sodium deoxycholate Search Results


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  • 99
    Thermo Fisher sodium deoxycholate
    Sodium Deoxycholate, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 4525 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore sodium deoxycholate
    Sodium Deoxycholate, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 34739 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore cholic acid
    Cholic Acid, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 482 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore ripa lysis buffer
    Ripa Lysis Buffer, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 12944 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Nacalai deoxycholate
    Chain form confers attenuated resistance to <t>deoxycholate.</t> GFP-expressing S . Tm ssaV or ssaV amiA amiC mutants were grown in LB or LB plus 0.5 M NaCl, and subsequently were mixed with 1% deoxycholate (DOC), followed by incubation and treatment with PI. The resulting S . Tm cells were placed on a 1.5% agarose pad, sealed under a glass coverslip, and observed by fluorescence microscopy. (A) Representative fluorescence microscopy images. Scale bar, 20 μm. (B) Microscopy quantification of PI-stained cells. Three independent experiments were performed. ns, not significant; * P
    Deoxycholate, supplied by Nacalai, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 72 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Beyotime sodium deoxycholate
    Chain form confers attenuated resistance to <t>deoxycholate.</t> GFP-expressing S . Tm ssaV or ssaV amiA amiC mutants were grown in LB or LB plus 0.5 M NaCl, and subsequently were mixed with 1% deoxycholate (DOC), followed by incubation and treatment with PI. The resulting S . Tm cells were placed on a 1.5% agarose pad, sealed under a glass coverslip, and observed by fluorescence microscopy. (A) Representative fluorescence microscopy images. Scale bar, 20 μm. (B) Microscopy quantification of PI-stained cells. Three independent experiments were performed. ns, not significant; * P
    Sodium Deoxycholate, supplied by Beyotime, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 591 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    FUJIFILM sodium deoxycholate
    Diagram of the preparation of multifunctional composite microcapsules. Ins-SD complex, insulin-sodium <t>deoxycholate</t> complex; PVA, polyvinyl alcohol; PLGA, poly(lactide- co -glycolide); NPs, nanoparticles, HP55, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose phthalate.
    Sodium Deoxycholate, supplied by FUJIFILM, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 250 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Fisher Scientific sodium deoxycholate
    Zeta potentials of docetaxel (DXT)-loaded (5 mg/mL) liposomes and chitosomes. The data are expressed as means ± SD, n = 3. CL—conventional liposome; FL—flexible liposome; T—Tween-80; DP—dicetyl phosphate; NDC—sodium <t>deoxycholate;</t> C—chitosan-coated (0.5 mg/mL).
    Sodium Deoxycholate, supplied by Fisher Scientific, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 149 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Thermo Fisher xylose lysine deoxycholate agar
    Growth of S. marcescens PDL100 and coral commensals in an in vitro coculture on mucus. Starved washed cultures of S. marcescens PDL100 were coinoculated into sterilized mucus with either P. mandapamensis 33C12 or H. meridiana 33E7. Two batches of mucus samples harvested from different A. palmata colonies in the winter of 2007 were used in these assays. Initial inocula were ∼100 CFU ml −1 for all bacteria. After 96 h and 7 days, aliquots were dilution plated onto GASW and LB agar and then patched onto xylose lysine <t>deoxycholate</t> agar (Oxoid) to distinguish between S. marcescens and coral commensals. Growth of the coral commensals is indicated by white bars; growth of S. marcescens PDL100 is indicated by gray bars. Error bars indicate standard errors of three technical replications.
    Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate Agar, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 133 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    Bristol Myers amphotericin b deoxycholate
    Growth of S. marcescens PDL100 and coral commensals in an in vitro coculture on mucus. Starved washed cultures of S. marcescens PDL100 were coinoculated into sterilized mucus with either P. mandapamensis 33C12 or H. meridiana 33E7. Two batches of mucus samples harvested from different A. palmata colonies in the winter of 2007 were used in these assays. Initial inocula were ∼100 CFU ml −1 for all bacteria. After 96 h and 7 days, aliquots were dilution plated onto GASW and LB agar and then patched onto xylose lysine <t>deoxycholate</t> agar (Oxoid) to distinguish between S. marcescens and coral commensals. Growth of the coral commensals is indicated by white bars; growth of S. marcescens PDL100 is indicated by gray bars. Error bars indicate standard errors of three technical replications.
