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  • 95
    Thermo Fisher gene exp spx rn01749065 m1
    Gene Exp Spx Rn01749065 M1, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 16 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Millipore spx
    The effect of <t>SPX</t> on APs recorded in the presence of <t>E4031.</t> Action potentials were recorded by pacing myocytes at 2 Hz. In the presence of 10 μM E4031, SPX (10–300 μM) was applied. Data were obtained at 37°C by using the perforated patch technique. A, Examples of action potentials recorded before (gray) and after (red) SPX exposure at a concentration of 30 μM. The control action potential (black) before E-4031 treatment was also overlaid for comparison. B, APD 90 was plotted as a function of SPX concentration. Asterisks indicate statistical significance (paired t -test; *P
    Spx, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Tocris spexin
    Effects of <t>TTX</t> on <t>spexin-induced</t> intestinal and colonic motility. The jejunum ( A ) and colon ( B ) tissues were allowed to equilibrate for 1 hour and TTX was then added into the nutrition buffer. 30 minutes later, the tissues were treated with spexin (1 μM) and the mechanical activities were recorded using the POWERLAB system and CHART5 software. The Emax% of 1 μM spexin in the colon and jejunum were calculated accordingly. Statistical differences between individual groups were evaluated using Student’s t test.
    Spexin, supplied by Tocris, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Phoenix Pharmaceuticals spexin
    <t>Anti-spexin</t> <t>immunohistochemical</t> staining of rat normal tissues. ( A ) Skin (sg, sebaceous glands), ( B ) lung, ( C ) skeletal muscle, ( D ) heart, ( E ) bone and cartilage region of the growth plate, ( F ) bone marrow, ( G ) thymus (m, medulla; c, cortex),
    Spexin, supplied by Phoenix Pharmaceuticals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 33 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Aventis sparfloxacin spx
    <t>Anti-spexin</t> <t>immunohistochemical</t> staining of rat normal tissues. ( A ) Skin (sg, sebaceous glands), ( B ) lung, ( C ) skeletal muscle, ( D ) heart, ( E ) bone and cartilage region of the growth plate, ( F ) bone marrow, ( G ) thymus (m, medulla; c, cortex),
    Sparfloxacin Spx, supplied by Aventis, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Thermo Fisher gene exp spx hs00228976 m1
    <t>Anti-spexin</t> <t>immunohistochemical</t> staining of rat normal tissues. ( A ) Skin (sg, sebaceous glands), ( B ) lung, ( C ) skeletal muscle, ( D ) heart, ( E ) bone and cartilage region of the growth plate, ( F ) bone marrow, ( G ) thymus (m, medulla; c, cortex),
    Gene Exp Spx Hs00228976 M1, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 10 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Beijing SBS Genetech spexin intervention
    <t>Anti-spexin</t> <t>immunohistochemical</t> staining of rat normal tissues. ( A ) Skin (sg, sebaceous glands), ( B ) lung, ( C ) skeletal muscle, ( D ) heart, ( E ) bone and cartilage region of the growth plate, ( F ) bone marrow, ( G ) thymus (m, medulla; c, cortex),
    Spexin Intervention, supplied by Beijing SBS Genetech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    FUJIFILM spx
    <t>Anti-spexin</t> <t>immunohistochemical</t> staining of rat normal tissues. ( A ) Skin (sg, sebaceous glands), ( B ) lung, ( C ) skeletal muscle, ( D ) heart, ( E ) bone and cartilage region of the growth plate, ( F ) bone marrow, ( G ) thymus (m, medulla; c, cortex),
    Spx, supplied by FUJIFILM, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Lupin Laboratories Inc spx
    <t>Anti-spexin</t> <t>immunohistochemical</t> staining of rat normal tissues. ( A ) Skin (sg, sebaceous glands), ( B ) lung, ( C ) skeletal muscle, ( D ) heart, ( E ) bone and cartilage region of the growth plate, ( F ) bone marrow, ( G ) thymus (m, medulla; c, cortex),
    Spx, supplied by Lupin Laboratories Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    spx  (Aventis)
    88
    Aventis spx
    <t>Anti-spexin</t> <t>immunohistochemical</t> staining of rat normal tissues. ( A ) Skin (sg, sebaceous glands), ( B ) lung, ( C ) skeletal muscle, ( D ) heart, ( E ) bone and cartilage region of the growth plate, ( F ) bone marrow, ( G ) thymus (m, medulla; c, cortex),
    Spx, supplied by Aventis, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Konica Minolta spx 101a bioimaging systems
    <t>Anti-spexin</t> <t>immunohistochemical</t> staining of rat normal tissues. ( A ) Skin (sg, sebaceous glands), ( B ) lung, ( C ) skeletal muscle, ( D ) heart, ( E ) bone and cartilage region of the growth plate, ( F ) bone marrow, ( G ) thymus (m, medulla; c, cortex),
    Spx 101a Bioimaging Systems, supplied by Konica Minolta, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Phoenix Pharmaceuticals mouse spexin
    <t>Anti-spexin</t> <t>immunohistochemical</t> staining of rat normal tissues. ( A ) Skin (sg, sebaceous glands), ( B ) lung, ( C ) skeletal muscle, ( D ) heart, ( E ) bone and cartilage region of the growth plate, ( F ) bone marrow, ( G ) thymus (m, medulla; c, cortex),
