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  • 95
    Qiagen rna stabilization
    Proposed mechanisms of how active tristetraprolin (TTP) confers protection against the development of cigarette smoke (CS)‐induced experimental COPD. CS exposure increases the messenger ribonucleic acid <t>(mRNA)</t> expression of inflammatory mediators resulting in pulmonary inflammation. Ongoing inflammation drives the development of airway remodelling and emphysema. These features collectively result in lung function decline. Active TTP degrades the mRNA of inflammatory mediators, preventing the development of pulmonary inflammation, airway remodelling, emphysema and consequent lung function decline. TTP, tristetraprolin; mRNA, messenger ribonucleic acid; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
    Rna Stabilization, supplied by Qiagen, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 108 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Worthington Biochemical rna
    Mechanism of FXN activation by repeat-targeted duplex RNAs. ( a ) RIP examining the association of Ago2 with FXN pre-mRNA after treatment with 50 nM duplex <t>RNA</t> and analysis by real-time <t>PCR.</t> An arrow marks the PCR product of FXN pre-mRNA, which was confirmed by sequencing ( Supplementary Fig. 7 ) ( b ) Anti-GAA duplex RNA with central mismatches (siGAA 9,10 mm with mismatches on both strands; 25 nM) activates FXN expression at a level similar to the analogous fully complementary duplex RNA ( n =3). siExon3 is a positive control for transfection efficiency targeting exon 3 of FXN . ( c ) ChIP for RNAP2 using four different primer sets ( n =4). ( d ) ChIP for transcription-associated histone modification markers H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K9Ac, H3K27me3 and H4Ac ( n =4–8). ( e ) FXN mRNA stability assay. Cells were transfected with duplex RNAs siGAA or CM at 25 nM ( n =3). Actinomycin D (5 μg ml −1 ) was added with fresh media 3 days after transfection and cells were collected at the indicated time points. HPRT expression was measured for normalization. All experiments were performed in GM03816 patient-derived cells. All data are presented as mean±STDEV. * P
    Rna, supplied by Worthington Biochemical, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 29 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology ribonucleic acid
    Mechanism of FXN activation by repeat-targeted duplex RNAs. ( a ) RIP examining the association of Ago2 with FXN pre-mRNA after treatment with 50 nM duplex <t>RNA</t> and analysis by real-time <t>PCR.</t> An arrow marks the PCR product of FXN pre-mRNA, which was confirmed by sequencing ( Supplementary Fig. 7 ) ( b ) Anti-GAA duplex RNA with central mismatches (siGAA 9,10 mm with mismatches on both strands; 25 nM) activates FXN expression at a level similar to the analogous fully complementary duplex RNA ( n =3). siExon3 is a positive control for transfection efficiency targeting exon 3 of FXN . ( c ) ChIP for RNAP2 using four different primer sets ( n =4). ( d ) ChIP for transcription-associated histone modification markers H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K9Ac, H3K27me3 and H4Ac ( n =4–8). ( e ) FXN mRNA stability assay. Cells were transfected with duplex RNAs siGAA or CM at 25 nM ( n =3). Actinomycin D (5 μg ml −1 ) was added with fresh media 3 days after transfection and cells were collected at the indicated time points. HPRT expression was measured for normalization. All experiments were performed in GM03816 patient-derived cells. All data are presented as mean±STDEV. * P
    Ribonucleic Acid, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    80
    TaKaRa ribonucleic acid rna extraction reagent
    Mechanism of FXN activation by repeat-targeted duplex RNAs. ( a ) RIP examining the association of Ago2 with FXN pre-mRNA after treatment with 50 nM duplex <t>RNA</t> and analysis by real-time <t>PCR.</t> An arrow marks the PCR product of FXN pre-mRNA, which was confirmed by sequencing ( Supplementary Fig. 7 ) ( b ) Anti-GAA duplex RNA with central mismatches (siGAA 9,10 mm with mismatches on both strands; 25 nM) activates FXN expression at a level similar to the analogous fully complementary duplex RNA ( n =3). siExon3 is a positive control for transfection efficiency targeting exon 3 of FXN . ( c ) ChIP for RNAP2 using four different primer sets ( n =4). ( d ) ChIP for transcription-associated histone modification markers H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K9Ac, H3K27me3 and H4Ac ( n =4–8). ( e ) FXN mRNA stability assay. Cells were transfected with duplex RNAs siGAA or CM at 25 nM ( n =3). Actinomycin D (5 μg ml −1 ) was added with fresh media 3 days after transfection and cells were collected at the indicated time points. HPRT expression was measured for normalization. All experiments were performed in GM03816 patient-derived cells. All data are presented as mean±STDEV. * P
    Ribonucleic Acid Rna Extraction Reagent, supplied by TaKaRa, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 80/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Roche ribonucleic acid rna
    Mechanism of FXN activation by repeat-targeted duplex RNAs. ( a ) RIP examining the association of Ago2 with FXN pre-mRNA after treatment with 50 nM duplex <t>RNA</t> and analysis by real-time <t>PCR.</t> An arrow marks the PCR product of FXN pre-mRNA, which was confirmed by sequencing ( Supplementary Fig. 7 ) ( b ) Anti-GAA duplex RNA with central mismatches (siGAA 9,10 mm with mismatches on both strands; 25 nM) activates FXN expression at a level similar to the analogous fully complementary duplex RNA ( n =3). siExon3 is a positive control for transfection efficiency targeting exon 3 of FXN . ( c ) ChIP for RNAP2 using four different primer sets ( n =4). ( d ) ChIP for transcription-associated histone modification markers H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K9Ac, H3K27me3 and H4Ac ( n =4–8). ( e ) FXN mRNA stability assay. Cells were transfected with duplex RNAs siGAA or CM at 25 nM ( n =3). Actinomycin D (5 μg ml −1 ) was added with fresh media 3 days after transfection and cells were collected at the indicated time points. HPRT expression was measured for normalization. All experiments were performed in GM03816 patient-derived cells. All data are presented as mean±STDEV. * P