    Amphotericin B Deoxycholate, supplied by Bristol Myers, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 46 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Thermo Fisher charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate agar
    Growth of S. marcescens PDL100 and coral commensals in an in vitro coculture on mucus. Starved washed cultures of S. marcescens PDL100 were coinoculated into sterilized mucus with either P. mandapamensis 33C12 or H. meridiana 33E7. Two batches of mucus samples harvested from different A. palmata colonies in the winter of 2007 were used in these assays. Initial inocula were ∼100 CFU ml −1 for all bacteria. After 96 h and 7 days, aliquots were dilution plated onto GASW and LB agar and then patched onto xylose lysine <t>deoxycholate</t> agar (Oxoid) to distinguish between S. marcescens and coral commensals. Growth of the coral commensals is indicated by white bars; growth of S. marcescens PDL100 is indicated by gray bars. Error bars indicate standard errors of three technical replications.
    Charcoal Cefoperazone Deoxycholate Agar, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 148 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    Thermo Fisher xylose lysine deoxycholate xld agar
    Growth of S. marcescens PDL100 and coral commensals in an in vitro coculture on mucus. Starved washed cultures of S. marcescens PDL100 were coinoculated into sterilized mucus with either P. mandapamensis 33C12 or H. meridiana 33E7. Two batches of mucus samples harvested from different A. palmata colonies in the winter of 2007 were used in these assays. Initial inocula were ∼100 CFU ml −1 for all bacteria. After 96 h and 7 days, aliquots were dilution plated onto GASW and LB agar and then patched onto xylose lysine <t>deoxycholate</t> agar (Oxoid) to distinguish between S. marcescens and coral commensals. Growth of the coral commensals is indicated by white bars; growth of S. marcescens PDL100 is indicated by gray bars. Error bars indicate standard errors of three technical replications.
    Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate Xld Agar, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 115 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Merck KGaA sodium deoxycholate
    Growth of S. marcescens PDL100 and coral commensals in an in vitro coculture on mucus. Starved washed cultures of S. marcescens PDL100 were coinoculated into sterilized mucus with either P. mandapamensis 33C12 or H. meridiana 33E7. Two batches of mucus samples harvested from different A. palmata colonies in the winter of 2007 were used in these assays. Initial inocula were ∼100 CFU ml −1 for all bacteria. After 96 h and 7 days, aliquots were dilution plated onto GASW and LB agar and then patched onto xylose lysine <t>deoxycholate</t> agar (Oxoid) to distinguish between S. marcescens and coral commensals. Growth of the coral commensals is indicated by white bars; growth of S. marcescens PDL100 is indicated by gray bars. Error bars indicate standard errors of three technical replications.
    Sodium Deoxycholate, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 172 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Difco sodium deoxycholic acid
    Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium <t>deoxycholic</t> acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.
    Sodium Deoxycholic Acid, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 39 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Amresco deoxycholate
    Weighted chemical shift difference (Δδ HN ) of the 1 H and 15 N resonances of SipD 39–343 when titrated with (A) <t>deoxycholate,</t> (B) taurodeoxycholate and (C) chenodeoxycholate (Δδ HN = [½ (δ H 2 + 1/25δ
    Deoxycholate, supplied by Amresco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 45 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Merck & Co sodium deoxycholate
    Weighted chemical shift difference (Δδ HN ) of the 1 H and 15 N resonances of SipD 39–343 when titrated with (A) <t>deoxycholate,</t> (B) taurodeoxycholate and (C) chenodeoxycholate (Δδ HN = [½ (δ H 2 + 1/25δ
    Sodium Deoxycholate, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 151 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Chain form confers attenuated resistance to deoxycholate. GFP-expressing S . Tm ssaV or ssaV amiA amiC mutants were grown in LB or LB plus 0.5 M NaCl, and subsequently were mixed with 1% deoxycholate (DOC), followed by incubation and treatment with PI. The resulting S . Tm cells were placed on a 1.5% agarose pad, sealed under a glass coverslip, and observed by fluorescence microscopy. (A) Representative fluorescence microscopy images. Scale bar, 20 μm. (B) Microscopy quantification of PI-stained cells. Three independent experiments were performed. ns, not significant; * P

