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  • 99
    ATCC s mutans atcc 25175
    Effect of emodin on the production of acid by Streptococcus <t>mutans</t> ATCC 25175. The assay was performed three times and data are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. * P
    S Mutans Atcc 25175, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 670 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Difco s mutans
    Activation of sigX-gfp by culture supernatants and pheromones and role of the autoinducer synthases ComC and ComS. ( a ) Culture supernatants were obtained from <t>biofilms</t> of S. <t>mutans</t> and C. albicans cultivated separately or together for 4–24 h
    S Mutans, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 167 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Becton Dickinson s mutans
    Epifluorescent optical microscopy of SWCNTs CSs colonized by Streptococcus <t>mutans.</t> ATCC 25175 T and Pseudomonas <t>aeruginosa</t> ATCC 15692 S. mutans (a) and P. aeruginosa (b) adherent bacteria on SWCNTs CSs after 3 hours of incubation; S. mutans (c) and P. aeruginosa (d) biofilm on SWCNTs CSs after 24 hours of incubation.
    S Mutans, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 153 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Novoprotein s mutans
    ATR of S . <t>mutans</t> JH1005 (A) and UA159 (B) WT and uvrA mutant strains. Mid-log cells were harvested and resuspended in THYE medium, pH 7.5 and 5.0 for unadapted and adapted conditions, respectively. Cells were incubated at <t>37°C</t> for 2 h followed by a 3-h incubation at the killing pH of 3.0. Each data point represents the mean of three independent experiments ± standard deviation.
    S Mutans, supplied by Novoprotein, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 36 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    ATCC s mutans ua159
    S. <t>mutans</t> <t>UA159</t> cells binding to C. albicans SC5314 cells with and without surface-formed GtfB glucans. Cells of C. albicans (with or without surface-formed GtfB glucans) and S. mutans were incubated together (1 h) and then analyzed using DIC and fluorescence
    S Mutans Ua159, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 223 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Germfree Laboratories Inc s mutans
    SloABC and MntH promote growth of S. <t>mutans</t> in Mn-depleted environments. (A) Growth of S. mutans UA159, Δ sloC , Δ mntH, and <t>Δsloc/ΔmntH</t> mutant strains along with the double mutant strain complemented with either sloC or mntH to mid-logarithmic phase (OD 600 ∼0.4) on BHI agar. Overnight cultures were spotted onto BHI agar with or without supplementation with 10 μM Mn. Plates were incubated for 48 hours before image was obtained. (B-G) Growth of UA159, Δ sloC , Δ mntH, and Δsloc/ΔmntH mutant strains in (B) BHI broth, (C) BHI broth supplemented with 75 μM Mn, (D) FMC complete (130 μM Mn), (E) Mn-depleted FMC, (F) Fe-depleted FMC, and (G) Mn- and Fe-depleted FMC. (H) Genetic complementation of the ΔsloC/ΔmntH growth defect in Mn-depleted FMC with either sloC or mntH. The graphs show the average and standard deviations of at least three independent experiments.
    S Mutans, supplied by Germfree Laboratories Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Microbiologics Inc s mutans
    SloABC and MntH promote growth of S. <t>mutans</t> in Mn-depleted environments. (A) Growth of S. mutans UA159, Δ sloC , Δ mntH, and <t>Δsloc/ΔmntH</t> mutant strains along with the double mutant strain complemented with either sloC or mntH to mid-logarithmic phase (OD 600 ∼0.4) on BHI agar. Overnight cultures were spotted onto BHI agar with or without supplementation with 10 μM Mn. Plates were incubated for 48 hours before image was obtained. (B-G) Growth of UA159, Δ sloC , Δ mntH, and Δsloc/ΔmntH mutant strains in (B) BHI broth, (C) BHI broth supplemented with 75 μM Mn, (D) FMC complete (130 μM Mn), (E) Mn-depleted FMC, (F) Fe-depleted FMC, and (G) Mn- and Fe-depleted FMC. (H) Genetic complementation of the ΔsloC/ΔmntH growth defect in Mn-depleted FMC with either sloC or mntH. The graphs show the average and standard deviations of at least three independent experiments.
    S Mutans, supplied by Microbiologics Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 29 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    98
    ATCC s mutans atcc 35668
    The effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus -derived biosurfactant on gtf B / C and ftf genes expression level in immobilized biofilm. S. m = Streptococcus <t>mutans</t> ATCC 35668; 22 is Streptococcus mutans strain 22. The mRNA expression levels were calibrated relative to the control group (in the absence of biosurfactant). The results are expressed as the means and standard errors of duplicate experiments using primers specific for gtf B / C, ftf , and 16S rRNA (normalizing gene).
    S Mutans Atcc 35668, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 98/100, based on 47 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Bio-Serv s mutans
    The equipment required for the study. (a) Cylindrical graduated tubes and funnel. (b) pH strips. (c) Micro tubes, micropipettes and Eppendorf tubes. (d) Eppendorf tubes containing saliva and tris ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid buffer. (e) Realplex software integrated with polymerase chain reaction machine. (f) SYBR green fluorescence chart produced in real-time polymerase chain reaction for amount of Streptococcus <t>mutans</t>
    S Mutans, supplied by Bio-Serv, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    ATCC s mutans atcc 35608
    The equipment required for the study. (a) Cylindrical graduated tubes and funnel. (b) pH strips. (c) Micro tubes, micropipettes and Eppendorf tubes. (d) Eppendorf tubes containing saliva and tris ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid buffer. (e) Realplex software integrated with polymerase chain reaction machine. (f) SYBR green fluorescence chart produced in real-time polymerase chain reaction for amount of Streptococcus <t>mutans</t>
    S Mutans Atcc 35608, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 64 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    ATCC strains s mutans
    The equipment required for the study. (a) Cylindrical graduated tubes and funnel. (b) pH strips. (c) Micro tubes, micropipettes and Eppendorf tubes. (d) Eppendorf tubes containing saliva and tris ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid buffer. (e) Realplex software integrated with polymerase chain reaction machine. (f) SYBR green fluorescence chart produced in real-time polymerase chain reaction for amount of Streptococcus <t>mutans</t>
    Strains S Mutans, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 11 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    96
    ATCC s mutans capm 6067
    The equipment required for the study. (a) Cylindrical graduated tubes and funnel. (b) pH strips. (c) Micro tubes, micropipettes and Eppendorf tubes. (d) Eppendorf tubes containing saliva and tris ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid buffer. (e) Realplex software integrated with polymerase chain reaction machine. (f) SYBR green fluorescence chart produced in real-time polymerase chain reaction for amount of Streptococcus <t>mutans</t>
    S Mutans Capm 6067, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    ACTGene s mutans
    Measurement of the reactivated <t>PFL</t> activities. Shown are results of reactivation of PFL with the cell extracts from the parental strain ( S. <t>mutans</t> GS-5IS3) (A) and with the mixture of both cell extracts from the act and pfl mutants (B). The PFL activity was measured at 30°C, and bars represent means of enzyme activities resulting from two independent experiments. ND, not detected; air, reactivating mixture was exposed to air for 5 min after the 120-min incubation.
    S Mutans, supplied by ACTGene, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 22 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Effect of emodin on the production of acid by Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175. The assay was performed three times and data are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. * P

