s. mutans Search Results


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  • 99
    ATCC s mutans
    Scanning electron microscopy photomicrographs showing the surfaces of tested materials: (1) XT Group, (2) PLUS Group and (3) FUJI Group (columns); (A) Baseline, negative control, (B) <t>S.mutans</t> , (C) <t>L.casei</t> and (D) C.albicans (lines)
    S Mutans, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1188 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Becton Dickinson s mutans
    Epifluorescent optical microscopy of SWCNTs CSs colonized by Streptococcus <t>mutans.</t> ATCC 25175 T and Pseudomonas <t>aeruginosa</t> ATCC 15692 S. mutans (a) and P. aeruginosa (b) adherent bacteria on SWCNTs CSs after 3 hours of incubation; S. mutans (c) and P. aeruginosa (d) biofilm on SWCNTs CSs after 24 hours of incubation.
    S Mutans, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 84 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Difco s mutans
    Activation of sigX-gfp by culture supernatants and pheromones and role of the autoinducer synthases ComC and ComS. ( a ) Culture supernatants were obtained from <t>biofilms</t> of S. <t>mutans</t> and C. albicans cultivated separately or together for 4–24 h
    S Mutans, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 159 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Microbiologics Inc s mutans
    Activation of sigX-gfp by culture supernatants and pheromones and role of the autoinducer synthases ComC and ComS. ( a ) Culture supernatants were obtained from <t>biofilms</t> of S. <t>mutans</t> and C. albicans cultivated separately or together for 4–24 h
    S Mutans, supplied by Microbiologics Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 29 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Novoprotein s mutans
    ATR of S . <t>mutans</t> JH1005 (A) and UA159 (B) WT and uvrA mutant strains. Mid-log cells were harvested and resuspended in THYE medium, pH 7.5 and 5.0 for unadapted and adapted conditions, respectively. Cells were incubated at <t>37°C</t> for 2 h followed by a 3-h incubation at the killing pH of 3.0. Each data point represents the mean of three independent experiments ± standard deviation.
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    ACTGene s mutans
    Measurement of the reactivated <t>PFL</t> activities. Shown are results of reactivation of PFL with the cell extracts from the parental strain ( S. <t>mutans</t> GS-5IS3) (A) and with the mixture of both cell extracts from the act and pfl mutants (B). The PFL activity was measured at 30°C, and bars represent means of enzyme activities resulting from two independent experiments. ND, not detected; air, reactivating mixture was exposed to air for 5 min after the 120-min incubation.
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    Colgate-Palmolive s mutans
    Measurement of the reactivated <t>PFL</t> activities. Shown are results of reactivation of PFL with the cell extracts from the parental strain ( S. <t>mutans</t> GS-5IS3) (A) and with the mixture of both cell extracts from the act and pfl mutants (B). The PFL activity was measured at 30°C, and bars represent means of enzyme activities resulting from two independent experiments. ND, not detected; air, reactivating mixture was exposed to air for 5 min after the 120-min incubation.
    S Mutans, supplied by Colgate-Palmolive, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore s mutans
    Biofilm inhibition assay. Standardized overnight cultures of S. <t>mutans</t> strains ( n = 10) were grown on MBEC pegs incubated with 0.2 mg/mL <t>EGCG</t> in the presence or absence of 80 μg/mL LL-37 for 12, 24, or 36 h at 37 °C. Adherent cells were then fixed with ethanol, stained with crystal violet, eluted with ethanol, and the absorbance was measured. Data are presented as the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. *, significant difference compared with untreated control ( p
    S Mutans, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 113 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Hardy Diagnostics s mutans
    Biofilm inhibition assay. Standardized overnight cultures of S. <t>mutans</t> strains ( n = 10) were grown on MBEC pegs incubated with 0.2 mg/mL <t>EGCG</t> in the presence or absence of 80 μg/mL LL-37 for 12, 24, or 36 h at 37 °C. Adherent cells were then fixed with ethanol, stained with crystal violet, eluted with ethanol, and the absorbance was measured. Data are presented as the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. *, significant difference compared with untreated control ( p
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    DSMZ s mutans
    Biofilm inhibition assay. Standardized overnight cultures of S. <t>mutans</t> strains ( n = 10) were grown on MBEC pegs incubated with 0.2 mg/mL <t>EGCG</t> in the presence or absence of 80 μg/mL LL-37 for 12, 24, or 36 h at 37 °C. Adherent cells were then fixed with ethanol, stained with crystal violet, eluted with ethanol, and the absorbance was measured. Data are presented as the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. *, significant difference compared with untreated control ( p
    S Mutans, supplied by DSMZ, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Promega s mutans
    Biofilm inhibition assay. Standardized overnight cultures of S. <t>mutans</t> strains ( n = 10) were grown on MBEC pegs incubated with 0.2 mg/mL <t>EGCG</t> in the presence or absence of 80 μg/mL LL-37 for 12, 24, or 36 h at 37 °C. Adherent cells were then fixed with ethanol, stained with crystal violet, eluted with ethanol, and the absorbance was measured. Data are presented as the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. *, significant difference compared with untreated control ( p
    S Mutans, supplied by Promega, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 21 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    BioSpec s mutans
    RT-PCR analysis of scRNA in wild-type NG8 and S. <t>mutans</t> mutant AH312. Lanes 1, NG8 cDNA; 2, AH312 cDNA; 3, NG8 total <t>RNA;</t> 4, AH312 total RNA; and 5, NG8 genomic DNA.
    S Mutans, supplied by BioSpec, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 13 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Corning Life Sciences s mutans
    Inhibition ability and competitiveness of wild-type and Pox − mutant of S. sanguinis and S. <t>gordonii</t> . (A) S. sanguinis or S. gordonii or their derivatives were inoculated first and incubated aerobically at 37°C. S. <t>mutans</t> was inoculated 16 h later, and the plates were incubated overnight. a, SK36; b, JKH2 Pox − ; c, JKH2/pDL276-pox; d, DL1; e, JKH1 Pox − ; f, JKH1/pDL276-pox. (B) Growth of S. mutans in sterile conditioned medium from S. sanguinis or S. gordonii cultures. The conditioned medium was prepared from exponentially growing S. sanguinis or S. gordonii cells or their derivatives, filter sterilized, supplemented with 0.25% glucose, and immediately inoculated with S. mutans at a titer of 10 7 bacteria ml −1 . Cells were incubated aerobically at 37°C, and 1 ml was removed to determine the A 600 at the indicated time points. The data presented are representative of two independent experiments with similar results. (C) Competitiveness of S. sanguinis or S. gordonii wild-type and Pox − mutants in submerged dual-species biofilms with S. mutans . Dual-species biofilms were grown in BHI. After overnight growth, the cells were dispersed by vigorous pipetting, serially diluted, and plated. The CFU values for each strain and the standard deviations were calculated from three independent experiments performed on different days. *, P ≤ 0.05. Gray bars, S. sanguinis or S. gordonii ; black line, S. mutans .
    S Mutans, supplied by Corning Life Sciences, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Sigma-Genosys s mutans
    Bacteriocin production by S. <t>mutans</t> GS5 and BM71 is mediated by the <t>CSP.</t>
    S Mutans, supplied by Sigma-Genosys, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Kamiya s mutans
    Bacteriocin production by S. <t>mutans</t> GS5 and BM71 is mediated by the <t>CSP.</t>
    S Mutans, supplied by Kamiya, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Eppendorf AG s mutans
    Bacteriocin production by S. <t>mutans</t> GS5 and BM71 is mediated by the <t>CSP.</t>
    S Mutans, supplied by Eppendorf AG, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Linzer s mutans
    Bacteriocin production by S. <t>mutans</t> GS5 and BM71 is mediated by the <t>CSP.</t>
    S Mutans, supplied by Linzer, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Merck KGaA s mutans
    Bacteriocin production by S. <t>mutans</t> GS5 and BM71 is mediated by the <t>CSP.</t>
    S Mutans, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 28 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Difco s mutans viability
    Bacteriocin production by S. <t>mutans</t> GS5 and BM71 is mediated by the <t>CSP.</t>
    S Mutans Viability, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 80/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher s mutans isolates
    S. <t>mutans</t> identification by species-specific <t>gtfB</t> primer. Lanes 1 to 6: isolates of S. mutans ; lanes 7 and 8 correspond to the positive control ( S. mutans UA 159) and negative control (water), respectively; lane 9: 100-bp DNA ladder.
    S Mutans Isolates, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 87/100, based on 11 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    AnaSpec s mutans transformation
    S. <t>mutans</t> identification by species-specific <t>gtfB</t> primer. Lanes 1 to 6: isolates of S. mutans ; lanes 7 and 8 correspond to the positive control ( S. mutans UA 159) and negative control (water), respectively; lane 9: 100-bp DNA ladder.
    S Mutans Transformation, supplied by AnaSpec, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Spectronics s mutans suspensions
    S. <t>mutans</t> identification by species-specific <t>gtfB</t> primer. Lanes 1 to 6: isolates of S. mutans ; lanes 7 and 8 correspond to the positive control ( S. mutans UA 159) and negative control (water), respectively; lane 9: 100-bp DNA ladder.
    S Mutans Suspensions, supplied by Spectronics, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Graph Pad Software Inc salivary s mutans
    S. <t>mutans</t> identification by species-specific <t>gtfB</t> primer. Lanes 1 to 6: isolates of S. mutans ; lanes 7 and 8 correspond to the positive control ( S. mutans UA 159) and negative control (water), respectively; lane 9: 100-bp DNA ladder.
    Salivary S Mutans, supplied by Graph Pad Software Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    DSMZ s mutans s mutans 20523 serological group c
    S. <t>mutans</t> identification by species-specific <t>gtfB</t> primer. Lanes 1 to 6: isolates of S. mutans ; lanes 7 and 8 correspond to the positive control ( S. mutans UA 159) and negative control (water), respectively; lane 9: 100-bp DNA ladder.
    S Mutans S Mutans 20523 Serological Group C, supplied by DSMZ, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 84/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    bioMerieux 106 s mutans
    S. <t>mutans</t> identification by species-specific <t>gtfB</t> primer. Lanes 1 to 6: isolates of S. mutans ; lanes 7 and 8 correspond to the positive control ( S. mutans UA 159) and negative control (water), respectively; lane 9: 100-bp DNA ladder.
    106 S Mutans, supplied by bioMerieux, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Corning Life Sciences s mutans inoculum
    S. <t>mutans</t> identification by species-specific <t>gtfB</t> primer. Lanes 1 to 6: isolates of S. mutans ; lanes 7 and 8 correspond to the positive control ( S. mutans UA 159) and negative control (water), respectively; lane 9: 100-bp DNA ladder.
    S Mutans Inoculum, supplied by Corning Life Sciences, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Sangon Biotech s mutans transformation
    S. <t>mutans</t> identification by species-specific <t>gtfB</t> primer. Lanes 1 to 6: isolates of S. mutans ; lanes 7 and 8 correspond to the positive control ( S. mutans UA 159) and negative control (water), respectively; lane 9: 100-bp DNA ladder.
    S Mutans Transformation, supplied by Sangon Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Difco s mutans ua130 gbpa
    GTF activity of S. <t>mutans</t> <t>UA130</t> <t>gbpA</t> gtfBC , gbpA , and wt. Equivalent levels of cell-associated proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE and incubated at 37°C in PBS (pH 6.5) containing sucrose and Triton X-100. Gels were photographed against a black background. The positions of SDS-PAGE molecular mass standards are indicated in the left margin. The positions of water-insoluble glucan and fructan are indicated in the right margin. Lanes 1 to 6: contain gbpA gtfBC isolates recovered from six individual gbpA mutant-infected gnotobiotic rats from two separate determinations of cariogenicity. Lanes: 1, B3-B; 2, D2-A; 3, C5-2; 4, C3-2; 5, A6-1; 6, A2-1; 7 to 9, laboratory strains (7, gbpA spontaneous gtfBC ; 8, gbpA ; 9, wt).
    S Mutans Ua130 Gbpa, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 81/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Colgate-Palmolive total against s mutans
    GTF activity of S. <t>mutans</t> <t>UA130</t> <t>gbpA</t> gtfBC , gbpA , and wt. Equivalent levels of cell-associated proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE and incubated at 37°C in PBS (pH 6.5) containing sucrose and Triton X-100. Gels were photographed against a black background. The positions of SDS-PAGE molecular mass standards are indicated in the left margin. The positions of water-insoluble glucan and fructan are indicated in the right margin. Lanes 1 to 6: contain gbpA gtfBC isolates recovered from six individual gbpA mutant-infected gnotobiotic rats from two separate determinations of cariogenicity. Lanes: 1, B3-B; 2, D2-A; 3, C5-2; 4, C3-2; 5, A6-1; 6, A2-1; 7 to 9, laboratory strains (7, gbpA spontaneous gtfBC ; 8, gbpA ; 9, wt).
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    Abcam rabbit polyclonal s mutans antibody
    GTF activity of S. <t>mutans</t> <t>UA130</t> <t>gbpA</t> gtfBC , gbpA , and wt. Equivalent levels of cell-associated proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE and incubated at 37°C in PBS (pH 6.5) containing sucrose and Triton X-100. Gels were photographed against a black background. The positions of SDS-PAGE molecular mass standards are indicated in the left margin. The positions of water-insoluble glucan and fructan are indicated in the right margin. Lanes 1 to 6: contain gbpA gtfBC isolates recovered from six individual gbpA mutant-infected gnotobiotic rats from two separate determinations of cariogenicity. Lanes: 1, B3-B; 2, D2-A; 3, C5-2; 4, C3-2; 5, A6-1; 6, A2-1; 7 to 9, laboratory strains (7, gbpA spontaneous gtfBC ; 8, gbpA ; 9, wt).
    Rabbit Polyclonal S Mutans Antibody, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC s mutans ua159
    (a) Representative three-dimensional images of biofilms formed by S. <t>mutans</t> <t>UA159</t> and gtf mutant strains in the presence of 1% (wt/vol) sucrose. (b) COMSTAT analysis of the distribution of bacteria and EPS from the disk surface to the fluid phase
    S Mutans Ua159, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 202 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Scanning electron microscopy photomicrographs showing the surfaces of tested materials: (1) XT Group, (2) PLUS Group and (3) FUJI Group (columns); (A) Baseline, negative control, (B) S.mutans , (C) L.casei and (D) C.albicans (lines)