    Ribonucleic Acid Rna, supplied by Roche, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 30 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Biological Industries Inc ribonucleic acid rna
    Mechanism of FXN activation by repeat-targeted duplex RNAs. ( a ) RIP examining the association of Ago2 with FXN pre-mRNA after treatment with 50 nM duplex <t>RNA</t> and analysis by real-time <t>PCR.</t> An arrow marks the PCR product of FXN pre-mRNA, which was confirmed by sequencing ( Supplementary Fig. 7 ) ( b ) Anti-GAA duplex RNA with central mismatches (siGAA 9,10 mm with mismatches on both strands; 25 nM) activates FXN expression at a level similar to the analogous fully complementary duplex RNA ( n =3). siExon3 is a positive control for transfection efficiency targeting exon 3 of FXN . ( c ) ChIP for RNAP2 using four different primer sets ( n =4). ( d ) ChIP for transcription-associated histone modification markers H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K9Ac, H3K27me3 and H4Ac ( n =4–8). ( e ) FXN mRNA stability assay. Cells were transfected with duplex RNAs siGAA or CM at 25 nM ( n =3). Actinomycin D (5 μg ml −1 ) was added with fresh media 3 days after transfection and cells were collected at the indicated time points. HPRT expression was measured for normalization. All experiments were performed in GM03816 patient-derived cells. All data are presented as mean±STDEV. * P
    Ribonucleic Acid Rna, supplied by Biological Industries Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 87/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Qiagen ribonucleic acid rna
    Mechanism of FXN activation by repeat-targeted duplex RNAs. ( a ) RIP examining the association of Ago2 with FXN pre-mRNA after treatment with 50 nM duplex <t>RNA</t> and analysis by real-time <t>PCR.</t> An arrow marks the PCR product of FXN pre-mRNA, which was confirmed by sequencing ( Supplementary Fig. 7 ) ( b ) Anti-GAA duplex RNA with central mismatches (siGAA 9,10 mm with mismatches on both strands; 25 nM) activates FXN expression at a level similar to the analogous fully complementary duplex RNA ( n =3). siExon3 is a positive control for transfection efficiency targeting exon 3 of FXN . ( c ) ChIP for RNAP2 using four different primer sets ( n =4). ( d ) ChIP for transcription-associated histone modification markers H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K9Ac, H3K27me3 and H4Ac ( n =4–8). ( e ) FXN mRNA stability assay. Cells were transfected with duplex RNAs siGAA or CM at 25 nM ( n =3). Actinomycin D (5 μg ml −1 ) was added with fresh media 3 days after transfection and cells were collected at the indicated time points. HPRT expression was measured for normalization. All experiments were performed in GM03816 patient-derived cells. All data are presented as mean±STDEV. * P
    Ribonucleic Acid Rna, supplied by Qiagen, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 215 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    PreAnalytiX ribonucleic acid rna
    Mechanism of FXN activation by repeat-targeted duplex RNAs. ( a ) RIP examining the association of Ago2 with FXN pre-mRNA after treatment with 50 nM duplex <t>RNA</t> and analysis by real-time <t>PCR.</t> An arrow marks the PCR product of FXN pre-mRNA, which was confirmed by sequencing ( Supplementary Fig. 7 ) ( b ) Anti-GAA duplex RNA with central mismatches (siGAA 9,10 mm with mismatches on both strands; 25 nM) activates FXN expression at a level similar to the analogous fully complementary duplex RNA ( n =3). siExon3 is a positive control for transfection efficiency targeting exon 3 of FXN . ( c ) ChIP for RNAP2 using four different primer sets ( n =4). ( d ) ChIP for transcription-associated histone modification markers H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K9Ac, H3K27me3 and H4Ac ( n =4–8). ( e ) FXN mRNA stability assay. Cells were transfected with duplex RNAs siGAA or CM at 25 nM ( n =3). Actinomycin D (5 μg ml −1 ) was added with fresh media 3 days after transfection and cells were collected at the indicated time points. HPRT expression was measured for normalization. All experiments were performed in GM03816 patient-derived cells. All data are presented as mean±STDEV. * P
    Ribonucleic Acid Rna, supplied by PreAnalytiX, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    PreAnalytiX paxgene blood ribonucleic acid rna tubes
    Mechanism of FXN activation by repeat-targeted duplex RNAs. ( a ) RIP examining the association of Ago2 with FXN pre-mRNA after treatment with 50 nM duplex <t>RNA</t> and analysis by real-time <t>PCR.</t> An arrow marks the PCR product of FXN pre-mRNA, which was confirmed by sequencing ( Supplementary Fig. 7 ) ( b ) Anti-GAA duplex RNA with central mismatches (siGAA 9,10 mm with mismatches on both strands; 25 nM) activates FXN expression at a level similar to the analogous fully complementary duplex RNA ( n =3). siExon3 is a positive control for transfection efficiency targeting exon 3 of FXN . ( c ) ChIP for RNAP2 using four different primer sets ( n =4). ( d ) ChIP for transcription-associated histone modification markers H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K9Ac, H3K27me3 and H4Ac ( n =4–8). ( e ) FXN mRNA stability assay. Cells were transfected with duplex RNAs siGAA or CM at 25 nM ( n =3). Actinomycin D (5 μg ml −1 ) was added with fresh media 3 days after transfection and cells were collected at the indicated time points. HPRT expression was measured for normalization. All experiments were performed in GM03816 patient-derived cells. All data are presented as mean±STDEV. * P
    Paxgene Blood Ribonucleic Acid Rna Tubes, supplied by PreAnalytiX, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 77/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    95
    Millipore sigma r6750