    Mouse Spexin, supplied by Phoenix Pharmaceuticals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Millipore oasis spx cation exchange column
    <t>Anti-spexin</t> <t>immunohistochemical</t> staining of rat normal tissues. ( A ) Skin (sg, sebaceous glands), ( B ) lung, ( C ) skeletal muscle, ( D ) heart, ( E ) bone and cartilage region of the growth plate, ( F ) bone marrow, ( G ) thymus (m, medulla; c, cortex),
    Oasis Spx Cation Exchange Column, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Rohrer AG sparfloxacin spx
    <t>Anti-spexin</t> <t>immunohistochemical</t> staining of rat normal tissues. ( A ) Skin (sg, sebaceous glands), ( B ) lung, ( C ) skeletal muscle, ( D ) heart, ( E ) bone and cartilage region of the growth plate, ( F ) bone marrow, ( G ) thymus (m, medulla; c, cortex),
    Sparfloxacin Spx, supplied by Rohrer AG, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    The Jackson Laboratory spx mice
    Effects of splenectomy on ozone-induced 4-HNE. Lung sections, prepared 24–72 h after exposure of <t>CTL</t> and <t>SPX</t> mice to air or ozone, were stained with antibody to 4-HNE. Binding was visualized using a peroxidase DAB substrate kit. One representative section from 3 mice/treatment group is shown. Original magnification, 600×.
    Spx Mice, supplied by The Jackson Laboratory, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Becton Dickinson spx gal4 dna binding domain
    <t>Spx</t> interacts with YjbH. (A) Spx interacts with YjbH in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Gal4p AD-YjbH specifically interacts with Gal4p <t>DNA</t> BD-Spx but not with Gal4p BD alone. The N-terminal deletion of 24 amino acids from YjbH (AD-YjbH Δ1-24 ) also resulted in loss of the interaction with Spx. The yeast two-hybrid reporter strain (PJ69-4a) expressing different BD and AD fusion proteins was assayed for growth on an adenine dropout plate or a histidine dropout plate. The interaction between Spx-αCTD and Spx-αCTD ( rpoA cxs-1 ) was used as a positive and negative control, respectively. (B) Purification of YjbH and YjbH Δ1-24 of B. subtilis from E. coli . YjbH and YjbH Δ1-24 were overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3)pLysS, followed by purification on an Ni 2+ -NTA affinity column under denaturing conditions. A Coomassie brilliant blue-stained 12% reducing SDS-PAGE gel shows the purified YjbH-His 6 (4 μg) and YjbH Δ1-24 -His 6 (4 μg). Molecular mass markers are shown in the lane on the left. (C) Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of Spx and YjbH. A concentration-dependent cross-linking of Spx with 0 to 10 μM YjbH/YjbH Δ1-24 was carried out as described in Materials and Methods. The Spx-YjbH complex was resolved by 12% SDS-PAGE. Immunoblotting (IB) was carried out with anti-Spx polyclonal serum, followed by incubation with alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G secondary antibodies. The blot was developed using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolylphosphate/nitroblue tetrazolium as a substrate. (D) Spx-YjbH complex formation is oxidation sensitive. The glutaraldehyde cross-linking was carried out in the presence of the thiol oxidant diamide, and complex formation was examined as described above.
    Spx Gal4 Dna Binding Domain, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 10 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Leica Microsystems spx 8 confocal microscope body
    <t>Spx</t> interacts with YjbH. (A) Spx interacts with YjbH in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Gal4p AD-YjbH specifically interacts with Gal4p <t>DNA</t> BD-Spx but not with Gal4p BD alone. The N-terminal deletion of 24 amino acids from YjbH (AD-YjbH Δ1-24 ) also resulted in loss of the interaction with Spx. The yeast two-hybrid reporter strain (PJ69-4a) expressing different BD and AD fusion proteins was assayed for growth on an adenine dropout plate or a histidine dropout plate. The interaction between Spx-αCTD and Spx-αCTD ( rpoA cxs-1 ) was used as a positive and negative control, respectively. (B) Purification of YjbH and YjbH Δ1-24 of B. subtilis from E. coli . YjbH and YjbH Δ1-24 were overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3)pLysS, followed by purification on an Ni 2+ -NTA affinity column under denaturing conditions. A Coomassie brilliant blue-stained 12% reducing SDS-PAGE gel shows the purified YjbH-His 6 (4 μg) and YjbH Δ1-24 -His 6 (4 μg). Molecular mass markers are shown in the lane on the left. (C) Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of Spx and YjbH. A concentration-dependent cross-linking of Spx with 0 to 10 μM YjbH/YjbH Δ1-24 was carried out as described in Materials and Methods. The Spx-YjbH complex was resolved by 12% SDS-PAGE. Immunoblotting (IB) was carried out with anti-Spx polyclonal serum, followed by incubation with alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G secondary antibodies. The blot was developed using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolylphosphate/nitroblue tetrazolium as a substrate. (D) Spx-YjbH complex formation is oxidation sensitive. The glutaraldehyde cross-linking was carried out in the presence of the thiol oxidant diamide, and complex formation was examined as described above.
