rabbit anti-th antibody Search Results


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  • 99
    Millipore rabbit anti th
    Rabbit Anti Th, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2032 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Millipore anti tyrosine hydroxylase antibody
    Anti Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 599 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore rabbit anti tyrosine hydroxylase antibody
    Rabbit Anti Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 57 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore rabbit polyclonal anti th antibody
    ( A ) Minocycline blocks MPTP-induced expression of iNOS and caspase 1 in vivo and in vitro . Immunoblot analyses were performed with <t>polyclonal</t> antibodies against iNOS, nNOS, and caspase 1 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology). Minocycline doses and concentrations as well as the time course after MPTP or MPP + administration exposure are indicated. MPTP treatment increases iNOS and caspase 1 expression by 3 h posttreatment. Minocycline treatment blocks the increase in both iNOS and caspase 1. Numbers (i.e., 1.5–24) represent the hours of treatment. Note that MPTP treatment fails to alter nNOS expression in these same samples. ( B ) Minocycline (20 μM) inhibits caspase 1 and iNOS expression induced by MPP + ). Lane 1 (left to right) = control; lane 2 = MPP + (1 μM); lane 3 = MPP + (10 μM); lane 4 = MPP + (1 μM) minocycline (20 μM); and lane 5 = MPP + (10 μM)/minocycline (20 μM). ( C ) Minocycline inhibits caspase 1 and iNOS expression induced by MPP + ) were cultured to near confluency and then treated with various concentrations of minocycline (0.2–20 μM) with and without MPP + (10 μM, 18 h). Note that minocycline reduces basal iNOS expression in BV2 cells and completely blocks iNOS and caspase 1 expression induced by MPP + .
    Rabbit Polyclonal Anti Th Antibody, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 220 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/rabbit polyclonal anti th antibody/product/Millipore
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    99
    Abcam rabbit anti tyrosine hydroxylase
    PAC1 receptor gene expression is specifically knocked down in catecholaminergic cells. (a) Use of PAC1 flox/flox DβH-CreER Ai9 reporter triple transgenic mouse confirms cell-specific targeting of Cre in the superior cervical ganglion. We generated a triple transgenic mouse which only expresses the red reporter protein, TdTomato, when an upstream floxed stop sequence is excised by tamoxifen-induced Cre. Within the superior cervical ganglion, TdTomato is expressed only in cells which express <t>tyrosine</t> <t>hydroxylase,</t> an enzyme which is highly expressed in DβH + cells. This demonstrates specific targeting of Cre activity. The mice were euthanized, and brains and superior cervical ganglia were collected 4 weeks after the last dose of tamoxifen. (b) Superior cervical ganglion sections and (c) coronal brain sections from control and cKD mice at the level of the locus coeruleus were labeled by RNA in situ hybridization using with a DNA probe against PAC1 mRNA and co-labeled by immunofluorescence assay using <t>antibody</t> against tyrosine hydroxylase to label catecholaminergic neurons
    Rabbit Anti Tyrosine Hydroxylase, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 151 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Pel-Freez rabbit anti tyrosine hydroxylase antibody
    PAC1 receptor gene expression is specifically knocked down in catecholaminergic cells. (a) Use of PAC1 flox/flox DβH-CreER Ai9 reporter triple transgenic mouse confirms cell-specific targeting of Cre in the superior cervical ganglion. We generated a triple transgenic mouse which only expresses the red reporter protein, TdTomato, when an upstream floxed stop sequence is excised by tamoxifen-induced Cre. Within the superior cervical ganglion, TdTomato is expressed only in cells which express <t>tyrosine</t> <t>hydroxylase,</t> an enzyme which is highly expressed in DβH + cells. This demonstrates specific targeting of Cre activity. The mice were euthanized, and brains and superior cervical ganglia were collected 4 weeks after the last dose of tamoxifen. (b) Superior cervical ganglion sections and (c) coronal brain sections from control and cKD mice at the level of the locus coeruleus were labeled by RNA in situ hybridization using with a DNA probe against PAC1 mRNA and co-labeled by immunofluorescence assay using <t>antibody</t> against tyrosine hydroxylase to label catecholaminergic neurons
    Rabbit Anti Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody, supplied by Pel-Freez, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 22 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Abcam anti tyrosine hydroxylase antibody
    Immunohistochemical analyses of TH expression in WT, BTBR and Fmr1 -KO mice. a Representative diagrams and images of <t>anti-TH</t> staining in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), dorsal striatum (dSTR) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). b Examples of confocal images (20x) of dopaminergic neurons in WT, BTBR and Fmr1 -KO mice. c Fluorescence intensity of anti-TH staining in the region of interest (ROI) was measured in an identical microscopic setting and normalized to the WT animals. The BTBR brain exhibited decreased TH-positive expression in SNc, VTA and dSTR, while the Fmr1- KO brain did not. TH: <t>tyrosine</t> <t>hydroxylase;</t> SNr: substantia nigra pars reticulata. n = 6–7 samples/group. * p
    Anti Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 145 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Novus Biologicals rabbit anti th antibody