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: Tat-exported peptidoglycan amidase-dependent cell division contributes to Salmonella Typhimurium fitness in the inflamed gut

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007391

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Chain form confers attenuated resistance to deoxycholate. GFP-expressing S . Tm ssaV or ssaV amiA amiC mutants were grown in LB or LB plus 0.5 M NaCl, and subsequently were mixed with 1% deoxycholate (DOC), followed by incubation and treatment with PI. The resulting S . Tm cells were placed on a 1.5% agarose pad, sealed under a glass coverslip, and observed by fluorescence microscopy. (A) Representative fluorescence microscopy images. Scale bar, 20 μm. (B) Microscopy quantification of PI-stained cells. Three independent experiments were performed. ns, not significant; * P

    Article Snippet: Tm strains grown to the logarithmic growth phase were diluted to 1×106 CFU per ml with different concentrations of magainin 2 (LKT Laboratories, Inc.) or deoxycholate (Nacalai tesque) in sterile LB broth, and incubated for 15 h at 37°C.

    Techniques: Expressing, Incubation, Fluorescence, Microscopy, Staining

    Diagram of the preparation of multifunctional composite microcapsules. Ins-SD complex, insulin-sodium deoxycholate complex; PVA, polyvinyl alcohol; PLGA, poly(lactide- co -glycolide); NPs, nanoparticles, HP55, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose phthalate.

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Multifunctional Composite Microcapsules for Oral Delivery of Insulin

    doi: 10.3390/ijms18010054

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Diagram of the preparation of multifunctional composite microcapsules. Ins-SD complex, insulin-sodium deoxycholate complex; PVA, polyvinyl alcohol; PLGA, poly(lactide- co -glycolide); NPs, nanoparticles, HP55, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose phthalate.

    Article Snippet: Sodium deoxycholate and poly(lactic-co -glycolic acid) (PLGA 75/25, molecular weight of 20 kDa) were purchased from Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd. (Osaka, Japan).

    Techniques:

    Zeta potentials of docetaxel (DXT)-loaded (5 mg/mL) liposomes and chitosomes. The data are expressed as means ± SD, n = 3. CL—conventional liposome; FL—flexible liposome; T—Tween-80; DP—dicetyl phosphate; NDC—sodium deoxycholate; C—chitosan-coated (0.5 mg/mL).

    Journal: Molecules

    Article Title: Chitosan-Coated Flexible Liposomes Magnify the Anticancer Activity and Bioavailability of Docetaxel: Impact on Composition

    doi: 10.3390/molecules24020250

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Zeta potentials of docetaxel (DXT)-loaded (5 mg/mL) liposomes and chitosomes. The data are expressed as means ± SD, n = 3. CL—conventional liposome; FL—flexible liposome; T—Tween-80; DP—dicetyl phosphate; NDC—sodium deoxycholate; C—chitosan-coated (0.5 mg/mL).

    Article Snippet: Sodium deoxycholate, methanol, and acetonitrile (HPLC grade) were purchased from Fisher Scientific Co., (Hampton, NH, USA).

    Techniques:

    Growth of S. marcescens PDL100 and coral commensals in an in vitro coculture on mucus. Starved washed cultures of S. marcescens PDL100 were coinoculated into sterilized mucus with either P. mandapamensis 33C12 or H. meridiana 33E7. Two batches of mucus samples harvested from different A. palmata colonies in the winter of 2007 were used in these assays. Initial inocula were ∼100 CFU ml −1 for all bacteria. After 96 h and 7 days, aliquots were dilution plated onto GASW and LB agar and then patched onto xylose lysine deoxycholate agar (Oxoid) to distinguish between S. marcescens and coral commensals. Growth of the coral commensals is indicated by white bars; growth of S. marcescens PDL100 is indicated by gray bars. Error bars indicate standard errors of three technical replications.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Utilization of Mucus from the Coral Acropora palmata by the Pathogen Serratia marcescens and by Environmental and Coral Commensal Bacteria ▿ and by Environmental and Coral Commensal Bacteria ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.00457-09

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth of S. marcescens PDL100 and coral commensals in an in vitro coculture on mucus. Starved washed cultures of S. marcescens PDL100 were coinoculated into sterilized mucus with either P. mandapamensis 33C12 or H. meridiana 33E7. Two batches of mucus samples harvested from different A. palmata colonies in the winter of 2007 were used in these assays. Initial inocula were ∼100 CFU ml −1 for all bacteria. After 96 h and 7 days, aliquots were dilution plated onto GASW and LB agar and then patched onto xylose lysine deoxycholate agar (Oxoid) to distinguish between S. marcescens and coral commensals. Growth of the coral commensals is indicated by white bars; growth of S. marcescens PDL100 is indicated by gray bars. Error bars indicate standard errors of three technical replications.