    Spx 8 Confocal Microscope Body, supplied by Leica Microsystems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    LKT Laboratories sparfloxacin spx
    <t>Spx</t> interacts with YjbH. (A) Spx interacts with YjbH in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Gal4p AD-YjbH specifically interacts with Gal4p <t>DNA</t> BD-Spx but not with Gal4p BD alone. The N-terminal deletion of 24 amino acids from YjbH (AD-YjbH Δ1-24 ) also resulted in loss of the interaction with Spx. The yeast two-hybrid reporter strain (PJ69-4a) expressing different BD and AD fusion proteins was assayed for growth on an adenine dropout plate or a histidine dropout plate. The interaction between Spx-αCTD and Spx-αCTD ( rpoA cxs-1 ) was used as a positive and negative control, respectively. (B) Purification of YjbH and YjbH Δ1-24 of B. subtilis from E. coli . YjbH and YjbH Δ1-24 were overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3)pLysS, followed by purification on an Ni 2+ -NTA affinity column under denaturing conditions. A Coomassie brilliant blue-stained 12% reducing SDS-PAGE gel shows the purified YjbH-His 6 (4 μg) and YjbH Δ1-24 -His 6 (4 μg). Molecular mass markers are shown in the lane on the left. (C) Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of Spx and YjbH. A concentration-dependent cross-linking of Spx with 0 to 10 μM YjbH/YjbH Δ1-24 was carried out as described in Materials and Methods. The Spx-YjbH complex was resolved by 12% SDS-PAGE. Immunoblotting (IB) was carried out with anti-Spx polyclonal serum, followed by incubation with alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G secondary antibodies. The blot was developed using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolylphosphate/nitroblue tetrazolium as a substrate. (D) Spx-YjbH complex formation is oxidation sensitive. The glutaraldehyde cross-linking was carried out in the presence of the thiol oxidant diamide, and complex formation was examined as described above.
    Sparfloxacin Spx, supplied by LKT Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Bachem rabbit anti spexin
    <t>Spexin</t> inhibited bile acid synthesis through <t>GALR2</t> and GALR3 receptors. (A) Expression of spexin, GALR2 and GALR2 in hepatocytes characterized by confocal imaging. To investigate the role of GALR2/3 in spexin-regulated bile acid synthesis, the mice were i.p . injected with GALR2/3 antagonists 15 min before spexin treatment. One hour after drug treatment, serum and liver samples from each mouse were collected for further analysis. Control ( i.p . with saline); Spexin ( i.p . with spexin 300 μg/kg); M871 ( i.p . with M871 1000 μg/kg); Spexin+M871 ( i.p . with M871 15 mins before spexin treatment); SNAP37889 ( i.p . with SNAP37889 1 mg/kg); Spexin+SNAP37889 ( i.p . with SNAP37889 15 min before spexin treatment). Hepatic level of TBA (B) , hepatic expression of CYP7A1 (C) and serum concentration of C4 (D) were measured as described. Results are shown as Mean ± SEM ( n = 10/group). * p
    Rabbit Anti Spexin, supplied by Bachem, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Leica Microsystems leica microsystems sted spx
    <t>Spexin</t> inhibited bile acid synthesis through <t>GALR2</t> and GALR3 receptors. (A) Expression of spexin, GALR2 and GALR2 in hepatocytes characterized by confocal imaging. To investigate the role of GALR2/3 in spexin-regulated bile acid synthesis, the mice were i.p . injected with GALR2/3 antagonists 15 min before spexin treatment. One hour after drug treatment, serum and liver samples from each mouse were collected for further analysis. Control ( i.p . with saline); Spexin ( i.p . with spexin 300 μg/kg); M871 ( i.p . with M871 1000 μg/kg); Spexin+M871 ( i.p . with M871 15 mins before spexin treatment); SNAP37889 ( i.p . with SNAP37889 1 mg/kg); Spexin+SNAP37889 ( i.p . with SNAP37889 15 min before spexin treatment). Hepatic level of TBA (B) , hepatic expression of CYP7A1 (C) and serum concentration of C4 (D) were measured as described. Results are shown as Mean ± SEM ( n = 10/group). * p
    Leica Microsystems Sted Spx, supplied by Leica Microsystems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    The effect of SPX on APs recorded in the presence of E4031. Action potentials were recorded by pacing myocytes at 2 Hz. In the presence of 10 μM E4031, SPX (10–300 μM) was applied. Data were obtained at 37°C by using the perforated patch technique. A, Examples of action potentials recorded before (gray) and after (red) SPX exposure at a concentration of 30 μM. The control action potential (black) before E-4031 treatment was also overlaid for comparison. B, APD 90 was plotted as a function of SPX concentration. Asterisks indicate statistical significance (paired t -test; *P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Impaired Inactivation of L-Type Ca2+ Current as a Potential Mechanism for Variable Arrhythmogenic Liability of HERG K+ Channel Blocking Drugs