    Immunohistochemical analyses of TH expression in WT, BTBR and Fmr1 -KO mice. a Representative diagrams and images of <t>anti-TH</t> staining in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), dorsal striatum (dSTR) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). b Examples of confocal images (20x) of dopaminergic neurons in WT, BTBR and Fmr1 -KO mice. c Fluorescence intensity of anti-TH staining in the region of interest (ROI) was measured in an identical microscopic setting and normalized to the WT animals. The BTBR brain exhibited decreased TH-positive expression in SNc, VTA and dSTR, while the Fmr1- KO brain did not. TH: <t>tyrosine</t> <t>hydroxylase;</t> SNr: substantia nigra pars reticulata. n = 6–7 samples/group. * p
    Rabbit Anti Th Antibody, supplied by Novus Biologicals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 98/100, based on 38 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Merck KGaA rabbit anti tyrosine hydroxylase antibody
    Immunohistochemical analyses of TH expression in WT, BTBR and Fmr1 -KO mice. a Representative diagrams and images of <t>anti-TH</t> staining in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), dorsal striatum (dSTR) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). b Examples of confocal images (20x) of dopaminergic neurons in WT, BTBR and Fmr1 -KO mice. c Fluorescence intensity of anti-TH staining in the region of interest (ROI) was measured in an identical microscopic setting and normalized to the WT animals. The BTBR brain exhibited decreased TH-positive expression in SNc, VTA and dSTR, while the Fmr1- KO brain did not. TH: <t>tyrosine</t> <t>hydroxylase;</t> SNr: substantia nigra pars reticulata. n = 6–7 samples/group. * p
    Rabbit Anti Tyrosine Hydroxylase Antibody, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 22 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology rabbit anti th antibody
    Immunohistochemical analyses of TH expression in WT, BTBR and Fmr1 -KO mice. a Representative diagrams and images of <t>anti-TH</t> staining in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), dorsal striatum (dSTR) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). b Examples of confocal images (20x) of dopaminergic neurons in WT, BTBR and Fmr1 -KO mice. c Fluorescence intensity of anti-TH staining in the region of interest (ROI) was measured in an identical microscopic setting and normalized to the WT animals. The BTBR brain exhibited decreased TH-positive expression in SNc, VTA and dSTR, while the Fmr1- KO brain did not. TH: <t>tyrosine</t> <t>hydroxylase;</t> SNr: substantia nigra pars reticulata. n = 6–7 samples/group. * p
    Rabbit Anti Th Antibody, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 31 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Abcam rabbit anti th polyclonal antibody
    Immunohistochemical analyses of TH expression in WT, BTBR and Fmr1 -KO mice. a Representative diagrams and images of <t>anti-TH</t> staining in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), dorsal striatum (dSTR) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). b Examples of confocal images (20x) of dopaminergic neurons in WT, BTBR and Fmr1 -KO mice. c Fluorescence intensity of anti-TH staining in the region of interest (ROI) was measured in an identical microscopic setting and normalized to the WT animals. The BTBR brain exhibited decreased TH-positive expression in SNc, VTA and dSTR, while the Fmr1- KO brain did not. TH: <t>tyrosine</t> <t>hydroxylase;</t> SNr: substantia nigra pars reticulata. n = 6–7 samples/group. * p
    Rabbit Anti Th Polyclonal Antibody, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 16 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Pel-Freez rabbit anti th polyclonal antibody
    Immunohistochemical analyses of TH expression in WT, BTBR and Fmr1 -KO mice. a Representative diagrams and images of <t>anti-TH</t> staining in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), dorsal striatum (dSTR) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). b Examples of confocal images (20x) of dopaminergic neurons in WT, BTBR and Fmr1 -KO mice. c Fluorescence intensity of anti-TH staining in the region of interest (ROI) was measured in an identical microscopic setting and normalized to the WT animals. The BTBR brain exhibited decreased TH-positive expression in SNc, VTA and dSTR, while the Fmr1- KO brain did not. TH: <t>tyrosine</t> <t>hydroxylase;</t> SNr: substantia nigra pars reticulata. n = 6–7 samples/group. * p
    Rabbit Anti Th Polyclonal Antibody, supplied by Pel-Freez, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 34 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    ( A ) Minocycline blocks MPTP-induced expression of iNOS and caspase 1 in vivo and in vitro . Immunoblot analyses were performed with polyclonal antibodies against iNOS, nNOS, and caspase 1 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology). Minocycline doses and concentrations as well as the time course after MPTP or MPP + administration exposure are indicated. MPTP treatment increases iNOS and caspase 1 expression by 3 h posttreatment. Minocycline treatment blocks the increase in both iNOS and caspase 1. Numbers (i.e., 1.5–24) represent the hours of treatment. Note that MPTP treatment fails to alter nNOS expression in these same samples. ( B ) Minocycline (20 μM) inhibits caspase 1 and iNOS expression induced by MPP + ). Lane 1 (left to right) = control; lane 2 = MPP + (1 μM); lane 3 = MPP + (10 μM); lane 4 = MPP + (1 μM) minocycline (20 μM); and lane 5 = MPP + (10 μM)/minocycline (20 μM). ( C ) Minocycline inhibits caspase 1 and iNOS expression induced by MPP + ) were cultured to near confluency and then treated with various concentrations of minocycline (0.2–20 μM) with and without MPP + (10 μM, 18 h). Note that minocycline reduces basal iNOS expression in BV2 cells and completely blocks iNOS and caspase 1 expression induced by MPP + .