    Mechanism of FXN activation by repeat-targeted duplex RNAs. ( a ) RIP examining the association of Ago2 with FXN pre-mRNA after treatment with 50 nM duplex <t>RNA</t> and analysis by real-time <t>PCR.</t> An arrow marks the PCR product of FXN pre-mRNA, which was confirmed by sequencing ( Supplementary Fig. 7 ) ( b ) Anti-GAA duplex RNA with central mismatches (siGAA 9,10 mm with mismatches on both strands; 25 nM) activates FXN expression at a level similar to the analogous fully complementary duplex RNA ( n =3). siExon3 is a positive control for transfection efficiency targeting exon 3 of FXN . ( c ) ChIP for RNAP2 using four different primer sets ( n =4). ( d ) ChIP for transcription-associated histone modification markers H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K9Ac, H3K27me3 and H4Ac ( n =4–8). ( e ) FXN mRNA stability assay. Cells were transfected with duplex RNAs siGAA or CM at 25 nM ( n =3). Actinomycin D (5 μg ml −1 ) was added with fresh media 3 days after transfection and cells were collected at the indicated time points. HPRT expression was measured for normalization. All experiments were performed in GM03816 patient-derived cells. All data are presented as mean±STDEV. * P
    Sigma R6750, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    84
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology ribonucleic acid sirna
    Noxa alone cannot account for the CPT-induced apoptosis. (A) Knockdown of Noxa expression protects cells against CPT-induced apoptosis. HeLa cells were transfected with control or Noxa-specific <t>siRNA</t> <t>(sc-37305;</t> Santa Cruz Biotechnology). At 48 hours posttransfection, cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) for another 12 or 24 hours. The viability of cells was measured by counting apoptotic cells characteristic of aberrant nuclei staining by Hoechst 33342 and was normalized to the number of total cells. Data were presented as means (± SD) of three independent experiments. Cell lysates were also collected and subjected to Western blot analysis using anti-Noxa and anti-caspase-9 antibodies. Endogenous actin was detected by anti-actin antibody as internal control. (B) HeLa cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) alone or in combination with either (a) CHX (20 µg/ml) or (b) LY294002 (40 µM) for indicated periods of time. The viability of cells was measured according to the method described in (A). Noxa protein level and the activation of caspase-9 were assessed by Western blot analysis. (C) CPT-induced Mcl-1 upregulation is inhibited by LY294002. a. HeLa cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) or doxorubicin (2 µg/ml) for indicated periods of time (0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours) before cell lysates were prepared. Levels of Mcl-1 protein were assessed by Western blot analysis using anti -Mcl-1 antibody. Actin acted as a loading control. b. HeLa cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) or with CPT (10 µM) plus LY294002 (40 µM) for 12 hours. Cell lysates were then used for Western blot analysis with anti-Mcl-1 antibody and endogenous actin was used as internal control.
    Ribonucleic Acid Sirna, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 84/100, based on 27 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    GE Healthcare total ribonucleic acid rna
    Noxa alone cannot account for the CPT-induced apoptosis. (A) Knockdown of Noxa expression protects cells against CPT-induced apoptosis. HeLa cells were transfected with control or Noxa-specific <t>siRNA</t> <t>(sc-37305;</t> Santa Cruz Biotechnology). At 48 hours posttransfection, cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) for another 12 or 24 hours. The viability of cells was measured by counting apoptotic cells characteristic of aberrant nuclei staining by Hoechst 33342 and was normalized to the number of total cells. Data were presented as means (± SD) of three independent experiments. Cell lysates were also collected and subjected to Western blot analysis using anti-Noxa and anti-caspase-9 antibodies. Endogenous actin was detected by anti-actin antibody as internal control. (B) HeLa cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) alone or in combination with either (a) CHX (20 µg/ml) or (b) LY294002 (40 µM) for indicated periods of time. The viability of cells was measured according to the method described in (A). Noxa protein level and the activation of caspase-9 were assessed by Western blot analysis. (C) CPT-induced Mcl-1 upregulation is inhibited by LY294002. a. HeLa cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) or doxorubicin (2 µg/ml) for indicated periods of time (0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours) before cell lysates were prepared. Levels of Mcl-1 protein were assessed by Western blot analysis using anti -Mcl-1 antibody. Actin acted as a loading control. b. HeLa cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) or with CPT (10 µM) plus LY294002 (40 µM) for 12 hours. Cell lysates were then used for Western blot analysis with anti-Mcl-1 antibody and endogenous actin was used as internal control.
    Total Ribonucleic Acid Rna, supplied by GE Healthcare, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 14 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    87
    PEQLAB total ribonucleic acid rna
    Noxa alone cannot account for the CPT-induced apoptosis. (A) Knockdown of Noxa expression protects cells against CPT-induced apoptosis. HeLa cells were transfected with control or Noxa-specific <t>siRNA</t> <t>(sc-37305;</t> Santa Cruz Biotechnology). At 48 hours posttransfection, cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) for another 12 or 24 hours. The viability of cells was measured by counting apoptotic cells characteristic of aberrant nuclei staining by Hoechst 33342 and was normalized to the number of total cells. Data were presented as means (± SD) of three independent experiments. Cell lysates were also collected and subjected to Western blot analysis using anti-Noxa and anti-caspase-9 antibodies. Endogenous actin was detected by anti-actin antibody as internal control. (B) HeLa cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) alone or in combination with either (a) CHX (20 µg/ml) or (b) LY294002 (40 µM) for indicated periods of time. The viability of cells was measured according to the method described in (A). Noxa protein level and the activation of caspase-9 were assessed by Western blot analysis. (C) CPT-induced Mcl-1 upregulation is inhibited by LY294002. a. HeLa cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) or doxorubicin (2 µg/ml) for indicated periods of time (0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours) before cell lysates were prepared. Levels of Mcl-1 protein were assessed by Western blot analysis using anti -Mcl-1 antibody. Actin acted as a loading control. b. HeLa cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) or with CPT (10 µM) plus LY294002 (40 µM) for 12 hours. Cell lysates were then used for Western blot analysis with anti-Mcl-1 antibody and endogenous actin was used as internal control.