    Journal: Journal of Applied Oral Science

    Article Title: Antimicrobial and fluoride release capacity of orthodontic bonding materials

    doi: 10.1590/1679-775720130010

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Scanning electron microscopy photomicrographs showing the surfaces of tested materials: (1) XT Group, (2) PLUS Group and (3) FUJI Group (columns); (A) Baseline, negative control, (B) S.mutans , (C) L.casei and (D) C.albicans (lines)

    Article Snippet: Quantitative analysis of antimicrobial activity The following strains were used in the experiment: S. mutans (ATCC 25175), L. casei (ATCC 4646) and C. albicans (ATCC 10231), kept in BHI broth (Brain Heart Infusion, Himedia, São Paulo, SP, Brazil).

    Techniques: Electron Microscopy, Negative Control

    Expression of genes involved in four metabolic pathways in 24-h S. mutans biofilms. ( a ) Adhesion/biofilm formation; ( b ) EPS synthesis; ( c ) carbohydrate uptake; ( d ) acid tolerance. Fold upregulation or downregulation is depicted in relation to the unsupplemented base medium (control) containing 0.58% glucose. Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval. Statistical significance is denoted by asterisks ( n =10). EPS, extracellular polysaccharide.

    Journal: International Journal of Oral Science

    Article Title: Metabolic activity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and gene expression during exposure to xylitol and sucrose

    doi: 10.1038/ijos.2014.38

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of genes involved in four metabolic pathways in 24-h S. mutans biofilms. ( a ) Adhesion/biofilm formation; ( b ) EPS synthesis; ( c ) carbohydrate uptake; ( d ) acid tolerance. Fold upregulation or downregulation is depicted in relation to the unsupplemented base medium (control) containing 0.58% glucose. Error bars represent the 95% confidence interval. Statistical significance is denoted by asterisks ( n =10). EPS, extracellular polysaccharide.

    Article Snippet: Microbiology (culture, direct counts, CFU, biofilm formation) A 50-µL aliquot of S. mutans cells (ATCC 25175) was inoculated in 5 mL of Schaedler broth (Becton Dickinson, Heidelberg, Germany) and grown for 8 h at 37 °C.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Mean values of biofilm fluorescence activities (vitality, CTC activity, EPS production) in S. mutans biofilm stacks after 24 h from the C (control), S (sucrose) and X (xylitol) conditions. Error bars indicate the 95% confidence interval. Statistical significance is denoted by asterisks ( n =10). Cll, lower limit of the 95% confidence intervals; Clu, upper limit of the 95% confidence intervals; Con A, concanavalin A; CTC, 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride; EPS, extracellular polysaccharide.

    Journal: International Journal of Oral Science

    Article Title: Metabolic activity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and gene expression during exposure to xylitol and sucrose

    doi: 10.1038/ijos.2014.38

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mean values of biofilm fluorescence activities (vitality, CTC activity, EPS production) in S. mutans biofilm stacks after 24 h from the C (control), S (sucrose) and X (xylitol) conditions. Error bars indicate the 95% confidence interval. Statistical significance is denoted by asterisks ( n =10). Cll, lower limit of the 95% confidence intervals; Clu, upper limit of the 95% confidence intervals; Con A, concanavalin A; CTC, 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride; EPS, extracellular polysaccharide.

    Article Snippet: Microbiology (culture, direct counts, CFU, biofilm formation) A 50-µL aliquot of S. mutans cells (ATCC 25175) was inoculated in 5 mL of Schaedler broth (Becton Dickinson, Heidelberg, Germany) and grown for 8 h at 37 °C.

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Activity Assay

    Biofilm fluorescence of the inner, middle, and outer layers in S. mutans biofilms after 24 h of growth in the C (control), S (sucrose) and X (xylitol) media. ( a ) Vitality (live/dead); ( b ) respiratory activity (CTC); ( c ) EPS production (Con A). Error bars depict the 95% confidence interval. Statistical significance is denoted by asterisks ( n =10). Cll, lower limit of the 95% confidence intervals; Clu, upper limit of the 95% confidence intervals; Con A, concanavalin A; CTC, 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride; EPS, extracellular polysaccharide.