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Minocycline prevents nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurodegeneration in the MPTP model of Parkinson's disease

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.251341998

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( A ) Minocycline blocks MPTP-induced expression of iNOS and caspase 1 in vivo and in vitro . Immunoblot analyses were performed with polyclonal antibodies against iNOS, nNOS, and caspase 1 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology). Minocycline doses and concentrations as well as the time course after MPTP or MPP + administration exposure are indicated. MPTP treatment increases iNOS and caspase 1 expression by 3 h posttreatment. Minocycline treatment blocks the increase in both iNOS and caspase 1. Numbers (i.e., 1.5–24) represent the hours of treatment. Note that MPTP treatment fails to alter nNOS expression in these same samples. ( B ) Minocycline (20 μM) inhibits caspase 1 and iNOS expression induced by MPP + ). Lane 1 (left to right) = control; lane 2 = MPP + (1 μM); lane 3 = MPP + (10 μM); lane 4 = MPP + (1 μM) minocycline (20 μM); and lane 5 = MPP + (10 μM)/minocycline (20 μM). ( C ) Minocycline inhibits caspase 1 and iNOS expression induced by MPP + ) were cultured to near confluency and then treated with various concentrations of minocycline (0.2–20 μM) with and without MPP + (10 μM, 18 h). Note that minocycline reduces basal iNOS expression in BV2 cells and completely blocks iNOS and caspase 1 expression induced by MPP + .

    Article Snippet: Tissue sections were incubated successively with rabbit polyclonal anti-TH antibody (1:2,500, Calbiochem), goat biotinylated-conjugated polyclonal anti-rabbit antibody (1:250; Vector Laboratories), and horseradish-peroxidase-conjugated avidin/biotin complex (Vector Laboratories).

    Techniques: Expressing, In Vivo, In Vitro, Cell Culture

    Immunoreactivity of A 2A R in the striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. (A) Immunoblot analysis of TH and A 2A R density in striatal membranes from control (R) and 6-OHDA lesioned (L) striatal hemisphere. Striatal membranes were analyzed by SDS–PAGE and immunoblotted using a rabbit anti-TH polyclonal antibody (1 μg/ml), a mouse anti-A 2A R monoclonal antibody (1 μg/ml) and a rabbit anti-α-actinin polyclonal antibody (1 μg/ml). A HRP-conjugated anti-rabbit or anti-mouse IgG (1/30,000) was used as a secondary antibody. The immunoreactive bands were visualized by chemiluminescence. Load control used for quantitating was α-actinin. A representative blot for three different lesioned animals is shown. (B) Quantification of TH and A 2A R density in striatal membranes from control (R) and 6-OHDA lesioned (L) striatal hemisphere. The immunoreactive bands corresponding to TH and A 2A R in each striatal hemisphere were normalized by α-actinin immunoreactivity. Data are expressed as percentage of the control (R) TH or A 2A R density ± SEM of three independent experiments. Asterisks indicate data significantly different from the control condition: ∗∗∗ P

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: PBF509, an Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonist With Efficacy in Rodent Models of Movement Disorders

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01200

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunoreactivity of A 2A R in the striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. (A) Immunoblot analysis of TH and A 2A R density in striatal membranes from control (R) and 6-OHDA lesioned (L) striatal hemisphere. Striatal membranes were analyzed by SDS–PAGE and immunoblotted using a rabbit anti-TH polyclonal antibody (1 μg/ml), a mouse anti-A 2A R monoclonal antibody (1 μg/ml) and a rabbit anti-α-actinin polyclonal antibody (1 μg/ml). A HRP-conjugated anti-rabbit or anti-mouse IgG (1/30,000) was used as a secondary antibody. The immunoreactive bands were visualized by chemiluminescence. Load control used for quantitating was α-actinin. A representative blot for three different lesioned animals is shown. (B) Quantification of TH and A 2A R density in striatal membranes from control (R) and 6-OHDA lesioned (L) striatal hemisphere. The immunoreactive bands corresponding to TH and A 2A R in each striatal hemisphere were normalized by α-actinin immunoreactivity. Data are expressed as percentage of the control (R) TH or A 2A R density ± SEM of three independent experiments. Asterisks indicate data significantly different from the control condition: ∗∗∗ P

    Article Snippet: Antibodies The primary antibodies used were rabbit anti-TH polyclonal antibody (Millipore, Temecula, CA, United States), mouse anti-A2A R monoclonal antibody (Millipore) and rabbit anti-α-actinin polyclonal antibody (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA, United States).