    Article Snippet: To differentiate S. marcescens from coral commensals in cocultures, individual colonies were picked from LB and/or GASWA plates and patched onto xylose lysine deoxycholate agar (Oxoid).

    Techniques: In Vitro

    Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

    doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of BK receptor antagonists on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. FR173657 (10–100 mg kg −1 ) was administered orally 1 h prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Hoe140 (30 μg site −1 ) or des-Arg 9 -[Leu 8 ]-BK (1 nmol site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 3–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis are the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P ⩾0.05.

    Article Snippet: Whereas the amounts of kinin released from the higher molecular weight fractions in the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid were almost the same as those in the skin injected with saline, the amount of kinin release from lower molecular weight fractions was markedly less for the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid than for that injected with saline.

    Techniques: Injection, Mouse Assay

    (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

    doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a) Effects of kininase inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Phosphoramidon (30 μg site −1 ) or lisinopril (0.3 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC) into the anterior part of the back of the mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws were counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 7–8 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 30 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. (b) Effects of kininase inhibitors on degradation of BK by skin extract or plasma of mice. Skin extract or plasma was incubated with BK for 10 min at 37°C in the presence or the absence of lisinopril (1 μg ml −1 ). Residual bradykinin in the mixture was measured using BK enzyme immunoassay kit. The ordinate indicates residual amounts of BK in the incubation mixture. Each column represents the mean±s.e.mean. ** P

    Article Snippet: Whereas the amounts of kinin released from the higher molecular weight fractions in the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid were almost the same as those in the skin injected with saline, the amount of kinin release from lower molecular weight fractions was markedly less for the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid than for that injected with saline.

    Techniques: Injection, Mouse Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

    doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dose-response for the scratch-inducing effect of sodium deoxycholic acid. Ten to 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice. The frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 60 min after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline indicated by an open column. * P

    Article Snippet: Whereas the amounts of kinin released from the higher molecular weight fractions in the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid were almost the same as those in the skin injected with saline, the amount of kinin release from lower molecular weight fractions was markedly less for the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid than for that injected with saline.

    Techniques: Injection, Mouse Assay

    Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

    doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid in the kininogen-deficient (B/N-Katholiek) and the normal (B/N-Kitasato) strain of rats. Sodium deoxycholic acid (DC; 100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of female Brown Norway Katholiek (B/N-Ka: kininogens-deficient strain) and Brown Norway Kitasato (B/N-Ki; the normal strain) rats. The frequency of scratching around the injection site by the fore- and hind-paws was counted for 120 min after the injection. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. The numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of rats used. The last two columns indicate the result following administered of FR173657 (10 mg kg −1 ) orally 1 h before the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Comparisons were made with the value from Brown Norway Kitasato rats receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid shown in the left-hand. * P

    Article Snippet: Whereas the amounts of kinin released from the higher molecular weight fractions in the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid were almost the same as those in the skin injected with saline, the amount of kinin release from lower molecular weight fractions was markedly less for the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid than for that injected with saline.

    Techniques: Injection

    Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

    doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Vascular permeability increase due to sodium deoxycholic acid in mouse skin. Mice anaesthetized with Nembutal (50 mg kg −1 ) were administered pontamine sky blue (100 kg mg −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ) intravenously followed by s.c. injections of sodium deoxycholic acid (10–1000 μg site −1 ), BK (0.3–10 nmol site −1 ), or saline alone (100 μl) into the dorsal skin. At 30 min after the injection, mice were sacrificed to quantify the amounts of dye that leaked into the skin as described in the text. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of experiments. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μl of saline. ** P

    Article Snippet: Whereas the amounts of kinin released from the higher molecular weight fractions in the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid were almost the same as those in the skin injected with saline, the amount of kinin release from lower molecular weight fractions was markedly less for the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid than for that injected with saline.

    Techniques: Permeability, Mouse Assay, Injection

    Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

    doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Time course of scratching after s.c. injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Sodium deoxycholic acid (100 μg site −1 ) was injected subcutaneously into the anterior part of the back of male ddY mice under light ether anaesthesia. Each mouse was then placed separately in a cage so that its behaviour could be recorded with an unmanned video camera. Frequency of scratching around the injection site with the fore- and hind-paws was counted for every 5-min period over a 90 min duration after the injection. Each value represents mean±s.e.mean from 9–15 animals.