    Journal: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

    Article Title: Effect of emodin on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans and the development of caries in rats

    doi: 10.3892/etm.2014.1857

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of emodin on the production of acid by Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175. The assay was performed three times and data are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. * P

    Article Snippet: Measurement of the production of acid by S. mutans ATCC 25175 The acid production assay was carried out using previously described methods with slight modifications ( ).

    Techniques:

    Effect of emodin on the (A) insoluble glucan synthesis and (B) glucosyltransferase (Gtf) B activity of Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175. The relative amount (%) of insoluble glucan produced by various concentrations of emodin was determined as compared with the control treatment. The percentage of Gtf B activity was calculated considering the control treatment as 100% Gtf activity. The assay was performed three times and data are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. * P

    Journal: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

    Article Title: Effect of emodin on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans and the development of caries in rats

    doi: 10.3892/etm.2014.1857

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of emodin on the (A) insoluble glucan synthesis and (B) glucosyltransferase (Gtf) B activity of Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175. The relative amount (%) of insoluble glucan produced by various concentrations of emodin was determined as compared with the control treatment. The percentage of Gtf B activity was calculated considering the control treatment as 100% Gtf activity. The assay was performed three times and data are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. * P

    Article Snippet: Measurement of the production of acid by S. mutans ATCC 25175 The acid production assay was carried out using previously described methods with slight modifications ( ).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Produced

    Effect of emodin on the growth of Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175. The bacteria were incubated in tryptic soy broth with or without emodin at 37°C. The optical density of the cells was measured using a spectrophotometer every 1 h for 24 h. The assay was performed three times and data are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. * P

    Journal: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

    Article Title: Effect of emodin on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans and the development of caries in rats

    doi: 10.3892/etm.2014.1857

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of emodin on the growth of Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175. The bacteria were incubated in tryptic soy broth with or without emodin at 37°C. The optical density of the cells was measured using a spectrophotometer every 1 h for 24 h. The assay was performed three times and data are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. * P

    Article Snippet: Measurement of the production of acid by S. mutans ATCC 25175 The acid production assay was carried out using previously described methods with slight modifications ( ).

    Techniques: Incubation, Spectrophotometry

    Specific groups of metabolites influenced respiratory activity of each bacterial community. Principal Coordinate Analysis assisted to explain the grouping trends in the cluster analysis, and highlighted similarities in the respiratory activity among the selected oral bacteria at 24 h (A) and 48 h (B) . Aa, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718); Fn, Fusobacterium nucleatum (ATCC 10953); Pg, Porphyromonas gingivalis (ATCC 33277); Pi, Prevotella intermedia (ATCC 25611); Sm, Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175); Ssob, Streptococcus sobrinus (ATCC 33478); Tf, Tannerella forsythia (ATCC 43037); An, Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 51655); Csput, Capnocytophaga sputigena (ATCC 33612); Sgord, Streptococcus gordonii (ATCC 49818); Avisc, Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 15987); Smitis, Streptococcus mitis (ATCC 49456); Vparv, Veillonella parvula (DSM 2007); Ssang, Streptococcus sanguinis (LMG 14657), and Ssal, Streptococcus salivarius strain TOVE-R.

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: In vitro Increased Respiratory Activity of Selected Oral Bacteria May Explain Competitive and Collaborative Interactions in the Oral Microbiome

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2017.00235

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Specific groups of metabolites influenced respiratory activity of each bacterial community. Principal Coordinate Analysis assisted to explain the grouping trends in the cluster analysis, and highlighted similarities in the respiratory activity among the selected oral bacteria at 24 h (A) and 48 h (B) . Aa, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718); Fn, Fusobacterium nucleatum (ATCC 10953); Pg, Porphyromonas gingivalis (ATCC 33277); Pi, Prevotella intermedia (ATCC 25611); Sm, Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175); Ssob, Streptococcus sobrinus (ATCC 33478); Tf, Tannerella forsythia (ATCC 43037); An, Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 51655); Csput, Capnocytophaga sputigena (ATCC 33612); Sgord, Streptococcus gordonii (ATCC 49818); Avisc, Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 15987); Smitis, Streptococcus mitis (ATCC 49456); Vparv, Veillonella parvula (DSM 2007); Ssang, Streptococcus sanguinis (LMG 14657), and Ssal, Streptococcus salivarius strain TOVE-R.

    Article Snippet: Bacterial cultures and collection The following strains commonly present in the oral microbiome (Aas et al., ; Maddi and Scannapieco, ; Loozen et al., ) were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC): A . actinomycetemcomitans (ATCC 43718), F. nucleatum (ATCC 10953), P. gingivalis (ATCC 33277), P. intermedia (ATCC 25611), S. mutans (ATCC 25175), S. sobrinus (ATCC 33478), T. forsythia (ATCC 43037), Actinomyces naeslundii (ATCC 51655), Capnocytophaga sputigena (ATCC 33612), Streptococcus gordonii (ATCC 49818), Actinomyces viscosus (ATCC 15987), and S. mitis (ATCC 49456).

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Hydrogen peroxide but not pneumolysin causes the α-hemolytic phenotype on blood agar plates. Spn wt strains TIGR4, D39, EF3030, or Δ ply , Δ spxB /Δ lctO mutant derivatives, or S. mutans strain ATCC 25175, was inoculated onto blood agar plates and incubated for 24 h at 37°C in a 5% CO 2 atmosphere. Plates were photographed with a Canon Rebel EOS T5 camera system and digital pictures analyzed. Phenotypes were confirmed at least three times. Bars=2 mm. Inset: Hemolytic halo measured with ImageJ software on at least 25 colonies from images obtained from cultures on blood agar plates of D39 wt or D39 Δ ply ; unpaired Student t test was performed to assess significance; NS=no significant, p > 0.05.

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Hydrogen peroxide production by Streptococcus pneumoniae results in alpha-hemolysis by oxidation of oxy-hemoglobin to met-hemoglobin

    doi: 10.1101/2020.07.23.218966

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Hydrogen peroxide but not pneumolysin causes the α-hemolytic phenotype on blood agar plates. Spn wt strains TIGR4, D39, EF3030, or Δ ply , Δ spxB /Δ lctO mutant derivatives, or S. mutans strain ATCC 25175, was inoculated onto blood agar plates and incubated for 24 h at 37°C in a 5% CO 2 atmosphere. Plates were photographed with a Canon Rebel EOS T5 camera system and digital pictures analyzed. Phenotypes were confirmed at least three times. Bars=2 mm. Inset: Hemolytic halo measured with ImageJ software on at least 25 colonies from images obtained from cultures on blood agar plates of D39 wt or D39 Δ ply ; unpaired Student t test was performed to assess significance; NS=no significant, p > 0.05.

    Article Snippet: Colonies of S. mutans strain ATCC 25175, on blood agar plates, resembled those of the S. pneumoniae isogenic hydrogen peroxide knockout mutants ( ).

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Incubation, Software

    Effect of sub-MICs of triclosan on mRNA expression of specific genes involved in adherence and biofilm formation in S. mutans ATCC 25175. Data are expressed as means ± standard deviations. The expression was normalized to 16S rRNA. Significant increase (*, p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Subinhibitory Concentrations of Triclosan Promote Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Adherence to Oral Epithelial Cells

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089059

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of sub-MICs of triclosan on mRNA expression of specific genes involved in adherence and biofilm formation in S. mutans ATCC 25175. Data are expressed as means ± standard deviations. The expression was normalized to 16S rRNA. Significant increase (*, p

    Article Snippet: Bacteria and Growth Conditions S. mutans ATCC 25175 (serotype c) and ATCC 35668 (unknown) were used in this study.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Scanning electron micrographs of S. mutans ATCC 25175 biofilm following growth in THB-HK (Panel A) supplemented with 1/2 MIC of triclosan (Panel B), or 1/4 MIC of triclosan (Panel C) or sucrose used as a positive control (Panel D).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Subinhibitory Concentrations of Triclosan Promote Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Adherence to Oral Epithelial Cells

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089059

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scanning electron micrographs of S. mutans ATCC 25175 biofilm following growth in THB-HK (Panel A) supplemented with 1/2 MIC of triclosan (Panel B), or 1/4 MIC of triclosan (Panel C) or sucrose used as a positive control (Panel D).

    Article Snippet: Bacteria and Growth Conditions S. mutans ATCC 25175 (serotype c) and ATCC 35668 (unknown) were used in this study.

    Techniques: Positive Control

    Effect of sub-MICs of triclosan on adherence of S. mutans ATCC 25175 to gingival epithelial cells. RFU: Relative Fluorescence Units. Data are expressed as means ± standard deviations. Significant increase (*, p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Subinhibitory Concentrations of Triclosan Promote Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Adherence to Oral Epithelial Cells

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089059

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of sub-MICs of triclosan on adherence of S. mutans ATCC 25175 to gingival epithelial cells. RFU: Relative Fluorescence Units. Data are expressed as means ± standard deviations. Significant increase (*, p

    Article Snippet: Bacteria and Growth Conditions S. mutans ATCC 25175 (serotype c) and ATCC 35668 (unknown) were used in this study.

    Techniques: Fluorescence

    Activation of sigX-gfp by culture supernatants and pheromones and role of the autoinducer synthases ComC and ComS. ( a ) Culture supernatants were obtained from biofilms of S. mutans and C. albicans cultivated separately or together for 4–24 h

    Journal: The ISME Journal

    Article Title: Cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.73

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Activation of sigX-gfp by culture supernatants and pheromones and role of the autoinducer synthases ComC and ComS. ( a ) Culture supernatants were obtained from biofilms of S. mutans and C. albicans cultivated separately or together for 4–24 h

    Article Snippet: C. albicans pre-cultures were grown in yeast nitrogen base (YNB) synthetic medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) supplemented with maltose (1 g l−1 ) and glucose (2 g l−1 ) at 37 °C aerobically with 5% CO2 without shaking for 16 h. The medium that supported growth of S. mutans and C. albicans in biofilms (YNBB) contained YNB (6.7 g l−1 , Difco Laboratories), 75 m M Na2 HPO4 –NaH2 PO4 (pH 7.3), N -acetylglucosamine (2.5 m M , Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany), casamino acids (2 g l−1 , Becton, Dickinson and Company) and sucrose (5 g l−1 ).