    Journal: International Journal of Oral Science

    Article Title: Metabolic activity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and gene expression during exposure to xylitol and sucrose

    doi: 10.1038/ijos.2014.38

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biofilm fluorescence of the inner, middle, and outer layers in S. mutans biofilms after 24 h of growth in the C (control), S (sucrose) and X (xylitol) media. ( a ) Vitality (live/dead); ( b ) respiratory activity (CTC); ( c ) EPS production (Con A). Error bars depict the 95% confidence interval. Statistical significance is denoted by asterisks ( n =10). Cll, lower limit of the 95% confidence intervals; Clu, upper limit of the 95% confidence intervals; Con A, concanavalin A; CTC, 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride; EPS, extracellular polysaccharide.

    Article Snippet: Microbiology (culture, direct counts, CFU, biofilm formation) A 50-µL aliquot of S. mutans cells (ATCC 25175) was inoculated in 5 mL of Schaedler broth (Becton Dickinson, Heidelberg, Germany) and grown for 8 h at 37 °C.

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Activity Assay

    CLSM images (maximum projection) of 24-h S. mutans biofilms on enamel slides. ( a – c ) Vitality (live/dead) of biofilms grown in the control medium, sucrose medium, and xylitol medium; ( d – f ) respiratory activity (CTC) of biofilms grown in the control medium, sucrose medium and xylitol medium; ( g – i ) EPS production (Con A) in biofilms grown in the control medium, sucrose medium and xylitol medium. Con A, concanavalin A; CTC, 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride; EPS, extracellular polysaccharide.

    Journal: International Journal of Oral Science

    Article Title: Metabolic activity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and gene expression during exposure to xylitol and sucrose

    doi: 10.1038/ijos.2014.38

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CLSM images (maximum projection) of 24-h S. mutans biofilms on enamel slides. ( a – c ) Vitality (live/dead) of biofilms grown in the control medium, sucrose medium, and xylitol medium; ( d – f ) respiratory activity (CTC) of biofilms grown in the control medium, sucrose medium and xylitol medium; ( g – i ) EPS production (Con A) in biofilms grown in the control medium, sucrose medium and xylitol medium. Con A, concanavalin A; CTC, 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride; EPS, extracellular polysaccharide.

    Article Snippet: Microbiology (culture, direct counts, CFU, biofilm formation) A 50-µL aliquot of S. mutans cells (ATCC 25175) was inoculated in 5 mL of Schaedler broth (Becton Dickinson, Heidelberg, Germany) and grown for 8 h at 37 °C.

    Techniques: Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Activity Assay

    Effect of AKBA on the biofilm formation (A) and preformed biofilm (B) by S. mutans ATCC 25175 and A. viscosus ATCC 15987 . After incubation, the biofilms were stained with crystal violet and the optical density of stained biofilm was determined with a multidetection microplate reader at a wavelength of 595 nm (OD 595 ). The results are expressed as average optical density readings for crystal violet assays compared to untreated control (without AKBA). The biofilm of S. mutans and A. viscosus were significantly inhibited (A) and reduced (B) when compared with untreated control ( P

    Journal: BMC Research Notes

    Article Title: Acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acid (AKBA); targeting oral cavity pathogens

    doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-406

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of AKBA on the biofilm formation (A) and preformed biofilm (B) by S. mutans ATCC 25175 and A. viscosus ATCC 15987 . After incubation, the biofilms were stained with crystal violet and the optical density of stained biofilm was determined with a multidetection microplate reader at a wavelength of 595 nm (OD 595 ). The results are expressed as average optical density readings for crystal violet assays compared to untreated control (without AKBA). The biofilm of S. mutans and A. viscosus were significantly inhibited (A) and reduced (B) when compared with untreated control ( P

    Article Snippet: AKBA was added at the MIC and 2 × MIC to test tubes containing ≈106 CFU/ml of S. mutans ATCC 25175 in BHI broth.

    Techniques: Incubation, Staining

    Effect of AKBA at different concentrations (8, 16 and 32 μg/ml) on the cell viabilty of S.mutans ATCC 25175 . S. mutans cells without AKBA served as control. The effect of AKBA was observed bacteriostatic at all tested concentrations when compared with non treated control ( P

    Journal: BMC Research Notes

    Article Title: Acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acid (AKBA); targeting oral cavity pathogens

    doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-406

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of AKBA at different concentrations (8, 16 and 32 μg/ml) on the cell viabilty of S.mutans ATCC 25175 . S. mutans cells without AKBA served as control. The effect of AKBA was observed bacteriostatic at all tested concentrations when compared with non treated control ( P

    Article Snippet: AKBA was added at the MIC and 2 × MIC to test tubes containing ≈106 CFU/ml of S. mutans ATCC 25175 in BHI broth.

    Techniques:

    Growth of Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 (A) and Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 33478 (B) in nutrient broth (NB) mixed with the spent culture supernatant from each candidate probiotic strain.

    Journal: Journal of Oral Microbiology

    Article Title: Antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens DD2 against oral pathogens

    doi: 10.1080/20002297.2018.1472985

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth of Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 (A) and Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 33478 (B) in nutrient broth (NB) mixed with the spent culture supernatant from each candidate probiotic strain.

    Article Snippet: The pathogens S. mutans ATCC 25175 and S. sobrinus ATCC 33478 (American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA, USA) were cultured on nutrient agar (Oxoid, Basingstoke, Hampshire, UK) for 24 h at 37°C for two passages and then used for growth curve analysis.

    Techniques:

    Antimicrobial activity (MIC and MBC) of zerumbone against S. mutans. Bacterial inoculum (1 × 10 6 CFU/mL) was treated with different concentrations of zerumbone and incubated at 37 °C for 48 h in anaerobic conditions. After incubation, the bacterial growth was verified by turbidity measurements using spectrophotometer. The results are representative of three independent experiments performed in triplicate and the values are shown in mean ± SD. OD: optical density; MIC: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration; MBC: Minimum bactericidal concentration

    Journal: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Article Title: Zerumbone from Zingiber zerumbet (L.) smith: a potential prophylactic and therapeutic agent against the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans

    doi: 10.1186/s12906-018-2360-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antimicrobial activity (MIC and MBC) of zerumbone against S. mutans. Bacterial inoculum (1 × 10 6 CFU/mL) was treated with different concentrations of zerumbone and incubated at 37 °C for 48 h in anaerobic conditions. After incubation, the bacterial growth was verified by turbidity measurements using spectrophotometer. The results are representative of three independent experiments performed in triplicate and the values are shown in mean ± SD. OD: optical density; MIC: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration; MBC: Minimum bactericidal concentration

    Article Snippet: A recent study tested around two thousand plant extracts from Amazon region, with seventeen extracts displaying antimicrobial activity against S. mutans (ATCC 25175).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Incubation, Spectrophotometry, Concentration Assay

    Epifluorescent optical microscopy of SWCNTs CSs colonized by Streptococcus mutans. ATCC 25175 T and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15692 S. mutans (a) and P. aeruginosa (b) adherent bacteria on SWCNTs CSs after 3 hours of incubation; S. mutans (c) and P. aeruginosa (d) biofilm on SWCNTs CSs after 24 hours of incubation.

    Journal: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases

    Article Title: Quantitative Evaluation of Bacteria Adherent and in Biofilm on Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube-Coated Surfaces

    doi: 10.1155/2011/291513

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Epifluorescent optical microscopy of SWCNTs CSs colonized by Streptococcus mutans. ATCC 25175 T and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15692 S. mutans (a) and P. aeruginosa (b) adherent bacteria on SWCNTs CSs after 3 hours of incubation; S. mutans (c) and P. aeruginosa (d) biofilm on SWCNTs CSs after 24 hours of incubation.

    Article Snippet: To draw the correlation lines to count S. mutans and P. aeruginosa, serial two-fold dilutions of overnight broth cultures in 1 mL of BT-PR and BT-RZ reagents, respectively, were performed in 24-well plates (BD, Italy) and simultaneously counted using CFU method.

    Techniques: Microscopy, Incubation

    Color switch of BTA reagents and BTA correlation lines, (a)-(b) optical absorbance expressed as optical density versus the wave length in the visible region for BT-PR (a) and BT-RZ (b) reagents. Solid line: optical absorbance of BTA reagent before the switch; dotted line: optical absorbance of BTA reagent after the switch. Inserts: (a) BT-PR reagent color before (left) and after (right) the switch (red and yellow, resp.); (b) BT-RZ reagent color before (left) and after (right) the switch (blue and pink, resp.). (c)-(d) correlation lines correlate the time (hours) for color switch of BT-PR (c) and BT-RZ (d) reagents and log of the initial number N 0 of planktonic Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 T (c) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15692 (d). Correlation lines were described by the following linear equations: y = −0.21 32 x + 7.9597 and r 2 = 0.9899 for S. mutans (c) and y = −0.4675 x + 8.5421 and r 2 = 0.9968 for P. aeruginosa (d).