    Article Snippet: Whereas the amounts of kinin released from the higher molecular weight fractions in the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid were almost the same as those in the skin injected with saline, the amount of kinin release from lower molecular weight fractions was markedly less for the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid than for that injected with saline.

    Techniques: Injection, Mouse Assay

    Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

    Journal: British Journal of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Reduction of sodium deoxycholic acid-induced scratching behaviour by bradykinin B2 receptor antagonists

    doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702296

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of kallikrein inhibitors on scratching induced by sodium deoxycholic acid. Aprotinin (10 mg kg −1 ) was administered intravenously 5 min prior to the injection of 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid (DC). Soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI; 100 μg site −1 ) was subcutaneously injected together with 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid. The frequency of scratching were counted for 60 min after the injection of sodium deoxycholic acid. Each value represents the mean±s.e.mean from 5–15 animals. Numbers in parenthesis indicate the numbers of mice used. Comparisons were made with the value from mice receiving 100 μg of sodium deoxycholic acid alone, indicated by an open column. * P

    Article Snippet: Whereas the amounts of kinin released from the higher molecular weight fractions in the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid were almost the same as those in the skin injected with saline, the amount of kinin release from lower molecular weight fractions was markedly less for the skin injected with sodium deoxycholic acid than for that injected with saline.

    Techniques: Injection, Mouse Assay

    Weighted chemical shift difference (Δδ HN ) of the 1 H and 15 N resonances of SipD 39–343 when titrated with (A) deoxycholate, (B) taurodeoxycholate and (C) chenodeoxycholate (Δδ HN = [½ (δ H 2 + 1/25δ

    Journal: Biochemistry

    Article Title: NMR characterization of the interaction of the Salmonella type III secretion system protein SipD and bile salts

    doi: 10.1021/bi100335u

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Weighted chemical shift difference (Δδ HN ) of the 1 H and 15 N resonances of SipD 39–343 when titrated with (A) deoxycholate, (B) taurodeoxycholate and (C) chenodeoxycholate (Δδ HN = [½ (δ H 2 + 1/25δ

    Article Snippet: For NMR chemical shift mapping, 2D 1 H-15 N TROSY-HSQC ( ) spectra were acquired using 15 N-labeled SipD39–343 that was titrated with varying amounts of deoxycholate (Amresco), chenodeoxycholate (Sigma), taurodeoxycholate (Sigma) or cholate hydrate (Sigma).

    Techniques:

    (A) Overlay of four 2D 1 H- 15 N TROSY spectra of [ 2 H, 15 N, 13 C]-labeled SipD 39–343 with increasing amounts of deoxycholate. Some of the assignments are indicated as well as the noise peaks (*). (B) Expanded regions of the 2D 1 H- 15 N TROSY spectra for

    Journal: Biochemistry

    Article Title: NMR characterization of the interaction of the Salmonella type III secretion system protein SipD and bile salts

    doi: 10.1021/bi100335u

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Overlay of four 2D 1 H- 15 N TROSY spectra of [ 2 H, 15 N, 13 C]-labeled SipD 39–343 with increasing amounts of deoxycholate. Some of the assignments are indicated as well as the noise peaks (*). (B) Expanded regions of the 2D 1 H- 15 N TROSY spectra for

    Article Snippet: For NMR chemical shift mapping, 2D 1 H-15 N TROSY-HSQC ( ) spectra were acquired using 15 N-labeled SipD39–343 that was titrated with varying amounts of deoxycholate (Amresco), chenodeoxycholate (Sigma), taurodeoxycholate (Sigma) or cholate hydrate (Sigma).

    Techniques: Labeling

    Ribbon representation of the crystal structure of SipD 39–343 (to be reported elsewhere). The side chains of residues that showed significant chemical shift perturbation (Δδ HN > 0.03) with deoxycholate were colored red (legend:

    Journal: Biochemistry

    Article Title: NMR characterization of the interaction of the Salmonella type III secretion system protein SipD and bile salts

    doi: 10.1021/bi100335u

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ribbon representation of the crystal structure of SipD 39–343 (to be reported elsewhere). The side chains of residues that showed significant chemical shift perturbation (Δδ HN > 0.03) with deoxycholate were colored red (legend:

    Article Snippet: For NMR chemical shift mapping, 2D 1 H-15 N TROSY-HSQC ( ) spectra were acquired using 15 N-labeled SipD39–343 that was titrated with varying amounts of deoxycholate (Amresco), chenodeoxycholate (Sigma), taurodeoxycholate (Sigma) or cholate hydrate (Sigma).

    Techniques: