Journal: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research : CR
Article Title: Metformin induces autophagy and G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest in myeloma by targeting the AMPK/mTORC1 and mTORC2 pathways
Figure Lengend Snippet: Metformin inhibits tumor growth in an RPMI8266 xenograft mouse model. a NOD/SCID mice received metformin or PBS by oral gavage every day after subcutaneous implantation of RPMI8226 cells. Tumor sizes were monitored every 3 days. b Body weight of mice was monitored every 3 days. c Immunohistochemical analysis of tumors from the metformin and control groups showing upregulation of AMPK and downregulation of mTOR and Ki-67. Expression levels were scored semi- quantitatively as the percentage of positive cells according to the following system: +,
Article Snippet: Reagents Metformin (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) was dissolved in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as a stock solution of 1 M. Primary antibodies for specific detection of p-AMPK (Thr172), AMPK, Phospho-Tuberin/TSC2 (Ser1387), p-mTOR (Ser2481), p-mTOR (Ser2448), mTOR, p-p70S6K (Thr389), p70S6K, p-4EBP1 (Thr37/46), 4EBP1, p-AKT (Ser473), and AKT, as well as horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated anti-rabbit secondary detection antibodies, were purchased from Cell Signaling Technology (Beverly, MA, USA).
Techniques: Mouse Assay, Immunohistochemistry, Expressing