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  • pbs  (Lonza)
    97
    Lonza pbs
    Pbs, supplied by Lonza, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 1233 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher pbs
    Pbs, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 45964 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore pbs
    Pbs, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 34322 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher phosphate buffered saline pbs
    Phosphate Buffered Saline Pbs, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 34431 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore phosphate buffer
    Phosphate Buffer, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 12415 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher dulbecco s phosphate buffered saline
    Dulbecco S Phosphate Buffered Saline, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 6477 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Becton Dickinson phosphate buffered saline pbs
    Administration of <t>Sfrp4</t> interferes with Wnt canonical signaling. ( A ) Ischemic hearts treated by IM injection of <t>PBS</t> or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein were sectioned 10 weeks after LAD ligation. Slides were costained with antibodies against collagen type III (green) and cTn-T (red). The extent of the noncardiac acellular scar (lack of cTn-T and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining), indicated by white arrows, was suppressed by administration of Sfrp4. ( B–D ) About 100 μL PBS or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein was injected into ischemic border areas just after LAD ligation to investigate the effects on Wnt canonical signaling at early time points. Heart sections 3 days after LAD ligation were stained for β-catenin (green, B ), Sfrp4 (red, B ), active β-catenin (green, C ), and inactive serine 9 phosphorylated glycogen syntase kinase (GSK)-3β (red, D ). DAPI (blue) was used to observe nuclei and hence cellular versus acellular areas. The border between the acellular scar and cellular areas is shown by dotted white lines. The average of total fibrous tissue areas (in mm 2 ) detected by Masson's Trichrome staining in adjacent sections is indicated with standard deviations ( C, D ).
    Phosphate Buffered Saline Pbs, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 8716 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore dulbecco s phosphate buffered saline
    Administration of <t>Sfrp4</t> interferes with Wnt canonical signaling. ( A ) Ischemic hearts treated by IM injection of <t>PBS</t> or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein were sectioned 10 weeks after LAD ligation. Slides were costained with antibodies against collagen type III (green) and cTn-T (red). The extent of the noncardiac acellular scar (lack of cTn-T and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining), indicated by white arrows, was suppressed by administration of Sfrp4. ( B–D ) About 100 μL PBS or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein was injected into ischemic border areas just after LAD ligation to investigate the effects on Wnt canonical signaling at early time points. Heart sections 3 days after LAD ligation were stained for β-catenin (green, B ), Sfrp4 (red, B ), active β-catenin (green, C ), and inactive serine 9 phosphorylated glycogen syntase kinase (GSK)-3β (red, D ). DAPI (blue) was used to observe nuclei and hence cellular versus acellular areas. The border between the acellular scar and cellular areas is shown by dotted white lines. The average of total fibrous tissue areas (in mm 2 ) detected by Masson's Trichrome staining in adjacent sections is indicated with standard deviations ( C, D ).
    Dulbecco S Phosphate Buffered Saline, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2468 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher pbs phosphate buffered saline 10x ph 7 4
    Administration of <t>Sfrp4</t> interferes with Wnt canonical signaling. ( A ) Ischemic hearts treated by IM injection of <t>PBS</t> or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein were sectioned 10 weeks after LAD ligation. Slides were costained with antibodies against collagen type III (green) and cTn-T (red). The extent of the noncardiac acellular scar (lack of cTn-T and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining), indicated by white arrows, was suppressed by administration of Sfrp4. ( B–D ) About 100 μL PBS or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein was injected into ischemic border areas just after LAD ligation to investigate the effects on Wnt canonical signaling at early time points. Heart sections 3 days after LAD ligation were stained for β-catenin (green, B ), Sfrp4 (red, B ), active β-catenin (green, C ), and inactive serine 9 phosphorylated glycogen syntase kinase (GSK)-3β (red, D ). DAPI (blue) was used to observe nuclei and hence cellular versus acellular areas. The border between the acellular scar and cellular areas is shown by dotted white lines. The average of total fibrous tissue areas (in mm 2 ) detected by Masson's Trichrome staining in adjacent sections is indicated with standard deviations ( C, D ).
    Pbs Phosphate Buffered Saline 10x Ph 7 4, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 291 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher phosphate buffer
    Administration of <t>Sfrp4</t> interferes with Wnt canonical signaling. ( A ) Ischemic hearts treated by IM injection of <t>PBS</t> or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein were sectioned 10 weeks after LAD ligation. Slides were costained with antibodies against collagen type III (green) and cTn-T (red). The extent of the noncardiac acellular scar (lack of cTn-T and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining), indicated by white arrows, was suppressed by administration of Sfrp4. ( B–D ) About 100 μL PBS or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein was injected into ischemic border areas just after LAD ligation to investigate the effects on Wnt canonical signaling at early time points. Heart sections 3 days after LAD ligation were stained for β-catenin (green, B ), Sfrp4 (red, B ), active β-catenin (green, C ), and inactive serine 9 phosphorylated glycogen syntase kinase (GSK)-3β (red, D ). DAPI (blue) was used to observe nuclei and hence cellular versus acellular areas. The border between the acellular scar and cellular areas is shown by dotted white lines. The average of total fibrous tissue areas (in mm 2 ) detected by Masson's Trichrome staining in adjacent sections is indicated with standard deviations ( C, D ).
    Phosphate Buffer, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 3399 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Bio-Rad phosphate buffered saline
    Administration of <t>Sfrp4</t> interferes with Wnt canonical signaling. ( A ) Ischemic hearts treated by IM injection of <t>PBS</t> or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein were sectioned 10 weeks after LAD ligation. Slides were costained with antibodies against collagen type III (green) and cTn-T (red). The extent of the noncardiac acellular scar (lack of cTn-T and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining), indicated by white arrows, was suppressed by administration of Sfrp4. ( B–D ) About 100 μL PBS or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein was injected into ischemic border areas just after LAD ligation to investigate the effects on Wnt canonical signaling at early time points. Heart sections 3 days after LAD ligation were stained for β-catenin (green, B ), Sfrp4 (red, B ), active β-catenin (green, C ), and inactive serine 9 phosphorylated glycogen syntase kinase (GSK)-3β (red, D ). DAPI (blue) was used to observe nuclei and hence cellular versus acellular areas. The border between the acellular scar and cellular areas is shown by dotted white lines. The average of total fibrous tissue areas (in mm 2 ) detected by Masson's Trichrome staining in adjacent sections is indicated with standard deviations ( C, D ).
    Phosphate Buffered Saline, supplied by Bio-Rad, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1592 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore phosphate buffer saline pbs
    Administration of <t>Sfrp4</t> interferes with Wnt canonical signaling. ( A ) Ischemic hearts treated by IM injection of <t>PBS</t> or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein were sectioned 10 weeks after LAD ligation. Slides were costained with antibodies against collagen type III (green) and cTn-T (red). The extent of the noncardiac acellular scar (lack of cTn-T and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining), indicated by white arrows, was suppressed by administration of Sfrp4. ( B–D ) About 100 μL PBS or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein was injected into ischemic border areas just after LAD ligation to investigate the effects on Wnt canonical signaling at early time points. Heart sections 3 days after LAD ligation were stained for β-catenin (green, B ), Sfrp4 (red, B ), active β-catenin (green, C ), and inactive serine 9 phosphorylated glycogen syntase kinase (GSK)-3β (red, D ). DAPI (blue) was used to observe nuclei and hence cellular versus acellular areas. The border between the acellular scar and cellular areas is shown by dotted white lines. The average of total fibrous tissue areas (in mm 2 ) detected by Masson's Trichrome staining in adjacent sections is indicated with standard deviations ( C, D ).
    Phosphate Buffer Saline Pbs, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2095 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Abcam phosphate buffered saline pbs
    Administration of <t>Sfrp4</t> interferes with Wnt canonical signaling. ( A ) Ischemic hearts treated by IM injection of <t>PBS</t> or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein were sectioned 10 weeks after LAD ligation. Slides were costained with antibodies against collagen type III (green) and cTn-T (red). The extent of the noncardiac acellular scar (lack of cTn-T and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining), indicated by white arrows, was suppressed by administration of Sfrp4. ( B–D ) About 100 μL PBS or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein was injected into ischemic border areas just after LAD ligation to investigate the effects on Wnt canonical signaling at early time points. Heart sections 3 days after LAD ligation were stained for β-catenin (green, B ), Sfrp4 (red, B ), active β-catenin (green, C ), and inactive serine 9 phosphorylated glycogen syntase kinase (GSK)-3β (red, D ). DAPI (blue) was used to observe nuclei and hence cellular versus acellular areas. The border between the acellular scar and cellular areas is shown by dotted white lines. The average of total fibrous tissue areas (in mm 2 ) detected by Masson's Trichrome staining in adjacent sections is indicated with standard deviations ( C, D ).
    Phosphate Buffered Saline Pbs, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2966 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Cell Signaling Technology Inc phosphate buffered saline
    Administration of <t>Sfrp4</t> interferes with Wnt canonical signaling. ( A ) Ischemic hearts treated by IM injection of <t>PBS</t> or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein were sectioned 10 weeks after LAD ligation. Slides were costained with antibodies against collagen type III (green) and cTn-T (red). The extent of the noncardiac acellular scar (lack of cTn-T and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining), indicated by white arrows, was suppressed by administration of Sfrp4. ( B–D ) About 100 μL PBS or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein was injected into ischemic border areas just after LAD ligation to investigate the effects on Wnt canonical signaling at early time points. Heart sections 3 days after LAD ligation were stained for β-catenin (green, B ), Sfrp4 (red, B ), active β-catenin (green, C ), and inactive serine 9 phosphorylated glycogen syntase kinase (GSK)-3β (red, D ). DAPI (blue) was used to observe nuclei and hence cellular versus acellular areas. The border between the acellular scar and cellular areas is shown by dotted white lines. The average of total fibrous tissue areas (in mm 2 ) detected by Masson's Trichrome staining in adjacent sections is indicated with standard deviations ( C, D ).
    Phosphate Buffered Saline, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1829 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology phosphate buffered saline pbs
    In vivo tumor suppressive function of MTAP and the inhibition of L-alanosine in MTAP-deficient myxofibrosarcoma (A) The average tumor volume of the empty vector-transfected NMFH-2 xenografts was significantly larger than that of the MTAP-reexpressing counterparts (left) . On Day 30, the excised xenografts were grossly larger and heavier in the control group than in the MTAP-reexpressing group (middle) . Histologically, control xenografts (upper panel) comprise MTAP-deficient high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma cells that exhibit frequent mitotic figures, the increased expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, Ki-67, and MMP-9, and an increased microvascular density based on CD31 staining. However, contrasting results were observed in the MTAP-reexpressing group (lower panel), which exhibited low-grade MTAP-expressing spindle cells (right) . (B) L-alanosine effectively attenuated the viability of MTAP-deficient NMFH-2 and <t>OH931</t> myxofibrosarcoma cell lines, and MTAP-expressing NMFH-1 cells were relatively resistant to L-alanosine, demonstrating > 50% viable sarcoma cells, even at 100 μM (left) . Unlike the sensitivity in the parent lines and empty controls, MTAP reexpression caused decreased susceptibility to L-alanosine in the OH931 (middle) and NMFH-2 (right) cells. (C) The average tumor volume was significantly larger in the <t>PBS-treated</t> group than in the groups treated with 25 μM and 50 μM of L-alanosine (left) . On Day 42, the excised xenografts remained macroscopically larger and heavier in the control group, exhibiting no dose-dependent difference between the groups treated with 25 μM and 50 μM of L-alanosine (middle) . In contrast to the high-grade pleomorphic histology in the control xenografts lacking apparent apoptosis, the L-alanosine-treated group exhibited increased numbers of fibrohyaline collagen fibers and TUNEL-labeled apoptotic cells (right) .
    Phosphate Buffered Saline Pbs, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 3210 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Administration of Sfrp4 interferes with Wnt canonical signaling. ( A ) Ischemic hearts treated by IM injection of PBS or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein were sectioned 10 weeks after LAD ligation. Slides were costained with antibodies against collagen type III (green) and cTn-T (red). The extent of the noncardiac acellular scar (lack of cTn-T and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining), indicated by white arrows, was suppressed by administration of Sfrp4. ( B–D ) About 100 μL PBS or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein was injected into ischemic border areas just after LAD ligation to investigate the effects on Wnt canonical signaling at early time points. Heart sections 3 days after LAD ligation were stained for β-catenin (green, B ), Sfrp4 (red, B ), active β-catenin (green, C ), and inactive serine 9 phosphorylated glycogen syntase kinase (GSK)-3β (red, D ). DAPI (blue) was used to observe nuclei and hence cellular versus acellular areas. The border between the acellular scar and cellular areas is shown by dotted white lines. The average of total fibrous tissue areas (in mm 2 ) detected by Masson's Trichrome staining in adjacent sections is indicated with standard deviations ( C, D ).

    Journal: Tissue Engineering. Part A

    Article Title: Secreted Frizzled Related Protein 4 Reduces Fibrosis Scar Size and Ameliorates Cardiac Function After Ischemic Injury

    doi: 10.1089/ten.tea.2009.0739

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Administration of Sfrp4 interferes with Wnt canonical signaling. ( A ) Ischemic hearts treated by IM injection of PBS or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein were sectioned 10 weeks after LAD ligation. Slides were costained with antibodies against collagen type III (green) and cTn-T (red). The extent of the noncardiac acellular scar (lack of cTn-T and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining), indicated by white arrows, was suppressed by administration of Sfrp4. ( B–D ) About 100 μL PBS or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein was injected into ischemic border areas just after LAD ligation to investigate the effects on Wnt canonical signaling at early time points. Heart sections 3 days after LAD ligation were stained for β-catenin (green, B ), Sfrp4 (red, B ), active β-catenin (green, C ), and inactive serine 9 phosphorylated glycogen syntase kinase (GSK)-3β (red, D ). DAPI (blue) was used to observe nuclei and hence cellular versus acellular areas. The border between the acellular scar and cellular areas is shown by dotted white lines. The average of total fibrous tissue areas (in mm 2 ) detected by Masson's Trichrome staining in adjacent sections is indicated with standard deviations ( C, D ).

    Article Snippet: Five or 20 μg recombinant human Sfrp4 (sFRP-4; R & D Systems, Inc.) in 50 μL phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was mixed with 50 μL collagen type I gel (BD Biosciences) and injected to the ischemic border zones.

    Techniques: Injection, Ligation, Staining

    Histology of PBS- or Sfrp4-treated hearts. Adult normal rat heart ( A ) and ischemic hearts ( B–H ) generated by LAD ligation were sectioned and stained by Masson's Trichrome 10 weeks after LAD ligation. ( B ) Twenty-microgram Sfrp4 protein-injected heart, ( C ) 2.5 × 10 6 cubes of S-PH injected heart, ( D ) 5 × 10 6 cubes of S-PH immobilized collagen sheet-applied heart, ( E ) nontreated ischemic heart section, ( F ) PBS-injected heart, ( G ) 2.5 × 10 6 cubes of empty polyhedra-injected heart, ( H ) 5 × 10 6 cubes of empty polyhedra-immobilized collagen sheet-applied heart. Photo of representative cross section of each group ( n = 4) is shown. ( I ) Means of fibrosis percentage and wall thickness for individual treatment groups plotted against each other. Vertical and horizontal lines indicate standard errors of mean measurements for fibrosis and wall thickness, respectively; the diagonal line indicates the line of best fit. IM injection of PBS or Sfrp4; PH IM injection of empty or S-PH; PH-sheet, application of empty or S-PH immobilized on collagen sheet; PH-glue, empty or S-PH applied with fibrin glue. Filled circles indicate control treatments; empty circles indicate Sfrp4-containing treatments. Sfrp4 treatments result in hearts with significantly less fibrosis and thicker walls ( p = 8.4e-4) as indicated by multivariate ANOVA.

    Journal: Tissue Engineering. Part A

    Article Title: Secreted Frizzled Related Protein 4 Reduces Fibrosis Scar Size and Ameliorates Cardiac Function After Ischemic Injury

    doi: 10.1089/ten.tea.2009.0739

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Histology of PBS- or Sfrp4-treated hearts. Adult normal rat heart ( A ) and ischemic hearts ( B–H ) generated by LAD ligation were sectioned and stained by Masson's Trichrome 10 weeks after LAD ligation. ( B ) Twenty-microgram Sfrp4 protein-injected heart, ( C ) 2.5 × 10 6 cubes of S-PH injected heart, ( D ) 5 × 10 6 cubes of S-PH immobilized collagen sheet-applied heart, ( E ) nontreated ischemic heart section, ( F ) PBS-injected heart, ( G ) 2.5 × 10 6 cubes of empty polyhedra-injected heart, ( H ) 5 × 10 6 cubes of empty polyhedra-immobilized collagen sheet-applied heart. Photo of representative cross section of each group ( n = 4) is shown. ( I ) Means of fibrosis percentage and wall thickness for individual treatment groups plotted against each other. Vertical and horizontal lines indicate standard errors of mean measurements for fibrosis and wall thickness, respectively; the diagonal line indicates the line of best fit. IM injection of PBS or Sfrp4; PH IM injection of empty or S-PH; PH-sheet, application of empty or S-PH immobilized on collagen sheet; PH-glue, empty or S-PH applied with fibrin glue. Filled circles indicate control treatments; empty circles indicate Sfrp4-containing treatments. Sfrp4 treatments result in hearts with significantly less fibrosis and thicker walls ( p = 8.4e-4) as indicated by multivariate ANOVA.

    Article Snippet: Five or 20 μg recombinant human Sfrp4 (sFRP-4; R & D Systems, Inc.) in 50 μL phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was mixed with 50 μL collagen type I gel (BD Biosciences) and injected to the ischemic border zones.

    Techniques: Generated, Ligation, Staining, Injection

    . ( A ) IM injection of Sfrp4 in an acute ischemic model. Ischemic hearts were generated by LAD ligation, and 100 μL of PBS ( n = 7), 5 μg Sfrp4 protein ( n = 6), or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein ( n = 9) was injected to the ischemic border zones soon after LAD ligation. ( B ) IM injection of Sfrp4 in a subacute ischemic model. About 100 μL of PBS ( n = 5) or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein ( n = 6) was administered intramuscularly 2 weeks after LAD ligation. ( C, D ) IM injection of Sfrp4 just after ( C ) or before ( D ) recanalization injury. About 100 μL PBS or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein was administered intramuscularly after or before a transient 1 h LAD ligation. All treatments except 5 μg Sfrp4 ( A ) show either significant ( p

    Journal: Tissue Engineering. Part A

    Article Title: Secreted Frizzled Related Protein 4 Reduces Fibrosis Scar Size and Ameliorates Cardiac Function After Ischemic Injury

    doi: 10.1089/ten.tea.2009.0739

    Figure Lengend Snippet: . ( A ) IM injection of Sfrp4 in an acute ischemic model. Ischemic hearts were generated by LAD ligation, and 100 μL of PBS ( n = 7), 5 μg Sfrp4 protein ( n = 6), or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein ( n = 9) was injected to the ischemic border zones soon after LAD ligation. ( B ) IM injection of Sfrp4 in a subacute ischemic model. About 100 μL of PBS ( n = 5) or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein ( n = 6) was administered intramuscularly 2 weeks after LAD ligation. ( C, D ) IM injection of Sfrp4 just after ( C ) or before ( D ) recanalization injury. About 100 μL PBS or 20 μg Sfrp4 protein was administered intramuscularly after or before a transient 1 h LAD ligation. All treatments except 5 μg Sfrp4 ( A ) show either significant ( p

    Article Snippet: Five or 20 μg recombinant human Sfrp4 (sFRP-4; R & D Systems, Inc.) in 50 μL phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was mixed with 50 μL collagen type I gel (BD Biosciences) and injected to the ischemic border zones.

    Techniques: Injection, Generated, Ligation

    Administration of Sfrp4 in a slow-releasing cube polyhedra form demonstrated long-term therapeutic effects. ( A ) Schema for generation of empty polyhedra and Sfrp4 immobilized in polyhedra (S-PH) and scanning electron microscopic image of S-PH. ( B ) Concentration of Sfrp4 in the culture medium after culture of primary rat cardiomyocytes in the presence of S-PH ( n = 3) for 2 or 4 days as determined by ELISA. Mean values and standard deviations are indicated. ( C ) Twenty microliter PBS ( n = 5), 2.5 × 10 6 cubes of empty polyhedra ( n = 6), 20 μg Sfrp4 protein ( n = 5), or 2.5 × 10 6 cubes of S-PH ( n = 6) were administered just after LAD ligation. EFs of indicated groups are shown. The full data set contains significant treatment effects as determined by repeated measures ANOVA ( p = 1.1e-4). Significant ( p = 0.016) time–treatment interaction effects were also observed between polyhedra bound and soluble Sfrp4. Complete set of p .

    Journal: Tissue Engineering. Part A

    Article Title: Secreted Frizzled Related Protein 4 Reduces Fibrosis Scar Size and Ameliorates Cardiac Function After Ischemic Injury

    doi: 10.1089/ten.tea.2009.0739

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Administration of Sfrp4 in a slow-releasing cube polyhedra form demonstrated long-term therapeutic effects. ( A ) Schema for generation of empty polyhedra and Sfrp4 immobilized in polyhedra (S-PH) and scanning electron microscopic image of S-PH. ( B ) Concentration of Sfrp4 in the culture medium after culture of primary rat cardiomyocytes in the presence of S-PH ( n = 3) for 2 or 4 days as determined by ELISA. Mean values and standard deviations are indicated. ( C ) Twenty microliter PBS ( n = 5), 2.5 × 10 6 cubes of empty polyhedra ( n = 6), 20 μg Sfrp4 protein ( n = 5), or 2.5 × 10 6 cubes of S-PH ( n = 6) were administered just after LAD ligation. EFs of indicated groups are shown. The full data set contains significant treatment effects as determined by repeated measures ANOVA ( p = 1.1e-4). Significant ( p = 0.016) time–treatment interaction effects were also observed between polyhedra bound and soluble Sfrp4. Complete set of p .

    Article Snippet: Five or 20 μg recombinant human Sfrp4 (sFRP-4; R & D Systems, Inc.) in 50 μL phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was mixed with 50 μL collagen type I gel (BD Biosciences) and injected to the ischemic border zones.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Ligation

    Sfrp4 suppresses cell proliferation and collagen production after ischemia. ( A ) BrdU incorporation during day 3 to 4 after LAD ligation. About 2.5 × 10 6 cubes of empty polyhedra (empty-PH), or 2.5 × 10 6 cubes of S-PH were injected into ischemic border areas just after LAD ligation. BrdU was administered at day 3. The border between the acellular scar and cellular areas is shown by dotted black lines. Cubes visible in the bottom of the photo are S-PH in the ischemic border area. The mean and standard deviations of the number of BrdU-positive cells are indicated in the figure. ( B ) Vascular density in the ischemic border area of PBS- or Sfrp4-treated hearts. The number of von Willebrand Factor-expressing vessel-like structures in border areas of PBS- or Sfrp4-treated rats 3 days after LAD ligation. Means and standard deviations of vascular density (vessels per mm 2 ) are shown in the figure. Red arrows indicate von Willebrand Factor-positive vessel-like structures. Black line framed area in upper photo is magnified and shown (indicated as block arrow) in lower photo. ( C ) Transcript levels of the β-catenin effector gene TCF4 , the TCF4 target cyclin D2 , and collagen IIIa (Col IIIa) from PBS or 20 μg Sfrp4-treated ischemic border areas 3 days after ischemic heart injury as determined by qRT-PCR. Values were normalized by the expression of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (rat glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase as 10,000). The bar and error bar show mean and standard deviations of three rat heart samples, respectively. p -Values for differences in mean values for PBS- or Sfrp4-treated tissues are indicated in the figure.

    Journal: Tissue Engineering. Part A

    Article Title: Secreted Frizzled Related Protein 4 Reduces Fibrosis Scar Size and Ameliorates Cardiac Function After Ischemic Injury

    doi: 10.1089/ten.tea.2009.0739

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sfrp4 suppresses cell proliferation and collagen production after ischemia. ( A ) BrdU incorporation during day 3 to 4 after LAD ligation. About 2.5 × 10 6 cubes of empty polyhedra (empty-PH), or 2.5 × 10 6 cubes of S-PH were injected into ischemic border areas just after LAD ligation. BrdU was administered at day 3. The border between the acellular scar and cellular areas is shown by dotted black lines. Cubes visible in the bottom of the photo are S-PH in the ischemic border area. The mean and standard deviations of the number of BrdU-positive cells are indicated in the figure. ( B ) Vascular density in the ischemic border area of PBS- or Sfrp4-treated hearts. The number of von Willebrand Factor-expressing vessel-like structures in border areas of PBS- or Sfrp4-treated rats 3 days after LAD ligation. Means and standard deviations of vascular density (vessels per mm 2 ) are shown in the figure. Red arrows indicate von Willebrand Factor-positive vessel-like structures. Black line framed area in upper photo is magnified and shown (indicated as block arrow) in lower photo. ( C ) Transcript levels of the β-catenin effector gene TCF4 , the TCF4 target cyclin D2 , and collagen IIIa (Col IIIa) from PBS or 20 μg Sfrp4-treated ischemic border areas 3 days after ischemic heart injury as determined by qRT-PCR. Values were normalized by the expression of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (rat glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase as 10,000). The bar and error bar show mean and standard deviations of three rat heart samples, respectively. p -Values for differences in mean values for PBS- or Sfrp4-treated tissues are indicated in the figure.

    Article Snippet: Five or 20 μg recombinant human Sfrp4 (sFRP-4; R & D Systems, Inc.) in 50 μL phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was mixed with 50 μL collagen type I gel (BD Biosciences) and injected to the ischemic border zones.

    Techniques: BrdU Incorporation Assay, Ligation, Injection, Expressing, Blocking Assay, Quantitative RT-PCR

    In vivo tumor suppressive function of MTAP and the inhibition of L-alanosine in MTAP-deficient myxofibrosarcoma (A) The average tumor volume of the empty vector-transfected NMFH-2 xenografts was significantly larger than that of the MTAP-reexpressing counterparts (left) . On Day 30, the excised xenografts were grossly larger and heavier in the control group than in the MTAP-reexpressing group (middle) . Histologically, control xenografts (upper panel) comprise MTAP-deficient high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma cells that exhibit frequent mitotic figures, the increased expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, Ki-67, and MMP-9, and an increased microvascular density based on CD31 staining. However, contrasting results were observed in the MTAP-reexpressing group (lower panel), which exhibited low-grade MTAP-expressing spindle cells (right) . (B) L-alanosine effectively attenuated the viability of MTAP-deficient NMFH-2 and OH931 myxofibrosarcoma cell lines, and MTAP-expressing NMFH-1 cells were relatively resistant to L-alanosine, demonstrating > 50% viable sarcoma cells, even at 100 μM (left) . Unlike the sensitivity in the parent lines and empty controls, MTAP reexpression caused decreased susceptibility to L-alanosine in the OH931 (middle) and NMFH-2 (right) cells. (C) The average tumor volume was significantly larger in the PBS-treated group than in the groups treated with 25 μM and 50 μM of L-alanosine (left) . On Day 42, the excised xenografts remained macroscopically larger and heavier in the control group, exhibiting no dose-dependent difference between the groups treated with 25 μM and 50 μM of L-alanosine (middle) . In contrast to the high-grade pleomorphic histology in the control xenografts lacking apparent apoptosis, the L-alanosine-treated group exhibited increased numbers of fibrohyaline collagen fibers and TUNEL-labeled apoptotic cells (right) .

    Journal: Oncotarget

    Article Title: Downregulated MTAP expression in myxofibrosarcoma: A characterization of inactivating mechanisms, tumor suppressive function, and therapeutic relevance

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vivo tumor suppressive function of MTAP and the inhibition of L-alanosine in MTAP-deficient myxofibrosarcoma (A) The average tumor volume of the empty vector-transfected NMFH-2 xenografts was significantly larger than that of the MTAP-reexpressing counterparts (left) . On Day 30, the excised xenografts were grossly larger and heavier in the control group than in the MTAP-reexpressing group (middle) . Histologically, control xenografts (upper panel) comprise MTAP-deficient high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma cells that exhibit frequent mitotic figures, the increased expression of cyclin D1, cyclin E, Ki-67, and MMP-9, and an increased microvascular density based on CD31 staining. However, contrasting results were observed in the MTAP-reexpressing group (lower panel), which exhibited low-grade MTAP-expressing spindle cells (right) . (B) L-alanosine effectively attenuated the viability of MTAP-deficient NMFH-2 and OH931 myxofibrosarcoma cell lines, and MTAP-expressing NMFH-1 cells were relatively resistant to L-alanosine, demonstrating > 50% viable sarcoma cells, even at 100 μM (left) . Unlike the sensitivity in the parent lines and empty controls, MTAP reexpression caused decreased susceptibility to L-alanosine in the OH931 (middle) and NMFH-2 (right) cells. (C) The average tumor volume was significantly larger in the PBS-treated group than in the groups treated with 25 μM and 50 μM of L-alanosine (left) . On Day 42, the excised xenografts remained macroscopically larger and heavier in the control group, exhibiting no dose-dependent difference between the groups treated with 25 μM and 50 μM of L-alanosine (middle) . In contrast to the high-grade pleomorphic histology in the control xenografts lacking apparent apoptosis, the L-alanosine-treated group exhibited increased numbers of fibrohyaline collagen fibers and TUNEL-labeled apoptotic cells (right) .

    Article Snippet: Pharmacological assessment Parent OH931, NMFH-2, and NMFH-1 cells, as well as the MTAP- or empty vector-transfected OH931 and NMFH-2 cells, were treated with a vehicle control using 0.9% phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or L-alanosine (Santa Cruz Biotech) at indicated doses for 72 h.

    Techniques: In Vivo, Inhibition, Plasmid Preparation, Transfection, Expressing, Staining, TUNEL Assay, Labeling