sodium taurocholate Search Results


  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 99
    Millipore cholyltaurine taurocholate
    Time–activity curves in arterial blood (samples) and in liver tissue, intrahepatic bile ducts, and choledochus (dynamic PET/CT) after pretreatment with <t>cholyltaurine</t> and intravenous bolus administration of 11 C-cholylsarcosine (pig 1). CSar = cholylsarcosine.
    Cholyltaurine Taurocholate, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 57 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/cholyltaurine taurocholate/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 57 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    cholyltaurine taurocholate - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    91
    Thermo Fisher taurocholate sodium salts
    Time–activity curves in arterial blood (samples) and in liver tissue, intrahepatic bile ducts, and choledochus (dynamic PET/CT) after pretreatment with <t>cholyltaurine</t> and intravenous bolus administration of 11 C-cholylsarcosine (pig 1). CSar = cholylsarcosine.
    Taurocholate Sodium Salts, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/taurocholate sodium salts/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 91 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    taurocholate sodium salts - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    91/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    92
    Millipore taurocholate tc
    Time–activity curves in arterial blood (samples) and in liver tissue, intrahepatic bile ducts, and choledochus (dynamic PET/CT) after pretreatment with <t>cholyltaurine</t> and intravenous bolus administration of 11 C-cholylsarcosine (pig 1). CSar = cholylsarcosine.
    Taurocholate Tc, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 17 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/taurocholate tc/product/Millipore
    Average 92 stars, based on 17 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    taurocholate tc - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    92/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    90
    Millipore taurocholic acid ta
    Time–activity curves in arterial blood (samples) and in liver tissue, intrahepatic bile ducts, and choledochus (dynamic PET/CT) after pretreatment with <t>cholyltaurine</t> and intravenous bolus administration of 11 C-cholylsarcosine (pig 1). CSar = cholylsarcosine.
    Taurocholic Acid Ta, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/taurocholic acid ta/product/Millipore
    Average 90 stars, based on 8 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    taurocholic acid ta - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Millipore taurocholic acid tca
    BAs increased p62 and LC3-II protein levels in hepatocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Primary hepatocytes were treated with CA, <t>CDCA,</t> or <t>TCA</t> for 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8h (A) or (B) with different concentrations of BAs for 6h. Whole cell lysates were
    Taurocholic Acid Tca, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 149 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/taurocholic acid tca/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 149 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    taurocholic acid tca - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Millipore sodium taurocholate hydrate
    Dydio prevents pancreatitis stimuli‐induced mitochondrial dysfunction and <t>Tauro‐induced</t> activation of PI3Kγ/Akt. (A) Representative images of JC‐1 staining (left panel) and quantification of red/green fluorescence intensity (right panel), showing the prevention by Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) of Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), <t>CCK</t> (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 )‐induced dissipation of ΔΨm. (B) ATP levels were measured by luminescence in pancreatic acinar cells treated with Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), CCK (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 ) alone or in combination with Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) for 30 min. Data were normalized to untreated control as 100%. (C) Typical trace showing the inhibitory effect of Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) on Tauro‐induced cytosolic ROS production ([ROS] i ). The effects were quantified at 1500 s and expressed as means ± SEM; n = 5 per condition. # P
    Sodium Taurocholate Hydrate, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 31 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/sodium taurocholate hydrate/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 31 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    sodium taurocholate hydrate - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    FUJIFILM sodium taurocholate
    Dydio prevents pancreatitis stimuli‐induced mitochondrial dysfunction and <t>Tauro‐induced</t> activation of PI3Kγ/Akt. (A) Representative images of JC‐1 staining (left panel) and quantification of red/green fluorescence intensity (right panel), showing the prevention by Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) of Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), <t>CCK</t> (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 )‐induced dissipation of ΔΨm. (B) ATP levels were measured by luminescence in pancreatic acinar cells treated with Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), CCK (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 ) alone or in combination with Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) for 30 min. Data were normalized to untreated control as 100%. (C) Typical trace showing the inhibitory effect of Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) on Tauro‐induced cytosolic ROS production ([ROS] i ). The effects were quantified at 1500 s and expressed as means ± SEM; n = 5 per condition. # P
    Sodium Taurocholate, supplied by FUJIFILM, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 16 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/sodium taurocholate/product/FUJIFILM
    Average 93 stars, based on 16 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    sodium taurocholate - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Thermo Fisher sodium taurocholate
    Dydio prevents pancreatitis stimuli‐induced mitochondrial dysfunction and <t>Tauro‐induced</t> activation of PI3Kγ/Akt. (A) Representative images of JC‐1 staining (left panel) and quantification of red/green fluorescence intensity (right panel), showing the prevention by Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) of Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), <t>CCK</t> (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 )‐induced dissipation of ΔΨm. (B) ATP levels were measured by luminescence in pancreatic acinar cells treated with Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), CCK (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 ) alone or in combination with Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) for 30 min. Data were normalized to untreated control as 100%. (C) Typical trace showing the inhibitory effect of Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) on Tauro‐induced cytosolic ROS production ([ROS] i ). The effects were quantified at 1500 s and expressed as means ± SEM; n = 5 per condition. # P
    Sodium Taurocholate, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 47 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/sodium taurocholate/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 94 stars, based on 47 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    sodium taurocholate - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    HiMedia Laboratories sodium taurocholate