    Journal: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases

    Article Title: Quantitative Evaluation of Bacteria Adherent and in Biofilm on Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube-Coated Surfaces

    doi: 10.1155/2011/291513

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Color switch of BTA reagents and BTA correlation lines, (a)-(b) optical absorbance expressed as optical density versus the wave length in the visible region for BT-PR (a) and BT-RZ (b) reagents. Solid line: optical absorbance of BTA reagent before the switch; dotted line: optical absorbance of BTA reagent after the switch. Inserts: (a) BT-PR reagent color before (left) and after (right) the switch (red and yellow, resp.); (b) BT-RZ reagent color before (left) and after (right) the switch (blue and pink, resp.). (c)-(d) correlation lines correlate the time (hours) for color switch of BT-PR (c) and BT-RZ (d) reagents and log of the initial number N 0 of planktonic Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 T (c) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 15692 (d). Correlation lines were described by the following linear equations: y = −0.21 32 x + 7.9597 and r 2 = 0.9899 for S. mutans (c) and y = −0.4675 x + 8.5421 and r 2 = 0.9968 for P. aeruginosa (d).

    Article Snippet: To draw the correlation lines to count S. mutans and P. aeruginosa, serial two-fold dilutions of overnight broth cultures in 1 mL of BT-PR and BT-RZ reagents, respectively, were performed in 24-well plates (BD, Italy) and simultaneously counted using CFU method.

    Techniques:

    Activation of sigX-gfp by culture supernatants and pheromones and role of the autoinducer synthases ComC and ComS. ( a ) Culture supernatants were obtained from biofilms of S. mutans and C. albicans cultivated separately or together for 4–24 h

    Journal: The ISME Journal

    Article Title: Cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.73

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Activation of sigX-gfp by culture supernatants and pheromones and role of the autoinducer synthases ComC and ComS. ( a ) Culture supernatants were obtained from biofilms of S. mutans and C. albicans cultivated separately or together for 4–24 h

    Article Snippet: C. albicans pre-cultures were grown in yeast nitrogen base (YNB) synthetic medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) supplemented with maltose (1 g l−1 ) and glucose (2 g l−1 ) at 37 °C aerobically with 5% CO2 without shaking for 16 h. The medium that supported growth of S. mutans and C. albicans in biofilms (YNBB) contained YNB (6.7 g l−1 , Difco Laboratories), 75 m M Na2 HPO4 –NaH2 PO4 (pH 7.3), N -acetylglucosamine (2.5 m M , Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany), casamino acids (2 g l−1 , Becton, Dickinson and Company) and sucrose (5 g l−1 ).

    Techniques: Activation Assay

    EPS formation of S. mutans biofilms in conditioned media. S. mutans biofilms were cultivated in conditioned media from 10-h-old single- (left and right panels) and dual-species biofilms (middle panel) for 10 h and analysed by scanning electron

    Journal: The ISME Journal

    Article Title: Cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.73

    Figure Lengend Snippet: EPS formation of S. mutans biofilms in conditioned media. S. mutans biofilms were cultivated in conditioned media from 10-h-old single- (left and right panels) and dual-species biofilms (middle panel) for 10 h and analysed by scanning electron

    Article Snippet: C. albicans pre-cultures were grown in yeast nitrogen base (YNB) synthetic medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) supplemented with maltose (1 g l−1 ) and glucose (2 g l−1 ) at 37 °C aerobically with 5% CO2 without shaking for 16 h. The medium that supported growth of S. mutans and C. albicans in biofilms (YNBB) contained YNB (6.7 g l−1 , Difco Laboratories), 75 m M Na2 HPO4 –NaH2 PO4 (pH 7.3), N -acetylglucosamine (2.5 m M , Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany), casamino acids (2 g l−1 , Becton, Dickinson and Company) and sucrose (5 g l−1 ).

    Techniques:

    Working hypothesis for cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of S. mutans and C. albicans . S. mutans growing in single culture in a biofilm ( a ) forms EPS from sucrose due to the glucosyltransferase exoenzymes. The quorum

    Journal: The ISME Journal

    Article Title: Cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.73

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Working hypothesis for cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of S. mutans and C. albicans . S. mutans growing in single culture in a biofilm ( a ) forms EPS from sucrose due to the glucosyltransferase exoenzymes. The quorum

    Article Snippet: C. albicans pre-cultures were grown in yeast nitrogen base (YNB) synthetic medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) supplemented with maltose (1 g l−1 ) and glucose (2 g l−1 ) at 37 °C aerobically with 5% CO2 without shaking for 16 h. The medium that supported growth of S. mutans and C. albicans in biofilms (YNBB) contained YNB (6.7 g l−1 , Difco Laboratories), 75 m M Na2 HPO4 –NaH2 PO4 (pH 7.3), N -acetylglucosamine (2.5 m M , Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany), casamino acids (2 g l−1 , Becton, Dickinson and Company) and sucrose (5 g l−1 ).

    Techniques:

    Sugar composition of the cultivation medium after 10 h of biofilm growth. Biofilm supernatants were sterile filtered and analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. ( a ) Cultivation medium, ( b ) S. mutans biofilm supernatant, ( c )

    Journal: The ISME Journal

    Article Title: Cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.73

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sugar composition of the cultivation medium after 10 h of biofilm growth. Biofilm supernatants were sterile filtered and analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. ( a ) Cultivation medium, ( b ) S. mutans biofilm supernatant, ( c )

    Article Snippet: C. albicans pre-cultures were grown in yeast nitrogen base (YNB) synthetic medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) supplemented with maltose (1 g l−1 ) and glucose (2 g l−1 ) at 37 °C aerobically with 5% CO2 without shaking for 16 h. The medium that supported growth of S. mutans and C. albicans in biofilms (YNBB) contained YNB (6.7 g l−1 , Difco Laboratories), 75 m M Na2 HPO4 –NaH2 PO4 (pH 7.3), N -acetylglucosamine (2.5 m M , Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany), casamino acids (2 g l−1 , Becton, Dickinson and Company) and sucrose (5 g l−1 ).

    Techniques: Gas Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry

    Uptake of DNA in dual-species biofilms of C. albicans and S. mutans . The reporter strain SMP sigX GFP was cultivated for 10 h alone (top panel) or together with C. albicans (middle and bottom panel). DNA labelled with Cy3 was added, and after incubation

    Journal: The ISME Journal

    Article Title: Cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.73

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Uptake of DNA in dual-species biofilms of C. albicans and S. mutans . The reporter strain SMP sigX GFP was cultivated for 10 h alone (top panel) or together with C. albicans (middle and bottom panel). DNA labelled with Cy3 was added, and after incubation

    Article Snippet: C. albicans pre-cultures were grown in yeast nitrogen base (YNB) synthetic medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) supplemented with maltose (1 g l−1 ) and glucose (2 g l−1 ) at 37 °C aerobically with 5% CO2 without shaking for 16 h. The medium that supported growth of S. mutans and C. albicans in biofilms (YNBB) contained YNB (6.7 g l−1 , Difco Laboratories), 75 m M Na2 HPO4 –NaH2 PO4 (pH 7.3), N -acetylglucosamine (2.5 m M , Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany), casamino acids (2 g l−1 , Becton, Dickinson and Company) and sucrose (5 g l−1 ).

    Techniques: Incubation

    Transcriptional profiling of genes related to sugar metabolism and oxidative stress in dual-species biofilms. Gene expression after 6, 10 and 24 h of biofilm growth of S. mutans in dual-species biofilms with C. albicans compared with expression

    Journal: The ISME Journal

    Article Title: Cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.73

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Transcriptional profiling of genes related to sugar metabolism and oxidative stress in dual-species biofilms. Gene expression after 6, 10 and 24 h of biofilm growth of S. mutans in dual-species biofilms with C. albicans compared with expression

    Article Snippet: C. albicans pre-cultures were grown in yeast nitrogen base (YNB) synthetic medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) supplemented with maltose (1 g l−1 ) and glucose (2 g l−1 ) at 37 °C aerobically with 5% CO2 without shaking for 16 h. The medium that supported growth of S. mutans and C. albicans in biofilms (YNBB) contained YNB (6.7 g l−1 , Difco Laboratories), 75 m M Na2 HPO4 –NaH2 PO4 (pH 7.3), N -acetylglucosamine (2.5 m M , Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany), casamino acids (2 g l−1 , Becton, Dickinson and Company) and sucrose (5 g l−1 ).

    Techniques: Expressing

    Induction of the alternative sigma factor SigX of S. mutans in dual-species biofilms. ( a ) Fluorescence intensity of SMP sigX GFP, a gfp-reporter for sigX expression in S. mutans , grown as a single-species biofilm (grey bars) or together with C. albicans

    Journal: The ISME Journal

    Article Title: Cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.73

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Induction of the alternative sigma factor SigX of S. mutans in dual-species biofilms. ( a ) Fluorescence intensity of SMP sigX GFP, a gfp-reporter for sigX expression in S. mutans , grown as a single-species biofilm (grey bars) or together with C. albicans

    Article Snippet: C. albicans pre-cultures were grown in yeast nitrogen base (YNB) synthetic medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) supplemented with maltose (1 g l−1 ) and glucose (2 g l−1 ) at 37 °C aerobically with 5% CO2 without shaking for 16 h. The medium that supported growth of S. mutans and C. albicans in biofilms (YNBB) contained YNB (6.7 g l−1 , Difco Laboratories), 75 m M Na2 HPO4 –NaH2 PO4 (pH 7.3), N -acetylglucosamine (2.5 m M , Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany), casamino acids (2 g l−1 , Becton, Dickinson and Company) and sucrose (5 g l−1 ).

