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  • 99
    Thermo Fisher polyethylene glycol 8000
    Polyethylene Glycol 8000, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 267 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/polyethylene glycol 8000/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 99 stars, based on 267 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    polyethylene glycol 8000 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
    99/100 stars
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    99
    Millipore peg8000
    Characterization of WNV-ΔNS1. (A) Comparison of growth kinetics between WT WNV and WNV-ΔNS1 virus in Vero NS1 cells. Vero NS1 cells were infected with either WT WNV or WNV-ΔNS1 virus at an MOI of 0.1. The supernatants were harvested at the indicated time points, and viral titers were determined as described above. Data represent the mean ± standard deviation of triplicate measurements in a representative experiment. n.s., no statistical difference. (B) Comparison of immunostained foci between WT WNV and WNV-ΔNS1 virus in Vero NS1 cells. The plaque morphology of WNV-ΔNS1 was analyzed by a standard immunostaining-based focus-forming assay and compared with that of WT virus. (C) Coomassie brilliant blue staining analysis of purified WT WNV and WNV-ΔNS1 virions. Following concentration and purification through <t>PEG8000</t> precipitation and ultracentrifugation, equal amounts of purified WT and ΔNS1 virions were loaded onto a SDS-polyacrylamide gel, and protein bands were visualized by Coomassie brilliant blue staining. The bands corresponding to E and capsid proteins are indicated. (D) Western blotting analysis of purified WT WNV and WNV-ΔNS1 virions. The virus antigens described above were analyzed by Western blotting with an anti-E monoclonal antibody and anti-C polyclonal antibody.
    Peg8000, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 476 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/peg8000/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 476 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    peg8000 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    93
    Amresco peg 8000
    Characterization of WNV-ΔNS1. (A) Comparison of growth kinetics between WT WNV and WNV-ΔNS1 virus in Vero NS1 cells. Vero NS1 cells were infected with either WT WNV or WNV-ΔNS1 virus at an MOI of 0.1. The supernatants were harvested at the indicated time points, and viral titers were determined as described above. Data represent the mean ± standard deviation of triplicate measurements in a representative experiment. n.s., no statistical difference. (B) Comparison of immunostained foci between WT WNV and WNV-ΔNS1 virus in Vero NS1 cells. The plaque morphology of WNV-ΔNS1 was analyzed by a standard immunostaining-based focus-forming assay and compared with that of WT virus. (C) Coomassie brilliant blue staining analysis of purified WT WNV and WNV-ΔNS1 virions. Following concentration and purification through <t>PEG8000</t> precipitation and ultracentrifugation, equal amounts of purified WT and ΔNS1 virions were loaded onto a SDS-polyacrylamide gel, and protein bands were visualized by Coomassie brilliant blue staining. The bands corresponding to E and capsid proteins are indicated. (D) Western blotting analysis of purified WT WNV and WNV-ΔNS1 virions. The virus antigens described above were analyzed by Western blotting with an anti-E monoclonal antibody and anti-C polyclonal antibody.
    Peg 8000, supplied by Amresco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 19 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 93 stars, based on 19 article reviews
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    peg 8000 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    93
    Promega polyethylene glycol 8000
    Characterization of WNV-ΔNS1. (A) Comparison of growth kinetics between WT WNV and WNV-ΔNS1 virus in Vero NS1 cells. Vero NS1 cells were infected with either WT WNV or WNV-ΔNS1 virus at an MOI of 0.1. The supernatants were harvested at the indicated time points, and viral titers were determined as described above. Data represent the mean ± standard deviation of triplicate measurements in a representative experiment. n.s., no statistical difference. (B) Comparison of immunostained foci between WT WNV and WNV-ΔNS1 virus in Vero NS1 cells. The plaque morphology of WNV-ΔNS1 was analyzed by a standard immunostaining-based focus-forming assay and compared with that of WT virus. (C) Coomassie brilliant blue staining analysis of purified WT WNV and WNV-ΔNS1 virions. Following concentration and purification through <t>PEG8000</t> precipitation and ultracentrifugation, equal amounts of purified WT and ΔNS1 virions were loaded onto a SDS-polyacrylamide gel, and protein bands were visualized by Coomassie brilliant blue staining. The bands corresponding to E and capsid proteins are indicated. (D) Western blotting analysis of purified WT WNV and WNV-ΔNS1 virions. The virus antigens described above were analyzed by Western blotting with an anti-E monoclonal antibody and anti-C polyclonal antibody.
    Polyethylene Glycol 8000, supplied by Promega, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 173 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 93 stars, based on 173 article reviews
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    polyethylene glycol 8000 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    91
    Avantor peg8000
    Measured ejection fractions as a function of added salt concentration, against an osmotic pressure (3.5 atm) induced by <t>PEG8000</t> solution. Note that the zero of the abscissa corresponds to 10 mM Mg 2+ already present in the buffer solution.
    Peg8000, supplied by Avantor, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/peg8000/product/Avantor
    Average 91 stars, based on 8 article reviews
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    peg8000 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    92
    Promega peg8000
    Measured ejection fractions as a function of added salt concentration, against an osmotic pressure (3.5 atm) induced by <t>PEG8000</t> solution. Note that the zero of the abscissa corresponds to 10 mM Mg 2+ already present in the buffer solution.
    Peg8000, supplied by Promega, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 54 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 92 stars, based on 54 article reviews
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    peg8000 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    92
    Fisher Scientific polyethylene glycol 8000
    Measured ejection fractions as a function of added salt concentration, against an osmotic pressure (3.5 atm) induced by <t>PEG8000</t> solution. Note that the zero of the abscissa corresponds to 10 mM Mg 2+ already present in the buffer solution.