    Total Ribonucleic Acid Rna, supplied by PEQLAB, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 87/100, based on 36 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    TaKaRa ribonucleic acid rna extraction
    Noxa alone cannot account for the CPT-induced apoptosis. (A) Knockdown of Noxa expression protects cells against CPT-induced apoptosis. HeLa cells were transfected with control or Noxa-specific <t>siRNA</t> <t>(sc-37305;</t> Santa Cruz Biotechnology). At 48 hours posttransfection, cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) for another 12 or 24 hours. The viability of cells was measured by counting apoptotic cells characteristic of aberrant nuclei staining by Hoechst 33342 and was normalized to the number of total cells. Data were presented as means (± SD) of three independent experiments. Cell lysates were also collected and subjected to Western blot analysis using anti-Noxa and anti-caspase-9 antibodies. Endogenous actin was detected by anti-actin antibody as internal control. (B) HeLa cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) alone or in combination with either (a) CHX (20 µg/ml) or (b) LY294002 (40 µM) for indicated periods of time. The viability of cells was measured according to the method described in (A). Noxa protein level and the activation of caspase-9 were assessed by Western blot analysis. (C) CPT-induced Mcl-1 upregulation is inhibited by LY294002. a. HeLa cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) or doxorubicin (2 µg/ml) for indicated periods of time (0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours) before cell lysates were prepared. Levels of Mcl-1 protein were assessed by Western blot analysis using anti -Mcl-1 antibody. Actin acted as a loading control. b. HeLa cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) or with CPT (10 µM) plus LY294002 (40 µM) for 12 hours. Cell lysates were then used for Western blot analysis with anti-Mcl-1 antibody and endogenous actin was used as internal control.
    Ribonucleic Acid Rna Extraction, supplied by TaKaRa, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 81/100, based on 16 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore yeast torula rna
    Expression of ZFERV-related <t>RNA</t> in thymus. (A) Larval fish at 5 dpf were fixed and subjected to whole mount in situ hybridization with a <t>DIG-labeled</t> sense or antisense probe for the env gene, followed by colorimetric detection. (B and C) Contiguous sections (20 μm thick) of 3-month-old fish (right two panels) were subjected to in situ hybridization with probes as described in panel A. The section planes and main organs are indicated. Abbreviations: B, brain; E, esophagus; G, gill; H, heart; I, intestine; L, liver; M, muscle; T, thymus. The bilateral thymi hybridizing to the antisense probe are highlighted with arrows. (D) Sections (2 μm thick) of the thymus from 3-month-old fish were hybridized to fluorescein-labeled sense (left panel) or antisense (right panel) env probe, followed by fluorescence detection with the alkaline phosphatase-Fast Red system.
    Yeast Torula Rna, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 13 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher ribonucleic acid sirna
    <t>Caspase-14</t> modulates trophoblast gene expression . The effect of caspase-14 <t>siRNA</t> on the expression of (A-C) hCG, (D-F) KLF4 and (G-I) cytokeratin-18 in DMSO-treated BeWo cells. * = P
    Ribonucleic Acid Sirna, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 15 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    GenePharma Company ribonucleic acid sirna
    Specific downregulation of tripartite motif (TRIM)29 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression by <t>TRIM29</t> small interfering (si)RNA. Cells were transfected with TRIM29 <t>siRNA</t> or scrambled siRNA (siCONTROL) for 48 hours. (a) The relative mRNA level of TRIM29 was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, and 18S was used as an internal standard. (b) The relative TRIM29 protein level was determined by Western blotting, and data was normalized using β-actin as an internal standard. Compared with TRIM29 siRNA1 and 2, siRNA3 mostly silenced TRIM29 expression. P
    Ribonucleic Acid Sirna, supplied by GenePharma Company, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 83/100, based on 13 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    87
    Bio-Rad total ribonucleic acid rna
    Specific downregulation of tripartite motif (TRIM)29 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression by <t>TRIM29</t> small interfering (si)RNA. Cells were transfected with TRIM29 <t>siRNA</t> or scrambled siRNA (siCONTROL) for 48 hours. (a) The relative mRNA level of TRIM29 was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, and 18S was used as an internal standard. (b) The relative TRIM29 protein level was determined by Western blotting, and data was normalized using β-actin as an internal standard. Compared with TRIM29 siRNA1 and 2, siRNA3 mostly silenced TRIM29 expression. P
    Total Ribonucleic Acid Rna, supplied by Bio-Rad, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 87/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Proposed mechanisms of how active tristetraprolin (TTP) confers protection against the development of cigarette smoke (CS)‐induced experimental COPD. CS exposure increases the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of inflammatory mediators resulting in pulmonary inflammation. Ongoing inflammation drives the development of airway remodelling and emphysema. These features collectively result in lung function decline. Active TTP degrades the mRNA of inflammatory mediators, preventing the development of pulmonary inflammation, airway remodelling, emphysema and consequent lung function decline. TTP, tristetraprolin; mRNA, messenger ribonucleic acid; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Journal: Clinical & Translational Immunology

    Article Title: Enhancing tristetraprolin activity reduces the severity of cigarette smoke‐induced experimental chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    doi: 10.1002/cti2.1084

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Proposed mechanisms of how active tristetraprolin (TTP) confers protection against the development of cigarette smoke (CS)‐induced experimental COPD. CS exposure increases the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of inflammatory mediators resulting in pulmonary inflammation. Ongoing inflammation drives the development of airway remodelling and emphysema. These features collectively result in lung function decline. Active TTP degrades the mRNA of inflammatory mediators, preventing the development of pulmonary inflammation, airway remodelling, emphysema and consequent lung function decline. TTP, tristetraprolin; mRNA, messenger ribonucleic acid; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Article Snippet: mRNA expression Whole lungs were collected and stored in RNA Stabilization Reagent, RNAlater (Qiagen, Chadstone Centre, Vic, Australia).

    Techniques: Expressing

    Mechanism of FXN activation by repeat-targeted duplex RNAs. ( a ) RIP examining the association of Ago2 with FXN pre-mRNA after treatment with 50 nM duplex RNA and analysis by real-time PCR. An arrow marks the PCR product of FXN pre-mRNA, which was confirmed by sequencing ( Supplementary Fig. 7 ) ( b ) Anti-GAA duplex RNA with central mismatches (siGAA 9,10 mm with mismatches on both strands; 25 nM) activates FXN expression at a level similar to the analogous fully complementary duplex RNA ( n =3). siExon3 is a positive control for transfection efficiency targeting exon 3 of FXN . ( c ) ChIP for RNAP2 using four different primer sets ( n =4). ( d ) ChIP for transcription-associated histone modification markers H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K9Ac, H3K27me3 and H4Ac ( n =4–8). ( e ) FXN mRNA stability assay. Cells were transfected with duplex RNAs siGAA or CM at 25 nM ( n =3). Actinomycin D (5 μg ml −1 ) was added with fresh media 3 days after transfection and cells were collected at the indicated time points. HPRT expression was measured for normalization. All experiments were performed in GM03816 patient-derived cells. All data are presented as mean±STDEV. * P

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Activating frataxin expression by repeat-targeted nucleic acids

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms10606

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mechanism of FXN activation by repeat-targeted duplex RNAs. ( a ) RIP examining the association of Ago2 with FXN pre-mRNA after treatment with 50 nM duplex RNA and analysis by real-time PCR. An arrow marks the PCR product of FXN pre-mRNA, which was confirmed by sequencing ( Supplementary Fig. 7 ) ( b ) Anti-GAA duplex RNA with central mismatches (siGAA 9,10 mm with mismatches on both strands; 25 nM) activates FXN expression at a level similar to the analogous fully complementary duplex RNA ( n =3). siExon3 is a positive control for transfection efficiency targeting exon 3 of FXN . ( c ) ChIP for RNAP2 using four different primer sets ( n =4). ( d ) ChIP for transcription-associated histone modification markers H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K9me3, H3K9Ac, H3K27me3 and H4Ac ( n =4–8). ( e ) FXN mRNA stability assay. Cells were transfected with duplex RNAs siGAA or CM at 25 nM ( n =3). Actinomycin D (5 μg ml −1 ) was added with fresh media 3 days after transfection and cells were collected at the indicated time points. HPRT expression was measured for normalization. All experiments were performed in GM03816 patient-derived cells. All data are presented as mean±STDEV. * P

    Article Snippet: Quantitative PCR Identical volumes of RNA (representing approximately the same number of cells and ranging from 1 to 2 μg of RNA) were treated with 2 units of DNase I (Worthington) in DNase I buffer (10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.0, 10 mM NaCl, 2 mM MgCl2 and 0.5 mM CaCl2 ) for 15 min at room temperature to degrade any genomic DNA contamination.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Sequencing, Expressing, Positive Control, Transfection, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Modification, Stability Assay, Derivative Assay

    Noxa alone cannot account for the CPT-induced apoptosis. (A) Knockdown of Noxa expression protects cells against CPT-induced apoptosis. HeLa cells were transfected with control or Noxa-specific siRNA (sc-37305; Santa Cruz Biotechnology). At 48 hours posttransfection, cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) for another 12 or 24 hours. The viability of cells was measured by counting apoptotic cells characteristic of aberrant nuclei staining by Hoechst 33342 and was normalized to the number of total cells. Data were presented as means (± SD) of three independent experiments. Cell lysates were also collected and subjected to Western blot analysis using anti-Noxa and anti-caspase-9 antibodies. Endogenous actin was detected by anti-actin antibody as internal control. (B) HeLa cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) alone or in combination with either (a) CHX (20 µg/ml) or (b) LY294002 (40 µM) for indicated periods of time. The viability of cells was measured according to the method described in (A). Noxa protein level and the activation of caspase-9 were assessed by Western blot analysis. (C) CPT-induced Mcl-1 upregulation is inhibited by LY294002. a. HeLa cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) or doxorubicin (2 µg/ml) for indicated periods of time (0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours) before cell lysates were prepared. Levels of Mcl-1 protein were assessed by Western blot analysis using anti -Mcl-1 antibody. Actin acted as a loading control. b. HeLa cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) or with CPT (10 µM) plus LY294002 (40 µM) for 12 hours. Cell lysates were then used for Western blot analysis with anti-Mcl-1 antibody and endogenous actin was used as internal control.

    Journal: Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)

    Article Title: Noxa/Mcl-1 Balance Regulates Susceptibility of Cells to Camptothecin-Induced Apoptosis 1

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Noxa alone cannot account for the CPT-induced apoptosis. (A) Knockdown of Noxa expression protects cells against CPT-induced apoptosis. HeLa cells were transfected with control or Noxa-specific siRNA (sc-37305; Santa Cruz Biotechnology). At 48 hours posttransfection, cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) for another 12 or 24 hours. The viability of cells was measured by counting apoptotic cells characteristic of aberrant nuclei staining by Hoechst 33342 and was normalized to the number of total cells. Data were presented as means (± SD) of three independent experiments. Cell lysates were also collected and subjected to Western blot analysis using anti-Noxa and anti-caspase-9 antibodies. Endogenous actin was detected by anti-actin antibody as internal control. (B) HeLa cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) alone or in combination with either (a) CHX (20 µg/ml) or (b) LY294002 (40 µM) for indicated periods of time. The viability of cells was measured according to the method described in (A). Noxa protein level and the activation of caspase-9 were assessed by Western blot analysis. (C) CPT-induced Mcl-1 upregulation is inhibited by LY294002. a. HeLa cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) or doxorubicin (2 µg/ml) for indicated periods of time (0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 hours) before cell lysates were prepared. Levels of Mcl-1 protein were assessed by Western blot analysis using anti -Mcl-1 antibody. Actin acted as a loading control. b. HeLa cells were treated with CPT (10 µM) or with CPT (10 µM) plus LY294002 (40 µM) for 12 hours. Cell lysates were then used for Western blot analysis with anti-Mcl-1 antibody and endogenous actin was used as internal control.

    Article Snippet: To knock down the endogenous level of Noxa, small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) for Noxa (sc-37305; Santa Cruz Biotechnology) was transfected into HeLa cells according to themanufacturer's instructions.

    Techniques: Cycling Probe Technology, Expressing, Transfection, Staining, Western Blot, Activation Assay

    Expression of ZFERV-related RNA in thymus. (A) Larval fish at 5 dpf were fixed and subjected to whole mount in situ hybridization with a DIG-labeled sense or antisense probe for the env gene, followed by colorimetric detection. (B and C) Contiguous sections (20 μm thick) of 3-month-old fish (right two panels) were subjected to in situ hybridization with probes as described in panel A. The section planes and main organs are indicated. Abbreviations: B, brain; E, esophagus; G, gill; H, heart; I, intestine; L, liver; M, muscle; T, thymus. The bilateral thymi hybridizing to the antisense probe are highlighted with arrows. (D) Sections (2 μm thick) of the thymus from 3-month-old fish were hybridized to fluorescein-labeled sense (left panel) or antisense (right panel) env probe, followed by fluorescence detection with the alkaline phosphatase-Fast Red system.

    Journal: Journal of Virology

    Article Title: Genome Structure and Thymic Expression of an Endogenous Retrovirus in Zebrafish

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.78.2.899-911.2004

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of ZFERV-related RNA in thymus. (A) Larval fish at 5 dpf were fixed and subjected to whole mount in situ hybridization with a DIG-labeled sense or antisense probe for the env gene, followed by colorimetric detection. (B and C) Contiguous sections (20 μm thick) of 3-month-old fish (right two panels) were subjected to in situ hybridization with probes as described in panel A. The section planes and main organs are indicated. Abbreviations: B, brain; E, esophagus; G, gill; H, heart; I, intestine; L, liver; M, muscle; T, thymus. The bilateral thymi hybridizing to the antisense probe are highlighted with arrows. (D) Sections (2 μm thick) of the thymus from 3-month-old fish were hybridized to fluorescein-labeled sense (left panel) or antisense (right panel) env probe, followed by fluorescence detection with the alkaline phosphatase-Fast Red system.

    Article Snippet: For hybridization, samples were incubated with prehybridization buffer (4× SSC [600 mM NaCl, 60 mM sodium citrate; pH 7], 50% [vol/vol] formamide) at 37°C for 10 min, followed by incubation at 42°C for 16 h in hybridization buffer (50% [vol/vol] formamide, 4× SSC, 1× Denhardt solution [200 mg/liter each for Ficoll 400, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and bovine serum albumin], 100 μg of heparin/ml, 0.1% Tween 20, 1 mg of yeast Torula RNA [Sigma]/ml) containing fluorescein- or digoxigenin [DIG]-labeled RNA probe (0.2 μg/ml).

    Techniques: Expressing, Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization, In Situ Hybridization, Labeling, Fluorescence

    Caspase-14 modulates trophoblast gene expression . The effect of caspase-14 siRNA on the expression of (A-C) hCG, (D-F) KLF4 and (G-I) cytokeratin-18 in DMSO-treated BeWo cells. * = P

    Journal: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology : RB & E

    Article Title: Function of caspase-14 in trophoblast differentiation

    doi: 10.1186/1477-7827-7-98

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Caspase-14 modulates trophoblast gene expression . The effect of caspase-14 siRNA on the expression of (A-C) hCG, (D-F) KLF4 and (G-I) cytokeratin-18 in DMSO-treated BeWo cells. * = P

    Article Snippet: RNA interference (RNAi) RNAi was conducted by delivering 100 nM of caspase-14 short interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) (Invitrogen, Cat. No.1299003) into the cells using Lipofectamine2000 (Invitrogen, Cat. No. 11668) diluted in OptiMEM (Gibco, Cat. No. 31985) as the transfection agent, and incubated for 16 hours.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Caspase-14 modulates trophoblast gene expression during differentiation . The effect of caspase-14 siRNA on the expression of (A-C) hCG, (D-F) KLF4, and (G-I) cytokeratin-18 in Forskolin-treated BeWo cells. * = P