    Techniques: SDS Page

    The injection of 6-OHDA into the neostriatum leads to the activation of caspase-3 in the SNc. Representative confocal micrographs of mesencephalon immunostained against TH and cleaved caspase-3. The numbers at the left margin of the figures are the days after the 6-OHDA lesion. The primary antibodies were a mouse monoclonal anti-TH and a rabbit polyclonal anti-cleaved-caspase-3. The secondary antibodies were FITC goat anti-mouse IgG (H+L) conjugated and Texas red goat anti-rabbit H+L IgG. The scale bars = 50 µm in the first row are common for all the micrographs.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Activation of GSK-3? and Caspase-3 Occurs in Nigral Dopamine Neurons during the Development of Apoptosis Activated by a Striatal Injection of 6-Hydroxydopamine

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070951

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The injection of 6-OHDA into the neostriatum leads to the activation of caspase-3 in the SNc. Representative confocal micrographs of mesencephalon immunostained against TH and cleaved caspase-3. The numbers at the left margin of the figures are the days after the 6-OHDA lesion. The primary antibodies were a mouse monoclonal anti-TH and a rabbit polyclonal anti-cleaved-caspase-3. The secondary antibodies were FITC goat anti-mouse IgG (H+L) conjugated and Texas red goat anti-rabbit H+L IgG. The scale bars = 50 µm in the first row are common for all the micrographs.

    Article Snippet: For double immunofluorescence assays, the primary antibodies were mouse monoclonal anti-TH clone TH-2 (1∶1000; Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO, USA), mouse monoclonal anti-NeuN (1∶500; Cell Signaling; Danvers, MA, USA), mouse monoclonal anti-GSK-3β pY216 (1∶600; BD Transduction Laboratories; Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA), mouse monoclonal anti-GFAP (1∶250; Cell Signaling; Danvers, MA, USA), mouse monoclonal anti-OX42 (1∶200; Abcam; Cambridge, UK), rabbit polyclonal anti-TH (1∶1000; Chemicon Inc.; Billerica, MA, USA), rabbit polyclonal anti-cleaved-caspase-3-Asp 175 (1∶300; Cell Signaling; Danvers, MA, USA), and rabbit polyclonal anti-β-III tubulin (1∶300; Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Injection, Activation Assay

    Representative merged micrographs of mesencephalon immunostained against NeuN and TH. The numbers at the left margin of the figures are the days after 6-OHDA lesion. The primary antibodies were a mouse monoclonal anti-NeuN and a rabbit polyclonal anti-TH. The secondary antibodies were sheep anti-mouse IgG (H+L) FITC conjugated and goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) Texas conjugated. The rectangles on the panoramic view show the regions that were amplified 40x (details). Scale bar = 1 mm (central panels) and 50 µm (details).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Activation of GSK-3? and Caspase-3 Occurs in Nigral Dopamine Neurons during the Development of Apoptosis Activated by a Striatal Injection of 6-Hydroxydopamine

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070951

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Representative merged micrographs of mesencephalon immunostained against NeuN and TH. The numbers at the left margin of the figures are the days after 6-OHDA lesion. The primary antibodies were a mouse monoclonal anti-NeuN and a rabbit polyclonal anti-TH. The secondary antibodies were sheep anti-mouse IgG (H+L) FITC conjugated and goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) Texas conjugated. The rectangles on the panoramic view show the regions that were amplified 40x (details). Scale bar = 1 mm (central panels) and 50 µm (details).

    Article Snippet: For double immunofluorescence assays, the primary antibodies were mouse monoclonal anti-TH clone TH-2 (1∶1000; Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO, USA), mouse monoclonal anti-NeuN (1∶500; Cell Signaling; Danvers, MA, USA), mouse monoclonal anti-GSK-3β pY216 (1∶600; BD Transduction Laboratories; Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA), mouse monoclonal anti-GFAP (1∶250; Cell Signaling; Danvers, MA, USA), mouse monoclonal anti-OX42 (1∶200; Abcam; Cambridge, UK), rabbit polyclonal anti-TH (1∶1000; Chemicon Inc.; Billerica, MA, USA), rabbit polyclonal anti-cleaved-caspase-3-Asp 175 (1∶300; Cell Signaling; Danvers, MA, USA), and rabbit polyclonal anti-β-III tubulin (1∶300; Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Amplification

    Active caspase-3 is present in microglia and astrocytes in the SNc at seven days after the 6-OHDA striatal injection. In panels A, B and C, representative confocal micrographs of mesencephalon immunostained against TH, OX42, GFAP, and cleaved caspase-3. The vertical views correspond to 1-µm optical sections in the vertical plane of the corresponding merged images. The primary antibodies were mouse monoclonal anti-TH, mouse monoclonal anti-OX42, mouse monoclonal anti-GFAP, and rabbit polyclonal anti-cleaved-caspase-3. The secondary antibodies were Alexa 488 chicken anti-mouse and Texas red goat anti-rabbit H+L IgG. Scale bars = 10 µm in the first row are common for all the micrographs.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Activation of GSK-3? and Caspase-3 Occurs in Nigral Dopamine Neurons during the Development of Apoptosis Activated by a Striatal Injection of 6-Hydroxydopamine

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070951

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Active caspase-3 is present in microglia and astrocytes in the SNc at seven days after the 6-OHDA striatal injection. In panels A, B and C, representative confocal micrographs of mesencephalon immunostained against TH, OX42, GFAP, and cleaved caspase-3. The vertical views correspond to 1-µm optical sections in the vertical plane of the corresponding merged images. The primary antibodies were mouse monoclonal anti-TH, mouse monoclonal anti-OX42, mouse monoclonal anti-GFAP, and rabbit polyclonal anti-cleaved-caspase-3. The secondary antibodies were Alexa 488 chicken anti-mouse and Texas red goat anti-rabbit H+L IgG. Scale bars = 10 µm in the first row are common for all the micrographs.

    Article Snippet: For double immunofluorescence assays, the primary antibodies were mouse monoclonal anti-TH clone TH-2 (1∶1000; Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO, USA), mouse monoclonal anti-NeuN (1∶500; Cell Signaling; Danvers, MA, USA), mouse monoclonal anti-GSK-3β pY216 (1∶600; BD Transduction Laboratories; Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA), mouse monoclonal anti-GFAP (1∶250; Cell Signaling; Danvers, MA, USA), mouse monoclonal anti-OX42 (1∶200; Abcam; Cambridge, UK), rabbit polyclonal anti-TH (1∶1000; Chemicon Inc.; Billerica, MA, USA), rabbit polyclonal anti-cleaved-caspase-3-Asp 175 (1∶300; Cell Signaling; Danvers, MA, USA), and rabbit polyclonal anti-β-III tubulin (1∶300; Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Injection

    Neuronal cytoskeleton loss occurs along with the progressive loss of TH(+) cells in the SNc after the 6-OHDA injection into the neostriatum. In panel A, representative micrographs of mesencephalon with double immunostaining to β-III tubulin and TH. The numbers at the left margin of the figures show the days after the 6-OHDA lesion. The primary antibodies were a mouse anti-TH monoclonal and a rabbit anti-β-III tubulin polyclonal. The secondary antibodies were sheep anti-mouse IgG (H+L) FITC conjugated and goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) Texas conjugated. In panel B, representative micrographs of SNc showing details of the loss of β-tubulin III immunoreactivity at days 21 and 30 after the 6-OHDA injection as compared with the intact control side. Scale bars = 20 µm. The scale bars in the panel A are common for all the micrographs.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Activation of GSK-3? and Caspase-3 Occurs in Nigral Dopamine Neurons during the Development of Apoptosis Activated by a Striatal Injection of 6-Hydroxydopamine

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070951

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Neuronal cytoskeleton loss occurs along with the progressive loss of TH(+) cells in the SNc after the 6-OHDA injection into the neostriatum. In panel A, representative micrographs of mesencephalon with double immunostaining to β-III tubulin and TH. The numbers at the left margin of the figures show the days after the 6-OHDA lesion. The primary antibodies were a mouse anti-TH monoclonal and a rabbit anti-β-III tubulin polyclonal. The secondary antibodies were sheep anti-mouse IgG (H+L) FITC conjugated and goat anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) Texas conjugated. In panel B, representative micrographs of SNc showing details of the loss of β-tubulin III immunoreactivity at days 21 and 30 after the 6-OHDA injection as compared with the intact control side. Scale bars = 20 µm. The scale bars in the panel A are common for all the micrographs.