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149198

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The effect of SPX on APs recorded in the presence of E4031. Action potentials were recorded by pacing myocytes at 2 Hz. In the presence of 10 μM E4031, SPX (10–300 μM) was applied. Data were obtained at 37°C by using the perforated patch technique. A, Examples of action potentials recorded before (gray) and after (red) SPX exposure at a concentration of 30 μM. The control action potential (black) before E-4031 treatment was also overlaid for comparison. B, APD 90 was plotted as a function of SPX concentration. Asterisks indicate statistical significance (paired t -test; *P

    Article Snippet: Unless otherwise stated, all chemicals and drugs were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich; SPX (Fluca, 56968) and E4031 (Sigma, M5060) were prepared as stock solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    SPX-101 does not bind adducts and remains functional after CS exposure. A ) Representative liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry spectrum showing CS-exposed SPX-101 peptide, AALPIPLDQTAA. B ) Summary data of ASL height measurements taken 6 h after mucosal addition of 20 μl Ringer’s solution (control) or SPX-101 in Ringer’s solution with or without CS exposure (Ringer’s, n = 7; SPX-101 and CS-SPX-101, n = 8). ** P

    Journal: The FASEB Journal

    Article Title: Cigarette smoke modifies and inactivates SPLUNC1, leading to airway dehydration

    doi: 10.1096/fj.201800345R

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SPX-101 does not bind adducts and remains functional after CS exposure. A ) Representative liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry spectrum showing CS-exposed SPX-101 peptide, AALPIPLDQTAA. B ) Summary data of ASL height measurements taken 6 h after mucosal addition of 20 μl Ringer’s solution (control) or SPX-101 in Ringer’s solution with or without CS exposure (Ringer’s, n = 7; SPX-101 and CS-SPX-101, n = 8). ** P

    Article Snippet: For ASL height recovery studies, cells were treated with CS for ∼5 min and placed in an incubator for 30 min before addition of SPX-101 as a suspension in perfluorocarbon (MilliporeSigma, Burlington, MA, USA) as previously described ( ).

    Techniques: Functional Assay, Liquid Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry

    Effects of TTX on spexin-induced intestinal and colonic motility. The jejunum ( A ) and colon ( B ) tissues were allowed to equilibrate for 1 hour and TTX was then added into the nutrition buffer. 30 minutes later, the tissues were treated with spexin (1 μM) and the mechanical activities were recorded using the POWERLAB system and CHART5 software. The Emax% of 1 μM spexin in the colon and jejunum were calculated accordingly. Statistical differences between individual groups were evaluated using Student’s t test.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Spexin Enhances Bowel Movement through Activating L-type Voltage-dependent Calcium Channel via Galanin Receptor 2 in Mice

    doi: 10.1038/srep12095

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of TTX on spexin-induced intestinal and colonic motility. The jejunum ( A ) and colon ( B ) tissues were allowed to equilibrate for 1 hour and TTX was then added into the nutrition buffer. 30 minutes later, the tissues were treated with spexin (1 μM) and the mechanical activities were recorded using the POWERLAB system and CHART5 software. The Emax% of 1 μM spexin in the colon and jejunum were calculated accordingly. Statistical differences between individual groups were evaluated using Student’s t test.

    Article Snippet: To examine the possible mechanisms of spexin on bowel movement, TTX (cat. no. 1069; Tocris Bioscience, Bristol, UK), EGTA (cat. no. E3889; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO USA), nifedipine (cat. no.N7634; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO USA), 2-APB (cat. no. D9754; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO USA), M871(cat. no. ab141159; Abcam, Cambridge, UK) and SNAP37889 (cat. no. 11L-312S; Key organics, Camelford, UK) were applied separately to block the corresponding pathway.

    Techniques: Software

    Anti-spexin immunohistochemical staining of rat normal tissues. ( A ) Skin (sg, sebaceous glands), ( B ) lung, ( C ) skeletal muscle, ( D ) heart, ( E ) bone and cartilage region of the growth plate, ( F ) bone marrow, ( G ) thymus (m, medulla; c, cortex),

    Journal: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry

    Article Title: Spexin Expression in Normal Rat Tissues

    doi: 10.1369/jhc.2010.956300

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Anti-spexin immunohistochemical staining of rat normal tissues. ( A ) Skin (sg, sebaceous glands), ( B ) lung, ( C ) skeletal muscle, ( D ) heart, ( E ) bone and cartilage region of the growth plate, ( F ) bone marrow, ( G ) thymus (m, medulla; c, cortex),

    Article Snippet: To verify the immunohistochemical specificity of the reaction, absorption tests with spexin (Phoenix Pharmaceuticals; No. 023-81) were also performed.

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Anti-spexin immunohistochemical staining of rat nervous system and eye. ( A ) Cerebral cortex and hippocampal field, ( B ) cerebellar cortex, ( C ) brainstem nucleus, ( D ) choroidal plexus, ( E ) trigeminal ganglion, ( F ) superior cervical ganglion, ( G ) retina

    Journal: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry

    Article Title: Spexin Expression in Normal Rat Tissues

    doi: 10.1369/jhc.2010.956300

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Anti-spexin immunohistochemical staining of rat nervous system and eye. ( A ) Cerebral cortex and hippocampal field, ( B ) cerebellar cortex, ( C ) brainstem nucleus, ( D ) choroidal plexus, ( E ) trigeminal ganglion, ( F ) superior cervical ganglion, ( G ) retina

    Article Snippet: To verify the immunohistochemical specificity of the reaction, absorption tests with spexin (Phoenix Pharmaceuticals; No. 023-81) were also performed.