    Techniques: Activation Assay

    EPS formation of S. mutans biofilms in conditioned media. S. mutans biofilms were cultivated in conditioned media from 10-h-old single- (left and right panels) and dual-species biofilms (middle panel) for 10 h and analysed by scanning electron

    Journal: The ISME Journal

    Article Title: Cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.73

    Figure Lengend Snippet: EPS formation of S. mutans biofilms in conditioned media. S. mutans biofilms were cultivated in conditioned media from 10-h-old single- (left and right panels) and dual-species biofilms (middle panel) for 10 h and analysed by scanning electron

    Article Snippet: C. albicans pre-cultures were grown in yeast nitrogen base (YNB) synthetic medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) supplemented with maltose (1 g l−1 ) and glucose (2 g l−1 ) at 37 °C aerobically with 5% CO2 without shaking for 16 h. The medium that supported growth of S. mutans and C. albicans in biofilms (YNBB) contained YNB (6.7 g l−1 , Difco Laboratories), 75 m M Na2 HPO4 –NaH2 PO4 (pH 7.3), N -acetylglucosamine (2.5 m M , Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany), casamino acids (2 g l−1 , Becton, Dickinson and Company) and sucrose (5 g l−1 ).

    Techniques:

    Working hypothesis for cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of S. mutans and C. albicans . S. mutans growing in single culture in a biofilm ( a ) forms EPS from sucrose due to the glucosyltransferase exoenzymes. The quorum

    Journal: The ISME Journal

    Article Title: Cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.73

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Working hypothesis for cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of S. mutans and C. albicans . S. mutans growing in single culture in a biofilm ( a ) forms EPS from sucrose due to the glucosyltransferase exoenzymes. The quorum

    Article Snippet: C. albicans pre-cultures were grown in yeast nitrogen base (YNB) synthetic medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) supplemented with maltose (1 g l−1 ) and glucose (2 g l−1 ) at 37 °C aerobically with 5% CO2 without shaking for 16 h. The medium that supported growth of S. mutans and C. albicans in biofilms (YNBB) contained YNB (6.7 g l−1 , Difco Laboratories), 75 m M Na2 HPO4 –NaH2 PO4 (pH 7.3), N -acetylglucosamine (2.5 m M , Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany), casamino acids (2 g l−1 , Becton, Dickinson and Company) and sucrose (5 g l−1 ).

    Techniques:

    Sugar composition of the cultivation medium after 10 h of biofilm growth. Biofilm supernatants were sterile filtered and analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. ( a ) Cultivation medium, ( b ) S. mutans biofilm supernatant, ( c )

    Journal: The ISME Journal

    Article Title: Cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.73

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sugar composition of the cultivation medium after 10 h of biofilm growth. Biofilm supernatants were sterile filtered and analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. ( a ) Cultivation medium, ( b ) S. mutans biofilm supernatant, ( c )

    Article Snippet: C. albicans pre-cultures were grown in yeast nitrogen base (YNB) synthetic medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) supplemented with maltose (1 g l−1 ) and glucose (2 g l−1 ) at 37 °C aerobically with 5% CO2 without shaking for 16 h. The medium that supported growth of S. mutans and C. albicans in biofilms (YNBB) contained YNB (6.7 g l−1 , Difco Laboratories), 75 m M Na2 HPO4 –NaH2 PO4 (pH 7.3), N -acetylglucosamine (2.5 m M , Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany), casamino acids (2 g l−1 , Becton, Dickinson and Company) and sucrose (5 g l−1 ).

    Techniques: Gas Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry

    Uptake of DNA in dual-species biofilms of C. albicans and S. mutans . The reporter strain SMP sigX GFP was cultivated for 10 h alone (top panel) or together with C. albicans (middle and bottom panel). DNA labelled with Cy3 was added, and after incubation

    Journal: The ISME Journal

    Article Title: Cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.73

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Uptake of DNA in dual-species biofilms of C. albicans and S. mutans . The reporter strain SMP sigX GFP was cultivated for 10 h alone (top panel) or together with C. albicans (middle and bottom panel). DNA labelled with Cy3 was added, and after incubation

    Article Snippet: C. albicans pre-cultures were grown in yeast nitrogen base (YNB) synthetic medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) supplemented with maltose (1 g l−1 ) and glucose (2 g l−1 ) at 37 °C aerobically with 5% CO2 without shaking for 16 h. The medium that supported growth of S. mutans and C. albicans in biofilms (YNBB) contained YNB (6.7 g l−1 , Difco Laboratories), 75 m M Na2 HPO4 –NaH2 PO4 (pH 7.3), N -acetylglucosamine (2.5 m M , Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany), casamino acids (2 g l−1 , Becton, Dickinson and Company) and sucrose (5 g l−1 ).

    Techniques: Incubation

    Transcriptional profiling of genes related to sugar metabolism and oxidative stress in dual-species biofilms. Gene expression after 6, 10 and 24 h of biofilm growth of S. mutans in dual-species biofilms with C. albicans compared with expression

    Journal: The ISME Journal

    Article Title: Cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.73

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Transcriptional profiling of genes related to sugar metabolism and oxidative stress in dual-species biofilms. Gene expression after 6, 10 and 24 h of biofilm growth of S. mutans in dual-species biofilms with C. albicans compared with expression

    Article Snippet: C. albicans pre-cultures were grown in yeast nitrogen base (YNB) synthetic medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) supplemented with maltose (1 g l−1 ) and glucose (2 g l−1 ) at 37 °C aerobically with 5% CO2 without shaking for 16 h. The medium that supported growth of S. mutans and C. albicans in biofilms (YNBB) contained YNB (6.7 g l−1 , Difco Laboratories), 75 m M Na2 HPO4 –NaH2 PO4 (pH 7.3), N -acetylglucosamine (2.5 m M , Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany), casamino acids (2 g l−1 , Becton, Dickinson and Company) and sucrose (5 g l−1 ).

    Techniques: Expressing

    Induction of the alternative sigma factor SigX of S. mutans in dual-species biofilms. ( a ) Fluorescence intensity of SMP sigX GFP, a gfp-reporter for sigX expression in S. mutans , grown as a single-species biofilm (grey bars) or together with C. albicans

    Journal: The ISME Journal

    Article Title: Cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.73

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Induction of the alternative sigma factor SigX of S. mutans in dual-species biofilms. ( a ) Fluorescence intensity of SMP sigX GFP, a gfp-reporter for sigX expression in S. mutans , grown as a single-species biofilm (grey bars) or together with C. albicans

    Article Snippet: C. albicans pre-cultures were grown in yeast nitrogen base (YNB) synthetic medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) supplemented with maltose (1 g l−1 ) and glucose (2 g l−1 ) at 37 °C aerobically with 5% CO2 without shaking for 16 h. The medium that supported growth of S. mutans and C. albicans in biofilms (YNBB) contained YNB (6.7 g l−1 , Difco Laboratories), 75 m M Na2 HPO4 –NaH2 PO4 (pH 7.3), N -acetylglucosamine (2.5 m M , Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany), casamino acids (2 g l−1 , Becton, Dickinson and Company) and sucrose (5 g l−1 ).

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Expressing

    Growth and morphology of S. mutans and C. albicans in single- and dual-species biofilms. ( a ) Phase contrast micrograph of a dual-species biofilm. C albicans mainly grows in the hyphal form; some cells growing in the yeast form are also visible. S. mutans

    Journal: The ISME Journal

    Article Title: Cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.73

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth and morphology of S. mutans and C. albicans in single- and dual-species biofilms. ( a ) Phase contrast micrograph of a dual-species biofilm. C albicans mainly grows in the hyphal form; some cells growing in the yeast form are also visible. S. mutans

    Article Snippet: C. albicans pre-cultures were grown in yeast nitrogen base (YNB) synthetic medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) supplemented with maltose (1 g l−1 ) and glucose (2 g l−1 ) at 37 °C aerobically with 5% CO2 without shaking for 16 h. The medium that supported growth of S. mutans and C. albicans in biofilms (YNBB) contained YNB (6.7 g l−1 , Difco Laboratories), 75 m M Na2 HPO4 –NaH2 PO4 (pH 7.3), N -acetylglucosamine (2.5 m M , Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany), casamino acids (2 g l−1 , Becton, Dickinson and Company) and sucrose (5 g l−1 ).

    Techniques:

    Induction of the quorum sensing regulon and late competence genes in dual-species biofilms. Upper panel: schematic view of the quorum sensing regulon of S. mutans )) and differential gene expression

    Journal: The ISME Journal

    Article Title: Cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.73

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Induction of the quorum sensing regulon and late competence genes in dual-species biofilms. Upper panel: schematic view of the quorum sensing regulon of S. mutans )) and differential gene expression

    Article Snippet: C. albicans pre-cultures were grown in yeast nitrogen base (YNB) synthetic medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) supplemented with maltose (1 g l−1 ) and glucose (2 g l−1 ) at 37 °C aerobically with 5% CO2 without shaking for 16 h. The medium that supported growth of S. mutans and C. albicans in biofilms (YNBB) contained YNB (6.7 g l−1 , Difco Laboratories), 75 m M Na2 HPO4 –NaH2 PO4 (pH 7.3), N -acetylglucosamine (2.5 m M , Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany), casamino acids (2 g l−1 , Becton, Dickinson and Company) and sucrose (5 g l−1 ).

    Techniques: Expressing

    Epifluorescent optical microscopy of SWCNTs CSs colonized by Streptococcus mutans. ATCC 25175 T and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15692 S. mutans (a) and P. aeruginosa (b) adherent bacteria on SWCNTs CSs after 3 hours of incubation; S. mutans (c) and P. aeruginosa (d) biofilm on SWCNTs CSs after 24 hours of incubation.

    Journal: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases

    Article Title: Quantitative Evaluation of Bacteria Adherent and in Biofilm on Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube-Coated Surfaces

    doi: 10.1155/2011/291513

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Epifluorescent optical microscopy of SWCNTs CSs colonized by Streptococcus mutans. ATCC 25175 T and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15692 S. mutans (a) and P. aeruginosa (b) adherent bacteria on SWCNTs CSs after 3 hours of incubation; S. mutans (c) and P. aeruginosa (d) biofilm on SWCNTs CSs after 24 hours of incubation.

    Article Snippet: To draw the correlation lines to count S. mutans and P. aeruginosa, serial two-fold dilutions of overnight broth cultures in 1 mL of BT-PR and BT-RZ reagents, respectively, were performed in 24-well plates (BD, Italy) and simultaneously counted using CFU method.

    Techniques: Microscopy, Incubation

    Color switch of BTA reagents and BTA correlation lines, (a)-(b) optical absorbance expressed as optical density versus the wave length in the visible region for BT-PR (a) and BT-RZ (b) reagents. Solid line: optical absorbance of BTA reagent before the switch; dotted line: optical absorbance of BTA reagent after the switch. Inserts: (a) BT-PR reagent color before (left) and after (right) the switch (red and yellow, resp.); (b) BT-RZ reagent color before (left) and after (right) the switch (blue and pink, resp.). (c)-(d) correlation lines correlate the time (hours) for color switch of BT-PR (c) and BT-RZ (d) reagents and log of the initial number N 0 of planktonic Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 T (c) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15692 (d). Correlation lines were described by the following linear equations: y = −0.21 32 x + 7.9597 and r 2 = 0.9899 for S. mutans (c) and y = −0.4675 x + 8.5421 and r 2 = 0.9968 for P. aeruginosa (d).

    Journal: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases

    Article Title: Quantitative Evaluation of Bacteria Adherent and in Biofilm on Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube-Coated Surfaces

    doi: 10.1155/2011/291513

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Color switch of BTA reagents and BTA correlation lines, (a)-(b) optical absorbance expressed as optical density versus the wave length in the visible region for BT-PR (a) and BT-RZ (b) reagents. Solid line: optical absorbance of BTA reagent before the switch; dotted line: optical absorbance of BTA reagent after the switch. Inserts: (a) BT-PR reagent color before (left) and after (right) the switch (red and yellow, resp.); (b) BT-RZ reagent color before (left) and after (right) the switch (blue and pink, resp.). (c)-(d) correlation lines correlate the time (hours) for color switch of BT-PR (c) and BT-RZ (d) reagents and log of the initial number N 0 of planktonic Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 T (c) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15692 (d). Correlation lines were described by the following linear equations: y = −0.21 32 x + 7.9597 and r 2 = 0.9899 for S. mutans (c) and y = −0.4675 x + 8.5421 and r 2 = 0.9968 for P. aeruginosa (d).

    Article Snippet: To draw the correlation lines to count S. mutans and P. aeruginosa, serial two-fold dilutions of overnight broth cultures in 1 mL of BT-PR and BT-RZ reagents, respectively, were performed in 24-well plates (BD, Italy) and simultaneously counted using CFU method.

    Techniques:

    ATR of S . mutans JH1005 (A) and UA159 (B) WT and uvrA mutant strains. Mid-log cells were harvested and resuspended in THYE medium, pH 7.5 and 5.0 for unadapted and adapted conditions, respectively. Cells were incubated at 37°C for 2 h followed by a 3-h incubation at the killing pH of 3.0. Each data point represents the mean of three independent experiments ± standard deviation.

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: uvrA Is an Acid-Inducible Gene Involved in the Adaptive Response to Low pH in Streptococcus mutans

    doi: 10.1128/JB.183.20.5964-5973.2001

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ATR of S . mutans JH1005 (A) and UA159 (B) WT and uvrA mutant strains. Mid-log cells were harvested and resuspended in THYE medium, pH 7.5 and 5.0 for unadapted and adapted conditions, respectively. Cells were incubated at 37°C for 2 h followed by a 3-h incubation at the killing pH of 3.0. Each data point represents the mean of three independent experiments ± standard deviation.

    Article Snippet: Briefly, 4 ml of TH broth was inoculated with each strain of S. mutans and incubated overnight at 37°C.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Incubation, Standard Deviation

    S. mutans UA159 cells binding to C. albicans SC5314 cells with and without surface-formed GtfB glucans. Cells of C. albicans (with or without surface-formed GtfB glucans) and S. mutans were incubated together (1 h) and then analyzed using DIC and fluorescence

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Role of Glucosyltransferase B in Interactions of Candida albicans with Streptococcus mutans and with an Experimental Pellicle on Hydroxyapatite Surfaces ▿ and with an Experimental Pellicle on Hydroxyapatite Surfaces ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.05203-11

    Figure Lengend Snippet: S. mutans UA159 cells binding to C. albicans SC5314 cells with and without surface-formed GtfB glucans. Cells of C. albicans (with or without surface-formed GtfB glucans) and S. mutans were incubated together (1 h) and then analyzed using DIC and fluorescence

    Article Snippet: S. mutans UA159 (ATCC 700610; serotype c), a proven virulent cariogenic dental pathogen selected for genomic sequencing , and C. albicans SC5314, a well-characterized strain whose genome has been sequenced, were used for binding experiments; the C. albicans strain used was kindly provided by Constantine Haidaris (Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center).

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Incubation, Fluorescence

    Lactic acid production by S. mutans biofilms adherent on the disks. Each value is mean ± SD; n = 6 ( * p

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

    doi: 10.3390/ijms150712791

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Lactic acid production by S. mutans biofilms adherent on the disks. Each value is mean ± SD; n = 6 ( * p

    Article Snippet: S. mutans Inoculation and Biofilm Formation The use of S. mutans bacteria (ATCC 700610, UA159, American Type Culture, Manassas, VA, USA) was approved by the State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University.

    Techniques:

    MTT metabolic activity in three groups. Biofilms were grown for 4, 24 and 72 h days using an S. mutans model. Each values is mean ± SD ( n = 6) ( * p

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

    doi: 10.3390/ijms150712791

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MTT metabolic activity in three groups. Biofilms were grown for 4, 24 and 72 h days using an S. mutans model. Each values is mean ± SD ( n = 6) ( * p

    Article Snippet: S. mutans Inoculation and Biofilm Formation The use of S. mutans bacteria (ATCC 700610, UA159, American Type Culture, Manassas, VA, USA) was approved by the State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University.

    Techniques: MTT Assay, Activity Assay

    SEM micrographs of typical biofilms in different groups. Each group name is indicated in the image. Adhesives containing DMADDM could reduce the biofilm growing on the disks. Higher mass fraction of DMADDM could have higher anti-biofilm effect. ( a ) 0% DMADDM group, 4 h; ( b ) 2.5% DMADDM group, 4 h; ( c ) 5% DMADDM group, 4 h; ( d ) 0% DMADDM group, 24 h; ( e ) 2.5% DMADDM group, 24 h; ( f ) 5% DMADDM group, 24 h; ( g ) 0% DMADDM group, 72 h; ( h ) 2.5% DMADDM group, 72 h; ( i ) 5% DMADDM group, 72 h; “ D ”, disk surface without biofilms; the red line indicates S. mutans in chains; Scale bar = 10 μm.

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

    doi: 10.3390/ijms150712791

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SEM micrographs of typical biofilms in different groups. Each group name is indicated in the image. Adhesives containing DMADDM could reduce the biofilm growing on the disks. Higher mass fraction of DMADDM could have higher anti-biofilm effect. ( a ) 0% DMADDM group, 4 h; ( b ) 2.5% DMADDM group, 4 h; ( c ) 5% DMADDM group, 4 h; ( d ) 0% DMADDM group, 24 h; ( e ) 2.5% DMADDM group, 24 h; ( f ) 5% DMADDM group, 24 h; ( g ) 0% DMADDM group, 72 h; ( h ) 2.5% DMADDM group, 72 h; ( i ) 5% DMADDM group, 72 h; “ D ”, disk surface without biofilms; the red line indicates S. mutans in chains; Scale bar = 10 μm.

    Article Snippet: S. mutans Inoculation and Biofilm Formation The use of S. mutans bacteria (ATCC 700610, UA159, American Type Culture, Manassas, VA, USA) was approved by the State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University.

    Techniques:

    (A) Growth curves of the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 (squares) and S. sobrinus CECT 4034 (circles) in the presence (dotted lines) and absence (solid lines) of concentrated supernatant of S. dentisani strain 7746. (B) Growth curves of S. mutans ATCC 25175 in the presence of different size fractions of the 10× concentrated supernatant of S. dentisani 7746. Circles correspond to the fraction > 10 KDa, squares to the 3–10 KDa fraction, and triangles to the fraction

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Health-Associated Niche Inhabitants as Oral Probiotics: The Case of Streptococcus dentisani

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00379

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Growth curves of the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 (squares) and S. sobrinus CECT 4034 (circles) in the presence (dotted lines) and absence (solid lines) of concentrated supernatant of S. dentisani strain 7746. (B) Growth curves of S. mutans ATCC 25175 in the presence of different size fractions of the 10× concentrated supernatant of S. dentisani 7746. Circles correspond to the fraction > 10 KDa, squares to the 3–10 KDa fraction, and triangles to the fraction

    Article Snippet: Similarly, the concentrated supernatant completely inhibited the growth of other S. mutans strains (strains OMZ175 and ATCC 700610, data not shown).

    Techniques:

    SloABC and MntH promote growth of S. mutans in Mn-depleted environments. (A) Growth of S. mutans UA159, Δ sloC , Δ mntH, and Δsloc/ΔmntH mutant strains along with the double mutant strain complemented with either sloC or mntH to mid-logarithmic phase (OD 600 ∼0.4) on BHI agar. Overnight cultures were spotted onto BHI agar with or without supplementation with 10 μM Mn. Plates were incubated for 48 hours before image was obtained. (B-G) Growth of UA159, Δ sloC , Δ mntH, and Δsloc/ΔmntH mutant strains in (B) BHI broth, (C) BHI broth supplemented with 75 μM Mn, (D) FMC complete (130 μM Mn), (E) Mn-depleted FMC, (F) Fe-depleted FMC, and (G) Mn- and Fe-depleted FMC. (H) Genetic complementation of the ΔsloC/ΔmntH growth defect in Mn-depleted FMC with either sloC or mntH. The graphs show the average and standard deviations of at least three independent experiments.

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Manganese uptake, mediated by SloABC and MntH, is essential for the fitness of Streptococcus mutans

    doi: 10.1101/817585

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SloABC and MntH promote growth of S. mutans in Mn-depleted environments. (A) Growth of S. mutans UA159, Δ sloC , Δ mntH, and Δsloc/ΔmntH mutant strains along with the double mutant strain complemented with either sloC or mntH to mid-logarithmic phase (OD 600 ∼0.4) on BHI agar. Overnight cultures were spotted onto BHI agar with or without supplementation with 10 μM Mn. Plates were incubated for 48 hours before image was obtained. (B-G) Growth of UA159, Δ sloC , Δ mntH, and Δsloc/ΔmntH mutant strains in (B) BHI broth, (C) BHI broth supplemented with 75 μM Mn, (D) FMC complete (130 μM Mn), (E) Mn-depleted FMC, (F) Fe-depleted FMC, and (G) Mn- and Fe-depleted FMC. (H) Genetic complementation of the ΔsloC/ΔmntH growth defect in Mn-depleted FMC with either sloC or mntH. The graphs show the average and standard deviations of at least three independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: Further characterization of the ΔsloC , ΔmntH, and ΔsloC ΔmntH strains revealed that Mn transport contributes to the ability of S. mutans to cope with acid and oxidative stresses and to form biofilms in the presence of sucrose.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Incubation

    The effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus -derived biosurfactant on gtf B / C and ftf genes expression level in immobilized biofilm. S. m = Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668; 22 is Streptococcus mutans strain 22. The mRNA expression levels were calibrated relative to the control group (in the absence of biosurfactant). The results are expressed as the means and standard errors of duplicate experiments using primers specific for gtf B / C, ftf , and 16S rRNA (normalizing gene).

    Journal: Dental Research Journal

    Article Title: Lactobacillus rhamnosus biosurfactant inhibits biofilm formation and gene expression of caries-inducing Streptococcus mutans

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus -derived biosurfactant on gtf B / C and ftf genes expression level in immobilized biofilm. S. m = Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668; 22 is Streptococcus mutans strain 22. The mRNA expression levels were calibrated relative to the control group (in the absence of biosurfactant). The results are expressed as the means and standard errors of duplicate experiments using primers specific for gtf B / C, ftf , and 16S rRNA (normalizing gene).

    Article Snippet: The effect of L. rhamnosus biosurfactant on gtfB , gtfC , and ftf genes expression in S. mutans ATCC 35668 and S. mutans 22 biofilm cells was quantified by real-time RT-PCR [ ].

    Techniques: Derivative Assay, Expressing

    Antimicrobial activity (MIC and MBC) of zerumbone against S. mutans. Bacterial inoculum (1 × 10 6 CFU/mL) was treated with different concentrations of zerumbone and incubated at 37 °C for 48 h in anaerobic conditions. After incubation, the bacterial growth was verified by turbidity measurements using spectrophotometer. The results are representative of three independent experiments performed in triplicate and the values are shown in mean ± SD. OD: optical density; MIC: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration; MBC: Minimum bactericidal concentration

    Journal: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Article Title: Zerumbone from Zingiber zerumbet (L.) smith: a potential prophylactic and therapeutic agent against the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans

    doi: 10.1186/s12906-018-2360-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antimicrobial activity (MIC and MBC) of zerumbone against S. mutans. Bacterial inoculum (1 × 10 6 CFU/mL) was treated with different concentrations of zerumbone and incubated at 37 °C for 48 h in anaerobic conditions. After incubation, the bacterial growth was verified by turbidity measurements using spectrophotometer. The results are representative of three independent experiments performed in triplicate and the values are shown in mean ± SD. OD: optical density; MIC: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration; MBC: Minimum bactericidal concentration

    Article Snippet: The zerumbone substance tested in this study demonstrated antimicrobial activity against S. mutans ATCC 35668, showing a MIC value of 250 μg/mL and MBC of 500 μg/mL (Fig. , Additional file : Figure S1).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Incubation, Spectrophotometry, Concentration Assay

    The equipment required for the study. (a) Cylindrical graduated tubes and funnel. (b) pH strips. (c) Micro tubes, micropipettes and Eppendorf tubes. (d) Eppendorf tubes containing saliva and tris ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid buffer. (e) Realplex software integrated with polymerase chain reaction machine. (f) SYBR green fluorescence chart produced in real-time polymerase chain reaction for amount of Streptococcus mutans

    Journal: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research

    Article Title: Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of Cariogenic Streptococcus mutans in Saliva of Oral and Laryngeal Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy: A Clinical Study

    doi: 10.4103/ijabmr.IJABMR_151_19

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The equipment required for the study. (a) Cylindrical graduated tubes and funnel. (b) pH strips. (c) Micro tubes, micropipettes and Eppendorf tubes. (d) Eppendorf tubes containing saliva and tris ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid buffer. (e) Realplex software integrated with polymerase chain reaction machine. (f) SYBR green fluorescence chart produced in real-time polymerase chain reaction for amount of Streptococcus mutans

    Article Snippet: A total of 26 samples showed positive readings in PCR for S. mutans . shows the average value of quantification of S. mutans , salivary pH, and salivary flow rate in Group I and Group II. shows the mean, standard deviation, standard error, and P value of Group I (oral cancer). shows the mean, standard deviation, standard error, and P value of Group II (laryngeal cancer). shows the mean, standard deviation, standard error, and P value comparing the amount of S. mutans, salivary flow rate, and salivary pH before and after radiotherapy between two groups.

    Techniques: Software, Polymerase Chain Reaction, SYBR Green Assay, Fluorescence, Produced, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Measurement of the reactivated PFL activities. Shown are results of reactivation of PFL with the cell extracts from the parental strain ( S. mutans GS-5IS3) (A) and with the mixture of both cell extracts from the act and pfl mutants (B). The PFL activity was measured at 30°C, and bars represent means of enzyme activities resulting from two independent experiments. ND, not detected; air, reactivating mixture was exposed to air for 5 min after the 120-min incubation.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Characterization of the Streptococcus mutans Pyruvate Formate-Lyase (PFL)-Activating Enzyme Gene by Complementary Reconstitution of the In Vitro PFL-Reactivating System

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Measurement of the reactivated PFL activities. Shown are results of reactivation of PFL with the cell extracts from the parental strain ( S. mutans GS-5IS3) (A) and with the mixture of both cell extracts from the act and pfl mutants (B). The PFL activity was measured at 30°C, and bars represent means of enzyme activities resulting from two independent experiments. ND, not detected; air, reactivating mixture was exposed to air for 5 min after the 120-min incubation.

    Article Snippet: Investigations of the enzymatically regulatory mechanisms controlling the production of fermentation end products have revealed that PFL plays a central role in fermentation in S. mutans ( , , ).

    Techniques: Activated Clotting Time Assay, Activity Assay, Incubation

    Multiple alignment of PFL activase sequences. The S. mutans PFL activase sequence was aligned with the S. pyogenes and E. coli sequences (allowing gaps [hyphens]). Identical and similar amino acid residues are indicated by asterisks and colons, respectively, in the consensus sequence. The region of the three-cysteine cluster, which is the catalytic site in the E. coli enzyme, is boxed.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Characterization of the Streptococcus mutans Pyruvate Formate-Lyase (PFL)-Activating Enzyme Gene by Complementary Reconstitution of the In Vitro PFL-Reactivating System

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Multiple alignment of PFL activase sequences. The S. mutans PFL activase sequence was aligned with the S. pyogenes and E. coli sequences (allowing gaps [hyphens]). Identical and similar amino acid residues are indicated by asterisks and colons, respectively, in the consensus sequence. The region of the three-cysteine cluster, which is the catalytic site in the E. coli enzyme, is boxed.

    Article Snippet: Investigations of the enzymatically regulatory mechanisms controlling the production of fermentation end products have revealed that PFL plays a central role in fermentation in S. mutans ( , , ).

    Techniques: Sequencing