    Article Snippet: For double immunofluorescence assays, the primary antibodies were mouse monoclonal anti-TH clone TH-2 (1∶1000; Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO, USA), mouse monoclonal anti-NeuN (1∶500; Cell Signaling; Danvers, MA, USA), mouse monoclonal anti-GSK-3β pY216 (1∶600; BD Transduction Laboratories; Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA), mouse monoclonal anti-GFAP (1∶250; Cell Signaling; Danvers, MA, USA), mouse monoclonal anti-OX42 (1∶200; Abcam; Cambridge, UK), rabbit polyclonal anti-TH (1∶1000; Chemicon Inc.; Billerica, MA, USA), rabbit polyclonal anti-cleaved-caspase-3-Asp 175 (1∶300; Cell Signaling; Danvers, MA, USA), and rabbit polyclonal anti-β-III tubulin (1∶300; Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Injection, Double Immunostaining

    Increase of the GSK-3β pY216 immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra after a striatal 6-OHDA injection. In panel A, representative confocal micrographs of the SNc double immunostained against TH and GSK-3β pY216 at different days (shown at the left margin) after the 6-OHDA striatal injection. In B, the micrographs in the Details column correspond to amplification of the area within the corresponding rectangles on the panoramic view. The primary antibodies were a rabbit polyclonal anti-TH and a mouse monoclonal anti-GSK-3β pY216. The secondary antibodies were fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) goat anti-rabbit H+L IgG and Texas red horse anti-mouse H+L IgG. The scale bars = 50 µm of the first row are common for all the micrographs.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Activation of GSK-3? and Caspase-3 Occurs in Nigral Dopamine Neurons during the Development of Apoptosis Activated by a Striatal Injection of 6-Hydroxydopamine

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070951

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Increase of the GSK-3β pY216 immunoreactivity in the substantia nigra after a striatal 6-OHDA injection. In panel A, representative confocal micrographs of the SNc double immunostained against TH and GSK-3β pY216 at different days (shown at the left margin) after the 6-OHDA striatal injection. In B, the micrographs in the Details column correspond to amplification of the area within the corresponding rectangles on the panoramic view. The primary antibodies were a rabbit polyclonal anti-TH and a mouse monoclonal anti-GSK-3β pY216. The secondary antibodies were fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) goat anti-rabbit H+L IgG and Texas red horse anti-mouse H+L IgG. The scale bars = 50 µm of the first row are common for all the micrographs.

    Article Snippet: For double immunofluorescence assays, the primary antibodies were mouse monoclonal anti-TH clone TH-2 (1∶1000; Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO, USA), mouse monoclonal anti-NeuN (1∶500; Cell Signaling; Danvers, MA, USA), mouse monoclonal anti-GSK-3β pY216 (1∶600; BD Transduction Laboratories; Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA), mouse monoclonal anti-GFAP (1∶250; Cell Signaling; Danvers, MA, USA), mouse monoclonal anti-OX42 (1∶200; Abcam; Cambridge, UK), rabbit polyclonal anti-TH (1∶1000; Chemicon Inc.; Billerica, MA, USA), rabbit polyclonal anti-cleaved-caspase-3-Asp 175 (1∶300; Cell Signaling; Danvers, MA, USA), and rabbit polyclonal anti-β-III tubulin (1∶300; Sigma-Aldrich; St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Injection, Amplification

    Confocal immunofluorescence localization and molecular identification of the 5HT 2a receptor subtype in rat carotid body type 1 cells A , a section of rat carotid body (CB) was immunostained as described in Methods with a polyclonal antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-ir; Texas Red) to identify type 1 or glomus cell clusters (gc); B , the same section is shown to reveal positive fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) immunostaining using a monoclonal antibody against the 5-HT 2a receptor. Note co-localization of the two markers in glomus cell clusters (gc). Also, positive 5-HT 2a -immunofluorescence can be seen in association with blood vessels (bv) and the carotid sinus nerve (n) in B . In control experiments, omission of the primary antibodies led to no positive staining of a similar CB section ( C ) even though both secondary antibodies were present. D , positive 5-HT 2a -immunofluorescence (FITC) is associated with a glomus cell cluster from a culture of dispersed rat CB cells; note membranous staining of the cell cluster and little or no staining of background cells. E , RT-PCR was carried out following extraction of mRNA from isolated rat type 1 clusters, using gene-specific primers for the 5HT 2a subunit and β-actin. Photograph of 2 % agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide and viewed under UV illumination. Expected product sizes were (in bp): 5-HT 2a (239) and β-actin (327). The marker lane (M) shows bands at 100 bp increments with the 600 bp fragment at increased intensity. In negative control reactions without RT (−) no PCR products were observed. Following amplification using 5HT 2a receptor primers sequencing of the PCR product showed 100 % sequence homology with published sequences for this receptor.

    Journal: The Journal of Physiology

    Article Title: Presynaptic modulation of rat arterial chemoreceptor function by 5-HT: role of K+ channel inhibition via protein kinase C

    doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2002.038489

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Confocal immunofluorescence localization and molecular identification of the 5HT 2a receptor subtype in rat carotid body type 1 cells A , a section of rat carotid body (CB) was immunostained as described in Methods with a polyclonal antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-ir; Texas Red) to identify type 1 or glomus cell clusters (gc); B , the same section is shown to reveal positive fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) immunostaining using a monoclonal antibody against the 5-HT 2a receptor. Note co-localization of the two markers in glomus cell clusters (gc). Also, positive 5-HT 2a -immunofluorescence can be seen in association with blood vessels (bv) and the carotid sinus nerve (n) in B . In control experiments, omission of the primary antibodies led to no positive staining of a similar CB section ( C ) even though both secondary antibodies were present. D , positive 5-HT 2a -immunofluorescence (FITC) is associated with a glomus cell cluster from a culture of dispersed rat CB cells; note membranous staining of the cell cluster and little or no staining of background cells. E , RT-PCR was carried out following extraction of mRNA from isolated rat type 1 clusters, using gene-specific primers for the 5HT 2a subunit and β-actin. Photograph of 2 % agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide and viewed under UV illumination. Expected product sizes were (in bp): 5-HT 2a (239) and β-actin (327). The marker lane (M) shows bands at 100 bp increments with the 600 bp fragment at increased intensity. In negative control reactions without RT (−) no PCR products were observed. Following amplification using 5HT 2a receptor primers sequencing of the PCR product showed 100 % sequence homology with published sequences for this receptor.

    Article Snippet: The primary antisera were: (i) monoclonal mouse anti-rat 5-HT2a antibody (1:16 dilution; BD PharMingen, Mississauga, ON, USA); (ii) polyclonal rabbit anti-TH antibody (1:900 dilution; Chemicon, Temecula, CA, USA).

    Techniques: Immunofluorescence, Immunostaining, Staining, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Isolation, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Marker, Negative Control, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Sequencing

    PAC1 receptor gene expression is specifically knocked down in catecholaminergic cells. (a) Use of PAC1 flox/flox DβH-CreER Ai9 reporter triple transgenic mouse confirms cell-specific targeting of Cre in the superior cervical ganglion. We generated a triple transgenic mouse which only expresses the red reporter protein, TdTomato, when an upstream floxed stop sequence is excised by tamoxifen-induced Cre. Within the superior cervical ganglion, TdTomato is expressed only in cells which express tyrosine hydroxylase, an enzyme which is highly expressed in DβH + cells. This demonstrates specific targeting of Cre activity. The mice were euthanized, and brains and superior cervical ganglia were collected 4 weeks after the last dose of tamoxifen. (b) Superior cervical ganglion sections and (c) coronal brain sections from control and cKD mice at the level of the locus coeruleus were labeled by RNA in situ hybridization using with a DNA probe against PAC1 mRNA and co-labeled by immunofluorescence assay using antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase to label catecholaminergic neurons

    Journal: Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN

    Article Title: PACAP/PAC1 Regulation of Inflammation via Catecholaminergic Neurons in a Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    doi: 10.1007/s12031-018-1137-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: PAC1 receptor gene expression is specifically knocked down in catecholaminergic cells. (a) Use of PAC1 flox/flox DβH-CreER Ai9 reporter triple transgenic mouse confirms cell-specific targeting of Cre in the superior cervical ganglion. We generated a triple transgenic mouse which only expresses the red reporter protein, TdTomato, when an upstream floxed stop sequence is excised by tamoxifen-induced Cre. Within the superior cervical ganglion, TdTomato is expressed only in cells which express tyrosine hydroxylase, an enzyme which is highly expressed in DβH + cells. This demonstrates specific targeting of Cre activity. The mice were euthanized, and brains and superior cervical ganglia were collected 4 weeks after the last dose of tamoxifen. (b) Superior cervical ganglion sections and (c) coronal brain sections from control and cKD mice at the level of the locus coeruleus were labeled by RNA in situ hybridization using with a DNA probe against PAC1 mRNA and co-labeled by immunofluorescence assay using antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase to label catecholaminergic neurons

    Article Snippet: Following a rinse slide with 1xPBS, slides were incubated with an appropriate dilution ((1:1000) Rabbit anti-tyrosine hydroxylase (Abcam, Cambridge, UK)) of primary antibody in 5% goat serum 1% BSA in 1xPBS overnight at 4°C.

    Techniques: Expressing, Transgenic Assay, Generated, Sequencing, Activity Assay, Mouse Assay, Labeling, RNA In Situ Hybridization, Immunofluorescence