    Dydio prevents pancreatitis stimuli‐induced mitochondrial dysfunction and <t>Tauro‐induced</t> activation of PI3Kγ/Akt. (A) Representative images of JC‐1 staining (left panel) and quantification of red/green fluorescence intensity (right panel), showing the prevention by Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) of Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), <t>CCK</t> (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 )‐induced dissipation of ΔΨm. (B) ATP levels were measured by luminescence in pancreatic acinar cells treated with Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), CCK (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 ) alone or in combination with Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) for 30 min. Data were normalized to untreated control as 100%. (C) Typical trace showing the inhibitory effect of Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) on Tauro‐induced cytosolic ROS production ([ROS] i ). The effects were quantified at 1500 s and expressed as means ± SEM; n = 5 per condition. # P
    Sodium Taurocholate, supplied by HiMedia Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/sodium taurocholate/product/HiMedia Laboratories
    Average 93 stars, based on 4 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    sodium taurocholate - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    85
    Nacalai sodium taurocholate natc
    Dydio prevents pancreatitis stimuli‐induced mitochondrial dysfunction and <t>Tauro‐induced</t> activation of PI3Kγ/Akt. (A) Representative images of JC‐1 staining (left panel) and quantification of red/green fluorescence intensity (right panel), showing the prevention by Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) of Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), <t>CCK</t> (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 )‐induced dissipation of ΔΨm. (B) ATP levels were measured by luminescence in pancreatic acinar cells treated with Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), CCK (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 ) alone or in combination with Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) for 30 min. Data were normalized to untreated control as 100%. (C) Typical trace showing the inhibitory effect of Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) on Tauro‐induced cytosolic ROS production ([ROS] i ). The effects were quantified at 1500 s and expressed as means ± SEM; n = 5 per condition. # P
    Sodium Taurocholate Natc, supplied by Nacalai, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/sodium taurocholate natc/product/Nacalai
    Average 85 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    sodium taurocholate natc - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    85/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    86
    FUJIFILM sodium taurocholate natc
    Dydio prevents pancreatitis stimuli‐induced mitochondrial dysfunction and <t>Tauro‐induced</t> activation of PI3Kγ/Akt. (A) Representative images of JC‐1 staining (left panel) and quantification of red/green fluorescence intensity (right panel), showing the prevention by Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) of Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), <t>CCK</t> (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 )‐induced dissipation of ΔΨm. (B) ATP levels were measured by luminescence in pancreatic acinar cells treated with Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), CCK (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 ) alone or in combination with Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) for 30 min. Data were normalized to untreated control as 100%. (C) Typical trace showing the inhibitory effect of Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) on Tauro‐induced cytosolic ROS production ([ROS] i ). The effects were quantified at 1500 s and expressed as means ± SEM; n = 5 per condition. # P
    Sodium Taurocholate Natc, supplied by FUJIFILM, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/sodium taurocholate natc/product/FUJIFILM
    Average 86 stars, based on 9 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    sodium taurocholate natc - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    86/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    92
    BASF sodium taurocholate stc
    Dydio prevents pancreatitis stimuli‐induced mitochondrial dysfunction and <t>Tauro‐induced</t> activation of PI3Kγ/Akt. (A) Representative images of JC‐1 staining (left panel) and quantification of red/green fluorescence intensity (right panel), showing the prevention by Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) of Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), <t>CCK</t> (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 )‐induced dissipation of ΔΨm. (B) ATP levels were measured by luminescence in pancreatic acinar cells treated with Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), CCK (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 ) alone or in combination with Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) for 30 min. Data were normalized to untreated control as 100%. (C) Typical trace showing the inhibitory effect of Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) on Tauro‐induced cytosolic ROS production ([ROS] i ). The effects were quantified at 1500 s and expressed as means ± SEM; n = 5 per condition. # P
    Sodium Taurocholate Stc, supplied by BASF, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/sodium taurocholate stc/product/BASF
    Average 92 stars, based on 3 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    sodium taurocholate stc - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    92/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Millipore sodium taurocholate 2
    Dydio prevents pancreatitis stimuli‐induced mitochondrial dysfunction and <t>Tauro‐induced</t> activation of PI3Kγ/Akt. (A) Representative images of JC‐1 staining (left panel) and quantification of red/green fluorescence intensity (right panel), showing the prevention by Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) of Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), <t>CCK</t> (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 )‐induced dissipation of ΔΨm. (B) ATP levels were measured by luminescence in pancreatic acinar cells treated with Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), CCK (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 ) alone or in combination with Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) for 30 min. Data were normalized to untreated control as 100%. (C) Typical trace showing the inhibitory effect of Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) on Tauro‐induced cytosolic ROS production ([ROS] i ). The effects were quantified at 1500 s and expressed as means ± SEM; n = 5 per condition. # P
    Sodium Taurocholate 2, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/sodium taurocholate 2/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 6 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    sodium taurocholate 2 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    85
    Nacalai unlabeled sodium taurocholate