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Anti-spexin immunohistochemical staining of rat endocrine tissues. ( A ) Paraventricular nucleus, ( B ) supraoptic nucleus (oc, optic chiasma), ( C ) hypophysis (al, anterior lobe; il, intermediate lobe), ( D ) thyroid gland, ( E ) adrenal gland (m, medulla;

    Journal: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry

    Article Title: Spexin Expression in Normal Rat Tissues

    doi: 10.1369/jhc.2010.956300

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Anti-spexin immunohistochemical staining of rat endocrine tissues. ( A ) Paraventricular nucleus, ( B ) supraoptic nucleus (oc, optic chiasma), ( C ) hypophysis (al, anterior lobe; il, intermediate lobe), ( D ) thyroid gland, ( E ) adrenal gland (m, medulla;

    Article Snippet: To verify the immunohistochemical specificity of the reaction, absorption tests with spexin (Phoenix Pharmaceuticals; No. 023-81) were also performed.

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Anti-spexin immunohistochemical staining of rat genitourinary system. ( A ) Kidney, ( B ) urinary bladder, ( C ) uterus, ( D ) vagina, ( E ) epididymis, and ( F ) prostate. Bars: A = 23.8 μm; B = 37.5 μm; C–F = 75 μm.

    Journal: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry

    Article Title: Spexin Expression in Normal Rat Tissues

    doi: 10.1369/jhc.2010.956300

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Anti-spexin immunohistochemical staining of rat genitourinary system. ( A ) Kidney, ( B ) urinary bladder, ( C ) uterus, ( D ) vagina, ( E ) epididymis, and ( F ) prostate. Bars: A = 23.8 μm; B = 37.5 μm; C–F = 75 μm.

    Article Snippet: To verify the immunohistochemical specificity of the reaction, absorption tests with spexin (Phoenix Pharmaceuticals; No. 023-81) were also performed.

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Anti-spexin immunohistochemical staining of rat digestive system. ( A ) Salivary gland, ( B ) esophagus, ( C ) stomach, ( D ) small intestine, ( E ) pancreas, and ( F ) liver. Bars: A–C,E,F = 75 μm; D = 150 μm.

    Journal: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry

    Article Title: Spexin Expression in Normal Rat Tissues

    doi: 10.1369/jhc.2010.956300

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Anti-spexin immunohistochemical staining of rat digestive system. ( A ) Salivary gland, ( B ) esophagus, ( C ) stomach, ( D ) small intestine, ( E ) pancreas, and ( F ) liver. Bars: A–C,E,F = 75 μm; D = 150 μm.

    Article Snippet: To verify the immunohistochemical specificity of the reaction, absorption tests with spexin (Phoenix Pharmaceuticals; No. 023-81) were also performed.

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry, Staining

    Effects of splenectomy on ozone-induced 4-HNE. Lung sections, prepared 24–72 h after exposure of CTL and SPX mice to air or ozone, were stained with antibody to 4-HNE. Binding was visualized using a peroxidase DAB substrate kit. One representative section from 3 mice/treatment group is shown. Original magnification, 600×.

    Journal: Toxicological Sciences

    Article Title: Editor’s Highlight: Role of Spleen-Derived Macrophages in Ozone-Induced Lung Inflammation and Injury

    doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfw192

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of splenectomy on ozone-induced 4-HNE. Lung sections, prepared 24–72 h after exposure of CTL and SPX mice to air or ozone, were stained with antibody to 4-HNE. Binding was visualized using a peroxidase DAB substrate kit. One representative section from 3 mice/treatment group is shown. Original magnification, 600×.

    Article Snippet: Female specific pathogen-free C57Bl6/J control (CTL) mice, which consisted of both sham-operated and wild-type mice, and splenectomized (SPX) mice (8–11 weeks; 17–22 g) were obtained from The Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, Maine).

    Techniques: CTL Assay, Mouse Assay, Staining, Binding Assay

    Effects of ozone on spleen and bone marrow monocytes. Cells, collected 24–72 h after exposure of CTL and SPX mice to air or ozone, were stained with antibodies to CD11b, Ly6G, Ly6C, and F4/80 or isotypic controls, and analyzed by flow cytometry. Monocytes were defined as CD11b + Ly6G − F4/80 − and Ly6C Hi (pro-inflammatory), Ly6C Lo (anti-inflammatory), or Ly6C Int (transitional). Bars, mean ± SE ( n = 3–4 mice/treatment group). a Significantly different ( P

    Journal: Toxicological Sciences

    Article Title: Editor’s Highlight: Role of Spleen-Derived Macrophages in Ozone-Induced Lung Inflammation and Injury

    doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfw192

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of ozone on spleen and bone marrow monocytes. Cells, collected 24–72 h after exposure of CTL and SPX mice to air or ozone, were stained with antibodies to CD11b, Ly6G, Ly6C, and F4/80 or isotypic controls, and analyzed by flow cytometry. Monocytes were defined as CD11b + Ly6G − F4/80 − and Ly6C Hi (pro-inflammatory), Ly6C Lo (anti-inflammatory), or Ly6C Int (transitional). Bars, mean ± SE ( n = 3–4 mice/treatment group). a Significantly different ( P

    Article Snippet: Female specific pathogen-free C57Bl6/J control (CTL) mice, which consisted of both sham-operated and wild-type mice, and splenectomized (SPX) mice (8–11 weeks; 17–22 g) were obtained from The Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, Maine).

    Techniques: CTL Assay, Mouse Assay, Staining, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    Effects of splenectomy on ozone-induced expression of inflammatory genes. mRNA, prepared from lungs 24–72 h after exposure of CTL and SPX mice to air or ozone, was analyzed by real-time PCR. Data are presented as fold change relative to GAPDH. Bars, mean ± SE ( n = 3 mice/treatment group). a Significantly different ( P

    Journal: Toxicological Sciences

    Article Title: Editor’s Highlight: Role of Spleen-Derived Macrophages in Ozone-Induced Lung Inflammation and Injury

    doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfw192

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of splenectomy on ozone-induced expression of inflammatory genes. mRNA, prepared from lungs 24–72 h after exposure of CTL and SPX mice to air or ozone, was analyzed by real-time PCR. Data are presented as fold change relative to GAPDH. Bars, mean ± SE ( n = 3 mice/treatment group). a Significantly different ( P

    Article Snippet: Female specific pathogen-free C57Bl6/J control (CTL) mice, which consisted of both sham-operated and wild-type mice, and splenectomized (SPX) mice (8–11 weeks; 17–22 g) were obtained from The Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, Maine).

    Techniques: Expressing, CTL Assay, Mouse Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Effects of splenectomy on ozone-induced expression of AT1R. Lung sections, prepared 24–72 h after exposure of CTL and SPX mice to air or ozone, were stained with antibody to AT1R. Binding was visualized using a peroxidase DAB substrate kit. Arrows indicate alveolar macrophages. One representative lung section from 3 mice/treatment group is shown. Original magnification, 600×.

    Journal: Toxicological Sciences

    Article Title: Editor’s Highlight: Role of Spleen-Derived Macrophages in Ozone-Induced Lung Inflammation and Injury

    doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfw192

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of splenectomy on ozone-induced expression of AT1R. Lung sections, prepared 24–72 h after exposure of CTL and SPX mice to air or ozone, were stained with antibody to AT1R. Binding was visualized using a peroxidase DAB substrate kit. Arrows indicate alveolar macrophages. One representative lung section from 3 mice/treatment group is shown. Original magnification, 600×.

    Article Snippet: Female specific pathogen-free C57Bl6/J control (CTL) mice, which consisted of both sham-operated and wild-type mice, and splenectomized (SPX) mice (8–11 weeks; 17–22 g) were obtained from The Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, Maine).

    Techniques: Expressing, CTL Assay, Mouse Assay, Staining, Binding Assay

    Effects of splenectomy on ozone-induced MMP-9 expression . Lung sections, prepared 24–72 h after exposure of CTL and SPX mice to air or ozone, were stained with antibody to MMP-9. Binding was visualized using a peroxidase DAB substrate kit. Arrows indicate alveolar macrophages. One representative lung section from 3 mice/treatment group is shown. Original magnification, 600×.

    Journal: Toxicological Sciences

    Article Title: Editor’s Highlight: Role of Spleen-Derived Macrophages in Ozone-Induced Lung Inflammation and Injury

    doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfw192

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of splenectomy on ozone-induced MMP-9 expression . Lung sections, prepared 24–72 h after exposure of CTL and SPX mice to air or ozone, were stained with antibody to MMP-9. Binding was visualized using a peroxidase DAB substrate kit. Arrows indicate alveolar macrophages. One representative lung section from 3 mice/treatment group is shown. Original magnification, 600×.

    Article Snippet: Female specific pathogen-free C57Bl6/J control (CTL) mice, which consisted of both sham-operated and wild-type mice, and splenectomized (SPX) mice (8–11 weeks; 17–22 g) were obtained from The Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, Maine).

    Techniques: Expressing, CTL Assay, Mouse Assay, Staining, Binding Assay

    Effects of splenectomy on ozone-induced alterations in BAL cell number and protein. BAL was collected 24–72 h after exposure of CTL and SPX mice to air or ozone. Upper panel: Viable cells were enumerated using trypan blue dye exclusion . Lower panel: Cell-free supernatants were analyzed in triplicate for protein using a BCA protein assay kit . Bars, mean ± SE ( n = 8 mice/treatment group). a Significantly different ( P

    Journal: Toxicological Sciences

    Article Title: Editor’s Highlight: Role of Spleen-Derived Macrophages in Ozone-Induced Lung Inflammation and Injury

    doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfw192

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of splenectomy on ozone-induced alterations in BAL cell number and protein. BAL was collected 24–72 h after exposure of CTL and SPX mice to air or ozone. Upper panel: Viable cells were enumerated using trypan blue dye exclusion . Lower panel: Cell-free supernatants were analyzed in triplicate for protein using a BCA protein assay kit . Bars, mean ± SE ( n = 8 mice/treatment group). a Significantly different ( P

    Article Snippet: Female specific pathogen-free C57Bl6/J control (CTL) mice, which consisted of both sham-operated and wild-type mice, and splenectomized (SPX) mice (8–11 weeks; 17–22 g) were obtained from The Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, Maine).

    Techniques: CTL Assay, Mouse Assay, BIA-KA

    Effects of splenectomy on lung macrophages responding to ozone. BAL cells, collected 24–72 h after exposure of CTL and SPX mice to air or ozone, were stained with antibodies to CD11b, Ly6G, Ly6C, F4/80, and CD11c or isotypic controls and analyzed by flow cytometry. Macrophages (MP) were defined as CD11b + Ly6G − F4/80 + CD11c + and Ly6C Hi (pro-inflammatory) or Ly6C Lo (anti-inflammatory). Bars, mean ± SE ( n = 10 mice/treatment group). a Significantly different ( P

    Journal: Toxicological Sciences

    Article Title: Editor’s Highlight: Role of Spleen-Derived Macrophages in Ozone-Induced Lung Inflammation and Injury

    doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfw192

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of splenectomy on lung macrophages responding to ozone. BAL cells, collected 24–72 h after exposure of CTL and SPX mice to air or ozone, were stained with antibodies to CD11b, Ly6G, Ly6C, F4/80, and CD11c or isotypic controls and analyzed by flow cytometry. Macrophages (MP) were defined as CD11b + Ly6G − F4/80 + CD11c + and Ly6C Hi (pro-inflammatory) or Ly6C Lo (anti-inflammatory). Bars, mean ± SE ( n = 10 mice/treatment group). a Significantly different ( P

    Article Snippet: Female specific pathogen-free C57Bl6/J control (CTL) mice, which consisted of both sham-operated and wild-type mice, and splenectomized (SPX) mice (8–11 weeks; 17–22 g) were obtained from The Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, Maine).

    Techniques: CTL Assay, Mouse Assay, Staining, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    Effects of splenectomy on ozone-induced alterations in BAL SP-D structure. BAL was collected 24–72 h after exposure of CTL and SPX mice to air or ozone. BAL SP-D protein was analyzed by western blotting. Upper panel: SP-D protein analyzed in denaturing gels. Lower panels: SP-D protein analyzed in native gels. Each lane represents BAL analysis of one animal.

    Journal: Toxicological Sciences

    Article Title: Editor’s Highlight: Role of Spleen-Derived Macrophages in Ozone-Induced Lung Inflammation and Injury

    doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfw192

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of splenectomy on ozone-induced alterations in BAL SP-D structure. BAL was collected 24–72 h after exposure of CTL and SPX mice to air or ozone. BAL SP-D protein was analyzed by western blotting. Upper panel: SP-D protein analyzed in denaturing gels. Lower panels: SP-D protein analyzed in native gels. Each lane represents BAL analysis of one animal.

    Article Snippet: Female specific pathogen-free C57Bl6/J control (CTL) mice, which consisted of both sham-operated and wild-type mice, and splenectomized (SPX) mice (8–11 weeks; 17–22 g) were obtained from The Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, Maine).

    Techniques: CTL Assay, Mouse Assay, Western Blot

    Effects of splenectomy on ozone-induced expression of mannose receptor-1. Lung sections, prepared 24–72 h after exposure of CTL and SPX mice to air or ozone, were stained with antibody to mannose receptor. Binding was visualized using a peroxidase DAB substrate kit. Arrows indicate alveolar macrophages. One representative lung section from 3 mice/treatment group is shown. Original magnification, 600×.

    Journal: Toxicological Sciences

    Article Title: Editor’s Highlight: Role of Spleen-Derived Macrophages in Ozone-Induced Lung Inflammation and Injury

    doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfw192

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of splenectomy on ozone-induced expression of mannose receptor-1. Lung sections, prepared 24–72 h after exposure of CTL and SPX mice to air or ozone, were stained with antibody to mannose receptor. Binding was visualized using a peroxidase DAB substrate kit. Arrows indicate alveolar macrophages. One representative lung section from 3 mice/treatment group is shown. Original magnification, 600×.

    Article Snippet: Female specific pathogen-free C57Bl6/J control (CTL) mice, which consisted of both sham-operated and wild-type mice, and splenectomized (SPX) mice (8–11 weeks; 17–22 g) were obtained from The Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, Maine).

    Techniques: Expressing, CTL Assay, Mouse Assay, Staining, Binding Assay

    Spx interacts with YjbH. (A) Spx interacts with YjbH in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Gal4p AD-YjbH specifically interacts with Gal4p DNA BD-Spx but not with Gal4p BD alone. The N-terminal deletion of 24 amino acids from YjbH (AD-YjbH Δ1-24 ) also resulted in loss of the interaction with Spx. The yeast two-hybrid reporter strain (PJ69-4a) expressing different BD and AD fusion proteins was assayed for growth on an adenine dropout plate or a histidine dropout plate. The interaction between Spx-αCTD and Spx-αCTD ( rpoA cxs-1 ) was used as a positive and negative control, respectively. (B) Purification of YjbH and YjbH Δ1-24 of B. subtilis from E. coli . YjbH and YjbH Δ1-24 were overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3)pLysS, followed by purification on an Ni 2+ -NTA affinity column under denaturing conditions. A Coomassie brilliant blue-stained 12% reducing SDS-PAGE gel shows the purified YjbH-His 6 (4 μg) and YjbH Δ1-24 -His 6 (4 μg). Molecular mass markers are shown in the lane on the left. (C) Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of Spx and YjbH. A concentration-dependent cross-linking of Spx with 0 to 10 μM YjbH/YjbH Δ1-24 was carried out as described in Materials and Methods. The Spx-YjbH complex was resolved by 12% SDS-PAGE. Immunoblotting (IB) was carried out with anti-Spx polyclonal serum, followed by incubation with alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G secondary antibodies. The blot was developed using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolylphosphate/nitroblue tetrazolium as a substrate. (D) Spx-YjbH complex formation is oxidation sensitive. The glutaraldehyde cross-linking was carried out in the presence of the thiol oxidant diamide, and complex formation was examined as described above.

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: The YjbH Protein of Bacillus subtilis Enhances ClpXP-Catalyzed Proteolysis of Spx ▿

    doi: 10.1128/JB.01289-08

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Spx interacts with YjbH. (A) Spx interacts with YjbH in the yeast two-hybrid assay. Gal4p AD-YjbH specifically interacts with Gal4p DNA BD-Spx but not with Gal4p BD alone. The N-terminal deletion of 24 amino acids from YjbH (AD-YjbH Δ1-24 ) also resulted in loss of the interaction with Spx. The yeast two-hybrid reporter strain (PJ69-4a) expressing different BD and AD fusion proteins was assayed for growth on an adenine dropout plate or a histidine dropout plate. The interaction between Spx-αCTD and Spx-αCTD ( rpoA cxs-1 ) was used as a positive and negative control, respectively. (B) Purification of YjbH and YjbH Δ1-24 of B. subtilis from E. coli . YjbH and YjbH Δ1-24 were overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3)pLysS, followed by purification on an Ni 2+ -NTA affinity column under denaturing conditions. A Coomassie brilliant blue-stained 12% reducing SDS-PAGE gel shows the purified YjbH-His 6 (4 μg) and YjbH Δ1-24 -His 6 (4 μg). Molecular mass markers are shown in the lane on the left. (C) Glutaraldehyde cross-linking of Spx and YjbH. A concentration-dependent cross-linking of Spx with 0 to 10 μM YjbH/YjbH Δ1-24 was carried out as described in Materials and Methods. The Spx-YjbH complex was resolved by 12% SDS-PAGE. Immunoblotting (IB) was carried out with anti-Spx polyclonal serum, followed by incubation with alkaline phosphatase-conjugated anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G secondary antibodies. The blot was developed using 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolylphosphate/nitroblue tetrazolium as a substrate. (D) Spx-YjbH complex formation is oxidation sensitive. The glutaraldehyde cross-linking was carried out in the presence of the thiol oxidant diamide, and complex formation was examined as described above.

    Article Snippet: Plasmid pSN11, a pGBKT7 derivative carrying an spx - GAL4 DNA-binding domain (BD) fusion, and pYJBHAD or pTYJBHAD, carrying, respectively, a full-length and truncated yjbH - GAL4 activation domain (AD), were used to transform Saccharomyces cerevisiae PJ69-4A (His− Ade− Trp− Leu− ) , which carries a GAL2-ADE2 and GAL2-HIS3 fusion controlled by GAL4 .

    Techniques: Y2H Assay, Expressing, Negative Control, Purification, Affinity Column, Staining, SDS Page, Concentration Assay, Incubation

    Spexin inhibited bile acid synthesis through GALR2 and GALR3 receptors. (A) Expression of spexin, GALR2 and GALR2 in hepatocytes characterized by confocal imaging. To investigate the role of GALR2/3 in spexin-regulated bile acid synthesis, the mice were i.p . injected with GALR2/3 antagonists 15 min before spexin treatment. One hour after drug treatment, serum and liver samples from each mouse were collected for further analysis. Control ( i.p . with saline); Spexin ( i.p . with spexin 300 μg/kg); M871 ( i.p . with M871 1000 μg/kg); Spexin+M871 ( i.p . with M871 15 mins before spexin treatment); SNAP37889 ( i.p . with SNAP37889 1 mg/kg); Spexin+SNAP37889 ( i.p . with SNAP37889 15 min before spexin treatment). Hepatic level of TBA (B) , hepatic expression of CYP7A1 (C) and serum concentration of C4 (D) were measured as described. Results are shown as Mean ± SEM ( n = 10/group). * p

    Journal: Frontiers in Physiology

    Article Title: Spexin Acts as Novel Regulator for Bile Acid Synthesis

    doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00378

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Spexin inhibited bile acid synthesis through GALR2 and GALR3 receptors. (A) Expression of spexin, GALR2 and GALR2 in hepatocytes characterized by confocal imaging. To investigate the role of GALR2/3 in spexin-regulated bile acid synthesis, the mice were i.p . injected with GALR2/3 antagonists 15 min before spexin treatment. One hour after drug treatment, serum and liver samples from each mouse were collected for further analysis. Control ( i.p . with saline); Spexin ( i.p . with spexin 300 μg/kg); M871 ( i.p . with M871 1000 μg/kg); Spexin+M871 ( i.p . with M871 15 mins before spexin treatment); SNAP37889 ( i.p . with SNAP37889 1 mg/kg); Spexin+SNAP37889 ( i.p . with SNAP37889 15 min before spexin treatment). Hepatic level of TBA (B) , hepatic expression of CYP7A1 (C) and serum concentration of C4 (D) were measured as described. Results are shown as Mean ± SEM ( n = 10/group). * p

    Article Snippet: Primary and secondary antibodies used: rabbit anti-spexin (Bachem, T-4858, 1:500), rabbit anti-GALR2 (Aviva Systems Biology, OABF00517, 1:100), rabbit anti-GALR3 (Aviva Systems Biology, OAAF04899, 1:100), AlexaFluor 594-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG (Thermofisher Scientific, , 1:500).

    Techniques: Expressing, Imaging, Mouse Assay, Injection, Concentration Assay