    Polyethylene Glycol 8000, supplied by Fisher Scientific, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 76 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/polyethylene glycol 8000/product/Fisher Scientific
    Average 92 stars, based on 76 article reviews
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    polyethylene glycol 8000 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    91
    New England Biolabs peg 8000
    Measured ejection fractions as a function of added salt concentration, against an osmotic pressure (3.5 atm) induced by <t>PEG8000</t> solution. Note that the zero of the abscissa corresponds to 10 mM Mg 2+ already present in the buffer solution.
    Peg 8000, supplied by New England Biolabs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 139 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/peg 8000/product/New England Biolabs
    Average 91 stars, based on 139 article reviews
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    peg 8000 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    91
    P212121 peg 8000
    Measured ejection fractions as a function of added salt concentration, against an osmotic pressure (3.5 atm) induced by <t>PEG8000</t> solution. Note that the zero of the abscissa corresponds to 10 mM Mg 2+ already present in the buffer solution.
    Peg 8000, supplied by P212121, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 12 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 91 stars, based on 12 article reviews
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    93
    Avantor peg 8000
    Overexpression of MtCAS31 in M. truncatula increases drought tolerance. (A) Relative expression of MtCAS31 in leaves, stems and roots of M. truncatula in the absence of stress. The values were normalized to Actin expression. The data represent the mean±SD of 3 replicates. (B) Using qRT-PCR, the relative expression of MtCAS31 under dehydration (30% and 50% <t>PEG</t> 8000 treatment, w:v) in roots (i) and aerial parts (ii) was determined at the indicated time points. The values were normalized to Actin expression. The data represent the mean±SD of 3 replicates. (C) Phenotypes of cas31 mutant and wild-type plants after 3 drought-rewatering cycles (i). The survival rate was scored (ii), and relative electrolyte leakage was calculated (iii). The data represent the mean±SD of 2 replicates with 15 plants each. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences between the wild-type and cas31 mutant plants. *P
    Peg 8000, supplied by Avantor, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 93 stars, based on 3 article reviews
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    peg 8000 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    91
    Valiant peg8000
    Effects of <t>PEG8000</t> and PEG200 on T3SA rotation and effector secretion by PAO1 Strep. ( a–d ) Motion tracks of single microbeads that displayed typical behaviour are shown. Motion-track analysis was performed using Adobe A fter E ffects CS3. (i) Time-dependent changes in bead tracks (7.5 points s −1 ). The black arrow indicates the direction of bead motion. (ii)–(iii) Time-dependent changes in the (ii) X and (iii) Y positions of the beads (2.5 points s −1 ). ( a ) Before and ( b ) after PEG8000 treatment. ( c ) Before and ( d ) after PEG200 treatment. ( e (i)) Western blot analysis of ExoT protein levels in supernatants of PAO1 Strep cultured under different conditions. After activation of T3SA by 2.5 h of culture in secretion medium, PAO1 Strep was cultured under various conditions for a further 2.5 h at 37°C. The levels of ExoT in culture supernatants were analysed by Western blotting using an anti-ExoT polyclonal antibody. (ii) Effects of PEG8000 and PEG200 on ExoT secretion by T3SA tagged with microbeads shown in ( e (i)). Band intensities were measured using I mage J software. The graph shows relative intensity values (i.e. the control value was set to 1.0). Average values ± s.d. ( n = 3) are shown. * p
    Peg8000, supplied by Valiant, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/peg8000/product/Valiant
    Average 91 stars, based on 6 article reviews
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    peg8000 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    91
    FUJIFILM peg8000
    Effects of <t>PEG8000</t> and PEG200 on T3SA rotation and effector secretion by PAO1 Strep. ( a–d ) Motion tracks of single microbeads that displayed typical behaviour are shown. Motion-track analysis was performed using Adobe A fter E ffects CS3. (i) Time-dependent changes in bead tracks (7.5 points s −1 ). The black arrow indicates the direction of bead motion. (ii)–(iii) Time-dependent changes in the (ii) X and (iii) Y positions of the beads (2.5 points s −1 ). ( a ) Before and ( b ) after PEG8000 treatment. ( c ) Before and ( d ) after PEG200 treatment. ( e (i)) Western blot analysis of ExoT protein levels in supernatants of PAO1 Strep cultured under different conditions. After activation of T3SA by 2.5 h of culture in secretion medium, PAO1 Strep was cultured under various conditions for a further 2.5 h at 37°C. The levels of ExoT in culture supernatants were analysed by Western blotting using an anti-ExoT polyclonal antibody. (ii) Effects of PEG8000 and PEG200 on ExoT secretion by T3SA tagged with microbeads shown in ( e (i)). Band intensities were measured using I mage J software. The graph shows relative intensity values (i.e. the control value was set to 1.0). Average values ± s.d. ( n = 3) are shown. * p
    Peg8000, supplied by FUJIFILM, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 39 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/peg8000/product/FUJIFILM
    Average 91 stars, based on 39 article reviews
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    peg8000 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    94
    Carl Roth GmbH ● peg 8000
    Effects of <t>PEG8000</t> and PEG200 on T3SA rotation and effector secretion by PAO1 Strep. ( a–d ) Motion tracks of single microbeads that displayed typical behaviour are shown. Motion-track analysis was performed using Adobe A fter E ffects CS3. (i) Time-dependent changes in bead tracks (7.5 points s −1 ). The black arrow indicates the direction of bead motion. (ii)–(iii) Time-dependent changes in the (ii) X and (iii) Y positions of the beads (2.5 points s −1 ). ( a ) Before and ( b ) after PEG8000 treatment. ( c ) Before and ( d ) after PEG200 treatment. ( e (i)) Western blot analysis of ExoT protein levels in supernatants of PAO1 Strep cultured under different conditions. After activation of T3SA by 2.5 h of culture in secretion medium, PAO1 Strep was cultured under various conditions for a further 2.5 h at 37°C. The levels of ExoT in culture supernatants were analysed by Western blotting using an anti-ExoT polyclonal antibody. (ii) Effects of PEG8000 and PEG200 on ExoT secretion by T3SA tagged with microbeads shown in ( e (i)). Band intensities were measured using I mage J software. The graph shows relative intensity values (i.e. the control value was set to 1.0). Average values ± s.d. ( n = 3) are shown. * p
    ● Peg 8000, supplied by Carl Roth GmbH, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 94 stars, based on 6 article reviews
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    ● peg 8000 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    91
    Qiagen peg 8000
    Effects of <t>PEG8000</t> and PEG200 on T3SA rotation and effector secretion by PAO1 Strep. ( a–d ) Motion tracks of single microbeads that displayed typical behaviour are shown. Motion-track analysis was performed using Adobe A fter E ffects CS3. (i) Time-dependent changes in bead tracks (7.5 points s −1 ). The black arrow indicates the direction of bead motion. (ii)–(iii) Time-dependent changes in the (ii) X and (iii) Y positions of the beads (2.5 points s −1 ). ( a ) Before and ( b ) after PEG8000 treatment. ( c ) Before and ( d ) after PEG200 treatment. ( e (i)) Western blot analysis of ExoT protein levels in supernatants of PAO1 Strep cultured under different conditions. After activation of T3SA by 2.5 h of culture in secretion medium, PAO1 Strep was cultured under various conditions for a further 2.5 h at 37°C. The levels of ExoT in culture supernatants were analysed by Western blotting using an anti-ExoT polyclonal antibody. (ii) Effects of PEG8000 and PEG200 on ExoT secretion by T3SA tagged with microbeads shown in ( e (i)). Band intensities were measured using I mage J software. The graph shows relative intensity values (i.e. the control value was set to 1.0). Average values ± s.d. ( n = 3) are shown. * p
    Peg 8000, supplied by Qiagen, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/peg 8000/product/Qiagen
    Average 91 stars, based on 7 article reviews
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    peg 8000 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    93
    BioShop polyethylene glycol peg 8000
    Effects of <t>PEG8000</t> and PEG200 on T3SA rotation and effector secretion by PAO1 Strep. ( a–d ) Motion tracks of single microbeads that displayed typical behaviour are shown. Motion-track analysis was performed using Adobe A fter E ffects CS3. (i) Time-dependent changes in bead tracks (7.5 points s −1 ). The black arrow indicates the direction of bead motion. (ii)–(iii) Time-dependent changes in the (ii) X and (iii) Y positions of the beads (2.5 points s −1 ). ( a ) Before and ( b ) after PEG8000 treatment. ( c ) Before and ( d ) after PEG200 treatment. ( e (i)) Western blot analysis of ExoT protein levels in supernatants of PAO1 Strep cultured under different conditions. After activation of T3SA by 2.5 h of culture in secretion medium, PAO1 Strep was cultured under various conditions for a further 2.5 h at 37°C. The levels of ExoT in culture supernatants were analysed by Western blotting using an anti-ExoT polyclonal antibody. (ii) Effects of PEG8000 and PEG200 on ExoT secretion by T3SA tagged with microbeads shown in ( e (i)). Band intensities were measured using I mage J software. The graph shows relative intensity values (i.e. the control value was set to 1.0). Average values ± s.d. ( n = 3) are shown. * p
    Polyethylene Glycol Peg 8000, supplied by BioShop, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 10 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    polyethylene glycol peg 8000 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    93
    Sangon Biotech polyethylene glycol peg 8000
    Effects of <t>PEG8000</t> and PEG200 on T3SA rotation and effector secretion by PAO1 Strep. ( a–d ) Motion tracks of single microbeads that displayed typical behaviour are shown. Motion-track analysis was performed using Adobe A fter E ffects CS3. (i) Time-dependent changes in bead tracks (7.5 points s −1 ). The black arrow indicates the direction of bead motion. (ii)–(iii) Time-dependent changes in the (ii) X and (iii) Y positions of the beads (2.5 points s −1 ). ( a ) Before and ( b ) after PEG8000 treatment. ( c ) Before and ( d ) after PEG200 treatment. ( e (i)) Western blot analysis of ExoT protein levels in supernatants of PAO1 Strep cultured under different conditions. After activation of T3SA by 2.5 h of culture in secretion medium, PAO1 Strep was cultured under various conditions for a further 2.5 h at 37°C. The levels of ExoT in culture supernatants were analysed by Western blotting using an anti-ExoT polyclonal antibody. (ii) Effects of PEG8000 and PEG200 on ExoT secretion by T3SA tagged with microbeads shown in ( e (i)). Band intensities were measured using I mage J software. The graph shows relative intensity values (i.e. the control value was set to 1.0). Average values ± s.d. ( n = 3) are shown. * p
    Polyethylene Glycol Peg 8000, supplied by Sangon Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/polyethylene glycol peg 8000/product/Sangon Biotech
    Average 93 stars, based on 1 article reviews
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    polyethylene glycol peg 8000 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    93
    Sangon Biotech peg8000
    Effects of <t>PEG8000</t> and PEG200 on T3SA rotation and effector secretion by PAO1 Strep. ( a–d ) Motion tracks of single microbeads that displayed typical behaviour are shown. Motion-track analysis was performed using Adobe A fter E ffects CS3. (i) Time-dependent changes in bead tracks (7.5 points s −1 ). The black arrow indicates the direction of bead motion. (ii)–(iii) Time-dependent changes in the (ii) X and (iii) Y positions of the beads (2.5 points s −1 ). ( a ) Before and ( b ) after PEG8000 treatment. ( c ) Before and ( d ) after PEG200 treatment. ( e (i)) Western blot analysis of ExoT protein levels in supernatants of PAO1 Strep cultured under different conditions. After activation of T3SA by 2.5 h of culture in secretion medium, PAO1 Strep was cultured under various conditions for a further 2.5 h at 37°C. The levels of ExoT in culture supernatants were analysed by Western blotting using an anti-ExoT polyclonal antibody. (ii) Effects of PEG8000 and PEG200 on ExoT secretion by T3SA tagged with microbeads shown in ( e (i)). Band intensities were measured using I mage J software. The graph shows relative intensity values (i.e. the control value was set to 1.0). Average values ± s.d. ( n = 3) are shown. * p
    Peg8000, supplied by Sangon Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    peg8000 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    91
    GE Healthcare peg 8000
    Effects of <t>PEG8000</t> and PEG200 on T3SA rotation and effector secretion by PAO1 Strep. ( a–d ) Motion tracks of single microbeads that displayed typical behaviour are shown. Motion-track analysis was performed using Adobe A fter E ffects CS3. (i) Time-dependent changes in bead tracks (7.5 points s −1 ). The black arrow indicates the direction of bead motion. (ii)–(iii) Time-dependent changes in the (ii) X and (iii) Y positions of the beads (2.5 points s −1 ). ( a ) Before and ( b ) after PEG8000 treatment. ( c ) Before and ( d ) after PEG200 treatment. ( e (i)) Western blot analysis of ExoT protein levels in supernatants of PAO1 Strep cultured under different conditions. After activation of T3SA by 2.5 h of culture in secretion medium, PAO1 Strep was cultured under various conditions for a further 2.5 h at 37°C. The levels of ExoT in culture supernatants were analysed by Western blotting using an anti-ExoT polyclonal antibody. (ii) Effects of PEG8000 and PEG200 on ExoT secretion by T3SA tagged with microbeads shown in ( e (i)). Band intensities were measured using I mage J software. The graph shows relative intensity values (i.e. the control value was set to 1.0). Average values ± s.d. ( n = 3) are shown. * p
    Peg 8000, supplied by GE Healthcare, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    peg 8000 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    93
    Amresco peg8000
    Effects of <t>PEG8000</t> and PEG200 on T3SA rotation and effector secretion by PAO1 Strep. ( a–d ) Motion tracks of single microbeads that displayed typical behaviour are shown. Motion-track analysis was performed using Adobe A fter E ffects CS3. (i) Time-dependent changes in bead tracks (7.5 points s −1 ). The black arrow indicates the direction of bead motion. (ii)–(iii) Time-dependent changes in the (ii) X and (iii) Y positions of the beads (2.5 points s −1 ). ( a ) Before and ( b ) after PEG8000 treatment. ( c ) Before and ( d ) after PEG200 treatment. ( e (i)) Western blot analysis of ExoT protein levels in supernatants of PAO1 Strep cultured under different conditions. After activation of T3SA by 2.5 h of culture in secretion medium, PAO1 Strep was cultured under various conditions for a further 2.5 h at 37°C. The levels of ExoT in culture supernatants were analysed by Western blotting using an anti-ExoT polyclonal antibody. (ii) Effects of PEG8000 and PEG200 on ExoT secretion by T3SA tagged with microbeads shown in ( e (i)). Band intensities were measured using I mage J software. The graph shows relative intensity values (i.e. the control value was set to 1.0). Average values ± s.d. ( n = 3) are shown. * p
    Peg8000, supplied by Amresco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 93 stars, based on 1 article reviews
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    peg8000 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    92
    Applichem polyethylene glycol peg 8000
    Effects of <t>PEG8000</t> and PEG200 on T3SA rotation and effector secretion by PAO1 Strep. ( a–d ) Motion tracks of single microbeads that displayed typical behaviour are shown. Motion-track analysis was performed using Adobe A fter E ffects CS3. (i) Time-dependent changes in bead tracks (7.5 points s −1 ). The black arrow indicates the direction of bead motion. (ii)–(iii) Time-dependent changes in the (ii) X and (iii) Y positions of the beads (2.5 points s −1 ). ( a ) Before and ( b ) after PEG8000 treatment. ( c ) Before and ( d ) after PEG200 treatment. ( e (i)) Western blot analysis of ExoT protein levels in supernatants of PAO1 Strep cultured under different conditions. After activation of T3SA by 2.5 h of culture in secretion medium, PAO1 Strep was cultured under various conditions for a further 2.5 h at 37°C. The levels of ExoT in culture supernatants were analysed by Western blotting using an anti-ExoT polyclonal antibody. (ii) Effects of PEG8000 and PEG200 on ExoT secretion by T3SA tagged with microbeads shown in ( e (i)). Band intensities were measured using I mage J software. The graph shows relative intensity values (i.e. the control value was set to 1.0). Average values ± s.d. ( n = 3) are shown. * p
    Polyethylene Glycol Peg 8000, supplied by Applichem, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 16 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 92 stars, based on 16 article reviews
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    polyethylene glycol peg 8000 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    92
    Merck & Co polyethylene glycol peg 8000
    Effects of <t>PEG8000</t> and PEG200 on T3SA rotation and effector secretion by PAO1 Strep. ( a–d ) Motion tracks of single microbeads that displayed typical behaviour are shown. Motion-track analysis was performed using Adobe A fter E ffects CS3. (i) Time-dependent changes in bead tracks (7.5 points s −1 ). The black arrow indicates the direction of bead motion. (ii)–(iii) Time-dependent changes in the (ii) X and (iii) Y positions of the beads (2.5 points s −1 ). ( a ) Before and ( b ) after PEG8000 treatment. ( c ) Before and ( d ) after PEG200 treatment. ( e (i)) Western blot analysis of ExoT protein levels in supernatants of PAO1 Strep cultured under different conditions. After activation of T3SA by 2.5 h of culture in secretion medium, PAO1 Strep was cultured under various conditions for a further 2.5 h at 37°C. The levels of ExoT in culture supernatants were analysed by Western blotting using an anti-ExoT polyclonal antibody. (ii) Effects of PEG8000 and PEG200 on ExoT secretion by T3SA tagged with microbeads shown in ( e (i)). Band intensities were measured using I mage J software. The graph shows relative intensity values (i.e. the control value was set to 1.0). Average values ± s.d. ( n = 3) are shown. * p
    Polyethylene Glycol Peg 8000, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 92 stars, based on 6 article reviews
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    polyethylene glycol peg 8000 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    Characterization of WNV-ΔNS1. (A) Comparison of growth kinetics between WT WNV and WNV-ΔNS1 virus in Vero NS1 cells. Vero NS1 cells were infected with either WT WNV or WNV-ΔNS1 virus at an MOI of 0.1. The supernatants were harvested at the indicated time points, and viral titers were determined as described above. Data represent the mean ± standard deviation of triplicate measurements in a representative experiment. n.s., no statistical difference. (B) Comparison of immunostained foci between WT WNV and WNV-ΔNS1 virus in Vero NS1 cells. The plaque morphology of WNV-ΔNS1 was analyzed by a standard immunostaining-based focus-forming assay and compared with that of WT virus. (C) Coomassie brilliant blue staining analysis of purified WT WNV and WNV-ΔNS1 virions. Following concentration and purification through PEG8000 precipitation and ultracentrifugation, equal amounts of purified WT and ΔNS1 virions were loaded onto a SDS-polyacrylamide gel, and protein bands were visualized by Coomassie brilliant blue staining. The bands corresponding to E and capsid proteins are indicated. (D) Western blotting analysis of purified WT WNV and WNV-ΔNS1 virions. The virus antigens described above were analyzed by Western blotting with an anti-E monoclonal antibody and anti-C polyclonal antibody.

    Journal: Journal of Virology

    Article Title: Replication-Defective West Nile Virus with NS1 Deletion as a New Vaccine Platform for Flavivirus

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.00720-19

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Characterization of WNV-ΔNS1. (A) Comparison of growth kinetics between WT WNV and WNV-ΔNS1 virus in Vero NS1 cells. Vero NS1 cells were infected with either WT WNV or WNV-ΔNS1 virus at an MOI of 0.1. The supernatants were harvested at the indicated time points, and viral titers were determined as described above. Data represent the mean ± standard deviation of triplicate measurements in a representative experiment. n.s., no statistical difference. (B) Comparison of immunostained foci between WT WNV and WNV-ΔNS1 virus in Vero NS1 cells. The plaque morphology of WNV-ΔNS1 was analyzed by a standard immunostaining-based focus-forming assay and compared with that of WT virus. (C) Coomassie brilliant blue staining analysis of purified WT WNV and WNV-ΔNS1 virions. Following concentration and purification through PEG8000 precipitation and ultracentrifugation, equal amounts of purified WT and ΔNS1 virions were loaded onto a SDS-polyacrylamide gel, and protein bands were visualized by Coomassie brilliant blue staining. The bands corresponding to E and capsid proteins are indicated. (D) Western blotting analysis of purified WT WNV and WNV-ΔNS1 virions. The virus antigens described above were analyzed by Western blotting with an anti-E monoclonal antibody and anti-C polyclonal antibody.

    Article Snippet: The clarified supernatants were then incubated overnight at 4°C with PBS containing 8% (wt/vol) PEG8000 (Sigma), followed by centrifugation at 4°C for 50 min at 10,500 × g .

    Techniques: Infection, Standard Deviation, Immunostaining, Focus Forming Assay, Staining, Purification, Concentration Assay, Western Blot

    Effect of 10% polyethylene glycol-8000 (PEG-8000) on physiological parameters and gene expression in leaf tissue of tea. Relative electrolyte leakage (REL) and relative water content (RWC) are shown in panels (A) and (B), respectively. Error bars are standard error of the mean of three biological replicates. Different letters above the bar show significant difference at p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: RNA-seq-mediated transcriptome analysis of actively growing and winter dormant shoots identifies non-deciduous habit of evergreen tree tea during winters

    doi: 10.1038/srep05932

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 10% polyethylene glycol-8000 (PEG-8000) on physiological parameters and gene expression in leaf tissue of tea. Relative electrolyte leakage (REL) and relative water content (RWC) are shown in panels (A) and (B), respectively. Error bars are standard error of the mean of three biological replicates. Different letters above the bar show significant difference at p

    Article Snippet: After 24 h, cuttings were transferred to deionized water (control) and 10% polyethylene glycol-8000 (PEG-8000; Sigma, USA), separately and housed in plant growth chamber set at GT ( ).

    Techniques: Expressing

    Measured ejection fractions as a function of added salt concentration, against an osmotic pressure (3.5 atm) induced by PEG8000 solution. Note that the zero of the abscissa corresponds to 10 mM Mg 2+ already present in the buffer solution.

    Journal:

    Article Title: Effects of Salt Concentrations and Bending Energy on the Extent of Ejection of Phage Genomes

    doi: 10.1529/biophysj.107.115345

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Measured ejection fractions as a function of added salt concentration, against an osmotic pressure (3.5 atm) induced by PEG8000 solution. Note that the zero of the abscissa corresponds to 10 mM Mg 2+ already present in the buffer solution.

    Article Snippet: Lyophilized deoxyribonuclease I was purchased from USB (Cleveland, OH), and PEG8000 from VWR (Westchester, PA).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Overexpression of MtCAS31 in M. truncatula increases drought tolerance. (A) Relative expression of MtCAS31 in leaves, stems and roots of M. truncatula in the absence of stress. The values were normalized to Actin expression. The data represent the mean±SD of 3 replicates. (B) Using qRT-PCR, the relative expression of MtCAS31 under dehydration (30% and 50% PEG 8000 treatment, w:v) in roots (i) and aerial parts (ii) was determined at the indicated time points. The values were normalized to Actin expression. The data represent the mean±SD of 3 replicates. (C) Phenotypes of cas31 mutant and wild-type plants after 3 drought-rewatering cycles (i). The survival rate was scored (ii), and relative electrolyte leakage was calculated (iii). The data represent the mean±SD of 2 replicates with 15 plants each. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences between the wild-type and cas31 mutant plants. *P

    Journal: Autophagy

    Article Title: Dehydrin MtCAS31 promotes autophagic degradation under drought stress

    doi: 10.1080/15548627.2019.1643656

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Overexpression of MtCAS31 in M. truncatula increases drought tolerance. (A) Relative expression of MtCAS31 in leaves, stems and roots of M. truncatula in the absence of stress. The values were normalized to Actin expression. The data represent the mean±SD of 3 replicates. (B) Using qRT-PCR, the relative expression of MtCAS31 under dehydration (30% and 50% PEG 8000 treatment, w:v) in roots (i) and aerial parts (ii) was determined at the indicated time points. The values were normalized to Actin expression. The data represent the mean±SD of 3 replicates. (C) Phenotypes of cas31 mutant and wild-type plants after 3 drought-rewatering cycles (i). The survival rate was scored (ii), and relative electrolyte leakage was calculated (iii). The data represent the mean±SD of 2 replicates with 15 plants each. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences between the wild-type and cas31 mutant plants. *P

    Article Snippet: Then, the seedlings were soaked in 30% (w:v) PEG 8000 (VWR, 25,322–68-3) and 50% (w:v) PEG 8000 for the indicated times.

    Techniques: Over Expression, Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR, Mutagenesis

    Expression pattern of MtPIP2;7 . (A) Tissue expression patterns of MtPIP2;7 in roots, stems and leaf under well-watered conditions. The values were normalized to Actin expression. The data represent the mean±SD of 3 replicates. (B) GUS staining of MtPIP2;7 pro :GUS transgenic Medicago truncatula . (i) Vascular bundles in leaves, bar: 200 μm. (ii) Vascular bundles in stems, bar: 100 μm. (iii) Vascular bundles in roots, bar: 200 μm. (C) Subcellular localization of MtPIP2;7-GFP driven by CaMV35S in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Arabidopsis protoplasts were co-transformed with HDEL-RFP and MtPIP2;7-GFP (i). Protoplasts expressing MtPIP2;7-GFP were stained with FM 4–64 (ii). The fluorescence signals were detected via confocal laser scanning microscopy with 488 nm and 546 nm excitation. FM 4–64, a cellular membrane-specific lipophilic dye. Bar: 10 μm. (D) Relative expression of MtPIP2;7 in aerial parts (i) and roots (ii) under dehydration conditions (30% and 50% PEG 8000 treatment, respectively) at the indicated time points. The values were normalized to ACTIN expression. The data represent the mean±SD of 3 replicates.

    Journal: Autophagy

    Article Title: Dehydrin MtCAS31 promotes autophagic degradation under drought stress

    doi: 10.1080/15548627.2019.1643656

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression pattern of MtPIP2;7 . (A) Tissue expression patterns of MtPIP2;7 in roots, stems and leaf under well-watered conditions. The values were normalized to Actin expression. The data represent the mean±SD of 3 replicates. (B) GUS staining of MtPIP2;7 pro :GUS transgenic Medicago truncatula . (i) Vascular bundles in leaves, bar: 200 μm. (ii) Vascular bundles in stems, bar: 100 μm. (iii) Vascular bundles in roots, bar: 200 μm. (C) Subcellular localization of MtPIP2;7-GFP driven by CaMV35S in Arabidopsis protoplasts. Arabidopsis protoplasts were co-transformed with HDEL-RFP and MtPIP2;7-GFP (i). Protoplasts expressing MtPIP2;7-GFP were stained with FM 4–64 (ii). The fluorescence signals were detected via confocal laser scanning microscopy with 488 nm and 546 nm excitation. FM 4–64, a cellular membrane-specific lipophilic dye. Bar: 10 μm. (D) Relative expression of MtPIP2;7 in aerial parts (i) and roots (ii) under dehydration conditions (30% and 50% PEG 8000 treatment, respectively) at the indicated time points. The values were normalized to ACTIN expression. The data represent the mean±SD of 3 replicates.

    Article Snippet: Then, the seedlings were soaked in 30% (w:v) PEG 8000 (VWR, 25,322–68-3) and 50% (w:v) PEG 8000 for the indicated times.

    Techniques: Expressing, Staining, Transgenic Assay, Transformation Assay, Fluorescence, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    MtCAS31 promotes autophagic degradation under drought stress. (A) Immunoblot analysis of MtCAS31 under dehydration at different PEG 8000 treatment timepoints. (B) M. truncatula hairy roots expressing MtCAS31 pro :MtCAS31-GFP were evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy in the absence of stress (dehydration for 0 h) (i), under dehydration treatment for 2 h (ii), under dehydration treatment for 4 h (iii), under dehydration treatment for 8 h (iv) and a under a combined 4 h ConcA with 8-h dehydration treatment (v). Bar: 35 μm. No fluorescence signal was detected in the absence of stress, probably because MtCAS31-GFP was driven by the MtCAS31 native promoter, which is induced by dehydration. (C) Immunoblotting analysis of MtCAS31-GFP and free GFP under dehydration treatment at different PEG 8000 treatment timepoints (0, 2, 4 and 8 h) and a combined 4 h ConcA with 8-h dehydration treatment using anti-GFP. (D) Transgenic hairy roots expressing MtATG8f-GFP driven by CaMV35S were detected in wild-type, cas31 mutant and MtCAS31 OE plants under no stress and dehydration with ConcA combination treatment. Fluorescence signals were detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy at a 488 nm excitation. Bar: 75 μm. (E) Significance analysis of the number of GFP-MtATG8f puncta per section in Figure 3D. Three sections were used for analysis. Significant differences, indicated by letters, were determined by one-way ANOVA and LSD. (F) Immunoblot analysis of free GFP and GFP-MtATG8f in wild-type, cas31 mutant and MtCAS3 OE plants under no stress and 8-h dehydration treatment. NPTII was employed for quantification.

    Journal: Autophagy

    Article Title: Dehydrin MtCAS31 promotes autophagic degradation under drought stress

    doi: 10.1080/15548627.2019.1643656

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MtCAS31 promotes autophagic degradation under drought stress. (A) Immunoblot analysis of MtCAS31 under dehydration at different PEG 8000 treatment timepoints. (B) M. truncatula hairy roots expressing MtCAS31 pro :MtCAS31-GFP were evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy in the absence of stress (dehydration for 0 h) (i), under dehydration treatment for 2 h (ii), under dehydration treatment for 4 h (iii), under dehydration treatment for 8 h (iv) and a under a combined 4 h ConcA with 8-h dehydration treatment (v). Bar: 35 μm. No fluorescence signal was detected in the absence of stress, probably because MtCAS31-GFP was driven by the MtCAS31 native promoter, which is induced by dehydration. (C) Immunoblotting analysis of MtCAS31-GFP and free GFP under dehydration treatment at different PEG 8000 treatment timepoints (0, 2, 4 and 8 h) and a combined 4 h ConcA with 8-h dehydration treatment using anti-GFP. (D) Transgenic hairy roots expressing MtATG8f-GFP driven by CaMV35S were detected in wild-type, cas31 mutant and MtCAS31 OE plants under no stress and dehydration with ConcA combination treatment. Fluorescence signals were detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy at a 488 nm excitation. Bar: 75 μm. (E) Significance analysis of the number of GFP-MtATG8f puncta per section in Figure 3D. Three sections were used for analysis. Significant differences, indicated by letters, were determined by one-way ANOVA and LSD. (F) Immunoblot analysis of free GFP and GFP-MtATG8f in wild-type, cas31 mutant and MtCAS3 OE plants under no stress and 8-h dehydration treatment. NPTII was employed for quantification.

    Article Snippet: Then, the seedlings were soaked in 30% (w:v) PEG 8000 (VWR, 25,322–68-3) and 50% (w:v) PEG 8000 for the indicated times.

    Techniques: Expressing, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy, Fluorescence, Transgenic Assay, Mutagenesis

    MtCAS31 promotes the autophagic degradation of MtPIP2;7. (A) Immunoblot analysis of the MtPIP2;7 protein levels in wild-type roots under no stress or dehydration conditions for 8 h (PEG 8000 treatment, 30% w:v) (i); DMSO or ConcA (1 μM) was added to PEG 8000 treatment for 8 h (ii) in M. truncatula using an anti-MtPIP2;7 antibody. DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide; ConcA, concanamycin A, a vacuolar (V) type H + -ATPase inhibitor that blocks hydrolase activity by elevating the vacuolar pH to block the autophagic degradation pathway. The values represent the relative intensity of the band. Actin was employed for quantification. (B) Protein levels of MtPIP2;7 in wild-type and cas31 mutant roots under dehydration (PEG 8000, 30% w:v) combined with ConcA (1 μM) or spautin-1 (1 μM) treatment for 8 h. After treatment, the protein level of MtPIP2;7 was detected by immunoblot analysis using an anti-MtPIP2;7 antibody. Actin was used for quantification. (C) Transgenic hairy roots expressing MtPIP2;7-GFP driven by CaMV35S were detected in wild-type (i, ii and iii) and cas31 mutant (vi, v and vi) roots in the absence of stress (i and iv) and after 8 h of dehydration (PEG 8000, 30% w:v) (ii and v) and 8 h of dehydration combined with ConcA treatment (iii and vi) by confocal laser scanning microscopy at a 488 nm excitation. Bar: 20 μm. (D) Analysis of the significance of the numbers of MtPIP2;7-GFP puncta per section in (iii) and (vi). Three sections were employed for the analysis of significance. **P

    Journal: Autophagy

    Article Title: Dehydrin MtCAS31 promotes autophagic degradation under drought stress

    doi: 10.1080/15548627.2019.1643656

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MtCAS31 promotes the autophagic degradation of MtPIP2;7. (A) Immunoblot analysis of the MtPIP2;7 protein levels in wild-type roots under no stress or dehydration conditions for 8 h (PEG 8000 treatment, 30% w:v) (i); DMSO or ConcA (1 μM) was added to PEG 8000 treatment for 8 h (ii) in M. truncatula using an anti-MtPIP2;7 antibody. DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide; ConcA, concanamycin A, a vacuolar (V) type H + -ATPase inhibitor that blocks hydrolase activity by elevating the vacuolar pH to block the autophagic degradation pathway. The values represent the relative intensity of the band. Actin was employed for quantification. (B) Protein levels of MtPIP2;7 in wild-type and cas31 mutant roots under dehydration (PEG 8000, 30% w:v) combined with ConcA (1 μM) or spautin-1 (1 μM) treatment for 8 h. After treatment, the protein level of MtPIP2;7 was detected by immunoblot analysis using an anti-MtPIP2;7 antibody. Actin was used for quantification. (C) Transgenic hairy roots expressing MtPIP2;7-GFP driven by CaMV35S were detected in wild-type (i, ii and iii) and cas31 mutant (vi, v and vi) roots in the absence of stress (i and iv) and after 8 h of dehydration (PEG 8000, 30% w:v) (ii and v) and 8 h of dehydration combined with ConcA treatment (iii and vi) by confocal laser scanning microscopy at a 488 nm excitation. Bar: 20 μm. (D) Analysis of the significance of the numbers of MtPIP2;7-GFP puncta per section in (iii) and (vi). Three sections were employed for the analysis of significance. **P

    Article Snippet: Then, the seedlings were soaked in 30% (w:v) PEG 8000 (VWR, 25,322–68-3) and 50% (w:v) PEG 8000 for the indicated times.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Blocking Assay, Mutagenesis, Transgenic Assay, Expressing, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    Effects of PEG8000 and PEG200 on T3SA rotation and effector secretion by PAO1 Strep. ( a–d ) Motion tracks of single microbeads that displayed typical behaviour are shown. Motion-track analysis was performed using Adobe A fter E ffects CS3. (i) Time-dependent changes in bead tracks (7.5 points s −1 ). The black arrow indicates the direction of bead motion. (ii)–(iii) Time-dependent changes in the (ii) X and (iii) Y positions of the beads (2.5 points s −1 ). ( a ) Before and ( b ) after PEG8000 treatment. ( c ) Before and ( d ) after PEG200 treatment. ( e (i)) Western blot analysis of ExoT protein levels in supernatants of PAO1 Strep cultured under different conditions. After activation of T3SA by 2.5 h of culture in secretion medium, PAO1 Strep was cultured under various conditions for a further 2.5 h at 37°C. The levels of ExoT in culture supernatants were analysed by Western blotting using an anti-ExoT polyclonal antibody. (ii) Effects of PEG8000 and PEG200 on ExoT secretion by T3SA tagged with microbeads shown in ( e (i)). Band intensities were measured using I mage J software. The graph shows relative intensity values (i.e. the control value was set to 1.0). Average values ± s.d. ( n = 3) are shown. * p