    Dydio prevents pancreatitis stimuli‐induced mitochondrial dysfunction and <t>Tauro‐induced</t> activation of PI3Kγ/Akt. (A) Representative images of JC‐1 staining (left panel) and quantification of red/green fluorescence intensity (right panel), showing the prevention by Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) of Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), <t>CCK</t> (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 )‐induced dissipation of ΔΨm. (B) ATP levels were measured by luminescence in pancreatic acinar cells treated with Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), CCK (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 ) alone or in combination with Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) for 30 min. Data were normalized to untreated control as 100%. (C) Typical trace showing the inhibitory effect of Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) on Tauro‐induced cytosolic ROS production ([ROS] i ). The effects were quantified at 1500 s and expressed as means ± SEM; n = 5 per condition. # P
    Unlabeled Sodium Taurocholate, supplied by Nacalai, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/unlabeled sodium taurocholate/product/Nacalai
    Average 85 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    unlabeled sodium taurocholate - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    85/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Millipore taurocholic acid sodium salt hydrate
    Antibiotics regulate cytokines by microbiota-associated metabolites. a – d Plasma levels of IFN-γ ( a ), IL-2( b ), IL-6( c ), and TNF- α( d ) in WT, SF, SFA, SFM, and SFV mice ( n = 6–9). e Level of IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells treated with DMSO (blank), LPS, <t>taurocholic</t> <t>acid</t> <t>sodium</t> <t>salt</t> <t>hydrate</t> (TCA), sodium tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) ( n = 3). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. * p
    Taurocholic Acid Sodium Salt Hydrate, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 60 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/taurocholic acid sodium salt hydrate/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 60 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    taurocholic acid sodium salt hydrate - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    91
    New Zealand Pharmaceuticals taurocholic acid
    Antibiotics regulate cytokines by microbiota-associated metabolites. a – d Plasma levels of IFN-γ ( a ), IL-2( b ), IL-6( c ), and TNF- α( d ) in WT, SF, SFA, SFM, and SFV mice ( n = 6–9). e Level of IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells treated with DMSO (blank), LPS, <t>taurocholic</t> <t>acid</t> <t>sodium</t> <t>salt</t> <t>hydrate</t> (TCA), sodium tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) ( n = 3). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. * p
    Taurocholic Acid, supplied by New Zealand Pharmaceuticals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/taurocholic acid/product/New Zealand Pharmaceuticals
    Average 91 stars, based on 7 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    taurocholic acid - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    91/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    85
    Biosynth sodium taurocholate
    Antibiotics regulate cytokines by microbiota-associated metabolites. a – d Plasma levels of IFN-γ ( a ), IL-2( b ), IL-6( c ), and TNF- α( d ) in WT, SF, SFA, SFM, and SFV mice ( n = 6–9). e Level of IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells treated with DMSO (blank), LPS, <t>taurocholic</t> <t>acid</t> <t>sodium</t> <t>salt</t> <t>hydrate</t> (TCA), sodium tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) ( n = 3). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. * p
    Sodium Taurocholate, supplied by Biosynth, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/sodium taurocholate/product/Biosynth
    Average 85 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    sodium taurocholate - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    85/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    92
    Carbosynth sodium taurocholate
    Antibiotics regulate cytokines by microbiota-associated metabolites. a – d Plasma levels of IFN-γ ( a ), IL-2( b ), IL-6( c ), and TNF- α( d ) in WT, SF, SFA, SFM, and SFV mice ( n = 6–9). e Level of IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells treated with DMSO (blank), LPS, <t>taurocholic</t> <t>acid</t> <t>sodium</t> <t>salt</t> <t>hydrate</t> (TCA), sodium tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) ( n = 3). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. * p
    Sodium Taurocholate, supplied by Carbosynth, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/sodium taurocholate/product/Carbosynth
    Average 92 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    sodium taurocholate - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    92/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    85
    Loba Chemie sodium taurocholate
    Antibiotics regulate cytokines by microbiota-associated metabolites. a – d Plasma levels of IFN-γ ( a ), IL-2( b ), IL-6( c ), and TNF- α( d ) in WT, SF, SFA, SFM, and SFV mice ( n = 6–9). e Level of IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells treated with DMSO (blank), LPS, <t>taurocholic</t> <t>acid</t> <t>sodium</t> <t>salt</t> <t>hydrate</t> (TCA), sodium tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) ( n = 3). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. * p
    Sodium Taurocholate, supplied by Loba Chemie, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/sodium taurocholate/product/Loba Chemie
    Average 85 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    sodium taurocholate - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    85/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    86
    GE Healthcare sodium taurocholate
    Antibiotics regulate cytokines by microbiota-associated metabolites. a – d Plasma levels of IFN-γ ( a ), IL-2( b ), IL-6( c ), and TNF- α( d ) in WT, SF, SFA, SFM, and SFV mice ( n = 6–9). e Level of IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells treated with DMSO (blank), LPS, <t>taurocholic</t> <t>acid</t> <t>sodium</t> <t>salt</t> <t>hydrate</t> (TCA), sodium tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) ( n = 3). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. * p
    Sodium Taurocholate, supplied by GE Healthcare, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/sodium taurocholate/product/GE Healthcare
    Average 86 stars, based on 7 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    sodium taurocholate - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    86/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    85
    Avanti Polar sodium taurocholate
    Antibiotics regulate cytokines by microbiota-associated metabolites. a – d Plasma levels of IFN-γ ( a ), IL-2( b ), IL-6( c ), and TNF- α( d ) in WT, SF, SFA, SFM, and SFV mice ( n = 6–9). e Level of IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells treated with DMSO (blank), LPS, <t>taurocholic</t> <t>acid</t> <t>sodium</t> <t>salt</t> <t>hydrate</t> (TCA), sodium tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) ( n = 3). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. * p
    Sodium Taurocholate, supplied by Avanti Polar, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/sodium taurocholate/product/Avanti Polar
    Average 85 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    sodium taurocholate - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    85/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    Biorelevant.com sodium taurocholate
    Antibiotics regulate cytokines by microbiota-associated metabolites. a – d Plasma levels of IFN-γ ( a ), IL-2( b ), IL-6( c ), and TNF- α( d ) in WT, SF, SFA, SFM, and SFV mice ( n = 6–9). e Level of IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells treated with DMSO (blank), LPS, <t>taurocholic</t> <t>acid</t> <t>sodium</t> <t>salt</t> <t>hydrate</t> (TCA), sodium tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) ( n = 3). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. * p