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Expressing

    Growth and morphology of S. mutans and C. albicans in single- and dual-species biofilms. ( a ) Phase contrast micrograph of a dual-species biofilm. C albicans mainly grows in the hyphal form; some cells growing in the yeast form are also visible. S. mutans

    Journal: The ISME Journal

    Article Title: Cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.73

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth and morphology of S. mutans and C. albicans in single- and dual-species biofilms. ( a ) Phase contrast micrograph of a dual-species biofilm. C albicans mainly grows in the hyphal form; some cells growing in the yeast form are also visible. S. mutans

    Article Snippet: C. albicans pre-cultures were grown in yeast nitrogen base (YNB) synthetic medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) supplemented with maltose (1 g l−1 ) and glucose (2 g l−1 ) at 37 °C aerobically with 5% CO2 without shaking for 16 h. The medium that supported growth of S. mutans and C. albicans in biofilms (YNBB) contained YNB (6.7 g l−1 , Difco Laboratories), 75 m M Na2 HPO4 –NaH2 PO4 (pH 7.3), N -acetylglucosamine (2.5 m M , Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany), casamino acids (2 g l−1 , Becton, Dickinson and Company) and sucrose (5 g l−1 ).

    Techniques:

    Induction of the quorum sensing regulon and late competence genes in dual-species biofilms. Upper panel: schematic view of the quorum sensing regulon of S. mutans )) and differential gene expression

    Journal: The ISME Journal

    Article Title: Cross-feeding and interkingdom communication in dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.73

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Induction of the quorum sensing regulon and late competence genes in dual-species biofilms. Upper panel: schematic view of the quorum sensing regulon of S. mutans )) and differential gene expression

    Article Snippet: C. albicans pre-cultures were grown in yeast nitrogen base (YNB) synthetic medium (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI, USA) supplemented with maltose (1 g l−1 ) and glucose (2 g l−1 ) at 37 °C aerobically with 5% CO2 without shaking for 16 h. The medium that supported growth of S. mutans and C. albicans in biofilms (YNBB) contained YNB (6.7 g l−1 , Difco Laboratories), 75 m M Na2 HPO4 –NaH2 PO4 (pH 7.3), N -acetylglucosamine (2.5 m M , Sigma-Aldrich, Taufkirchen, Germany), casamino acids (2 g l−1 , Becton, Dickinson and Company) and sucrose (5 g l−1 ).

    Techniques: Expressing

    ATR of S . mutans JH1005 (A) and UA159 (B) WT and uvrA mutant strains. Mid-log cells were harvested and resuspended in THYE medium, pH 7.5 and 5.0 for unadapted and adapted conditions, respectively. Cells were incubated at 37°C for 2 h followed by a 3-h incubation at the killing pH of 3.0. Each data point represents the mean of three independent experiments ± standard deviation.

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: uvrA Is an Acid-Inducible Gene Involved in the Adaptive Response to Low pH in Streptococcus mutans

    doi: 10.1128/JB.183.20.5964-5973.2001

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ATR of S . mutans JH1005 (A) and UA159 (B) WT and uvrA mutant strains. Mid-log cells were harvested and resuspended in THYE medium, pH 7.5 and 5.0 for unadapted and adapted conditions, respectively. Cells were incubated at 37°C for 2 h followed by a 3-h incubation at the killing pH of 3.0. Each data point represents the mean of three independent experiments ± standard deviation.

    Article Snippet: Briefly, 4 ml of TH broth was inoculated with each strain of S. mutans and incubated overnight at 37°C.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Incubation, Standard Deviation

    Measurement of the reactivated PFL activities. Shown are results of reactivation of PFL with the cell extracts from the parental strain ( S. mutans GS-5IS3) (A) and with the mixture of both cell extracts from the act and pfl mutants (B). The PFL activity was measured at 30°C, and bars represent means of enzyme activities resulting from two independent experiments. ND, not detected; air, reactivating mixture was exposed to air for 5 min after the 120-min incubation.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Characterization of the Streptococcus mutans Pyruvate Formate-Lyase (PFL)-Activating Enzyme Gene by Complementary Reconstitution of the In Vitro PFL-Reactivating System

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Measurement of the reactivated PFL activities. Shown are results of reactivation of PFL with the cell extracts from the parental strain ( S. mutans GS-5IS3) (A) and with the mixture of both cell extracts from the act and pfl mutants (B). The PFL activity was measured at 30°C, and bars represent means of enzyme activities resulting from two independent experiments. ND, not detected; air, reactivating mixture was exposed to air for 5 min after the 120-min incubation.

    Article Snippet: Investigations of the enzymatically regulatory mechanisms controlling the production of fermentation end products have revealed that PFL plays a central role in fermentation in S. mutans ( , , ).

    Techniques: Activated Clotting Time Assay, Activity Assay, Incubation

    Multiple alignment of PFL activase sequences. The S. mutans PFL activase sequence was aligned with the S. pyogenes and E. coli sequences (allowing gaps [hyphens]). Identical and similar amino acid residues are indicated by asterisks and colons, respectively, in the consensus sequence. The region of the three-cysteine cluster, which is the catalytic site in the E. coli enzyme, is boxed.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Characterization of the Streptococcus mutans Pyruvate Formate-Lyase (PFL)-Activating Enzyme Gene by Complementary Reconstitution of the In Vitro PFL-Reactivating System

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Multiple alignment of PFL activase sequences. The S. mutans PFL activase sequence was aligned with the S. pyogenes and E. coli sequences (allowing gaps [hyphens]). Identical and similar amino acid residues are indicated by asterisks and colons, respectively, in the consensus sequence. The region of the three-cysteine cluster, which is the catalytic site in the E. coli enzyme, is boxed.

    Article Snippet: Investigations of the enzymatically regulatory mechanisms controlling the production of fermentation end products have revealed that PFL plays a central role in fermentation in S. mutans ( , , ).

    Techniques: Sequencing

    Biofilm inhibition assay. Standardized overnight cultures of S. mutans strains ( n = 10) were grown on MBEC pegs incubated with 0.2 mg/mL EGCG in the presence or absence of 80 μg/mL LL-37 for 12, 24, or 36 h at 37 °C. Adherent cells were then fixed with ethanol, stained with crystal violet, eluted with ethanol, and the absorbance was measured. Data are presented as the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. *, significant difference compared with untreated control ( p

    Journal: BMC Oral Health

    Article Title: Human cathelicidin LL-37 enhance the antibiofilm effect of EGCG on Streptococcus mutans

    doi: 10.1186/s12903-016-0292-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biofilm inhibition assay. Standardized overnight cultures of S. mutans strains ( n = 10) were grown on MBEC pegs incubated with 0.2 mg/mL EGCG in the presence or absence of 80 μg/mL LL-37 for 12, 24, or 36 h at 37 °C. Adherent cells were then fixed with ethanol, stained with crystal violet, eluted with ethanol, and the absorbance was measured. Data are presented as the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. *, significant difference compared with untreated control ( p

    Article Snippet: EGCG was used as a ligand and LTA from S. mutans (L4152; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) was used as an analyst.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Incubation, Staining

    Changes in number of planktonic cells and preformed biofilms following incubation of EGCG with/without LL-37. Representative images of bacterial cells observed by field emission-scanning electron microscope (working distance: 10 mm, field width: 5 μm) are shown. Streptococcus mutans suspensions incubated in the presence ( a ) or absence ( b ) of 0.2 mg/mL EGCG for 24 h. Streptococcus mutans biofilms on MBEC pegs incubated with 0.2 mg/mL EGCG ( c ), 0.2 mg/mL EGCG, and 80 μg/mL LL-37 ( d ), or BHI medium ( e ) for 24 h. The white arrow indicates the “ring” phenomena around damaged cells

    Journal: BMC Oral Health

    Article Title: Human cathelicidin LL-37 enhance the antibiofilm effect of EGCG on Streptococcus mutans

    doi: 10.1186/s12903-016-0292-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Changes in number of planktonic cells and preformed biofilms following incubation of EGCG with/without LL-37. Representative images of bacterial cells observed by field emission-scanning electron microscope (working distance: 10 mm, field width: 5 μm) are shown. Streptococcus mutans suspensions incubated in the presence ( a ) or absence ( b ) of 0.2 mg/mL EGCG for 24 h. Streptococcus mutans biofilms on MBEC pegs incubated with 0.2 mg/mL EGCG ( c ), 0.2 mg/mL EGCG, and 80 μg/mL LL-37 ( d ), or BHI medium ( e ) for 24 h. The white arrow indicates the “ring” phenomena around damaged cells

    Article Snippet: EGCG was used as a ligand and LTA from S. mutans (L4152; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) was used as an analyst.

    Techniques: Incubation, Microscopy

    Biofilm susceptibility assays. Standardized overnight cultures of S. mutans strains grown on MBEC pegs and incubated overnight at 37 °C to form mature biofilms. The pegs were immersed in wells containing 0.2 mg/mL EGCG in the presence or absence of 80 μg/mL LL-37 for 3 and 5 h to allow the biofilm to disperse from the pegs to the wells below, and the absorbance was measured. Data are presented as the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. *, significant difference compared with untreated control ( p

    Journal: BMC Oral Health

    Article Title: Human cathelicidin LL-37 enhance the antibiofilm effect of EGCG on Streptococcus mutans

    doi: 10.1186/s12903-016-0292-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biofilm susceptibility assays. Standardized overnight cultures of S. mutans strains grown on MBEC pegs and incubated overnight at 37 °C to form mature biofilms. The pegs were immersed in wells containing 0.2 mg/mL EGCG in the presence or absence of 80 μg/mL LL-37 for 3 and 5 h to allow the biofilm to disperse from the pegs to the wells below, and the absorbance was measured. Data are presented as the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. *, significant difference compared with untreated control ( p

    Article Snippet: EGCG was used as a ligand and LTA from S. mutans (L4152; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) was used as an analyst.

    Techniques: Incubation

    Short-term killing assays for EGCG against S. mutans ( n = 10). Standardized overnight cultures of S. mutans strains (3000 CFU/mL) were seeded in a 96-well microtiter plate with varying concentrations of EGCG and incubated for 3 and 5 h at 37 °C. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM from three independent experiments. *, significant difference compared with untreated control ( p

    Journal: BMC Oral Health

    Article Title: Human cathelicidin LL-37 enhance the antibiofilm effect of EGCG on Streptococcus mutans

    doi: 10.1186/s12903-016-0292-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Short-term killing assays for EGCG against S. mutans ( n = 10). Standardized overnight cultures of S. mutans strains (3000 CFU/mL) were seeded in a 96-well microtiter plate with varying concentrations of EGCG and incubated for 3 and 5 h at 37 °C. Data are presented as the mean ± SEM from three independent experiments. *, significant difference compared with untreated control ( p

    Article Snippet: EGCG was used as a ligand and LTA from S. mutans (L4152; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) was used as an analyst.

    Techniques: Incubation

    Interaction among EGCG, LL-37, and LTA of S. mutans . Graphs show the change in delta frequency after injecting LTA and/or LL-37 on the sensor of quartz crystal microbalance. Five microliters of LTA (1 mg/mL) and/or LL-37 (8 mg/mL) were injected. The final concentrations of LTA and LL-37 were 10 and 80 μg/mL, respectively. LTA without initially binding EGCG was injected on the sensor as a control. Data presented are representative of three independent experiments with similar results

    Journal: BMC Oral Health

    Article Title: Human cathelicidin LL-37 enhance the antibiofilm effect of EGCG on Streptococcus mutans

    doi: 10.1186/s12903-016-0292-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Interaction among EGCG, LL-37, and LTA of S. mutans . Graphs show the change in delta frequency after injecting LTA and/or LL-37 on the sensor of quartz crystal microbalance. Five microliters of LTA (1 mg/mL) and/or LL-37 (8 mg/mL) were injected. The final concentrations of LTA and LL-37 were 10 and 80 μg/mL, respectively. LTA without initially binding EGCG was injected on the sensor as a control. Data presented are representative of three independent experiments with similar results

    Article Snippet: EGCG was used as a ligand and LTA from S. mutans (L4152; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) was used as an analyst.

    Techniques: Injection, Binding Assay

    RT-PCR analysis of scRNA in wild-type NG8 and S. mutans mutant AH312. Lanes 1, NG8 cDNA; 2, AH312 cDNA; 3, NG8 total RNA; 4, AH312 total RNA; and 5, NG8 genomic DNA.

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Streptococcal viability and diminished stress tolerance in mutants lacking the signal recognition particle pathway or YidC2

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.0508778102

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RT-PCR analysis of scRNA in wild-type NG8 and S. mutans mutant AH312. Lanes 1, NG8 cDNA; 2, AH312 cDNA; 3, NG8 total RNA; 4, AH312 total RNA; and 5, NG8 genomic DNA.

    Article Snippet: Total RNA from 10-ml exponential phase cultures of S. mutans , lysed with the Mini Bead-Beater (Biospec Products), was isolated by using the RNeasy Mini kit (Qiagen).

    Techniques: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Mutagenesis

    Inhibition ability and competitiveness of wild-type and Pox − mutant of S. sanguinis and S. gordonii . (A) S. sanguinis or S. gordonii or their derivatives were inoculated first and incubated aerobically at 37°C. S. mutans was inoculated 16 h later, and the plates were incubated overnight. a, SK36; b, JKH2 Pox − ; c, JKH2/pDL276-pox; d, DL1; e, JKH1 Pox − ; f, JKH1/pDL276-pox. (B) Growth of S. mutans in sterile conditioned medium from S. sanguinis or S. gordonii cultures. The conditioned medium was prepared from exponentially growing S. sanguinis or S. gordonii cells or their derivatives, filter sterilized, supplemented with 0.25% glucose, and immediately inoculated with S. mutans at a titer of 10 7 bacteria ml −1 . Cells were incubated aerobically at 37°C, and 1 ml was removed to determine the A 600 at the indicated time points. The data presented are representative of two independent experiments with similar results. (C) Competitiveness of S. sanguinis or S. gordonii wild-type and Pox − mutants in submerged dual-species biofilms with S. mutans . Dual-species biofilms were grown in BHI. After overnight growth, the cells were dispersed by vigorous pipetting, serially diluted, and plated. The CFU values for each strain and the standard deviations were calculated from three independent experiments performed on different days. *, P ≤ 0.05. Gray bars, S. sanguinis or S. gordonii ; black line, S. mutans .

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: Streptococcal Antagonism in Oral Biofilms: Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii Interference with Streptococcus mutans

    doi: 10.1128/JB.00276-08

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Inhibition ability and competitiveness of wild-type and Pox − mutant of S. sanguinis and S. gordonii . (A) S. sanguinis or S. gordonii or their derivatives were inoculated first and incubated aerobically at 37°C. S. mutans was inoculated 16 h later, and the plates were incubated overnight. a, SK36; b, JKH2 Pox − ; c, JKH2/pDL276-pox; d, DL1; e, JKH1 Pox − ; f, JKH1/pDL276-pox. (B) Growth of S. mutans in sterile conditioned medium from S. sanguinis or S. gordonii cultures. The conditioned medium was prepared from exponentially growing S. sanguinis or S. gordonii cells or their derivatives, filter sterilized, supplemented with 0.25% glucose, and immediately inoculated with S. mutans at a titer of 10 7 bacteria ml −1 . Cells were incubated aerobically at 37°C, and 1 ml was removed to determine the A 600 at the indicated time points. The data presented are representative of two independent experiments with similar results. (C) Competitiveness of S. sanguinis or S. gordonii wild-type and Pox − mutants in submerged dual-species biofilms with S. mutans . Dual-species biofilms were grown in BHI. After overnight growth, the cells were dispersed by vigorous pipetting, serially diluted, and plated. The CFU values for each strain and the standard deviations were calculated from three independent experiments performed on different days. *, P ≤ 0.05. Gray bars, S. sanguinis or S. gordonii ; black line, S. mutans .

    Article Snippet: For competition assays in liquid media, cells were grown in BHI medium overnight, and either S. sanguinis or S. gordonii (15 μl of each) and S. mutans (15 μl) was inoculated simultaneously into 1 ml of fresh BHI (supplemented with 1% glucose when indicated) in a Costar 24-well cell culture cluster (Corning, Inc., Corning, NY) for biofilm growth.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Mutagenesis, Incubation

    Inhibition ability of S. sanguinis, S. gordonii , and S. mutans when grown with or without oxygen. (A) S. gordonii or S. sanguinis was inoculated first and grown for 16 h at 37°C with (+O 2 ) or without oxygen (−O 2 ), S. mutans was then inoculated next to the pioneer colonizer, and the plates incubated overnight. (B) S. mutans was inoculated first and grown for 16 h at 37°C with (+O 2 ) or without oxygen (−O 2 ), and then S. gordonii or S. sanguinis was inoculated next to the pioneer colonizer and the plates were incubated overnight.

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: Streptococcal Antagonism in Oral Biofilms: Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii Interference with Streptococcus mutans

    doi: 10.1128/JB.00276-08

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Inhibition ability of S. sanguinis, S. gordonii , and S. mutans when grown with or without oxygen. (A) S. gordonii or S. sanguinis was inoculated first and grown for 16 h at 37°C with (+O 2 ) or without oxygen (−O 2 ), S. mutans was then inoculated next to the pioneer colonizer, and the plates incubated overnight. (B) S. mutans was inoculated first and grown for 16 h at 37°C with (+O 2 ) or without oxygen (−O 2 ), and then S. gordonii or S. sanguinis was inoculated next to the pioneer colonizer and the plates were incubated overnight.

    Article Snippet: For competition assays in liquid media, cells were grown in BHI medium overnight, and either S. sanguinis or S. gordonii (15 μl of each) and S. mutans (15 μl) was inoculated simultaneously into 1 ml of fresh BHI (supplemented with 1% glucose when indicated) in a Costar 24-well cell culture cluster (Corning, Inc., Corning, NY) for biofilm growth.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Incubation

    Influence of glucose on the competitiveness of S. sanguinis or S. gordonii . (A) S. mutans growth inhibition assay in the presence or absence of 1% glucose. (B) Growth of S. mutans in sterile conditioned medium from S. sanguinis or S. gordonii cultures grown with or without 1% added glucose. The conditioned medium was prepared from cells growing to the mid log growth phase and immediately inoculated with S. mutans . Cells were incubated aerobically at 37°C, and 1 ml removed to determine the A 600 at the indicated time points. The data presented are representative of two independent experiments with similar results. (C) Competitiveness of S. sanguinis or S. gordonii in submerged dual-species biofilms with S. mutans . Dual-species biofilms were grown in BHI plus 1% glucose when indicated. After overnight growth, the cells were dispersed by vigorous pipetting, serially diluted, and plated. CFU values and standard deviations were calculated from three independent experiments performed on different days. *, P ≤ 0.05. Gray bars, S. sanguinis or S. gordonii ; black line, S. mutans .

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: Streptococcal Antagonism in Oral Biofilms: Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus gordonii Interference with Streptococcus mutans

    doi: 10.1128/JB.00276-08

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Influence of glucose on the competitiveness of S. sanguinis or S. gordonii . (A) S. mutans growth inhibition assay in the presence or absence of 1% glucose. (B) Growth of S. mutans in sterile conditioned medium from S. sanguinis or S. gordonii cultures grown with or without 1% added glucose. The conditioned medium was prepared from cells growing to the mid log growth phase and immediately inoculated with S. mutans . Cells were incubated aerobically at 37°C, and 1 ml removed to determine the A 600 at the indicated time points. The data presented are representative of two independent experiments with similar results. (C) Competitiveness of S. sanguinis or S. gordonii in submerged dual-species biofilms with S. mutans . Dual-species biofilms were grown in BHI plus 1% glucose when indicated. After overnight growth, the cells were dispersed by vigorous pipetting, serially diluted, and plated. CFU values and standard deviations were calculated from three independent experiments performed on different days. *, P ≤ 0.05. Gray bars, S. sanguinis or S. gordonii ; black line, S. mutans .

    Article Snippet: For competition assays in liquid media, cells were grown in BHI medium overnight, and either S. sanguinis or S. gordonii (15 μl of each) and S. mutans (15 μl) was inoculated simultaneously into 1 ml of fresh BHI (supplemented with 1% glucose when indicated) in a Costar 24-well cell culture cluster (Corning, Inc., Corning, NY) for biofilm growth.

    Techniques: Growth Inhibition Assay, Incubation

    Bacteriocin production by S. mutans GS5 and BM71 is mediated by the CSP.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Interactions between Oral Bacteria: Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Bacteriocin Production by Streptococcus gordonii

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.71.1.354-362.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bacteriocin production by S. mutans GS5 and BM71 is mediated by the CSP.

    Article Snippet: S. mutans GS5 or BM71 cells in the presence or absence of other oral streptococcal cells were inoculated into THB agar plates with or without the addition of exogenous synthetic CSP (3 μg in 3 μl) of S. mutans (the amino acid sequence of CSP was SGSLSTFFRLFNRSFTQALGK [ ]) (synthesized by Sigma-Genosys, The Woodlands, Tex.) for stab cultures.

    Techniques:

    Determination of the effect of supernatant fluids from oral streptococci on S. mutans CSP in agar well assays. Exogenous synthetic S. mutans CSP (final concentration, 2.5 μg/ml) was incubated with the supernatant fluids from oral streptococci

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Interactions between Oral Bacteria: Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Bacteriocin Production by Streptococcus gordonii

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.71.1.354-362.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Determination of the effect of supernatant fluids from oral streptococci on S. mutans CSP in agar well assays. Exogenous synthetic S. mutans CSP (final concentration, 2.5 μg/ml) was incubated with the supernatant fluids from oral streptococci

    Article Snippet: S. mutans GS5 or BM71 cells in the presence or absence of other oral streptococcal cells were inoculated into THB agar plates with or without the addition of exogenous synthetic CSP (3 μg in 3 μl) of S. mutans (the amino acid sequence of CSP was SGSLSTFFRLFNRSFTQALGK [ ]) (synthesized by Sigma-Genosys, The Woodlands, Tex.) for stab cultures.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Incubation

    S. mutans identification by species-specific gtfB primer. Lanes 1 to 6: isolates of S. mutans ; lanes 7 and 8 correspond to the positive control ( S. mutans UA 159) and negative control (water), respectively; lane 9: 100-bp DNA ladder.

    Journal: The Scientific World Journal

    Article Title: Genotypic Diversity and Virulence Traits of Streptococcus mutans Isolated from Carious Dentin after Partial Caries Removal and Sealing

    doi: 10.1155/2014/165201

    Figure Lengend Snippet: S. mutans identification by species-specific gtfB primer. Lanes 1 to 6: isolates of S. mutans ; lanes 7 and 8 correspond to the positive control ( S. mutans UA 159) and negative control (water), respectively; lane 9: 100-bp DNA ladder.

    Article Snippet: PCR with species-specific primers to gtfB (5′-ACTACACTTTCGGGTGGCTTGG-3′ and 5′-CAGTATAAGCGCCAGTTTCATC-3′) was performed to confirm the identity of S. mutans isolates [ ] (Invitrogen, SG, Milanese, Italy).

    Techniques: Positive Control, Negative Control

    GTF activity of S. mutans UA130 gbpA gtfBC , gbpA , and wt. Equivalent levels of cell-associated proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE and incubated at 37°C in PBS (pH 6.5) containing sucrose and Triton X-100. Gels were photographed against a black background. The positions of SDS-PAGE molecular mass standards are indicated in the left margin. The positions of water-insoluble glucan and fructan are indicated in the right margin. Lanes 1 to 6: contain gbpA gtfBC isolates recovered from six individual gbpA mutant-infected gnotobiotic rats from two separate determinations of cariogenicity. Lanes: 1, B3-B; 2, D2-A; 3, C5-2; 4, C3-2; 5, A6-1; 6, A2-1; 7 to 9, laboratory strains (7, gbpA spontaneous gtfBC ; 8, gbpA ; 9, wt).

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Inactivation of the gbpA Gene of Streptococcus mutans Alters Structural and Functional Aspects of Plaque Biofilm Which Are Compensated by Recombination of the gtfB and gtfC Genes

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: GTF activity of S. mutans UA130 gbpA gtfBC , gbpA , and wt. Equivalent levels of cell-associated proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE and incubated at 37°C in PBS (pH 6.5) containing sucrose and Triton X-100. Gels were photographed against a black background. The positions of SDS-PAGE molecular mass standards are indicated in the left margin. The positions of water-insoluble glucan and fructan are indicated in the right margin. Lanes 1 to 6: contain gbpA gtfBC isolates recovered from six individual gbpA mutant-infected gnotobiotic rats from two separate determinations of cariogenicity. Lanes: 1, B3-B; 2, D2-A; 3, C5-2; 4, C3-2; 5, A6-1; 6, A2-1; 7 to 9, laboratory strains (7, gbpA spontaneous gtfBC ; 8, gbpA ; 9, wt).

    Article Snippet: The laboratory gbpA gtfBC strain used in this work was a spontaneous mutant isolated by streaking S. mutans UA130 gbpA on MS agar (Difco Laboratories, Grand Island, N.Y.) plates and picking a smooth colony.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, SDS Page, Incubation, Mutagenesis, Infection

    (a) Representative three-dimensional images of biofilms formed by S. mutans UA159 and gtf mutant strains in the presence of 1% (wt/vol) sucrose. (b) COMSTAT analysis of the distribution of bacteria and EPS from the disk surface to the fluid phase

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: Exopolysaccharides Produced by Streptococcus mutans Glucosyltransferases Modulate the Establishment of Microcolonies within Multispecies Biofilms ▿

    doi: 10.1128/JB.01649-09

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a) Representative three-dimensional images of biofilms formed by S. mutans UA159 and gtf mutant strains in the presence of 1% (wt/vol) sucrose. (b) COMSTAT analysis of the distribution of bacteria and EPS from the disk surface to the fluid phase

    Article Snippet: S. mutans UA159 (ATCC 700610; serotype c), a proven virulent cariogenic dental pathogen selected for genomic sequencing , and gtf mutants of this strain were used for single-species biofilm assays.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis

    Lactic acid production by S. mutans biofilms adherent on the disks. Each value is mean ± SD; n = 6 ( * p

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

    doi: 10.3390/ijms150712791

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Lactic acid production by S. mutans biofilms adherent on the disks. Each value is mean ± SD; n = 6 ( * p

    Article Snippet: S. mutans Inoculation and Biofilm Formation The use of S. mutans bacteria (ATCC 700610, UA159, American Type Culture, Manassas, VA, USA) was approved by the State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University.

    Techniques:

    MTT metabolic activity in three groups. Biofilms were grown for 4, 24 and 72 h days using an S. mutans model. Each values is mean ± SD ( n = 6) ( * p

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

    doi: 10.3390/ijms150712791

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MTT metabolic activity in three groups. Biofilms were grown for 4, 24 and 72 h days using an S. mutans model. Each values is mean ± SD ( n = 6) ( * p

    Article Snippet: S. mutans Inoculation and Biofilm Formation The use of S. mutans bacteria (ATCC 700610, UA159, American Type Culture, Manassas, VA, USA) was approved by the State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University.

    Techniques: MTT Assay, Activity Assay

    SEM micrographs of typical biofilms in different groups. Each group name is indicated in the image. Adhesives containing DMADDM could reduce the biofilm growing on the disks. Higher mass fraction of DMADDM could have higher anti-biofilm effect. ( a ) 0% DMADDM group, 4 h; ( b ) 2.5% DMADDM group, 4 h; ( c ) 5% DMADDM group, 4 h; ( d ) 0% DMADDM group, 24 h; ( e ) 2.5% DMADDM group, 24 h; ( f ) 5% DMADDM group, 24 h; ( g ) 0% DMADDM group, 72 h; ( h ) 2.5% DMADDM group, 72 h; ( i ) 5% DMADDM group, 72 h; “ D ”, disk surface without biofilms; the red line indicates S. mutans in chains; Scale bar = 10 μm.

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

    doi: 10.3390/ijms150712791

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SEM micrographs of typical biofilms in different groups. Each group name is indicated in the image. Adhesives containing DMADDM could reduce the biofilm growing on the disks. Higher mass fraction of DMADDM could have higher anti-biofilm effect. ( a ) 0% DMADDM group, 4 h; ( b ) 2.5% DMADDM group, 4 h; ( c ) 5% DMADDM group, 4 h; ( d ) 0% DMADDM group, 24 h; ( e ) 2.5% DMADDM group, 24 h; ( f ) 5% DMADDM group, 24 h; ( g ) 0% DMADDM group, 72 h; ( h ) 2.5% DMADDM group, 72 h; ( i ) 5% DMADDM group, 72 h; “ D ”, disk surface without biofilms; the red line indicates S. mutans in chains; Scale bar = 10 μm.

    Article Snippet: S. mutans Inoculation and Biofilm Formation The use of S. mutans bacteria (ATCC 700610, UA159, American Type Culture, Manassas, VA, USA) was approved by the State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University.

    Techniques:

    2D confocal imaging: a qualitative analysis. Confocal image stacks of 72-h S. mutans UA 159 biofilms following topical treatment with (a) A. gratissima : fraction Ag 4 ; (b) B. dracunculifolia : fraction Bd 2 ; (c) C. sativum : fraction Cs 4 ; (d) L. sidoides : fraction Ls 3 ; and (e) vehicle (propylene glycol, 6.25% v/v). The structures depicted in red (Dextran, Alexa Fluor 6) represent the extracellular polysaccharides that constitute the biofilm matrix, while the structures depicted in green (Syto 9) are metabolically active bacterial cells (optical magnitude 63x). It can be noted that all bioactive fractions ((a)–(d)) affected the EPS matrix making it less intimately interspersed between and over the cells than did the vehicle alone (e).

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    Article Title: The Effect of Essential Oils and Bioactive Fractions on Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans Biofilms: A Confocal Analysis

    doi: 10.1155/2015/871316

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 2D confocal imaging: a qualitative analysis. Confocal image stacks of 72-h S. mutans UA 159 biofilms following topical treatment with (a) A. gratissima : fraction Ag 4 ; (b) B. dracunculifolia : fraction Bd 2 ; (c) C. sativum : fraction Cs 4 ; (d) L. sidoides : fraction Ls 3 ; and (e) vehicle (propylene glycol, 6.25% v/v). The structures depicted in red (Dextran, Alexa Fluor 6) represent the extracellular polysaccharides that constitute the biofilm matrix, while the structures depicted in green (Syto 9) are metabolically active bacterial cells (optical magnitude 63x). It can be noted that all bioactive fractions ((a)–(d)) affected the EPS matrix making it less intimately interspersed between and over the cells than did the vehicle alone (e).

    Article Snippet: Preparation of S. mutans and C. albicans Suspensions Reference strains of S. mutans UA 159 (ATCC 700610, serotype c ) and C. albicans CBS 562 were used.

    Techniques: Imaging, Metabolic Labelling

    3D confocal imaging: a quantitative analysis. 3D reconstruction of confocal image stacks of 72-h S. mutans UA 159 biofilms following topical treatment with A. gratissima : fraction Ag 4 ; B. dracunculifolia : fraction Bd 2 ; C. sativum : fraction Cs 4 ; L. sidoides : fraction Ls 3 ; and vehicle (propylene glycol, 6.25% v/v). The structures depicted in red (Dextran, Alexa Fluor 6) represent the extracellular polysaccharides that constitute the biofilm matrix, while the structures depicted in green (Syto 9) are metabolically active bacterial cells (optical magnitude 63x). The mean (±SD) of biofilm thickness ( z ) in each group is indicated below the orthogonal images. There were no statistically significant differences in thickness between the groups and the vehicle ( P > 0.05, One-way ANOVA with Dunnett's posttest). Our coverage (EPS/bacteria) data demonstrate that in all groups the exopolysaccharide matrix was found interspersed between the bacterial cells. Coverage percent represents the percentage of area occupied by bacteria or EPS in each of the CLSM optical section [ 30 ].

    Journal: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM

    Article Title: The Effect of Essential Oils and Bioactive Fractions on Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans Biofilms: A Confocal Analysis

    doi: 10.1155/2015/871316

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 3D confocal imaging: a quantitative analysis. 3D reconstruction of confocal image stacks of 72-h S. mutans UA 159 biofilms following topical treatment with A. gratissima : fraction Ag 4 ; B. dracunculifolia : fraction Bd 2 ; C. sativum : fraction Cs 4 ; L. sidoides : fraction Ls 3 ; and vehicle (propylene glycol, 6.25% v/v). The structures depicted in red (Dextran, Alexa Fluor 6) represent the extracellular polysaccharides that constitute the biofilm matrix, while the structures depicted in green (Syto 9) are metabolically active bacterial cells (optical magnitude 63x). The mean (±SD) of biofilm thickness ( z ) in each group is indicated below the orthogonal images. There were no statistically significant differences in thickness between the groups and the vehicle ( P > 0.05, One-way ANOVA with Dunnett's posttest). Our coverage (EPS/bacteria) data demonstrate that in all groups the exopolysaccharide matrix was found interspersed between the bacterial cells. Coverage percent represents the percentage of area occupied by bacteria or EPS in each of the CLSM optical section [ 30 ].

    Article Snippet: Preparation of S. mutans and C. albicans Suspensions Reference strains of S. mutans UA 159 (ATCC 700610, serotype c ) and C. albicans CBS 562 were used.

    Techniques: Imaging, Metabolic Labelling, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    (A) Growth curves of the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 (squares) and S. sobrinus CECT 4034 (circles) in the presence (dotted lines) and absence (solid lines) of concentrated supernatant of S. dentisani strain 7746. (B) Growth curves of S. mutans ATCC 25175 in the presence of different size fractions of the 10× concentrated supernatant of S. dentisani 7746. Circles correspond to the fraction > 10 KDa, squares to the 3–10 KDa fraction, and triangles to the fraction

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Health-Associated Niche Inhabitants as Oral Probiotics: The Case of Streptococcus dentisani

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.00379

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Growth curves of the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 (squares) and S. sobrinus CECT 4034 (circles) in the presence (dotted lines) and absence (solid lines) of concentrated supernatant of S. dentisani strain 7746. (B) Growth curves of S. mutans ATCC 25175 in the presence of different size fractions of the 10× concentrated supernatant of S. dentisani 7746. Circles correspond to the fraction > 10 KDa, squares to the 3–10 KDa fraction, and triangles to the fraction

    Article Snippet: Similarly, the concentrated supernatant completely inhibited the growth of other S. mutans strains (strains OMZ175 and ATCC 700610, data not shown).

    Techniques:

    Effects of αMG on acid production by S. mutans UA159. Vehicle is represented by (▪), while 150 µM αMG is represented by (▴). Data are expressed as the mean ± one standard deviation for experiments run in triplicates in at least three separate experiments.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: α-Mangostin Disrupts the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilms and Facilitates Its Mechanical Removal

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111312

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of αMG on acid production by S. mutans UA159. Vehicle is represented by (▪), while 150 µM αMG is represented by (▴). Data are expressed as the mean ± one standard deviation for experiments run in triplicates in at least three separate experiments.

    Article Snippet: Preparation and treatment of the biofilm S. mutans UA159 (ATCC 700610), a proven virulent-cariogenic strain selected for genomic sequencing, was used in this study.

    Techniques: Standard Deviation

    Effects of αMG on ATPase and PTS activities of S. mutans UA159. The percentage of inhibition was calculated setting the vehicle control to 100% enzymatic activity. Data are expressed as the mean ± one standard deviation. Values are significantly different from that for the vehicle control (n = 9; P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: α-Mangostin Disrupts the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilms and Facilitates Its Mechanical Removal

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111312

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of αMG on ATPase and PTS activities of S. mutans UA159. The percentage of inhibition was calculated setting the vehicle control to 100% enzymatic activity. Data are expressed as the mean ± one standard deviation. Values are significantly different from that for the vehicle control (n = 9; P

    Article Snippet: Preparation and treatment of the biofilm S. mutans UA159 (ATCC 700610), a proven virulent-cariogenic strain selected for genomic sequencing, was used in this study.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Activity Assay, Standard Deviation