    Journal: Open Biology

    Article Title: Suppression of type III effector secretion by polymers

    doi: 10.1098/rsob.130133

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of PEG8000 and PEG200 on T3SA rotation and effector secretion by PAO1 Strep. ( a–d ) Motion tracks of single microbeads that displayed typical behaviour are shown. Motion-track analysis was performed using Adobe A fter E ffects CS3. (i) Time-dependent changes in bead tracks (7.5 points s −1 ). The black arrow indicates the direction of bead motion. (ii)–(iii) Time-dependent changes in the (ii) X and (iii) Y positions of the beads (2.5 points s −1 ). ( a ) Before and ( b ) after PEG8000 treatment. ( c ) Before and ( d ) after PEG200 treatment. ( e (i)) Western blot analysis of ExoT protein levels in supernatants of PAO1 Strep cultured under different conditions. After activation of T3SA by 2.5 h of culture in secretion medium, PAO1 Strep was cultured under various conditions for a further 2.5 h at 37°C. The levels of ExoT in culture supernatants were analysed by Western blotting using an anti-ExoT polyclonal antibody. (ii) Effects of PEG8000 and PEG200 on ExoT secretion by T3SA tagged with microbeads shown in ( e (i)). Band intensities were measured using I mage J software. The graph shows relative intensity values (i.e. the control value was set to 1.0). Average values ± s.d. ( n = 3) are shown. * p

    Article Snippet: PEG8000 was purchased from MP Biomedicals (Tokyo, Japan).

    Techniques: Western Blot, Cell Culture, Activation Assay, Software

    Effect of PEG8000 and PEG200 on secretion of the effector ExoT by WT PAO1. ( a ) Western blot analysis of ExoT protein levels in supernatants of PAO1 cultured in the presence of several concentrations of PEG200 and PEG8000. After the activation of PAO1 T3SA expression via culture in secretion medium for 2.5 h, bacteria were pelleted by centrifugation, then resuspended with the same medium supplemented with various concentrations of PEGs and incubated for a further 2.5 h at 37°C. The levels of ExoT in culture supernatants were analysed by Western blotting using an anti-ExoT polyclonal antibody. ExoT band intensities were measured using I mage J software. The values shown are relative to those of the control (0% PEGs) (the control values were set to 1.0). Average values ± s.d. ( n = 3) are shown. * p

    Journal: Open Biology

    Article Title: Suppression of type III effector secretion by polymers

    doi: 10.1098/rsob.130133

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of PEG8000 and PEG200 on secretion of the effector ExoT by WT PAO1. ( a ) Western blot analysis of ExoT protein levels in supernatants of PAO1 cultured in the presence of several concentrations of PEG200 and PEG8000. After the activation of PAO1 T3SA expression via culture in secretion medium for 2.5 h, bacteria were pelleted by centrifugation, then resuspended with the same medium supplemented with various concentrations of PEGs and incubated for a further 2.5 h at 37°C. The levels of ExoT in culture supernatants were analysed by Western blotting using an anti-ExoT polyclonal antibody. ExoT band intensities were measured using I mage J software. The values shown are relative to those of the control (0% PEGs) (the control values were set to 1.0). Average values ± s.d. ( n = 3) are shown. * p

    Article Snippet: PEG8000 was purchased from MP Biomedicals (Tokyo, Japan).

    Techniques: Western Blot, Cell Culture, Activation Assay, Expressing, Centrifugation, Incubation, Software

    Effect of PEG8000 on secretion of the effector ExoT by WT PAO1. ( a (i)) Western blotting of ExoT protein in the supernatants of WT PAO1 cultures exposed to different concentrations of PEG8000. After 2.5 h of T3SA activation in secretion medium, PAO1 was cultured under various conditions for 2.5 h at 37°C. The levels of ExoT in culture supernatants were analysed by Western blotting using an anti-ExoT polyclonal antibody. ( a (ii)) The effect of PEG8000 on secretion of ExoT as shown in ( a (i)) above. Band intensities were measured using I mage J software. The graph shows intensities relative to that of the control (set at 1.0 at 0% (w/v) PEG8000). Average values ± s.d. ( n = 3) are shown. * p

    Journal: Open Biology

    Article Title: Suppression of type III effector secretion by polymers

    doi: 10.1098/rsob.130133

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of PEG8000 on secretion of the effector ExoT by WT PAO1. ( a (i)) Western blotting of ExoT protein in the supernatants of WT PAO1 cultures exposed to different concentrations of PEG8000. After 2.5 h of T3SA activation in secretion medium, PAO1 was cultured under various conditions for 2.5 h at 37°C. The levels of ExoT in culture supernatants were analysed by Western blotting using an anti-ExoT polyclonal antibody. ( a (ii)) The effect of PEG8000 on secretion of ExoT as shown in ( a (i)) above. Band intensities were measured using I mage J software. The graph shows intensities relative to that of the control (set at 1.0 at 0% (w/v) PEG8000). Average values ± s.d. ( n = 3) are shown. * p

    Article Snippet: PEG8000 was purchased from MP Biomedicals (Tokyo, Japan).

    Techniques: Western Blot, Activation Assay, Cell Culture, Software

    Association between polymer viscosity and suppression of effector secretion. Polymer viscosity influences effector secretion. The correlation curve of PEG200, PEG8000 and alginate between viscosity and relative ExoT band intensity per viable bacterial number are shown. The ExoT band intensity per viable bacterial number without any polymers was set to 1.0. The values used to construct the figure are shown in the electronic supplementary material, table S1. Average values ± s.d. ( n = 3) are shown.

    Journal: Open Biology

    Article Title: Suppression of type III effector secretion by polymers

    doi: 10.1098/rsob.130133

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Association between polymer viscosity and suppression of effector secretion. Polymer viscosity influences effector secretion. The correlation curve of PEG200, PEG8000 and alginate between viscosity and relative ExoT band intensity per viable bacterial number are shown. The ExoT band intensity per viable bacterial number without any polymers was set to 1.0. The values used to construct the figure are shown in the electronic supplementary material, table S1. Average values ± s.d. ( n = 3) are shown.

    Article Snippet: PEG8000 was purchased from MP Biomedicals (Tokyo, Japan).

    Techniques: Construct