    Sodium Taurocholate, supplied by Biorelevant.com, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/sodium taurocholate/product/Biorelevant.com
    Average 93 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    sodium taurocholate - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    Difco bile salt sodium taurocholate
    Antibiotics regulate cytokines by microbiota-associated metabolites. a – d Plasma levels of IFN-γ ( a ), IL-2( b ), IL-6( c ), and TNF- α( d ) in WT, SF, SFA, SFM, and SFV mice ( n = 6–9). e Level of IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells treated with DMSO (blank), LPS, <t>taurocholic</t> <t>acid</t> <t>sodium</t> <t>salt</t> <t>hydrate</t> (TCA), sodium tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) ( n = 3). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. * p
    Bile Salt Sodium Taurocholate, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/bile salt sodium taurocholate/product/Difco
    Average 93 stars, based on 4 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    bile salt sodium taurocholate - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    Bio Basic Canada taurocholic acid sodium salt natc
    Antibiotics regulate cytokines by microbiota-associated metabolites. a – d Plasma levels of IFN-γ ( a ), IL-2( b ), IL-6( c ), and TNF- α( d ) in WT, SF, SFA, SFM, and SFV mice ( n = 6–9). e Level of IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells treated with DMSO (blank), LPS, <t>taurocholic</t> <t>acid</t> <t>sodium</t> <t>salt</t> <t>hydrate</t> (TCA), sodium tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) ( n = 3). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. * p
    Taurocholic Acid Sodium Salt Natc, supplied by Bio Basic Canada, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/taurocholic acid sodium salt natc/product/Bio Basic Canada
    Average 93 stars, based on 6 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    taurocholic acid sodium salt natc - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    84
    Thermo Fisher sodium taurocholate hydrate
    Antibiotics regulate cytokines by microbiota-associated metabolites. a – d Plasma levels of IFN-γ ( a ), IL-2( b ), IL-6( c ), and TNF- α( d ) in WT, SF, SFA, SFM, and SFV mice ( n = 6–9). e Level of IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells treated with DMSO (blank), LPS, <t>taurocholic</t> <t>acid</t> <t>sodium</t> <t>salt</t> <t>hydrate</t> (TCA), sodium tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) ( n = 3). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. * p
    Sodium Taurocholate Hydrate, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 84/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/sodium taurocholate hydrate/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 84 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    sodium taurocholate hydrate - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    84/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    85
    Toronto Research Chemicals taurocholic acid d5 sodium salt
    Antibiotics regulate cytokines by microbiota-associated metabolites. a – d Plasma levels of IFN-γ ( a ), IL-2( b ), IL-6( c ), and TNF- α( d ) in WT, SF, SFA, SFM, and SFV mice ( n = 6–9). e Level of IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells treated with DMSO (blank), LPS, <t>taurocholic</t> <t>acid</t> <t>sodium</t> <t>salt</t> <t>hydrate</t> (TCA), sodium tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) ( n = 3). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. * p
    Taurocholic Acid D5 Sodium Salt, supplied by Toronto Research Chemicals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/taurocholic acid d5 sodium salt/product/Toronto Research Chemicals
    Average 85 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    taurocholic acid d5 sodium salt - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    85/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Millipore bile salt taurocholate
    Antibiotics regulate cytokines by microbiota-associated metabolites. a – d Plasma levels of IFN-γ ( a ), IL-2( b ), IL-6( c ), and TNF- α( d ) in WT, SF, SFA, SFM, and SFV mice ( n = 6–9). e Level of IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells treated with DMSO (blank), LPS, <t>taurocholic</t> <t>acid</t> <t>sodium</t> <t>salt</t> <t>hydrate</t> (TCA), sodium tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) ( n = 3). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. * p
    Bile Salt Taurocholate, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/bile salt taurocholate/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 5 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    bile salt taurocholate - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    Millipore sodium taurocholic acid
    Antibiotics regulate cytokines by microbiota-associated metabolites. a – d Plasma levels of IFN-γ ( a ), IL-2( b ), IL-6( c ), and TNF- α( d ) in WT, SF, SFA, SFM, and SFV mice ( n = 6–9). e Level of IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells treated with DMSO (blank), LPS, <t>taurocholic</t> <t>acid</t> <t>sodium</t> <t>salt</t> <t>hydrate</t> (TCA), sodium tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) ( n = 3). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. * p
    Sodium Taurocholic Acid, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/sodium taurocholic acid/product/Millipore
    Average 93 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    sodium taurocholic acid - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    90
    Nacalai taurocholic acid sodium salt
    Antibiotics regulate cytokines by microbiota-associated metabolites. a – d Plasma levels of IFN-γ ( a ), IL-2( b ), IL-6( c ), and TNF- α( d ) in WT, SF, SFA, SFM, and SFV mice ( n = 6–9). e Level of IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells treated with DMSO (blank), LPS, <t>taurocholic</t> <t>acid</t> <t>sodium</t> <t>salt</t> <t>hydrate</t> (TCA), sodium tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) ( n = 3). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. * p
    Taurocholic Acid Sodium Salt, supplied by Nacalai, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/taurocholic acid sodium salt/product/Nacalai
    Average 90 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    taurocholic acid sodium salt - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    92
    ICN Biomedicals taurocholic acid sodium salt
    Antibiotics regulate cytokines by microbiota-associated metabolites. a – d Plasma levels of IFN-γ ( a ), IL-2( b ), IL-6( c ), and TNF- α( d ) in WT, SF, SFA, SFM, and SFV mice ( n = 6–9). e Level of IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells treated with DMSO (blank), LPS, <t>taurocholic</t> <t>acid</t> <t>sodium</t> <t>salt</t> <t>hydrate</t> (TCA), sodium tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) ( n = 3). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. * p
    Taurocholic Acid Sodium Salt, supplied by ICN Biomedicals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/taurocholic acid sodium salt/product/ICN Biomedicals
    Average 92 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    taurocholic acid sodium salt - by Bioz Stars, 2020-04
    92/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Time–activity curves in arterial blood (samples) and in liver tissue, intrahepatic bile ducts, and choledochus (dynamic PET/CT) after pretreatment with cholyltaurine and intravenous bolus administration of 11 C-cholylsarcosine (pig 1). CSar = cholylsarcosine.

    Journal: Journal of Nuclear Medicine

    Article Title: [N-Methyl-11C]Cholylsarcosine, a Novel Bile Acid Tracer for PET/CT of Hepatic Excretory Function: Radiosynthesis and Proof-of-Concept Studies in Pigs

    doi: 10.2967/jnumed.111.098731

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Time–activity curves in arterial blood (samples) and in liver tissue, intrahepatic bile ducts, and choledochus (dynamic PET/CT) after pretreatment with cholyltaurine and intravenous bolus administration of 11 C-cholylsarcosine (pig 1). CSar = cholylsarcosine.

    Article Snippet: Cholic acid, cholyltaurine/taurocholate (used as its hydrated sodium salt), glycine methyl ester hydrochloride, 1,2,2,6,6-pentamethylpiperidine, diethyl cyanophosphonate, and dimethylsulfoxide (dry) were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Ltd. and used as received.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Positron Emission Tomography

    Acinar cell necrosis was determined by measuring ATP levels using luciferin/luciferase-based methods. Catalpol suppressed the dose-dependent depletion of ATP in acinar cells induced by infusion of STC ( a ); and increased dose-dependent proliferation of acinar cells by CCK-8 ( b ); Expression of NF-κB p65 in the nucleus, and IκB-α and SOD 1 in the cytoplasm of pancreatic acinar cells was detected via western blot. Lamin-A and β-actin were used as the internal references for nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins, respectively ( c ). Data are presented as means ± SD of three independent experiments. * p

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Catalpol Ameliorates Sodium Taurocholate-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats via Inhibiting Activation of Nuclear Factor Kappa B

    doi: 10.3390/ijms150711957

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Acinar cell necrosis was determined by measuring ATP levels using luciferin/luciferase-based methods. Catalpol suppressed the dose-dependent depletion of ATP in acinar cells induced by infusion of STC ( a ); and increased dose-dependent proliferation of acinar cells by CCK-8 ( b ); Expression of NF-κB p65 in the nucleus, and IκB-α and SOD 1 in the cytoplasm of pancreatic acinar cells was detected via western blot. Lamin-A and β-actin were used as the internal references for nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins, respectively ( c ). Data are presented as means ± SD of three independent experiments. * p

    Article Snippet: Sodium taurocholate (STC), eosin and hematoxylin, lamin-A and β-actin were acquired from Sigma Chemical (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA), and antibodies against NF-κB p65, inhibitory κB (IκB)-α and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD 1) from Abcam (Hong Kong, China).

    Techniques: Luciferase, CCK-8 Assay, Expressing, Western Blot

    Normalized rates of ATP hydrolysis for wild type HsEg5 and Drosophila melanogaster homolog Klp61F as a function of allosteric effector concentration. Basal ATPase rates (ADP/motor/sec) for wild type Drosophila Klp61F ( A ), HsEg5 ( B ), Klp61F-L5 ( C ), and Klp61F-L5-α3 ( D ) were measured in the presence of either STC ( open squares ) or monastrol ( filled black triangles ). The averages from 2–10 measurements and S.E. are normalized against the parent wild type kinesin motors. The monastrol inhibition curves exhibited by Klp61F-WT and both chimeras are indistinguishable (Wilcoxon signed rank test (α= 0.05)). In contrast, the STC inhibition curves exhibited by Klp61F-L5 and Klp61F-L5-α3 are indistinguishable from one another but are significantly different from that of Klp61F-WT (Wilcoxon signed rank test (α = 0.05).

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Loop 5-directed Compounds Inhibit Chimeric Kinesin-5 Motors

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.154989

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Normalized rates of ATP hydrolysis for wild type HsEg5 and Drosophila melanogaster homolog Klp61F as a function of allosteric effector concentration. Basal ATPase rates (ADP/motor/sec) for wild type Drosophila Klp61F ( A ), HsEg5 ( B ), Klp61F-L5 ( C ), and Klp61F-L5-α3 ( D ) were measured in the presence of either STC ( open squares ) or monastrol ( filled black triangles ). The averages from 2–10 measurements and S.E. are normalized against the parent wild type kinesin motors. The monastrol inhibition curves exhibited by Klp61F-WT and both chimeras are indistinguishable (Wilcoxon signed rank test (α= 0.05)). In contrast, the STC inhibition curves exhibited by Klp61F-L5 and Klp61F-L5-α3 are indistinguishable from one another but are significantly different from that of Klp61F-WT (Wilcoxon signed rank test (α = 0.05).

    Article Snippet: The binding affinities of STC (Sigma #164739) and monastrol (Sigma #M8515) for the motor proteins were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) using a VP-ITC instrument (MicroCal).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Size-exclusion Chromatography, Inhibition

    Enthalpy-entropy compensation plots for the binding of allosteric effectors to Kinesin-5 motor domains. The plots for STC ( A ) and monastrol ( B ) binding have slopes of 1.12 and 1.04, respectively. Motors shown include HsEg5 ( square ), Klp61F-L5-α3 ( circle ), and Klp61F-L5 ( triangle ).

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Loop 5-directed Compounds Inhibit Chimeric Kinesin-5 Motors

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.154989

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Enthalpy-entropy compensation plots for the binding of allosteric effectors to Kinesin-5 motor domains. The plots for STC ( A ) and monastrol ( B ) binding have slopes of 1.12 and 1.04, respectively. Motors shown include HsEg5 ( square ), Klp61F-L5-α3 ( circle ), and Klp61F-L5 ( triangle ).

    Article Snippet: The binding affinities of STC (Sigma #164739) and monastrol (Sigma #M8515) for the motor proteins were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) using a VP-ITC instrument (MicroCal).

    Techniques: Binding Assay

    BAs increased p62 and LC3-II protein levels in hepatocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Primary hepatocytes were treated with CA, CDCA, or TCA for 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8h (A) or (B) with different concentrations of BAs for 6h. Whole cell lysates were

    Journal: Toxicological Sciences

    Article Title: Suppression of Autophagic Flux by Bile Acids in Hepatocytes

    doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kft246

    Figure Lengend Snippet: BAs increased p62 and LC3-II protein levels in hepatocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Primary hepatocytes were treated with CA, CDCA, or TCA for 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8h (A) or (B) with different concentrations of BAs for 6h. Whole cell lysates were

    Article Snippet: CA, CDCA, and taurocholic acid (TCA) were obtained from Sigma–Aldrich.

    Techniques:

    BAs did not increase autophagic flux in hepatocytes. A, Primary hepatocytes were treated with 100 µM of CA, CDCA, or TCA with or without CQ (20 µM) for 6h. Total cell lysates were subjected to immunoblot analysis followed by densitometry

    Journal: Toxicological Sciences

    Article Title: Suppression of Autophagic Flux by Bile Acids in Hepatocytes

    doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kft246

    Figure Lengend Snippet: BAs did not increase autophagic flux in hepatocytes. A, Primary hepatocytes were treated with 100 µM of CA, CDCA, or TCA with or without CQ (20 µM) for 6h. Total cell lysates were subjected to immunoblot analysis followed by densitometry

    Article Snippet: CA, CDCA, and taurocholic acid (TCA) were obtained from Sigma–Aldrich.

    Techniques:

    DCA in tauro-conjugated or unconjugated form has the strongest inhibitory effect on P2X4 among the bile acids tested. (A–F) Left panels: Representative whole-cell current traces recorded in human P2X4 expressing oocytes. ATP (10 µM) and bile acids (A: t-DCA; B: DCA; C: t-CDCA; D: CDCA; E: t-CA; F: CA; all in a concentration of 250 µM) were present in the bath solution as indicated by open and filled bars, respectively. Zero current level is indicated by a dotted horizontal line. Right panels: Summary of results from similar experiments as shown in the corresponding left panels. The ATP-activated current integral was calculated in each recording as described in Fig. 1 and normalized to the mean current integral determined in matched control oocytes (i.e., in the absence of bile acids) from the corresponding batch of oocytes (normalized current integral). Mean ± SEM values and individual data points are shown (20 ≤ n ≤ 21; N = 2); *** , *, Significantly different, P

    Journal: The Journal of General Physiology

    Article Title: Bile acids inhibit human purinergic receptor P2X4 in a heterologous expression system

    doi: 10.1085/jgp.201812291

    Figure Lengend Snippet: DCA in tauro-conjugated or unconjugated form has the strongest inhibitory effect on P2X4 among the bile acids tested. (A–F) Left panels: Representative whole-cell current traces recorded in human P2X4 expressing oocytes. ATP (10 µM) and bile acids (A: t-DCA; B: DCA; C: t-CDCA; D: CDCA; E: t-CA; F: CA; all in a concentration of 250 µM) were present in the bath solution as indicated by open and filled bars, respectively. Zero current level is indicated by a dotted horizontal line. Right panels: Summary of results from similar experiments as shown in the corresponding left panels. The ATP-activated current integral was calculated in each recording as described in Fig. 1 and normalized to the mean current integral determined in matched control oocytes (i.e., in the absence of bile acids) from the corresponding batch of oocytes (normalized current integral). Mean ± SEM values and individual data points are shown (20 ≤ n ≤ 21; N = 2); *** , *, Significantly different, P

    Article Snippet: Chemicals Sodium salt of cholic (CA) and tauro-cholic acid (t-CA), deoxycholic (DCA) and tauro-deoxycholic acid (t-DCA), chenodeoxycholic (CDCA) and tauro-chenodeoxycholic acid (t-CDCA), as well as ATP dipotassium salt were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich.

    Techniques: Expressing, Concentration Assay

    Dydio prevents pancreatitis stimuli‐induced mitochondrial dysfunction and Tauro‐induced activation of PI3Kγ/Akt. (A) Representative images of JC‐1 staining (left panel) and quantification of red/green fluorescence intensity (right panel), showing the prevention by Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) of Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), CCK (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 )‐induced dissipation of ΔΨm. (B) ATP levels were measured by luminescence in pancreatic acinar cells treated with Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), CCK (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 ) alone or in combination with Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) for 30 min. Data were normalized to untreated control as 100%. (C) Typical trace showing the inhibitory effect of Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) on Tauro‐induced cytosolic ROS production ([ROS] i ). The effects were quantified at 1500 s and expressed as means ± SEM; n = 5 per condition. # P

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Dihydrodiosgenin protects against experimental acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury through mitochondrial protection and PI3Kγ/Akt inhibition

    doi: 10.1111/bph.14169

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dydio prevents pancreatitis stimuli‐induced mitochondrial dysfunction and Tauro‐induced activation of PI3Kγ/Akt. (A) Representative images of JC‐1 staining (left panel) and quantification of red/green fluorescence intensity (right panel), showing the prevention by Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) of Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), CCK (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 )‐induced dissipation of ΔΨm. (B) ATP levels were measured by luminescence in pancreatic acinar cells treated with Tauro (5 mmol·L −1 ), CCK (100 nmol·L −1 ) or POAEE (50 μmol·L −1 ) alone or in combination with Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) for 30 min. Data were normalized to untreated control as 100%. (C) Typical trace showing the inhibitory effect of Dydio (100 μmol·L −1 ) on Tauro‐induced cytosolic ROS production ([ROS] i ). The effects were quantified at 1500 s and expressed as means ± SEM; n = 5 per condition. # P

    Article Snippet: Diosgenin, sodium taurocholate hydrate (Tauro), caerulein, CCK, palmitoleic acid (POA), hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (HETAB) and tetramethyl benzidine (TMB) were purchased from Sigma‐Aldrich (St. Louis, USA).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Staining, Fluorescence

    Antibiotics regulate cytokines by microbiota-associated metabolites. a – d Plasma levels of IFN-γ ( a ), IL-2( b ), IL-6( c ), and TNF- α( d ) in WT, SF, SFA, SFM, and SFV mice ( n = 6–9). e Level of IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells treated with DMSO (blank), LPS, taurocholic acid sodium salt hydrate (TCA), sodium tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) ( n = 3). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. * p

    Journal: Microbiome

    Article Title: Antibiotic-modulated microbiome suppresses lethal inflammation and prolongs lifespan in Treg-deficient mice

    doi: 10.1186/s40168-019-0751-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antibiotics regulate cytokines by microbiota-associated metabolites. a – d Plasma levels of IFN-γ ( a ), IL-2( b ), IL-6( c ), and TNF- α( d ) in WT, SF, SFA, SFM, and SFV mice ( n = 6–9). e Level of IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells treated with DMSO (blank), LPS, taurocholic acid sodium salt hydrate (TCA), sodium tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA), and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) ( n = 3). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. * p

    Article Snippet: For determining the effect of bile acids on IL-6 expression and cell viability in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells, after 24 h from splitting 3000 cells into one well of 96-well plates, cells were pretreated with taurocholic acid sodium salt hydrate (Sigma), sodium tauroursodeoxycholate (Selleck), and taurochenodeoxycholic acid (Selleck) (5, 25, and 125 μM) for 2 h. Subsequently, the cells were stimulated with 50 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 12 h. Following this, the concentration of IL-6 in the supernatant was measured by IL-6 mouse ELISA kit (Thermo Fisher) and cell viability was measured by TACS XTT cell proliferation assay kit (Trevigen, Inc.).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Secondary bile acids present during C. difficile resistance inhibit spore germination. In vitro spore germination inhibition assays were performed with C. difficile strain VPI 10463 to assess if the secondary bile acids ω-muricholate (ωMCA), hyodeoxycholate (HDCA), ursodeoxycholate (UDCA), lithocholate (LCA), and deoxycholate (DCA) were able to inhibit spore germination with known germinants TCA and DCA. Spores were incubated for 30 min in (A) BHI plus TCA (0.1%) or (B) BHI plus DCA (0.1%) supplemented with a range of secondary bile acids at relevant in vivo concentrations. Positive controls include BHI plus TCA (0.1%) or DCA (0.1%) alone with mock H 2 O and mock ethanol (EthOH) (red bars). A negative control was also used: BHI plus TCA supplemented with CDCA (0.04%) or BHI plus DCA supplemented with CDCA (0.04%), a known inhibitor of spore germination (blue bar). Negative controls include BHI alone without the addition of TCA or DCA. The data presented represent the mean ± standard deviation (SD) from triplicate experiments and were significant compared to the positive controls (A) TCA alone or (B) DCA alone (Student’s t test, *, P

    Journal: mSphere

    Article Title: Antibiotic-Induced Alterations of the Gut Microbiota Alter Secondary Bile Acid Production and Allow for Clostridium difficile Spore Germination and Outgrowth in the Large Intestine

    doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00045-15

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Secondary bile acids present during C. difficile resistance inhibit spore germination. In vitro spore germination inhibition assays were performed with C. difficile strain VPI 10463 to assess if the secondary bile acids ω-muricholate (ωMCA), hyodeoxycholate (HDCA), ursodeoxycholate (UDCA), lithocholate (LCA), and deoxycholate (DCA) were able to inhibit spore germination with known germinants TCA and DCA. Spores were incubated for 30 min in (A) BHI plus TCA (0.1%) or (B) BHI plus DCA (0.1%) supplemented with a range of secondary bile acids at relevant in vivo concentrations. Positive controls include BHI plus TCA (0.1%) or DCA (0.1%) alone with mock H 2 O and mock ethanol (EthOH) (red bars). A negative control was also used: BHI plus TCA supplemented with CDCA (0.04%) or BHI plus DCA supplemented with CDCA (0.04%), a known inhibitor of spore germination (blue bar). Negative controls include BHI alone without the addition of TCA or DCA. The data presented represent the mean ± standard deviation (SD) from triplicate experiments and were significant compared to the positive controls (A) TCA alone or (B) DCA alone (Student’s t test, *, P

    Article Snippet: The bile acids used in all in vitro assays include taurocholic acid sodium salt hydrate (TCA) (Sigma-Aldrich, CAS no. 345909-26-4), sodium deoxycholate (DCA) (Sigma-Aldrich, CAS no. 302-9504), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) (Alfa Aesar, CAS no. 474-25-9), lithocholic acid (LCA) (Sigma-Aldrich, CAS no. 434-13-9), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) (Sigma-Aldrich, CAS no. 128-13-2), ω-muricholic acid (ωMCA) (Steraloids, catalog ID no. C1888-000), hyocholic acid (HCA) (Steraloids, CAS no. 547-75-1), and hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA) (Steraloids, CAS no. 83-49-8).

    Techniques: In Vitro, Inhibition, Incubation, In Vivo, Negative Control, Standard Deviation

    Particle size (top bars), polydispersity index (rhombus symbols), and zeta potential (bottom bars) characterization of the lyophilized cyclosporine A (CsA) lipid nanoparticles measured at different time points during 3 months of stability evaluation. Note: Results are represented by mean value ± standard deviation (n=3). Abbreviations: RT, room temperature; PDI, polydispersity index; LN, lipid nanoparticles; Tw, Tween ® 80; PL, Pluronic ® F127; m, month(s); Lec, L-α-phosphatidylcholine; TC, taurocholic acid sodium salt hydrate.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Lipid nanoparticles for cyclosporine A administration: development, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of their immunosuppression activity

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S90849

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Particle size (top bars), polydispersity index (rhombus symbols), and zeta potential (bottom bars) characterization of the lyophilized cyclosporine A (CsA) lipid nanoparticles measured at different time points during 3 months of stability evaluation. Note: Results are represented by mean value ± standard deviation (n=3). Abbreviations: RT, room temperature; PDI, polydispersity index; LN, lipid nanoparticles; Tw, Tween ® 80; PL, Pluronic ® F127; m, month(s); Lec, L-α-phosphatidylcholine; TC, taurocholic acid sodium salt hydrate.

    Article Snippet: L-α-phosphatidylcholine (Lec) from egg yolk, taurocholic acid sodium salt hydrate (TC), Pluronic® F127 (PL), D-(+)-trehalose dihydrate, formic acid 98% for mass spectroscopy, chloroform (HPLC grade), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Con A were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Co. (St Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Standard Deviation

    Surface characterization of the lipid nanoparticles. Notes: ( A ) N 1s core level spectra of LN Lec:TC formulations: (a) cyclosporine A lipid nanoparticles, (b) blank lipid nanoparticles, (c) cyclosporine A. ( B ) O 1s core level spectra of LN PL:TC formulations: (a) blank and (b) cyclosporine A lipid nanoparticles. Abbreviations: LN, lipid nanoparticles; PL, Pluronic ® F127; N, nitrogen; O, oxygen; Lec, L-α-phosphatidylcholine; TC, taurocholic acid sodium salt hydrate.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Lipid nanoparticles for cyclosporine A administration: development, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of their immunosuppression activity

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S90849

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Surface characterization of the lipid nanoparticles. Notes: ( A ) N 1s core level spectra of LN Lec:TC formulations: (a) cyclosporine A lipid nanoparticles, (b) blank lipid nanoparticles, (c) cyclosporine A. ( B ) O 1s core level spectra of LN PL:TC formulations: (a) blank and (b) cyclosporine A lipid nanoparticles. Abbreviations: LN, lipid nanoparticles; PL, Pluronic ® F127; N, nitrogen; O, oxygen; Lec, L-α-phosphatidylcholine; TC, taurocholic acid sodium salt hydrate.

    Article Snippet: L-α-phosphatidylcholine (Lec) from egg yolk, taurocholic acid sodium salt hydrate (TC), Pluronic® F127 (PL), D-(+)-trehalose dihydrate, formic acid 98% for mass spectroscopy, chloroform (HPLC grade), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Con A were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Co. (St Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques:

    Crystallinity and thermal characterization of the lipid nanoparticles. Notes: ( A ) X-ray diffractograms of: (a) cyclosporine A (CsA), (b) Precirol, (c) LN Lec:TC-Blank, (d) LN Lec:TC-CsA. Gray shadow corresponds to Bragg-spacing. ( B ) Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms of: (a) Precirol, (b) cyclosporine A, (c) L-α-phosphatidylcholine, (d) taurocholic acid sodium salt hydrate, (e) LN Lec:TC-Blank, (f) LN Lec:TC-CsA. Abbreviations: LN, lipid nanoparticles; Lec, L-α-phosphatidylcholine; TC, taurocholic acid sodium salt hydrate.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Lipid nanoparticles for cyclosporine A administration: development, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of their immunosuppression activity

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S90849

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Crystallinity and thermal characterization of the lipid nanoparticles. Notes: ( A ) X-ray diffractograms of: (a) cyclosporine A (CsA), (b) Precirol, (c) LN Lec:TC-Blank, (d) LN Lec:TC-CsA. Gray shadow corresponds to Bragg-spacing. ( B ) Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms of: (a) Precirol, (b) cyclosporine A, (c) L-α-phosphatidylcholine, (d) taurocholic acid sodium salt hydrate, (e) LN Lec:TC-Blank, (f) LN Lec:TC-CsA. Abbreviations: LN, lipid nanoparticles; Lec, L-α-phosphatidylcholine; TC, taurocholic acid sodium salt hydrate.

    Article Snippet: L-α-phosphatidylcholine (Lec) from egg yolk, taurocholic acid sodium salt hydrate (TC), Pluronic® F127 (PL), D-(+)-trehalose dihydrate, formic acid 98% for mass spectroscopy, chloroform (HPLC grade), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Con A were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Co. (St Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques:

    Transmission electron microscopy micrographs and particle size distribution of LN Lec:TC formulations. Note: Blank ( A – C ) and cyclosporine A lipid nanoparticles ( D – F ). Abbreviations: LN, lipid nanoparticles; Lec, L-α-phosphatidylcholine; TC, taurocholic acid sodium salt hydrate.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: Lipid nanoparticles for cyclosporine A administration: development, characterization, and in vitro evaluation of their immunosuppression activity

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S90849

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Transmission electron microscopy micrographs and particle size distribution of LN Lec:TC formulations. Note: Blank ( A – C ) and cyclosporine A lipid nanoparticles ( D – F ). Abbreviations: LN, lipid nanoparticles; Lec, L-α-phosphatidylcholine; TC, taurocholic acid sodium salt hydrate.

    Article Snippet: L-α-phosphatidylcholine (Lec) from egg yolk, taurocholic acid sodium salt hydrate (TC), Pluronic® F127 (PL), D-(+)-trehalose dihydrate, formic acid 98% for mass spectroscopy, chloroform (HPLC grade), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Con A were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Co. (St Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy