S. aureus and E. coli J5 in a broth microdilution assay. (A) S. aureus L form. (B) S. aureus bacterial form. (C) E. coli J5.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Bactericidal/Permeability-Increasing Protein Inhibits Growth of a Strain of Acholeplasma laidlawii and L Forms of the Gram-Positive Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth inhibition of S. aureus and E. coli J5 in a broth microdilution assay. (A) S. aureus L form. (B) S. aureus bacterial form. (C) E. coli J5.

    Article Snippet: S. aureus L form (ATCC 19640), derived from S. aureus ATCC 19636, was grown in HI broth containing 3.5% NaCl, 10 mM CaCl2 , and 1,000 units of penicillin G per ml (to ensure maintenance of the L-form state).

    Techniques: Inhibition, Microdilution Assay

    Growth inhibition of a mycoplasma and the L forms of gram-positive bacteria by BPI in a radial diffusion assay. The measured diameter includes the 3-mm hole to which the samples were added. (A) S. aureus L form. (B) S. pyogenes L form. (C) A. laidlawii . (D) E. coli J5.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Bactericidal/Permeability-Increasing Protein Inhibits Growth of a Strain of Acholeplasma laidlawii and L Forms of the Gram-Positive Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth inhibition of a mycoplasma and the L forms of gram-positive bacteria by BPI in a radial diffusion assay. The measured diameter includes the 3-mm hole to which the samples were added. (A) S. aureus L form. (B) S. pyogenes L form. (C) A. laidlawii . (D) E. coli J5.

    Article Snippet: S. aureus L form (ATCC 19640), derived from S. aureus ATCC 19636, was grown in HI broth containing 3.5% NaCl, 10 mM CaCl2 , and 1,000 units of penicillin G per ml (to ensure maintenance of the L-form state).

    Techniques: Inhibition, Diffusion-based Assay

    Accumulation and efflux activity of Staphylococcus aureus KACC 10778, S. aureus ATCC 15564, and S. aureus CCARM 3080 on EtBr agar plates containing with and without efflux pump inhibitors (CCCP and PAβN)

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of multiple antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus exposed to subinhibitory levels of oxacillin and levofloxacin

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-016-0791-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Accumulation and efflux activity of Staphylococcus aureus KACC 10778, S. aureus ATCC 15564, and S. aureus CCARM 3080 on EtBr agar plates containing with and without efflux pump inhibitors (CCCP and PAβN)

    Article Snippet: The decreased MICs were observed in S. aureus KACC and S. aureus ATCC when exposed to levofloxacin and oxacillin, while and S. aureus CCARM remained resistance to streptomycin (512 μg/mL) in the presence of levofloxacin and imipenem ( > 512 μg/mL) in the presence of oxacillin.

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus KACC 10778, S. aureus ATCC 15564, and S. aureus CCARM 3080 in the absent (○) and present of efflux pump inhibitors, CCCP (Δ) and PAβN (□)

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of multiple antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus exposed to subinhibitory levels of oxacillin and levofloxacin

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-016-0791-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus KACC 10778, S. aureus ATCC 15564, and S. aureus CCARM 3080 in the absent (○) and present of efflux pump inhibitors, CCCP (Δ) and PAβN (□)

    Article Snippet: The decreased MICs were observed in S. aureus KACC and S. aureus ATCC when exposed to levofloxacin and oxacillin, while and S. aureus CCARM remained resistance to streptomycin (512 μg/mL) in the presence of levofloxacin and imipenem ( > 512 μg/mL) in the presence of oxacillin.

    Techniques:

    Hydrolyzing activity of extracellular β-lactamase a and membrane-bound β-lactamase b produced by Staphylococcus aureus KACC 10778, S. aureus ATCC 15564, and S. aureus CCARM 3080 exposed to a half MIC of oxacillin or levofloxacin. Means with different letters ( a – c ) on the bars are significantly different at p

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of multiple antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus exposed to subinhibitory levels of oxacillin and levofloxacin

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-016-0791-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Hydrolyzing activity of extracellular β-lactamase a and membrane-bound β-lactamase b produced by Staphylococcus aureus KACC 10778, S. aureus ATCC 15564, and S. aureus CCARM 3080 exposed to a half MIC of oxacillin or levofloxacin. Means with different letters ( a – c ) on the bars are significantly different at p

    Article Snippet: The decreased MICs were observed in S. aureus KACC and S. aureus ATCC when exposed to levofloxacin and oxacillin, while and S. aureus CCARM remained resistance to streptomycin (512 μg/mL) in the presence of levofloxacin and imipenem ( > 512 μg/mL) in the presence of oxacillin.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Produced

    Relative gene expression in antibiotic-resistant strains ( S. aureus ATCC 15564 and S. aureus CCARM 3080) grown in the absence of oxacillin and levofloxacin a and S. aureus KACC 10778 b , S. aureus ATCC 15564 c , and S. aureus CCARM 3080 d grown in a half MIC of oxacillin or levofloxacin

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of multiple antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus exposed to subinhibitory levels of oxacillin and levofloxacin

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-016-0791-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Relative gene expression in antibiotic-resistant strains ( S. aureus ATCC 15564 and S. aureus CCARM 3080) grown in the absence of oxacillin and levofloxacin a and S. aureus KACC 10778 b , S. aureus ATCC 15564 c , and S. aureus CCARM 3080 d grown in a half MIC of oxacillin or levofloxacin

    Article Snippet: The decreased MICs were observed in S. aureus KACC and S. aureus ATCC when exposed to levofloxacin and oxacillin, while and S. aureus CCARM remained resistance to streptomycin (512 μg/mL) in the presence of levofloxacin and imipenem ( > 512 μg/mL) in the presence of oxacillin.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Distribution of vancomycin MICs (VAN-MIC) by Etest (A) and broth microdilution (B), according to methicillin susceptibility. MRSA, methicillin-resistant  Staphylococcus aureus ; MSSA, methicillin-susceptible  S. aureus .

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Impact of Vancomycin MIC on Treatment Outcomes in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infections

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.01845-16

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Distribution of vancomycin MICs (VAN-MIC) by Etest (A) and broth microdilution (B), according to methicillin susceptibility. MRSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ; MSSA, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus .

    Article Snippet: An American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (29213), a vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strain (Mu50), and a negative control (without bacteria) were run in parallel as controls in both tests.

    Techniques:

    ( A ) Antimicrobial activities of four bovine  NK-lysin  peptides against Gram-negative  E .  coli  and Gram-positive  S .  aureus . Cell viability was analyzed by comparing the surviving cells after peptide treatment with the control cells. Error bars represented

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Bovine NK-lysin: Copy number variation and functional diversification

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1519374113

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( A ) Antimicrobial activities of four bovine NK-lysin peptides against Gram-negative E . coli and Gram-positive S . aureus . Cell viability was analyzed by comparing the surviving cells after peptide treatment with the control cells. Error bars represented

    Article Snippet: Overnight cultures of Gram-positive S. aureus (ATCC 25923) and Gram-negative E. coli (ATCC 25922) grown in lysogeny broth (LB) at 37 °C with aeration were subcultured to fresh LB at a ratio of 1:50 and were grown at 37 °C with aeration for another 2.5 h to midexponential phase, washed, and resuspended in potassium phosphate buffer (10 mM, pH 7.4) to a concentration of 3*106 cfu/mL.

    Techniques: