phosphate-buffered saline Search Results


  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 99
    Thermo Fisher phosphatebuffered saline
    Phosphatebuffered Saline, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 38 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/phosphatebuffered saline/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 99 stars, based on 38 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    phosphatebuffered saline - by Bioz Stars, 2020-05
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Thermo Fisher pbs
    Pharmacological inhibition of CXCR4 does not impact the tissue exit of wildtype or Ccr7 −/− T cells. ( A–B ) Chemotaxis of mouse splenocytes was tested toward mouse CXCL12 ( A ) and CCL21 ( B ) in a Transwell chemotaxis assay in the presence or absence of CXCR4 inhibitor <t>AMD3100</t> at indicated concentrations. Data represent mean ±SD of triplicate wells. One of two similar experiments is shown. ( C–E ) Mice carrying 3-week-old skin granulomas in the footpads were systemically treated with either <t>PBS</t> or 1000 µg/kg/h AMD3100 through subcutaneously implanted mini osmotic pumps. 12 h after implantation, a mixture of fluorescently labeled Ccr7 −/− and wildtype splenocytes were transferred into the inflamed footpads. The numbers and phenotypes of cells that egressed from the skin and entered the draining lymph node were determined by flow cytometry 12 h after transfer. The numbers of wildtype ( C ) and Ccr7 −/− ( D ) lymphocyte subsets that migrated to the draining lymph nodes are shown. Data points represent individually analyzed mice of groups of 7–10 recipient mice per group; horizontal lines indicate the mean of each group. One of two experiments with similar results ( C and D ) or both experiments combined ( E ) are shown. WT, wildtype.
    Pbs, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 46253 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pbs/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 94 stars, based on 46253 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pbs - by Bioz Stars, 2020-05
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Thermo Fisher phosphated buffer saline pbs
    Chemical structures and optical characterization of the oligothiophene porphyrin hybrids (OTPHs). (A) Chemical structures of OTPH1, <t>OTPH2,</t> OTPH3, and OTPH4. (B,C) Absorption spectra of 3 μM OTPH or LCO dissolved in <t>PBS</t> buffer pH 7.4. (D) Emission spectra of 3 μM OTPH or LCO dissolved in PBS buffer pH 7.4.
    Phosphated Buffer Saline Pbs, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 210 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/phosphated buffer saline pbs/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 99 stars, based on 210 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    phosphated buffer saline pbs - by Bioz Stars, 2020-05
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    90
    Thermo Fisher pbs 1×
    Chemical structures and optical characterization of the oligothiophene porphyrin hybrids (OTPHs). (A) Chemical structures of OTPH1, <t>OTPH2,</t> OTPH3, and OTPH4. (B,C) Absorption spectra of 3 μM OTPH or LCO dissolved in <t>PBS</t> buffer pH 7.4. (D) Emission spectra of 3 μM OTPH or LCO dissolved in PBS buffer pH 7.4.
    Pbs 1×, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 75 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pbs 1×/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 90 stars, based on 75 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pbs 1× - by Bioz Stars, 2020-05
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    92
    Thermo Fisher sterile pbs
    High-sensitivity flow-cytometry analysis of fractionated <t>IDG</t> revealed the peculiar enrichment of EVs in the 12,000 g pellet. (a) A pool of all the IDG fractions was labelled with deep red CellTracker fluorescent dye and the gates set for fluorescent EV (green) detection, compared with unlabelled EVs (Red) and CellTracker in <t>PBS-loaded</t> (empty) IDG fractions (PBS, Blue). (b–c) Each IDG fraction of the 12,000 g (b) and 35,000 g (c) was labelled and analysed for the presence of esterase-positive EVs. Results are expressed as a count of events (mean ± SD; n = 3). (d) After setting the gates for size, using beads of known diameter, we analysed the CellTracker positive population in each fraction to determine the approximate size of the observed events. (e–f) Representative results obtained for IDG fractions F7 and F8 from 12,000 g (e) and 35,000 g (f) EVs are displayed. A green colour represents CellTracker positive events. The associated quantification results are available as Supplementary File 5.
    Sterile Pbs, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 1475 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/sterile pbs/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 92 stars, based on 1475 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    sterile pbs - by Bioz Stars, 2020-05