    PlxnA4 KRK-AAA and Farp2 KO animals show normal axonal projections in the PNS and CNS in vivo . A-D , WT, PlxnA4 KRK-AAA , Farp2 KO or PlxnA4 KO E12.5 embryos were immuno-stained using a Neurofilament antibody to visualize cutaneous sensory axons pattern. PlxnA4 KRK-AAA and Farp2 KO embryos ( B and C , respectively) were comparable to the WT ( A ), while the PlxnA4 KO ( D ) exhibited an expected hyperinnervation, including a previously described discrete phenotype (white arrows). Scale bar is 500μm. E-H WT, PlxnA4 KRK-AAA , Farp2 KO or PlxnA4 KO E13.5 embryos were immuno-stained using a Tyrosine-hydroxylase antibody to visualize sympathetic axons. PlxnA4 KRK-AAA and Farp2 KO embryos ( F and G , respectively) were comparable to the WT ( E ), while the PlxnA4 KO ( H ) exhibited an expected medial protrusion of sympathetic axons (black arrows). Scale bar is 250μm. I-L WT, PlxnA4 KRK-AAA , Farp2 KO or PlxnA4 KO P30 brains were stained using hematoxylin. PlxnA4 KRK-AAA and Farp2 KO embryos ( J and K , respectively) were comparable to the WT ( I ), while the PlxnA4 KO ( L ) exhibited an expected disrupted formation of the anterior commissure (white arrows). Scale bar, 500μm.

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: Modular and distinct PlexinA4/Farp2/Rac1 signaling controls dendrite morphogenesis

    doi: 10.1101/2020.01.15.908434

    Figure Lengend Snippet: PlxnA4 KRK-AAA and Farp2 KO animals show normal axonal projections in the PNS and CNS in vivo . A-D , WT, PlxnA4 KRK-AAA , Farp2 KO or PlxnA4 KO E12.5 embryos were immuno-stained using a Neurofilament antibody to visualize cutaneous sensory axons pattern. PlxnA4 KRK-AAA and Farp2 KO embryos ( B and C , respectively) were comparable to the WT ( A ), while the PlxnA4 KO ( D ) exhibited an expected hyperinnervation, including a previously described discrete phenotype (white arrows). Scale bar is 500μm. E-H WT, PlxnA4 KRK-AAA , Farp2 KO or PlxnA4 KO E13.5 embryos were immuno-stained using a Tyrosine-hydroxylase antibody to visualize sympathetic axons. PlxnA4 KRK-AAA and Farp2 KO embryos ( F and G , respectively) were comparable to the WT ( E ), while the PlxnA4 KO ( H ) exhibited an expected medial protrusion of sympathetic axons (black arrows). Scale bar is 250μm. I-L WT, PlxnA4 KRK-AAA , Farp2 KO or PlxnA4 KO P30 brains were stained using hematoxylin. PlxnA4 KRK-AAA and Farp2 KO embryos ( J and K , respectively) were comparable to the WT ( I ), while the PlxnA4 KO ( L ) exhibited an expected disrupted formation of the anterior commissure (white arrows). Scale bar, 500μm.

    Article Snippet: Embryos were rehydrated (15mins each), washed, blocked for 3hrs at room temperature with TBSx1 pH 7.4 + 1% Tween-20 (TBST) + 5% milk powder (TBSMT), then incubated for two days at 4°C in primary rabbit anti-Tyrosine-Hydroxylase antibody (Abcam, 1:200, in TBSMT + 5% DMSO).

    Techniques: In Vivo, Staining

    Immunohistochemical analyses of TH expression in WT, BTBR and Fmr1 -KO mice. a Representative diagrams and images of anti-TH staining in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), dorsal striatum (dSTR) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). b Examples of confocal images (20x) of dopaminergic neurons in WT, BTBR and Fmr1 -KO mice. c Fluorescence intensity of anti-TH staining in the region of interest (ROI) was measured in an identical microscopic setting and normalized to the WT animals. The BTBR brain exhibited decreased TH-positive expression in SNc, VTA and dSTR, while the Fmr1- KO brain did not. TH: tyrosine hydroxylase; SNr: substantia nigra pars reticulata. n = 6–7 samples/group. * p

    Journal: Molecular Brain

    Article Title: Altered dopaminergic pathways and therapeutic effects of intranasal dopamine in two distinct mouse models of autism

    doi: 10.1186/s13041-020-00649-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunohistochemical analyses of TH expression in WT, BTBR and Fmr1 -KO mice. a Representative diagrams and images of anti-TH staining in substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), dorsal striatum (dSTR) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). b Examples of confocal images (20x) of dopaminergic neurons in WT, BTBR and Fmr1 -KO mice. c Fluorescence intensity of anti-TH staining in the region of interest (ROI) was measured in an identical microscopic setting and normalized to the WT animals. The BTBR brain exhibited decreased TH-positive expression in SNc, VTA and dSTR, while the Fmr1- KO brain did not. TH: tyrosine hydroxylase; SNr: substantia nigra pars reticulata. n = 6–7 samples/group. * p

    Article Snippet: Primary antibodies included rabbit anti-TH (1:500; Abcam ab112), guinea pig anti-VGLUT1 (1:1000; Millipore AB5905), mouse anti-GAD67 (1:5000; Millipore MAB5406), mouse anti-DAT (1:1000; NovusBio mAb16, Littleton, CO) and mouse anti-β-actin (1:5000; Sigma-Aldrich A5441, St. Louis, MO).

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry, Expressing, Mouse Assay, Staining, Fluorescence