    Journal: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology : RB & E

    Article Title: Function of caspase-14 in trophoblast differentiation

    doi: 10.1186/1477-7827-7-98

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Caspase-14 modulates trophoblast gene expression during differentiation . The effect of caspase-14 siRNA on the expression of (A-C) hCG, (D-F) KLF4, and (G-I) cytokeratin-18 in Forskolin-treated BeWo cells. * = P

    Article Snippet: RNA interference (RNAi) RNAi was conducted by delivering 100 nM of caspase-14 short interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) (Invitrogen, Cat. No.1299003) into the cells using Lipofectamine2000 (Invitrogen, Cat. No. 11668) diluted in OptiMEM (Gibco, Cat. No. 31985) as the transfection agent, and incubated for 16 hours.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Specific downregulation of tripartite motif (TRIM)29 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression by TRIM29 small interfering (si)RNA. Cells were transfected with TRIM29 siRNA or scrambled siRNA (siCONTROL) for 48 hours. (a) The relative mRNA level of TRIM29 was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, and 18S was used as an internal standard. (b) The relative TRIM29 protein level was determined by Western blotting, and data was normalized using β-actin as an internal standard. Compared with TRIM29 siRNA1 and 2, siRNA3 mostly silenced TRIM29 expression. P

    Journal: Thoracic Cancer

    Article Title: Silencing of tripartite motif (TRIM) 29 inhibits proliferation and invasion and increases chemosensitivity to cisplatin in human lung squamous cancer NCI-H520 cells

    doi: 10.1111/1759-7714.12130

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Specific downregulation of tripartite motif (TRIM)29 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein expression by TRIM29 small interfering (si)RNA. Cells were transfected with TRIM29 siRNA or scrambled siRNA (siCONTROL) for 48 hours. (a) The relative mRNA level of TRIM29 was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, and 18S was used as an internal standard. (b) The relative TRIM29 protein level was determined by Western blotting, and data was normalized using β-actin as an internal standard. Compared with TRIM29 siRNA1 and 2, siRNA3 mostly silenced TRIM29 expression. P

    Article Snippet: The human TRIM29 specific small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) was purchased from GenePharma Co Ltd (Shanghai, China).

    Techniques: Expressing, Transfection, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Western Blot

    Downregulation of tripartite motif (TRIM)29 inhibits invasion of NCI-H520 cells. (a) NCI-H520, siCONTROL and TRIM29 small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) cells were seeded in the upper chamber in medium supplemented with five percent fetal bovine serum (FBS. After 24 hours, cells were fixed, stained, and counted (bar shows 100 μm). (b) The number of invasive cells in the TRIM29 siRNA treated group were significantly lower than in the NCI-H520 and siCONTROL groups ( P

    Journal: Thoracic Cancer

    Article Title: Silencing of tripartite motif (TRIM) 29 inhibits proliferation and invasion and increases chemosensitivity to cisplatin in human lung squamous cancer NCI-H520 cells

    doi: 10.1111/1759-7714.12130

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Downregulation of tripartite motif (TRIM)29 inhibits invasion of NCI-H520 cells. (a) NCI-H520, siCONTROL and TRIM29 small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) cells were seeded in the upper chamber in medium supplemented with five percent fetal bovine serum (FBS. After 24 hours, cells were fixed, stained, and counted (bar shows 100 μm). (b) The number of invasive cells in the TRIM29 siRNA treated group were significantly lower than in the NCI-H520 and siCONTROL groups ( P

    Article Snippet: The human TRIM29 specific small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) was purchased from GenePharma Co Ltd (Shanghai, China).

    Techniques: Staining

    RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated downregulation of tripartite motif (TRIM)29 reduces NCI-H520 cell proliferation. Cells treated with TRIM29 small interfering (si)RNA, scrambled control siRNA or with medium alone were plated on a 96-well plate. Cells were evaluated for proliferation at 24-hour intervals by MTT assay. Data were from three independent experiments. P

    Journal: Thoracic Cancer

    Article Title: Silencing of tripartite motif (TRIM) 29 inhibits proliferation and invasion and increases chemosensitivity to cisplatin in human lung squamous cancer NCI-H520 cells

    doi: 10.1111/1759-7714.12130

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated downregulation of tripartite motif (TRIM)29 reduces NCI-H520 cell proliferation. Cells treated with TRIM29 small interfering (si)RNA, scrambled control siRNA or with medium alone were plated on a 96-well plate. Cells were evaluated for proliferation at 24-hour intervals by MTT assay. Data were from three independent experiments. P

    Article Snippet: The human TRIM29 specific small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) was purchased from GenePharma Co Ltd (Shanghai, China).

    Techniques: MTT Assay

    Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) for tripartite motif (TRIM29) induces apoptosis and enhances chemosensitivity. (a and c) TRIM29 inhibition by siRNA induced apoptosis in NCI-H520 cells. (b and d) After treating with 5 μg/mL cisplatin, cell apoptosis (including early and late apoptosis) was further enhanced. Combining TRIM29 inhibition with cisplatin increased the incidence of apoptosis. After 48 hours transfecting with siRNA, cells were treated with 5 μg/mL cisplatin for 24 hours, and then cells were double stained with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) followed by FACS analysis. FACS analysis scatter-grams of Annexin V/PI staining display four different cell populations marked as: double negative (unstained) cells showing live cell population (lower left), Annexin V positive and PI negative stained cells showing early apoptosis (lower right), Annexin V/PI double-stained cells showing late apoptosis (upper right), and, finally, PI positive and Annexin V negative stained cells showing dead cells (upper left). P