    92/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    Thermo Fisher free pbs
    Comparison of inflammatory parameters for cobalt monoxide (CoO) nanoparticles <t>(NPs)</t> and cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ). Number of ( A ) total cells, ( B ) macrophages, ( C ) neutrophils, ( D ) eosinophils, and levels of ( E ) LDH, ( F ) total protein, ( G ) IL-6, and ( H ) eotaxin. Both treatment groups had same doses for cobalt ions (31, 79, and 315 μg/rat). Note that the inflammatory parameters of CoO NPs were similar with the CoCl 2 which implies that the toxicity of CoO NPs was derived from their solubilized cobalt ions. Values are mean ± SEM ( n = 4) for each treatment group. The data from CoO NPs were compared with the vehicle control (Ca 2+ - and Mg 2+ -free phosphate buffered saline) to determine statistical significance. * p
    Free Pbs, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 889 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/free pbs/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 93 stars, based on 889 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    free pbs - by Bioz Stars, 2020-05
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    Bio-Rad pbs buffer
    Enzymatic N -sulfation and chemical acetylation of hexasaccharides. Reagents and conditions: a) 1. AG 50W-X8 resin (pyridinium form); 2. DMSO/H 2 O (95:5), 60% for 23 , 80% for 24 , 72% for 25 ; b) PAPS, NST, MES (50 mM, pH 7.1); c) <t>AcOSu,</t> <t>PBS</t> (pH 7.4), 65% for 29 , 45% for 30 , 100% for 31 .
    Pbs Buffer, supplied by Bio-Rad, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 494 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pbs buffer/product/Bio-Rad
    Average 93 stars, based on 494 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pbs buffer - by Bioz Stars, 2020-05
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    pbs  (Bio-Rad)
    99
    Bio-Rad pbs
    The implementation of size-exclusion chromatography to remove <t>Optiprep</t> remnants from EV samples. ( a ) Optiprep density gradients were loaded with <t>PBS</t> to obtain blank EV-density fractions (F1) and with CCM to obtain EV-containing fractions (F2). EVs were retrieved by pelleting at 100,000 g (P1) or by size-exclusion chromatography (S1). Quantity of Optiprep in S1 and P1 was calculated using DC Protein assay. SEC was performed on F2 and consecutive SEC fractions (S2) were analyzed by NTA and protein analysis for GFP and CD9. ( b ) Comparative graph of NTA from S2 (connected line, marked area = SD) and Optiprep quantification of S1 (three differently colored bars representing three independent gradients, SD indicated). ( c ) Protein analysis of S2 by Western blot analysis for GFP and CD9 quantification by TRIFic CD9 assay. Original immunostaining results are shown in Supplementary Fig. 10 . Abbreviations: PBS: phosphate buffered saline. CCM: concentrated conditioned medium. GFP: green fluorescent protein. EV: extracellular vesicle. WB: Western blot. NTA: Nanoparticle tracking analysis. SEC: size-exclusion chromatography.
    Pbs, supplied by Bio-Rad, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1280 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pbs/product/Bio-Rad
    Average 99 stars, based on 1280 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pbs - by Bioz Stars, 2020-05
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Pharmacological inhibition of CXCR4 does not impact the tissue exit of wildtype or Ccr7 −/− T cells. ( A–B ) Chemotaxis of mouse splenocytes was tested toward mouse CXCL12 ( A ) and CCL21 ( B ) in a Transwell chemotaxis assay in the presence or absence of CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100 at indicated concentrations. Data represent mean ±SD of triplicate wells. One of two similar experiments is shown. ( C–E ) Mice carrying 3-week-old skin granulomas in the footpads were systemically treated with either PBS or 1000 µg/kg/h AMD3100 through subcutaneously implanted mini osmotic pumps. 12 h after implantation, a mixture of fluorescently labeled Ccr7 −/− and wildtype splenocytes were transferred into the inflamed footpads. The numbers and phenotypes of cells that egressed from the skin and entered the draining lymph node were determined by flow cytometry 12 h after transfer. The numbers of wildtype ( C ) and Ccr7 −/− ( D ) lymphocyte subsets that migrated to the draining lymph nodes are shown. Data points represent individually analyzed mice of groups of 7–10 recipient mice per group; horizontal lines indicate the mean of each group. One of two experiments with similar results ( C and D ) or both experiments combined ( E ) are shown. WT, wildtype.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: CXCR4 Is Dispensable for T Cell Egress from Chronically Inflamed Skin via the Afferent Lymph

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095626

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pharmacological inhibition of CXCR4 does not impact the tissue exit of wildtype or Ccr7 −/− T cells. ( A–B ) Chemotaxis of mouse splenocytes was tested toward mouse CXCL12 ( A ) and CCL21 ( B ) in a Transwell chemotaxis assay in the presence or absence of CXCR4 inhibitor AMD3100 at indicated concentrations. Data represent mean ±SD of triplicate wells. One of two similar experiments is shown. ( C–E ) Mice carrying 3-week-old skin granulomas in the footpads were systemically treated with either PBS or 1000 µg/kg/h AMD3100 through subcutaneously implanted mini osmotic pumps. 12 h after implantation, a mixture of fluorescently labeled Ccr7 −/− and wildtype splenocytes were transferred into the inflamed footpads. The numbers and phenotypes of cells that egressed from the skin and entered the draining lymph node were determined by flow cytometry 12 h after transfer. The numbers of wildtype ( C ) and Ccr7 −/− ( D ) lymphocyte subsets that migrated to the draining lymph nodes are shown. Data points represent individually analyzed mice of groups of 7–10 recipient mice per group; horizontal lines indicate the mean of each group. One of two experiments with similar results ( C and D ) or both experiments combined ( E ) are shown. WT, wildtype.

    Article Snippet: Sterile-filtered AMD3100 in PBS (Sigma-Aldrich) or PBS alone (Invitrogen) was loaded into the osmotic pumps before equilibration in sterile PBS at 37°C for 12 h according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Chemotaxis Assay, Mouse Assay, Labeling, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    Figure 3. Cross-reactivity of rVP6 induced serum IgG antibodies to several RV strains in mice immunized twice with 10 μg of rVP6 or dl2/6-VLPs. Control mice received carrier only (PBS). Mean ODs (490 nm) of the experimental groups with

    Journal: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

    Article Title: Comparative immunogenicity in mice of rotavirus VP6 tubular structures and virus-like particles

    doi: 10.4161/hv.25249

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Figure 3. Cross-reactivity of rVP6 induced serum IgG antibodies to several RV strains in mice immunized twice with 10 μg of rVP6 or dl2/6-VLPs. Control mice received carrier only (PBS). Mean ODs (490 nm) of the experimental groups with

    Article Snippet: Fractions containing rVP6 or dl2/6VLPs were pooled, dialyzed against phosphate buffered saline (PBS) by Slide-A-Lyzer® Dialysis Cassette G2 of 20 000 MWCO (Thermo Scientific, Cat. 87738) and concentrated by ultrafiltration in Amicon Ultra-30 or -100 centrifugal filter units (Millipore Carrigtwohill, Cat. UFC903024, Cat. UFC910024).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Antheraea assama  (Saturniidae) larva, cocoon and silk gland. ( A ) Pre-spinning V instar feeding larva (about 8 cm long). ( B ) Golden silk cocoon (chrysalis, about 5 cm long). ( C ) One in a pair of silk glands (about 30 cm long) dissected from V instar pre-spinning larva of  A. assama , placed in a Petri plate with 1X PBS. It shows features of a typical lepidopteron silk gland with three distinct regions: ASG (Anterior Silk Gland), MSG (Middle Silk Gland), and PSG (Posterior Silk Gland). ( D ) Fluorescent micrographs of portions of ASG, MSG and PSG of II instar larval silk gland showing stacks of paired glandular epithelial cells (DAPI stained) that makeup the cross-sectional circumference of silk gland.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Molecular architecture of silk fibroin of Indian golden silkmoth, Antheraea assama

    doi: 10.1038/srep12706

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antheraea assama (Saturniidae) larva, cocoon and silk gland. ( A ) Pre-spinning V instar feeding larva (about 8 cm long). ( B ) Golden silk cocoon (chrysalis, about 5 cm long). ( C ) One in a pair of silk glands (about 30 cm long) dissected from V instar pre-spinning larva of A. assama , placed in a Petri plate with 1X PBS. It shows features of a typical lepidopteron silk gland with three distinct regions: ASG (Anterior Silk Gland), MSG (Middle Silk Gland), and PSG (Posterior Silk Gland). ( D ) Fluorescent micrographs of portions of ASG, MSG and PSG of II instar larval silk gland showing stacks of paired glandular epithelial cells (DAPI stained) that makeup the cross-sectional circumference of silk gland.

    Article Snippet: The silkglands were gently rinsed in 1X PBS (Phosphate-Buffered Saline, 0.1 M Na2 HPO4 , pH=7.0, 0.15 M NaCl) prepared with DEPC-treated water (Ambion) and were carefully dissected for their posterior silk gland regions, discarding the tissue junctions.

    Techniques: Staining

    Chemical structures and optical characterization of the oligothiophene porphyrin hybrids (OTPHs). (A) Chemical structures of OTPH1, OTPH2, OTPH3, and OTPH4. (B,C) Absorption spectra of 3 μM OTPH or LCO dissolved in PBS buffer pH 7.4. (D) Emission spectra of 3 μM OTPH or LCO dissolved in PBS buffer pH 7.4.

    Journal: Frontiers in Chemistry

    Article Title: Synthesis and Characterization of Oligothiophene–Porphyrin-Based Molecules That Can Be Utilized for Optical Assignment of Aggregated Amyloid-β Morphotypes

    doi: 10.3389/fchem.2018.00391

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Chemical structures and optical characterization of the oligothiophene porphyrin hybrids (OTPHs). (A) Chemical structures of OTPH1, OTPH2, OTPH3, and OTPH4. (B,C) Absorption spectra of 3 μM OTPH or LCO dissolved in PBS buffer pH 7.4. (D) Emission spectra of 3 μM OTPH or LCO dissolved in PBS buffer pH 7.4.

    Article Snippet: Optical characterization of the OTPH Stock solutions of dyes (1.5 mM corresponding sodium salt in de-ionized water for OTPH1, OTPH3 and OTPH4, or de-ionized water with 10% DMSO for OTPH2) were diluted to 3 μM in a PBS buffer (10 mM phosphate, 150 mM NaCl pH 7.4 prepared from PBS (Phosphate-Buffered Saline) Tablets (Invitrogen, USA)).

    Techniques:

    High-sensitivity flow-cytometry analysis of fractionated IDG revealed the peculiar enrichment of EVs in the 12,000 g pellet. (a) A pool of all the IDG fractions was labelled with deep red CellTracker fluorescent dye and the gates set for fluorescent EV (green) detection, compared with unlabelled EVs (Red) and CellTracker in PBS-loaded (empty) IDG fractions (PBS, Blue). (b–c) Each IDG fraction of the 12,000 g (b) and 35,000 g (c) was labelled and analysed for the presence of esterase-positive EVs. Results are expressed as a count of events (mean ± SD; n = 3). (d) After setting the gates for size, using beads of known diameter, we analysed the CellTracker positive population in each fraction to determine the approximate size of the observed events. (e–f) Representative results obtained for IDG fractions F7 and F8 from 12,000 g (e) and 35,000 g (f) EVs are displayed. A green colour represents CellTracker positive events. The associated quantification results are available as Supplementary File 5.

    Journal: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles

    Article Title: A subset of extracellular vesicles carries the bulk of microRNAs in commercial dairy cow’s milk

    doi: 10.1080/20013078.2017.1401897

    Figure Lengend Snippet: High-sensitivity flow-cytometry analysis of fractionated IDG revealed the peculiar enrichment of EVs in the 12,000 g pellet. (a) A pool of all the IDG fractions was labelled with deep red CellTracker fluorescent dye and the gates set for fluorescent EV (green) detection, compared with unlabelled EVs (Red) and CellTracker in PBS-loaded (empty) IDG fractions (PBS, Blue). (b–c) Each IDG fraction of the 12,000 g (b) and 35,000 g (c) was labelled and analysed for the presence of esterase-positive EVs. Results are expressed as a count of events (mean ± SD; n = 3). (d) After setting the gates for size, using beads of known diameter, we analysed the CellTracker positive population in each fraction to determine the approximate size of the observed events. (e–f) Representative results obtained for IDG fractions F7 and F8 from 12,000 g (e) and 35,000 g (f) EVs are displayed. A green colour represents CellTracker positive events. The associated quantification results are available as Supplementary File 5.

    Article Snippet: To this end, 2 µL of each IDG fraction was diluted in 98 µL of 0.2 µm filtered sterile PBS (Gibco, ThermoFisher scientific) containing the fluorescent CellTracker™ deep red dye [ ] (C34565; Life Technologies, ThermoFisher Scientific) at a final concentration of 1 µM, for 20 min at 37°C, in the dark, following the manufacturer’s recommendations.

    Techniques: Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    Comparison of inflammatory parameters for cobalt monoxide (CoO) nanoparticles (NPs) and cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ). Number of ( A ) total cells, ( B ) macrophages, ( C ) neutrophils, ( D ) eosinophils, and levels of ( E ) LDH, ( F ) total protein, ( G ) IL-6, and ( H ) eotaxin. Both treatment groups had same doses for cobalt ions (31, 79, and 315 μg/rat). Note that the inflammatory parameters of CoO NPs were similar with the CoCl 2 which implies that the toxicity of CoO NPs was derived from their solubilized cobalt ions. Values are mean ± SEM ( n = 4) for each treatment group. The data from CoO NPs were compared with the vehicle control (Ca 2+ - and Mg 2+ -free phosphate buffered saline) to determine statistical significance. * p

    Journal: Particle and Fibre Toxicology

    Article Title: Response-metrics for acute lung inflammation pattern by cobalt-based nanoparticles

    doi: 10.1186/s12989-015-0089-1

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of inflammatory parameters for cobalt monoxide (CoO) nanoparticles (NPs) and cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 ). Number of ( A ) total cells, ( B ) macrophages, ( C ) neutrophils, ( D ) eosinophils, and levels of ( E ) LDH, ( F ) total protein, ( G ) IL-6, and ( H ) eotaxin. Both treatment groups had same doses for cobalt ions (31, 79, and 315 μg/rat). Note that the inflammatory parameters of CoO NPs were similar with the CoCl 2 which implies that the toxicity of CoO NPs was derived from their solubilized cobalt ions. Values are mean ± SEM ( n = 4) for each treatment group. The data from CoO NPs were compared with the vehicle control (Ca 2+ - and Mg 2+ -free phosphate buffered saline) to determine statistical significance. * p

    Article Snippet: NP suspensions at 80, 200, and 800 μg/mL were prepared by dispersing NPs in sterile Ca2+ - and Mg2+ -free PBS (Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) and sonicated for 10 min using a bath sonicator (Saehan-Sonic, Seoul, Korea) to break up agglomerates.

    Techniques: Derivative Assay

    Enzymatic N -sulfation and chemical acetylation of hexasaccharides. Reagents and conditions: a) 1. AG 50W-X8 resin (pyridinium form); 2. DMSO/H 2 O (95:5), 60% for 23 , 80% for 24 , 72% for 25 ; b) PAPS, NST, MES (50 mM, pH 7.1); c) AcOSu, PBS (pH 7.4), 65% for 29 , 45% for 30 , 100% for 31 .

    Journal: Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English)

    Article Title: Controlled Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides

    doi: 10.1002/anie.201800387

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Enzymatic N -sulfation and chemical acetylation of hexasaccharides. Reagents and conditions: a) 1. AG 50W-X8 resin (pyridinium form); 2. DMSO/H 2 O (95:5), 60% for 23 , 80% for 24 , 72% for 25 ; b) PAPS, NST, MES (50 mM, pH 7.1); c) AcOSu, PBS (pH 7.4), 65% for 29 , 45% for 30 , 100% for 31 .

    Article Snippet: The compounds 26 – 28 were chemically N-acetylated with N -acetyl succinimide (AcOSu) in PBS buffer to give 29 – 31 , respectively, after purification by BioRad P4 size exclusion column chromatography.

    Techniques: Papanicolaou Stain

    The implementation of size-exclusion chromatography to remove Optiprep remnants from EV samples. ( a ) Optiprep density gradients were loaded with PBS to obtain blank EV-density fractions (F1) and with CCM to obtain EV-containing fractions (F2). EVs were retrieved by pelleting at 100,000 g (P1) or by size-exclusion chromatography (S1). Quantity of Optiprep in S1 and P1 was calculated using DC Protein assay. SEC was performed on F2 and consecutive SEC fractions (S2) were analyzed by NTA and protein analysis for GFP and CD9. ( b ) Comparative graph of NTA from S2 (connected line, marked area = SD) and Optiprep quantification of S1 (three differently colored bars representing three independent gradients, SD indicated). ( c ) Protein analysis of S2 by Western blot analysis for GFP and CD9 quantification by TRIFic CD9 assay. Original immunostaining results are shown in Supplementary Fig. 10 . Abbreviations: PBS: phosphate buffered saline. CCM: concentrated conditioned medium. GFP: green fluorescent protein. EV: extracellular vesicle. WB: Western blot. NTA: Nanoparticle tracking analysis. SEC: size-exclusion chromatography.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Confounding factors of ultrafiltration and protein analysis in extracellular vesicle research

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-02599-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The implementation of size-exclusion chromatography to remove Optiprep remnants from EV samples. ( a ) Optiprep density gradients were loaded with PBS to obtain blank EV-density fractions (F1) and with CCM to obtain EV-containing fractions (F2). EVs were retrieved by pelleting at 100,000 g (P1) or by size-exclusion chromatography (S1). Quantity of Optiprep in S1 and P1 was calculated using DC Protein assay. SEC was performed on F2 and consecutive SEC fractions (S2) were analyzed by NTA and protein analysis for GFP and CD9. ( b ) Comparative graph of NTA from S2 (connected line, marked area = SD) and Optiprep quantification of S1 (three differently colored bars representing three independent gradients, SD indicated). ( c ) Protein analysis of S2 by Western blot analysis for GFP and CD9 quantification by TRIFic CD9 assay. Original immunostaining results are shown in Supplementary Fig. 10 . Abbreviations: PBS: phosphate buffered saline. CCM: concentrated conditioned medium. GFP: green fluorescent protein. EV: extracellular vesicle. WB: Western blot. NTA: Nanoparticle tracking analysis. SEC: size-exclusion chromatography.

    Article Snippet: A dilution series of 0 to 10% of Optiprep in PBS was obtained as a standard curve for performing absorbance readings with DC Protein assay (Bio-Rad, Hercules, California, USA), according to manufacturer’s instructions.

    Techniques: Size-exclusion Chromatography, DC Protein Assay, Western Blot, Immunostaining