    Journal: Thoracic Cancer

    Article Title: Silencing of tripartite motif (TRIM) 29 inhibits proliferation and invasion and increases chemosensitivity to cisplatin in human lung squamous cancer NCI-H520 cells

    doi: 10.1111/1759-7714.12130

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) for tripartite motif (TRIM29) induces apoptosis and enhances chemosensitivity. (a and c) TRIM29 inhibition by siRNA induced apoptosis in NCI-H520 cells. (b and d) After treating with 5 μg/mL cisplatin, cell apoptosis (including early and late apoptosis) was further enhanced. Combining TRIM29 inhibition with cisplatin increased the incidence of apoptosis. After 48 hours transfecting with siRNA, cells were treated with 5 μg/mL cisplatin for 24 hours, and then cells were double stained with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) followed by FACS analysis. FACS analysis scatter-grams of Annexin V/PI staining display four different cell populations marked as: double negative (unstained) cells showing live cell population (lower left), Annexin V positive and PI negative stained cells showing early apoptosis (lower right), Annexin V/PI double-stained cells showing late apoptosis (upper right), and, finally, PI positive and Annexin V negative stained cells showing dead cells (upper left). P

    Article Snippet: The human TRIM29 specific small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) was purchased from GenePharma Co Ltd (Shanghai, China).

    Techniques: Inhibition, Staining, FACS

    The laboratory testing algorithm used for identifying hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus infection. HBV = hepatitis B virus, HBc = hepatitis B core; HBs = hepatitis B surface; HCV = hepatitis C virus; RNA = ribonucleic acid.

    Journal: Annals of Family Medicine

    Article Title: Detecting Hepatitis B and C by Combined Public Health and Primary Care Birth Cohort Testing

    doi: 10.1370/afm.2166

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The laboratory testing algorithm used for identifying hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus infection. HBV = hepatitis B virus, HBc = hepatitis B core; HBs = hepatitis B surface; HCV = hepatitis C virus; RNA = ribonucleic acid.

    Article Snippet: When a screening test was positive, subsequent tests included the following: HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA) (COBAS, Ampliprep/COBAS, Taqman HCV Quantitative Test, version 2.0, Roche Diagnostics) and/or immunoblot (Mikrogen), a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) test, and an antihepatitis B surface (anti-HBs) test (HBsAg II and Anti-HBs, Roche Diagnostics) (see ).

    Techniques: Infection

    Subtraction of DNA, RNA and protein spectra from the spect1 for positions 1 and 2. DNA, RNA and protein stack-files were subtracted sequentially from spect1 resulting in spect2D, spect2R and spect3, respectively. C, N, and O are photon energy regions of the K absorption edges for carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Location of the positions 1 (green) and 2 (blue) were shown in the lower figure. Spect2D in the position 1 was not appeared in the figure.

    Journal: Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

    Article Title: Discrimination of DNA and RNA distribution in a mammalian cell by scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy

    doi: 10.3233/XST-180392

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Subtraction of DNA, RNA and protein spectra from the spect1 for positions 1 and 2. DNA, RNA and protein stack-files were subtracted sequentially from spect1 resulting in spect2D, spect2R and spect3, respectively. C, N, and O are photon energy regions of the K absorption edges for carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Location of the positions 1 (green) and 2 (blue) were shown in the lower figure. Spect2D in the position 1 was not appeared in the figure.

    Article Snippet: Calf thymus DNA, calf liver RNA and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Co., dissolved in water at the concentration of 2 mg/ml, dropped on a silicon nitride membrane and dried.

    Techniques:

    Soft X-ray absorption spectra of DNA, RNA and BSA at the photon energy regions of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen K absorption edge. Each spectrum was adjusted to be the same level at the left end of the photon energy.

    Journal: Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

    Article Title: Discrimination of DNA and RNA distribution in a mammalian cell by scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy

    doi: 10.3233/XST-180392

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Soft X-ray absorption spectra of DNA, RNA and BSA at the photon energy regions of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen K absorption edge. Each spectrum was adjusted to be the same level at the left end of the photon energy.

    Article Snippet: Calf thymus DNA, calf liver RNA and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Co., dissolved in water at the concentration of 2 mg/ml, dropped on a silicon nitride membrane and dried.

    Techniques:

    RGB expression and optical density expression at the photon energy of 398 eV with gray scale of the CHO image. For RGB expression (a), DNA, RNA and protein are displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. Original (spect1) absorption image (b), DNA image (c), RNA image (d), protein image (e) and residual (spect3) image (f) at the photon energy of 398 eV are displayed with the gray scale of optical density.

    Journal: Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

    Article Title: Discrimination of DNA and RNA distribution in a mammalian cell by scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy

    doi: 10.3233/XST-180392

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RGB expression and optical density expression at the photon energy of 398 eV with gray scale of the CHO image. For RGB expression (a), DNA, RNA and protein are displayed as red, green and blue, respectively. Original (spect1) absorption image (b), DNA image (c), RNA image (d), protein image (e) and residual (spect3) image (f) at the photon energy of 398 eV are displayed with the gray scale of optical density.

    Article Snippet: Calf thymus DNA, calf liver RNA and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Co., dissolved in water at the concentration of 2 mg/ml, dropped on a silicon nitride membrane and dried.

    Techniques: Expressing

    DNA (a) and RNA (b) images obtained by the SVD method in aXis2000 program. The scale bar is 5 μ m.

    Journal: Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology

    Article Title: Discrimination of DNA and RNA distribution in a mammalian cell by scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy

    doi: 10.3233/XST-180392

    Figure Lengend Snippet: DNA (a) and RNA (b) images obtained by the SVD method in aXis2000 program. The scale bar is 5 μ m.

    Article Snippet: Calf thymus DNA, calf liver RNA and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Co., dissolved in water at the concentration of 2 mg/ml, dropped on a silicon nitride membrane and dried.

    Techniques: