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  • 85
    GeneDx Inc polymerase chain reaction amplified fragments
    Polymerase Chain Reaction Amplified Fragments, supplied by GeneDx Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    95
    GE Healthcare pcr fragments
    Genomic DNA gel-blot analysis of tomato expansin genes. Tomato genomic DNA (10 μg) was digested by Eco RI, Eco RV, and Hin dIII, respectively, and subjected to gel-blot hybridization using gene-specific <t>cDNA</t> probes amplified by <t>PCR</t> using primers corresponding to the 3′-untranslated regions of LeEXP8 (left) and LeEXP10 (right).
    Pcr Fragments, supplied by GE Healthcare, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 1760 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Roche pcr fragments
    The example of <t>HRM</t> analysis in patients 385 and 419 (exon 39). 1 Detection of mutations by HRM. The green curve in the diagram corresponds to the <t>PCR</t> fragment carrying the nonsense mutation c.11172G > A (p.Trp3724X) in patient 385. The red curve refers to the PCR fragment carrying the likely pathogenic substitution c.11248C > G (p.Arg3750Gly) in patient 419. The rest of fragments with blue curves are wild type samples (patients without sequence changes). 2, 3 Confirmation of mutations by direct sequencing in patient 385 (number 2) and patient 419 (number 3). Both sequences are in reverse direction. The letter A corresponds to the mutated sequence; B is the wild type.
    Pcr Fragments, supplied by Roche, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 975 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Axygen polymerase chain reaction fragments
    The example of <t>HRM</t> analysis in patients 385 and 419 (exon 39). 1 Detection of mutations by HRM. The green curve in the diagram corresponds to the <t>PCR</t> fragment carrying the nonsense mutation c.11172G > A (p.Trp3724X) in patient 385. The red curve refers to the PCR fragment carrying the likely pathogenic substitution c.11248C > G (p.Arg3750Gly) in patient 419. The rest of fragments with blue curves are wild type samples (patients without sequence changes). 2, 3 Confirmation of mutations by direct sequencing in patient 385 (number 2) and patient 419 (number 3). Both sequences are in reverse direction. The letter A corresponds to the mutated sequence; B is the wild type.
    Polymerase Chain Reaction Fragments, supplied by Axygen, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    87
    Bio-Rad polymerase chain reaction pcr fragment
    Real-time <t>RT-PCR</t> analyses of <t>tHsc70</t> expression in the liver (a), skeletal muscle (b), lung (c), and heart (d) of P . sinensis after heat stress for 1, 2, and 4 h with 1-h adaptive recovery at 25 °C (Groups V, VI, and VII) or without adaptation
    Polymerase Chain Reaction Pcr Fragment, supplied by Bio-Rad, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 87/100, based on 15 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    TaKaRa polymerase chain reaction pcr fragments
    Ectopically expressed intronless <t>TSG101</t> gene (cDNA) is spliced and generates equivalent product as the endogenous aberrant mRNA in cancer cells. ( A ) The structure of the TSG101 mRNA. Red line and triangles indicate the postulated mRNA re-splicing via activated alternative 5′ and 3′ splice sites. Blue triangle indicates the PTC (1112–1114) generated by the postulated splicing. Black flags indicate the open reading frame (ORF; 127–1296). The positions of the <t>PCR</t> primers (P1–P4, P7–P10) are shown. ( B ) Using normal cells (HMEC) and cancer cells (MCF-7), endogenous TSG101 mRNAs were analyzed by RT-PCR (RT) and the genomic DNA was analyzed by PCR (Ge) with primer sets (P1–P4, P7–P10) annealed to the indicated exons. The black and red arrowheads denote the full-length and major aberrant mRNAs, respectively ( Figure 1 ). ( C ) The structures of three reporter TSG101-EGFP plasmids (see (A) for the red and blue triangles). The postulated splicing-dependent EGFP expression of these plasmids is indicated with (−) and (+). The positions of the PCR primer sets (P1–P5, P3–P6) are shown. ( D ) Cancer cells (MCF-7) were transfected with the indicated TSG101-EGFP reporter plasmids and the EGFP expression was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. ( E ) These ectopically expressed TSG101-EGFP transcripts were analyzed by RT-PCR. The black and red arrowheads indicate the unspliced and spliced products via the alternative splice sites, respectively. Two minor spliced products (indicated with * and **) were generated from different alternative 3′ splice sites, i.e. Δ190–776 (587-nt deletion) and Δ190–1236 (1047-nt deletion), respectively.
    Polymerase Chain Reaction Pcr Fragments, supplied by TaKaRa, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 29 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Eurofins polymerase chain reaction pcr fragments
    Schematic representation of the construction of Δ lgt strains of E. coli carrying temperature-sensitive plasmid pMT-lgtVc(ts). <t>DNA</t> fragments carrying a deletion of lgt were generated by primerless <t>PCR</t> and cloned into suicide plasmid pMT-ssB. A kanamycin resistance gene flanked by loxP sites was then inserted in place of the deleted lgt gene. The resulting plasmids were used to create deletions in the chromosomes of E. coli by allelic exchange. The kanamycin resistance gene was then removed with Cre recombinase. A temperature-sensitive (ts) plasmid carrying a nonhomologous lgt gene complements the chromosomal deletion, allowing the survival of the strain at 30°C.
    Polymerase Chain Reaction Pcr Fragments, supplied by Eurofins, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    TaKaRa pcr fragment
    Identification of transgenic Arabidopsis plants and their salt tolerance phenotypes. ( A ) Identification of transgenes by <t>PCR</t> amplification of genomic DNA using <t>drnf1</t> gene-specific primers; ( B ) Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of drnf1 transcription. M: B031 DNA ladder (Dingguo, Beijing, China). WT: wild-type plant. 35d1-6: independent transgenic lines; ( C ) Germination performance of transgenic seeds on solid media supplemented with various concentrations of NaCl; ( D ) Growth performance of transgenic plants in 150 mM NaCl solution-watered soils. Three-week-old plantlets (0 d) were subjected to salt stress treatment.
    Pcr Fragment, supplied by TaKaRa, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2537 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Illumina Inc pcr fragments
    Characteristics of the sequences used to assemble the Bison priscus mitochondrial genome. (A) Size distribution of the 3,851 unique Illumina reads. (B) Coverage for each position of the <t>SGE2seq</t> sequence obtained by merging the sequences of Illumina reads and <t>PCR</t> fragments.
    Pcr Fragments, supplied by Illumina Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 320 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Bio-Rad polymerase chain reaction fragments
    Characteristics of the sequences used to assemble the Bison priscus mitochondrial genome. (A) Size distribution of the 3,851 unique Illumina reads. (B) Coverage for each position of the <t>SGE2seq</t> sequence obtained by merging the sequences of Illumina reads and <t>PCR</t> fragments.
    Polymerase Chain Reaction Fragments, supplied by Bio-Rad, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 84/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Stratagene polymerase chain reaction pcr fragments
    Validation of microarray data by qRT <t>PCR</t> analysis. The 32 glioma samples and 4 NBT were analyzed by RT-qPCR for the expression of the 22 <t>miRNAs</t> identified by microarray profiling. Boxplots of miRNAs expression in normal brain tissues (NBT), WHO grade II gliomas (II) and WHO grade III and IV gliomas (III+IV). Expression levels are expressed as: target miRNA/RNU48 multiplied by 1000. The boxes mark the interquartile range, (interval between the 25th and 75th percentile). The lines inside the boxes denote median values, the symbol * denote the outliers. #NBT vs II vs III+IV comparison by Kruskall Wallis Test; §II vs III+IV comparison by Mann Whitney test.
    Polymerase Chain Reaction Pcr Fragments, supplied by Stratagene, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Roche polymerase chain reaction pcr fragment
    <t>MCU</t> includes two highly conserved transmembrane domains and is ubiquitously expressed in mammals, similarly to its putative regulator MICU1 a , Alignment of the putative transmembrane domain and pore region of MCU proteins from 14 different species. b , Quantitative Real Time <t>PCR</t> analysis of mouse tissues. mRNA extraction and quantitative PCR as described in the methods section. Expression levels are normalized to skeletal muscle, and presented as means ± S.D. (n = 3).
    Polymerase Chain Reaction Pcr Fragment, supplied by Roche, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Stratagene polymerase chain reaction pcr fragment
    Conditional dab2 deletion by Meox2-Cre and Sox2-Cre transgene. Female dab2 (fl/fl) mice were crossed with male dab2 (df/+);Meox2-Cre or dab2 (df/+);Sox2-Cre mice to produce mosaic mutant mice without deletion in the extraembryonic endoderm. Mice of around the age of 3 months were used for these analyses. (A) An example of <t>PCR</t> genotyping assay using tail <t>DNA</t> of the progenies (#1 to 12) generated from the cross between dab2 (fl/fl) and dab2 (df/+);Meox2-Cre. Specific PCR amplifications to identify the locus for cre, fl, df, and wt were performed either separately or in a combined reaction. Examples of Dab2 immunostainings in kidney of a dab2 (df/fl) (B) and a dab2 (df/fl);Meox2-Cre (C) mouse are shown, with corresponding PCR genotyping results shown at the upper right corner. (D) An example of PCR genotyping assay using tail DNA of the progenies (#71 to 94) generated from crosses between dab2 (fl/fl) and dab2 (df/+);Sox2-Cre. (E) DNA gel resolving the genotyping PCR products shows a comparison of the deletion efficiency generated by Sox2-Cre or Meox2-Cre. Corresponding Dab2 stainings show the extent of Dab2 mosaicism in the kidney sections from dab2 (+/df) (F) , dab2 (fl/df);Sox2-Cre (G) , and dab2 (fl/df);Meox2-Cre (H) mice.
    Polymerase Chain Reaction Pcr Fragment, supplied by Stratagene, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Roche long fragment polymerase chain reaction pcr
    Conditional dab2 deletion by Meox2-Cre and Sox2-Cre transgene. Female dab2 (fl/fl) mice were crossed with male dab2 (df/+);Meox2-Cre or dab2 (df/+);Sox2-Cre mice to produce mosaic mutant mice without deletion in the extraembryonic endoderm. Mice of around the age of 3 months were used for these analyses. (A) An example of <t>PCR</t> genotyping assay using tail <t>DNA</t> of the progenies (#1 to 12) generated from the cross between dab2 (fl/fl) and dab2 (df/+);Meox2-Cre. Specific PCR amplifications to identify the locus for cre, fl, df, and wt were performed either separately or in a combined reaction. Examples of Dab2 immunostainings in kidney of a dab2 (df/fl) (B) and a dab2 (df/fl);Meox2-Cre (C) mouse are shown, with corresponding PCR genotyping results shown at the upper right corner. (D) An example of PCR genotyping assay using tail DNA of the progenies (#71 to 94) generated from crosses between dab2 (fl/fl) and dab2 (df/+);Sox2-Cre. (E) DNA gel resolving the genotyping PCR products shows a comparison of the deletion efficiency generated by Sox2-Cre or Meox2-Cre. Corresponding Dab2 stainings show the extent of Dab2 mosaicism in the kidney sections from dab2 (+/df) (F) , dab2 (fl/df);Sox2-Cre (G) , and dab2 (fl/df);Meox2-Cre (H) mice.
    Long Fragment Polymerase Chain Reaction Pcr, supplied by Roche, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 26 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore polymerase chain reaction pcr fragment
    Conditional dab2 deletion by Meox2-Cre and Sox2-Cre transgene. Female dab2 (fl/fl) mice were crossed with male dab2 (df/+);Meox2-Cre or dab2 (df/+);Sox2-Cre mice to produce mosaic mutant mice without deletion in the extraembryonic endoderm. Mice of around the age of 3 months were used for these analyses. (A) An example of <t>PCR</t> genotyping assay using tail <t>DNA</t> of the progenies (#1 to 12) generated from the cross between dab2 (fl/fl) and dab2 (df/+);Meox2-Cre. Specific PCR amplifications to identify the locus for cre, fl, df, and wt were performed either separately or in a combined reaction. Examples of Dab2 immunostainings in kidney of a dab2 (df/fl) (B) and a dab2 (df/fl);Meox2-Cre (C) mouse are shown, with corresponding PCR genotyping results shown at the upper right corner. (D) An example of PCR genotyping assay using tail DNA of the progenies (#71 to 94) generated from crosses between dab2 (fl/fl) and dab2 (df/+);Sox2-Cre. (E) DNA gel resolving the genotyping PCR products shows a comparison of the deletion efficiency generated by Sox2-Cre or Meox2-Cre. Corresponding Dab2 stainings show the extent of Dab2 mosaicism in the kidney sections from dab2 (+/df) (F) , dab2 (fl/df);Sox2-Cre (G) , and dab2 (fl/df);Meox2-Cre (H) mice.
    Polymerase Chain Reaction Pcr Fragment, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    MJ Research polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism pcr rflp
    Conditional dab2 deletion by Meox2-Cre and Sox2-Cre transgene. Female dab2 (fl/fl) mice were crossed with male dab2 (df/+);Meox2-Cre or dab2 (df/+);Sox2-Cre mice to produce mosaic mutant mice without deletion in the extraembryonic endoderm. Mice of around the age of 3 months were used for these analyses. (A) An example of <t>PCR</t> genotyping assay using tail <t>DNA</t> of the progenies (#1 to 12) generated from the cross between dab2 (fl/fl) and dab2 (df/+);Meox2-Cre. Specific PCR amplifications to identify the locus for cre, fl, df, and wt were performed either separately or in a combined reaction. Examples of Dab2 immunostainings in kidney of a dab2 (df/fl) (B) and a dab2 (df/fl);Meox2-Cre (C) mouse are shown, with corresponding PCR genotyping results shown at the upper right corner. (D) An example of PCR genotyping assay using tail DNA of the progenies (#71 to 94) generated from crosses between dab2 (fl/fl) and dab2 (df/+);Sox2-Cre. (E) DNA gel resolving the genotyping PCR products shows a comparison of the deletion efficiency generated by Sox2-Cre or Meox2-Cre. Corresponding Dab2 stainings show the extent of Dab2 mosaicism in the kidney sections from dab2 (+/df) (F) , dab2 (fl/df);Sox2-Cre (G) , and dab2 (fl/df);Meox2-Cre (H) mice.
    Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Pcr Rflp, supplied by MJ Research, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Roche polymerase chain reaction pcr amplified fragments
    Conditional dab2 deletion by Meox2-Cre and Sox2-Cre transgene. Female dab2 (fl/fl) mice were crossed with male dab2 (df/+);Meox2-Cre or dab2 (df/+);Sox2-Cre mice to produce mosaic mutant mice without deletion in the extraembryonic endoderm. Mice of around the age of 3 months were used for these analyses. (A) An example of <t>PCR</t> genotyping assay using tail <t>DNA</t> of the progenies (#1 to 12) generated from the cross between dab2 (fl/fl) and dab2 (df/+);Meox2-Cre. Specific PCR amplifications to identify the locus for cre, fl, df, and wt were performed either separately or in a combined reaction. Examples of Dab2 immunostainings in kidney of a dab2 (df/fl) (B) and a dab2 (df/fl);Meox2-Cre (C) mouse are shown, with corresponding PCR genotyping results shown at the upper right corner. (D) An example of PCR genotyping assay using tail DNA of the progenies (#71 to 94) generated from crosses between dab2 (fl/fl) and dab2 (df/+);Sox2-Cre. (E) DNA gel resolving the genotyping PCR products shows a comparison of the deletion efficiency generated by Sox2-Cre or Meox2-Cre. Corresponding Dab2 stainings show the extent of Dab2 mosaicism in the kidney sections from dab2 (+/df) (F) , dab2 (fl/df);Sox2-Cre (G) , and dab2 (fl/df);Meox2-Cre (H) mice.
    Polymerase Chain Reaction Pcr Amplified Fragments, supplied by Roche, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 30 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    4Gene polymerase chain reaction fragment length polymorphism
    Conditional dab2 deletion by Meox2-Cre and Sox2-Cre transgene. Female dab2 (fl/fl) mice were crossed with male dab2 (df/+);Meox2-Cre or dab2 (df/+);Sox2-Cre mice to produce mosaic mutant mice without deletion in the extraembryonic endoderm. Mice of around the age of 3 months were used for these analyses. (A) An example of <t>PCR</t> genotyping assay using tail <t>DNA</t> of the progenies (#1 to 12) generated from the cross between dab2 (fl/fl) and dab2 (df/+);Meox2-Cre. Specific PCR amplifications to identify the locus for cre, fl, df, and wt were performed either separately or in a combined reaction. Examples of Dab2 immunostainings in kidney of a dab2 (df/fl) (B) and a dab2 (df/fl);Meox2-Cre (C) mouse are shown, with corresponding PCR genotyping results shown at the upper right corner. (D) An example of PCR genotyping assay using tail DNA of the progenies (#71 to 94) generated from crosses between dab2 (fl/fl) and dab2 (df/+);Sox2-Cre. (E) DNA gel resolving the genotyping PCR products shows a comparison of the deletion efficiency generated by Sox2-Cre or Meox2-Cre. Corresponding Dab2 stainings show the extent of Dab2 mosaicism in the kidney sections from dab2 (+/df) (F) , dab2 (fl/df);Sox2-Cre (G) , and dab2 (fl/df);Meox2-Cre (H) mice.
    Polymerase Chain Reaction Fragment Length Polymorphism, supplied by 4Gene, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 84/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism pcr rflp assay
    Conditional dab2 deletion by Meox2-Cre and Sox2-Cre transgene. Female dab2 (fl/fl) mice were crossed with male dab2 (df/+);Meox2-Cre or dab2 (df/+);Sox2-Cre mice to produce mosaic mutant mice without deletion in the extraembryonic endoderm. Mice of around the age of 3 months were used for these analyses. (A) An example of <t>PCR</t> genotyping assay using tail <t>DNA</t> of the progenies (#1 to 12) generated from the cross between dab2 (fl/fl) and dab2 (df/+);Meox2-Cre. Specific PCR amplifications to identify the locus for cre, fl, df, and wt were performed either separately or in a combined reaction. Examples of Dab2 immunostainings in kidney of a dab2 (df/fl) (B) and a dab2 (df/fl);Meox2-Cre (C) mouse are shown, with corresponding PCR genotyping results shown at the upper right corner. (D) An example of PCR genotyping assay using tail DNA of the progenies (#71 to 94) generated from crosses between dab2 (fl/fl) and dab2 (df/+);Sox2-Cre. (E) DNA gel resolving the genotyping PCR products shows a comparison of the deletion efficiency generated by Sox2-Cre or Meox2-Cre. Corresponding Dab2 stainings show the extent of Dab2 mosaicism in the kidney sections from dab2 (+/df) (F) , dab2 (fl/df);Sox2-Cre (G) , and dab2 (fl/df);Meox2-Cre (H) mice.
    Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Pcr Rflp Assay, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 18 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    TaKaRa polymerase chain reaction pcr amplified dna fragments
    Conditional dab2 deletion by Meox2-Cre and Sox2-Cre transgene. Female dab2 (fl/fl) mice were crossed with male dab2 (df/+);Meox2-Cre or dab2 (df/+);Sox2-Cre mice to produce mosaic mutant mice without deletion in the extraembryonic endoderm. Mice of around the age of 3 months were used for these analyses. (A) An example of <t>PCR</t> genotyping assay using tail <t>DNA</t> of the progenies (#1 to 12) generated from the cross between dab2 (fl/fl) and dab2 (df/+);Meox2-Cre. Specific PCR amplifications to identify the locus for cre, fl, df, and wt were performed either separately or in a combined reaction. Examples of Dab2 immunostainings in kidney of a dab2 (df/fl) (B) and a dab2 (df/fl);Meox2-Cre (C) mouse are shown, with corresponding PCR genotyping results shown at the upper right corner. (D) An example of PCR genotyping assay using tail DNA of the progenies (#71 to 94) generated from crosses between dab2 (fl/fl) and dab2 (df/+);Sox2-Cre. (E) DNA gel resolving the genotyping PCR products shows a comparison of the deletion efficiency generated by Sox2-Cre or Meox2-Cre. Corresponding Dab2 stainings show the extent of Dab2 mosaicism in the kidney sections from dab2 (+/df) (F) , dab2 (fl/df);Sox2-Cre (G) , and dab2 (fl/df);Meox2-Cre (H) mice.
    Polymerase Chain Reaction Pcr Amplified Dna Fragments, supplied by TaKaRa, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Illumina Inc polymerase chain reaction pcr free fragment library
    Electropherograms of the COL6A1:c.289G > T variant. A fragment harboring exon 3 and flanking sequences of the COL6A1 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced with the Sanger method. Shown are representative traces from <t>Landseer</t> dogs with the three different genotypes. The position of the variant is indicated by an arrow.
    Polymerase Chain Reaction Pcr Free Fragment Library, supplied by Illumina Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Sequenom polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism
    Forest plots of subgroup analysis of the association between IGFBP3 <t>polymorphism</t> and PCa susceptibility in the dominant model. Notes: ( A ) Stratified by genotyping method; ( B ) stratified by source of controls. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; HB, hospital-based controls; IGFBP3, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3; OR, odds ratio; PB, population-based controls; PCa, prostate cancer; PCR-RLFP, <t>polymerase</t> <t>chain</t> <t>reaction–restriction</t> <t>fragment</t> <t>length</t> polymorphism.
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    Forest plots of subgroup analysis of the association between IGFBP3 <t>polymorphism</t> and PCa susceptibility in the dominant model. Notes: ( A ) Stratified by genotyping method; ( B ) stratified by source of controls. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; HB, hospital-based controls; IGFBP3, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3; OR, odds ratio; PB, population-based controls; PCa, prostate cancer; PCR-RLFP, <t>polymerase</t> <t>chain</t> <t>reaction–restriction</t> <t>fragment</t> <t>length</t> polymorphism.
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    Forest plots of subgroup analysis of the association between IGFBP3 <t>polymorphism</t> and PCa susceptibility in the dominant model. Notes: ( A ) Stratified by genotyping method; ( B ) stratified by source of controls. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; HB, hospital-based controls; IGFBP3, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3; OR, odds ratio; PB, population-based controls; PCa, prostate cancer; PCR-RLFP, <t>polymerase</t> <t>chain</t> <t>reaction–restriction</t> <t>fragment</t> <t>length</t> polymorphism.
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    Forest plots of subgroup analysis of the association between IGFBP3 <t>polymorphism</t> and PCa susceptibility in the dominant model. Notes: ( A ) Stratified by genotyping method; ( B ) stratified by source of controls. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; HB, hospital-based controls; IGFBP3, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3; OR, odds ratio; PB, population-based controls; PCa, prostate cancer; PCR-RLFP, <t>polymerase</t> <t>chain</t> <t>reaction–restriction</t> <t>fragment</t> <t>length</t> polymorphism.
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    Forest plots of subgroup analysis of the association between IGFBP3 <t>polymorphism</t> and PCa susceptibility in the dominant model. Notes: ( A ) Stratified by genotyping method; ( B ) stratified by source of controls. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; HB, hospital-based controls; IGFBP3, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3; OR, odds ratio; PB, population-based controls; PCa, prostate cancer; PCR-RLFP, <t>polymerase</t> <t>chain</t> <t>reaction–restriction</t> <t>fragment</t> <t>length</t> polymorphism.
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    Forest plots of subgroup analysis of the association between IGFBP3 <t>polymorphism</t> and PCa susceptibility in the dominant model. Notes: ( A ) Stratified by genotyping method; ( B ) stratified by source of controls. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; HB, hospital-based controls; IGFBP3, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3; OR, odds ratio; PB, population-based controls; PCa, prostate cancer; PCR-RLFP, <t>polymerase</t> <t>chain</t> <t>reaction–restriction</t> <t>fragment</t> <t>length</t> polymorphism.
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    Kaneka Corp polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism pcr rflp assay
    Forest plots of subgroup analysis of the association between IGFBP3 <t>polymorphism</t> and PCa susceptibility in the dominant model. Notes: ( A ) Stratified by genotyping method; ( B ) stratified by source of controls. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; HB, hospital-based controls; IGFBP3, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3; OR, odds ratio; PB, population-based controls; PCa, prostate cancer; PCR-RLFP, <t>polymerase</t> <t>chain</t> <t>reaction–restriction</t> <t>fragment</t> <t>length</t> polymorphism.
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    Forest plots of subgroup analysis of the association between IGFBP3 <t>polymorphism</t> and PCa susceptibility in the dominant model. Notes: ( A ) Stratified by genotyping method; ( B ) stratified by source of controls. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; HB, hospital-based controls; IGFBP3, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3; OR, odds ratio; PB, population-based controls; PCa, prostate cancer; PCR-RLFP, <t>polymerase</t> <t>chain</t> <t>reaction–restriction</t> <t>fragment</t> <t>length</t> polymorphism.
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    Forest plots of subgroup analysis of the association between IGFBP3 <t>polymorphism</t> and PCa susceptibility in the dominant model. Notes: ( A ) Stratified by genotyping method; ( B ) stratified by source of controls. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; HB, hospital-based controls; IGFBP3, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3; OR, odds ratio; PB, population-based controls; PCa, prostate cancer; PCR-RLFP, <t>polymerase</t> <t>chain</t> <t>reaction–restriction</t> <t>fragment</t> <t>length</t> polymorphism.
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    Thermo Fisher pcr fragments
    ( A ) Schematic of the gene targeting strategy to insert a GFP-Luc reporter gene under control of the hsp70 promoter in the pfs47 locus, showing the genomic locus of the wild-type (WT) and gene deletion mutants ∆pf47 containing the GFP-luciferase ORF before and after removal of the hdhfr resistance marker. P1, P2 : primers MWV300 and MWV301, respectively, used for <t>PCR</t> analysis; X ( XcmI ), N ( NcoI ): restriction sites used for conformation of LR-PCR analysis; pf47 : pf47 locus; hrp: histidine rich protein; cam: calmodulin; hsp: heat shock protein; hdhfr : human dihydrodrofolate reductase coding region; GFP-Luc : GFP-luciferase fusion protein; fcu: cytosine deaminase/uracil phosphoribosyl transferase; pbdt: P. berghei dhfr transcription termination region; kb: kilo basepairs. ( B ) Verification of the integration site by PCR and restriction digestion. Genomic <t>DNA</t> fragments from the parental NF54 strain (WT), intermediate transgene NF54-HGL-hDHFR and final transgene NF54-HGL were amplified by PCR using primers MWV300 and MWV301 (P1 and P2) and analysed by DNA gel electrophoresis. Where indicated, the PCR fragment was subjected to restriction digestion with XcmI/NcoI (X/N) ( C ) Luminescence intensity (relative light units, RLU) as a function of cell number. The figure shows a comparison between uninfected red blood cells (RBC), immature gametocytes (Day 8 GCT), mature gametocytes (Day 14 GCT) and asexual blood stage parasites. ( D–G ) FLP-FRT mediated excision of the selection marker restores sensitivity to antifolates. Drug sensitivity analysis of WT, ∆Pf47GFP-luc-hdhfr and ∆Pf47GFP-luc to DHA ( D ), Chloroquine ( E ), Pyrimethamine ( F ), and WR99210 ( G ) in a dose dependent asexual growth inhibition assay using pLDH enzyme activity as a readout. Depicted data represents a triplicate measurement and was normalized to the MIN (10 μM DHA) and MAX (0.1% DMSO) controls. Error bars indicate standard deviations.
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    Eppendorf AG pcr fragments
    ( A ) Schematic of the gene targeting strategy to insert a GFP-Luc reporter gene under control of the hsp70 promoter in the pfs47 locus, showing the genomic locus of the wild-type (WT) and gene deletion mutants ∆pf47 containing the GFP-luciferase ORF before and after removal of the hdhfr resistance marker. P1, P2 : primers MWV300 and MWV301, respectively, used for <t>PCR</t> analysis; X ( XcmI ), N ( NcoI ): restriction sites used for conformation of LR-PCR analysis; pf47 : pf47 locus; hrp: histidine rich protein; cam: calmodulin; hsp: heat shock protein; hdhfr : human dihydrodrofolate reductase coding region; GFP-Luc : GFP-luciferase fusion protein; fcu: cytosine deaminase/uracil phosphoribosyl transferase; pbdt: P. berghei dhfr transcription termination region; kb: kilo basepairs. ( B ) Verification of the integration site by PCR and restriction digestion. Genomic <t>DNA</t> fragments from the parental NF54 strain (WT), intermediate transgene NF54-HGL-hDHFR and final transgene NF54-HGL were amplified by PCR using primers MWV300 and MWV301 (P1 and P2) and analysed by DNA gel electrophoresis. Where indicated, the PCR fragment was subjected to restriction digestion with XcmI/NcoI (X/N) ( C ) Luminescence intensity (relative light units, RLU) as a function of cell number. The figure shows a comparison between uninfected red blood cells (RBC), immature gametocytes (Day 8 GCT), mature gametocytes (Day 14 GCT) and asexual blood stage parasites. ( D–G ) FLP-FRT mediated excision of the selection marker restores sensitivity to antifolates. Drug sensitivity analysis of WT, ∆Pf47GFP-luc-hdhfr and ∆Pf47GFP-luc to DHA ( D ), Chloroquine ( E ), Pyrimethamine ( F ), and WR99210 ( G ) in a dose dependent asexual growth inhibition assay using pLDH enzyme activity as a readout. Depicted data represents a triplicate measurement and was normalized to the MIN (10 μM DHA) and MAX (0.1% DMSO) controls. Error bars indicate standard deviations.
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    Image Search Results


    Genomic DNA gel-blot analysis of tomato expansin genes. Tomato genomic DNA (10 μg) was digested by Eco RI, Eco RV, and Hin dIII, respectively, and subjected to gel-blot hybridization using gene-specific cDNA probes amplified by PCR using primers corresponding to the 3′-untranslated regions of LeEXP8 (left) and LeEXP10 (right).

    Journal: Plant Physiology

    Article Title: Expression of an Expansin Is Associated with Endosperm Weakening during Tomato Seed Germination 1

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Genomic DNA gel-blot analysis of tomato expansin genes. Tomato genomic DNA (10 μg) was digested by Eco RI, Eco RV, and Hin dIII, respectively, and subjected to gel-blot hybridization using gene-specific cDNA probes amplified by PCR using primers corresponding to the 3′-untranslated regions of LeEXP8 (left) and LeEXP10 (right).

    Article Snippet: The PCR fragments were used to screen a cDNA library prepared from whole gib-1 seeds imbibed in 100 μ m GA4+7 for 24 h. The cDNAs were labeled with enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) nucleic acid labeling reagents (ECL kit, Amersham Life Science, Arlington Heights, IL) and were added to prehybridization solution at a final concentration of 10 ng/mL.

    Techniques: Western Blot, Hybridization, Amplification, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    The example of HRM analysis in patients 385 and 419 (exon 39). 1 Detection of mutations by HRM. The green curve in the diagram corresponds to the PCR fragment carrying the nonsense mutation c.11172G > A (p.Trp3724X) in patient 385. The red curve refers to the PCR fragment carrying the likely pathogenic substitution c.11248C > G (p.Arg3750Gly) in patient 419. The rest of fragments with blue curves are wild type samples (patients without sequence changes). 2, 3 Confirmation of mutations by direct sequencing in patient 385 (number 2) and patient 419 (number 3). Both sequences are in reverse direction. The letter A corresponds to the mutated sequence; B is the wild type.

    Journal: BMC Medical Genetics

    Article Title: Novel mutations of PKD genes in the Czech population with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    doi: 10.1186/1471-2350-15-41

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The example of HRM analysis in patients 385 and 419 (exon 39). 1 Detection of mutations by HRM. The green curve in the diagram corresponds to the PCR fragment carrying the nonsense mutation c.11172G > A (p.Trp3724X) in patient 385. The red curve refers to the PCR fragment carrying the likely pathogenic substitution c.11248C > G (p.Arg3750Gly) in patient 419. The rest of fragments with blue curves are wild type samples (patients without sequence changes). 2, 3 Confirmation of mutations by direct sequencing in patient 385 (number 2) and patient 419 (number 3). Both sequences are in reverse direction. The letter A corresponds to the mutated sequence; B is the wild type.

    Article Snippet: PCR fragments were produced and analyzed by HRM using the LightCycler® 480 (Roche Applied Science).

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Mutagenesis, Sequencing

    Real-time RT-PCR analyses of tHsc70 expression in the liver (a), skeletal muscle (b), lung (c), and heart (d) of P . sinensis after heat stress for 1, 2, and 4 h with 1-h adaptive recovery at 25 °C (Groups V, VI, and VII) or without adaptation

    Journal: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B

    Article Title: Identification of a heat shock cognate protein 70 gene in Chinese soft-shell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) and its expression profiles under thermal stress *

    doi: 10.1631/jzus.B1100309

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Real-time RT-PCR analyses of tHsc70 expression in the liver (a), skeletal muscle (b), lung (c), and heart (d) of P . sinensis after heat stress for 1, 2, and 4 h with 1-h adaptive recovery at 25 °C (Groups V, VI, and VII) or without adaptation

    Article Snippet: The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragment of tHsc70 was amplified using the primer pair Hsc70-dF and Hsc70-dR (Table ) on a thermal cycler S1000™ (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA).

    Techniques: Quantitative RT-PCR, Expressing

    Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of tHsc70 expression in the liver, skeletal muscle, lung, and heart of P . sinensis

    Journal: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B

    Article Title: Identification of a heat shock cognate protein 70 gene in Chinese soft-shell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) and its expression profiles under thermal stress *

    doi: 10.1631/jzus.B1100309

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of tHsc70 expression in the liver, skeletal muscle, lung, and heart of P . sinensis

    Article Snippet: The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragment of tHsc70 was amplified using the primer pair Hsc70-dF and Hsc70-dR (Table ) on a thermal cycler S1000™ (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA).

    Techniques: Quantitative RT-PCR, Expressing

    Ectopically expressed intronless TSG101 gene (cDNA) is spliced and generates equivalent product as the endogenous aberrant mRNA in cancer cells. ( A ) The structure of the TSG101 mRNA. Red line and triangles indicate the postulated mRNA re-splicing via activated alternative 5′ and 3′ splice sites. Blue triangle indicates the PTC (1112–1114) generated by the postulated splicing. Black flags indicate the open reading frame (ORF; 127–1296). The positions of the PCR primers (P1–P4, P7–P10) are shown. ( B ) Using normal cells (HMEC) and cancer cells (MCF-7), endogenous TSG101 mRNAs were analyzed by RT-PCR (RT) and the genomic DNA was analyzed by PCR (Ge) with primer sets (P1–P4, P7–P10) annealed to the indicated exons. The black and red arrowheads denote the full-length and major aberrant mRNAs, respectively ( Figure 1 ). ( C ) The structures of three reporter TSG101-EGFP plasmids (see (A) for the red and blue triangles). The postulated splicing-dependent EGFP expression of these plasmids is indicated with (−) and (+). The positions of the PCR primer sets (P1–P5, P3–P6) are shown. ( D ) Cancer cells (MCF-7) were transfected with the indicated TSG101-EGFP reporter plasmids and the EGFP expression was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. ( E ) These ectopically expressed TSG101-EGFP transcripts were analyzed by RT-PCR. The black and red arrowheads indicate the unspliced and spliced products via the alternative splice sites, respectively. Two minor spliced products (indicated with * and **) were generated from different alternative 3′ splice sites, i.e. Δ190–776 (587-nt deletion) and Δ190–1236 (1047-nt deletion), respectively.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Re-splicing of mature mRNA in cancer cells promotes activation of distant weak alternative splice sites

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gks520

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ectopically expressed intronless TSG101 gene (cDNA) is spliced and generates equivalent product as the endogenous aberrant mRNA in cancer cells. ( A ) The structure of the TSG101 mRNA. Red line and triangles indicate the postulated mRNA re-splicing via activated alternative 5′ and 3′ splice sites. Blue triangle indicates the PTC (1112–1114) generated by the postulated splicing. Black flags indicate the open reading frame (ORF; 127–1296). The positions of the PCR primers (P1–P4, P7–P10) are shown. ( B ) Using normal cells (HMEC) and cancer cells (MCF-7), endogenous TSG101 mRNAs were analyzed by RT-PCR (RT) and the genomic DNA was analyzed by PCR (Ge) with primer sets (P1–P4, P7–P10) annealed to the indicated exons. The black and red arrowheads denote the full-length and major aberrant mRNAs, respectively ( Figure 1 ). ( C ) The structures of three reporter TSG101-EGFP plasmids (see (A) for the red and blue triangles). The postulated splicing-dependent EGFP expression of these plasmids is indicated with (−) and (+). The positions of the PCR primer sets (P1–P5, P3–P6) are shown. ( D ) Cancer cells (MCF-7) were transfected with the indicated TSG101-EGFP reporter plasmids and the EGFP expression was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy. ( E ) These ectopically expressed TSG101-EGFP transcripts were analyzed by RT-PCR. The black and red arrowheads indicate the unspliced and spliced products via the alternative splice sites, respectively. Two minor spliced products (indicated with * and **) were generated from different alternative 3′ splice sites, i.e. Δ190–776 (587-nt deletion) and Δ190–1236 (1047-nt deletion), respectively.

    Article Snippet: Construction of plasmids The expression plasmids for the TSG101-EGFP fusion proteins (TSG101-EGFP, TSG101-EGFP[+] and TSG101-EGFP[−]; C) were constructed by subcloning the corresponding polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments from the TSG101 gene together with PCR fragments from the pBI-EGFP plasmid (Clontech) into the pCXN2 mammalian expression vector ( ).

    Techniques: Generated, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing, Transfection, Fluorescence, Microscopy

    Ectopically expressed intronless FHIT gene (cDNA) is spliced, generating a product equivalent to the endogenous aberrant mRNA in cancer cells. ( A ) Schematic representation of the FHIT pre-mRNA and the observed aberrant splicing in cancer cells (red line). The aligned sequences of the normal (full-length) and aberrant FHIT mRNAs reveal the skipping of exon 3 to exon 6. ( B ) Using normal cells (HMEC) and cancer cells (MCF-7), endogenous FHIT mRNAs (schematically shown) were analyzed by RT-PCR with the indicated primer sets (P25–P26, P25′–P26′). The full-length mRNA (black arrowhead) and aberrantly spliced mRNA (red arrowhead) are indicated. Black flags indicate the ORF (372–815) and the red line indicates the postulated mRNA re-splicing that skips the whole exon 3 to exon 6 region. ( C ) Cancer cells (MCF-7) were transfected with the FHIT-EGFP reporter plasmid (schematically shown) and the spliced products were analyzed by RT-PCR with the indicated primer sets (P25–P5, P25′–P6). The black and red arrowheads indicate the unspliced and spliced products, respectively. Sequence analysis mapped the spliced sites (red triangles) to the 5′ end of exon 3 and the 3′ end of exon 6 (data not shown).

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Re-splicing of mature mRNA in cancer cells promotes activation of distant weak alternative splice sites

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gks520

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ectopically expressed intronless FHIT gene (cDNA) is spliced, generating a product equivalent to the endogenous aberrant mRNA in cancer cells. ( A ) Schematic representation of the FHIT pre-mRNA and the observed aberrant splicing in cancer cells (red line). The aligned sequences of the normal (full-length) and aberrant FHIT mRNAs reveal the skipping of exon 3 to exon 6. ( B ) Using normal cells (HMEC) and cancer cells (MCF-7), endogenous FHIT mRNAs (schematically shown) were analyzed by RT-PCR with the indicated primer sets (P25–P26, P25′–P26′). The full-length mRNA (black arrowhead) and aberrantly spliced mRNA (red arrowhead) are indicated. Black flags indicate the ORF (372–815) and the red line indicates the postulated mRNA re-splicing that skips the whole exon 3 to exon 6 region. ( C ) Cancer cells (MCF-7) were transfected with the FHIT-EGFP reporter plasmid (schematically shown) and the spliced products were analyzed by RT-PCR with the indicated primer sets (P25–P5, P25′–P6). The black and red arrowheads indicate the unspliced and spliced products, respectively. Sequence analysis mapped the spliced sites (red triangles) to the 5′ end of exon 3 and the 3′ end of exon 6 (data not shown).

    Article Snippet: Construction of plasmids The expression plasmids for the TSG101-EGFP fusion proteins (TSG101-EGFP, TSG101-EGFP[+] and TSG101-EGFP[−]; C) were constructed by subcloning the corresponding polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments from the TSG101 gene together with PCR fragments from the pBI-EGFP plasmid (Clontech) into the pCXN2 mammalian expression vector ( ).

    Techniques: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Transfection, Plasmid Preparation, Sequencing

    The lariat RNA containing TSG101 exon 2 to exon 9 was identified by sequencing. ( A ) Detection of the lariat exons by lariat-specific RT-PCR amplification across the branch point with the indicated primer sets (P23–P24, P23′–P24′). The RT-PCR signal remained in the RNase R-digested (+) RNA sample, revealing a closed lariat structure. ( B ) Sequencing analysis of the lariat-specific RT-PCR product. Electropherogram of the sequence containing the branch point (arrow), followed by the alternative 5′ splice site (arrow) in the lariat exons. ( C ) A sequence alignment of the PCR fragment (blue) and the TSG101 gene (black) reveals a 2′–5′ branched connection between the end of the alternative 5′ splice site ( GT ) and the branch point ( A ), which is located upstream from the alternative 3′ splice site ( AG ).

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Re-splicing of mature mRNA in cancer cells promotes activation of distant weak alternative splice sites

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gks520

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The lariat RNA containing TSG101 exon 2 to exon 9 was identified by sequencing. ( A ) Detection of the lariat exons by lariat-specific RT-PCR amplification across the branch point with the indicated primer sets (P23–P24, P23′–P24′). The RT-PCR signal remained in the RNase R-digested (+) RNA sample, revealing a closed lariat structure. ( B ) Sequencing analysis of the lariat-specific RT-PCR product. Electropherogram of the sequence containing the branch point (arrow), followed by the alternative 5′ splice site (arrow) in the lariat exons. ( C ) A sequence alignment of the PCR fragment (blue) and the TSG101 gene (black) reveals a 2′–5′ branched connection between the end of the alternative 5′ splice site ( GT ) and the branch point ( A ), which is located upstream from the alternative 3′ splice site ( AG ).

    Article Snippet: Construction of plasmids The expression plasmids for the TSG101-EGFP fusion proteins (TSG101-EGFP, TSG101-EGFP[+] and TSG101-EGFP[−]; C) were constructed by subcloning the corresponding polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments from the TSG101 gene together with PCR fragments from the pBI-EGFP plasmid (Clontech) into the pCXN2 mammalian expression vector ( ).

    Techniques: Sequencing, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Detection of the lariat RNA consisting of only exons demonstrates the re-splicing of the endogenous TSG101 mRNA. ( A ) Schematic representation of the two postulated pathways leading to the generation of the aberrant mRNA, i.e. a conventional one-step direct aberrant splicing (right) and the proposed two-step process, including the re-splicing of the constitutively spliced mRNA (left). The pre-mRNA [1] and specific splicing products [2–5] from these two pathways were analyzed by RT-PCR with the indicated primers (arrows). ( B ) Detection of the specific splicing products [2–5] by RT-PCR using RNase R-digested (+) or RNase R-undigested (−) endogenous total RNA. The detected RT-PCR signals in the RNase R-digested sample (containing no linear RNAs) indicates an RNA species with either a 5′–2′ lariat or a 5′–3′ circular structure. However, the latter case was ruled out by the identification of a 5′–2′ branched structure ( Figure 4 A). Primers P19, P20, P21 and P22 anneal to introns 6, 7, 7 and 8, respectively. Primers P13/14 and P15/16 anneal to introns 7 and 8, respectively. Primers P11, P12, P17 and P18 anneal to exons 8, 10, 5 and 8, respectively. We used exactly the same PCR cycle numbers to amplify all these RNAs ( Supplementary Materials and Methods ).

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Re-splicing of mature mRNA in cancer cells promotes activation of distant weak alternative splice sites

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gks520

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Detection of the lariat RNA consisting of only exons demonstrates the re-splicing of the endogenous TSG101 mRNA. ( A ) Schematic representation of the two postulated pathways leading to the generation of the aberrant mRNA, i.e. a conventional one-step direct aberrant splicing (right) and the proposed two-step process, including the re-splicing of the constitutively spliced mRNA (left). The pre-mRNA [1] and specific splicing products [2–5] from these two pathways were analyzed by RT-PCR with the indicated primers (arrows). ( B ) Detection of the specific splicing products [2–5] by RT-PCR using RNase R-digested (+) or RNase R-undigested (−) endogenous total RNA. The detected RT-PCR signals in the RNase R-digested sample (containing no linear RNAs) indicates an RNA species with either a 5′–2′ lariat or a 5′–3′ circular structure. However, the latter case was ruled out by the identification of a 5′–2′ branched structure ( Figure 4 A). Primers P19, P20, P21 and P22 anneal to introns 6, 7, 7 and 8, respectively. Primers P13/14 and P15/16 anneal to introns 7 and 8, respectively. Primers P11, P12, P17 and P18 anneal to exons 8, 10, 5 and 8, respectively. We used exactly the same PCR cycle numbers to amplify all these RNAs ( Supplementary Materials and Methods ).

    Article Snippet: Construction of plasmids The expression plasmids for the TSG101-EGFP fusion proteins (TSG101-EGFP, TSG101-EGFP[+] and TSG101-EGFP[−]; C) were constructed by subcloning the corresponding polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments from the TSG101 gene together with PCR fragments from the pBI-EGFP plasmid (Clontech) into the pCXN2 mammalian expression vector ( ).

    Techniques: Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Sun3 is a testis specific protein showing a postmeiotic expression profile. (A) Total RNA was isolated from different tissues and used for RT-PCR. cDNA was amplified using Sun3-specific primers and a GAPDH-PCR served as control for RNA fidelity. (B) Samples from the same tissues were homogenized in SDS sample buffer and separated by SDS-PAGE (5×10 5 cells; 30 µg protein/lane). Sun3 protein was detected with an affinity-purified anti-Sun3 antiserum (Arrow). (C) Total RNA was isolated from testicular cells from pubertal mice of increasing ages (8-25 days p.p.) and used for RT-PCR. cDNA was amplified using primers for Sun3, Cage1 (postmeiotic expression) and Sycp3 (meiotic expression). (D) To analyze stage-specific expression of protein Sun3 testes from pubertal mice were homogenized in SDS sample buffer and separated by SDS-PAGE (4×10 5 cells/lane). Sun3 protein was detected with affinity-purified anti-Sun3 antiserum. For comparison pAbs against Lamin B3 and Cage1 were used. (E) Localization of Sun3 within seminiferous tubules was analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Testis paraffin sections of adult mice were stained using affinity-purified anti-Sun3 antiserum (green) and mAb 13d4 against LAP2 (red). DNA was labeled with 33258-Hoechst (blue). Sun3 was only detectable in spermatids (Sp) but completely absent from somatic cells (S), spermatogonia (Sg) and spermatocytes (Sc). Scale bar: 15 µm.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Mammalian Sperm Head Formation Involves Different Polarization of Two Novel LINC Complexes

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0012072

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sun3 is a testis specific protein showing a postmeiotic expression profile. (A) Total RNA was isolated from different tissues and used for RT-PCR. cDNA was amplified using Sun3-specific primers and a GAPDH-PCR served as control for RNA fidelity. (B) Samples from the same tissues were homogenized in SDS sample buffer and separated by SDS-PAGE (5×10 5 cells; 30 µg protein/lane). Sun3 protein was detected with an affinity-purified anti-Sun3 antiserum (Arrow). (C) Total RNA was isolated from testicular cells from pubertal mice of increasing ages (8-25 days p.p.) and used for RT-PCR. cDNA was amplified using primers for Sun3, Cage1 (postmeiotic expression) and Sycp3 (meiotic expression). (D) To analyze stage-specific expression of protein Sun3 testes from pubertal mice were homogenized in SDS sample buffer and separated by SDS-PAGE (4×10 5 cells/lane). Sun3 protein was detected with affinity-purified anti-Sun3 antiserum. For comparison pAbs against Lamin B3 and Cage1 were used. (E) Localization of Sun3 within seminiferous tubules was analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Testis paraffin sections of adult mice were stained using affinity-purified anti-Sun3 antiserum (green) and mAb 13d4 against LAP2 (red). DNA was labeled with 33258-Hoechst (blue). Sun3 was only detectable in spermatids (Sp) but completely absent from somatic cells (S), spermatogonia (Sg) and spermatocytes (Sc). Scale bar: 15 µm.

    Article Snippet: To generate Myc-tagged constructs for immunoprecipitation, PCR fragments of Sun3 coding for the full-length protein (Sun3FL: Sun3-5’Eco; Sun3-3’Sal) and Sun1 coding for amino acids 501–913 (Sun1TM+Lum: Sun1IP-5’Eco; Sun1IP-3’Sal) were cloned into pCMV-Myc vector (Clontech Laboratories).

    Techniques: Expressing, Isolation, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Polymerase Chain Reaction, SDS Page, Affinity Purification, Mouse Assay, Immunofluorescence, Microscopy, Staining, Labeling

    Schematic representation of the construction of Δ lgt strains of E. coli carrying temperature-sensitive plasmid pMT-lgtVc(ts). DNA fragments carrying a deletion of lgt were generated by primerless PCR and cloned into suicide plasmid pMT-ssB. A kanamycin resistance gene flanked by loxP sites was then inserted in place of the deleted lgt gene. The resulting plasmids were used to create deletions in the chromosomes of E. coli by allelic exchange. The kanamycin resistance gene was then removed with Cre recombinase. A temperature-sensitive (ts) plasmid carrying a nonhomologous lgt gene complements the chromosomal deletion, allowing the survival of the strain at 30°C.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: A Novel Nonantibiotic, lgt-Based Selection System for Stable Maintenance of Expression Vectors in Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02143-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic representation of the construction of Δ lgt strains of E. coli carrying temperature-sensitive plasmid pMT-lgtVc(ts). DNA fragments carrying a deletion of lgt were generated by primerless PCR and cloned into suicide plasmid pMT-ssB. A kanamycin resistance gene flanked by loxP sites was then inserted in place of the deleted lgt gene. The resulting plasmids were used to create deletions in the chromosomes of E. coli by allelic exchange. The kanamycin resistance gene was then removed with Cre recombinase. A temperature-sensitive (ts) plasmid carrying a nonhomologous lgt gene complements the chromosomal deletion, allowing the survival of the strain at 30°C.

    Article Snippet: All DNA sequencing of PCR fragments and plasmids was performed by Eurofins Genomics (Ebersberg, Germany).

    Techniques: Plasmid Preparation, Generated, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Clone Assay

    Identification of transgenic Arabidopsis plants and their salt tolerance phenotypes. ( A ) Identification of transgenes by PCR amplification of genomic DNA using drnf1 gene-specific primers; ( B ) Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of drnf1 transcription. M: B031 DNA ladder (Dingguo, Beijing, China). WT: wild-type plant. 35d1-6: independent transgenic lines; ( C ) Germination performance of transgenic seeds on solid media supplemented with various concentrations of NaCl; ( D ) Growth performance of transgenic plants in 150 mM NaCl solution-watered soils. Three-week-old plantlets (0 d) were subjected to salt stress treatment.

    Journal: Genes

    Article Title: The drnf1 Gene from the Drought-Adapted Cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme Improved Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Synechocystis and Arabidopsis Plant

    doi: 10.3390/genes9090441

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Identification of transgenic Arabidopsis plants and their salt tolerance phenotypes. ( A ) Identification of transgenes by PCR amplification of genomic DNA using drnf1 gene-specific primers; ( B ) Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of drnf1 transcription. M: B031 DNA ladder (Dingguo, Beijing, China). WT: wild-type plant. 35d1-6: independent transgenic lines; ( C ) Germination performance of transgenic seeds on solid media supplemented with various concentrations of NaCl; ( D ) Growth performance of transgenic plants in 150 mM NaCl solution-watered soils. Three-week-old plantlets (0 d) were subjected to salt stress treatment.

    Article Snippet: The drnf1 sequence was amplified by PCR with the primers drnf1 -F and drnf1 -R. The PCR fragment was ligated into pMD18-T vector (Takara, Dalian, China) for sequencing.

    Techniques: Transgenic Assay, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Quantitative RT-PCR

    Identification of transgenic drnf1 Synechocystis and its resistance to short-term salt stress. ( A ) Identification of the transgenic strain using drnf1 gene-specific primers by PCR. WT: wild-type strain. drnf1 -O: transgenic strain. M: DNA marker; ( B ) Semi-quantitative RT-PCR detection of drnf1 transcription in the transgenic strain; ( C ) Changes of relative Fv/Fm during salt stresses for 3 h. Data are mean ± s.d. ( n = 5).

    Journal: Genes

    Article Title: The drnf1 Gene from the Drought-Adapted Cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme Improved Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Synechocystis and Arabidopsis Plant

    doi: 10.3390/genes9090441

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Identification of transgenic drnf1 Synechocystis and its resistance to short-term salt stress. ( A ) Identification of the transgenic strain using drnf1 gene-specific primers by PCR. WT: wild-type strain. drnf1 -O: transgenic strain. M: DNA marker; ( B ) Semi-quantitative RT-PCR detection of drnf1 transcription in the transgenic strain; ( C ) Changes of relative Fv/Fm during salt stresses for 3 h. Data are mean ± s.d. ( n = 5).

    Article Snippet: The drnf1 sequence was amplified by PCR with the primers drnf1 -F and drnf1 -R. The PCR fragment was ligated into pMD18-T vector (Takara, Dalian, China) for sequencing.

    Techniques: Transgenic Assay, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Marker, Quantitative RT-PCR

    Salt stress response of Nostoc flagelliforme and induction of drnf1 transcription. ( A ) Physiologically recovered samples were treated by NaCl solutions for 27 h and then transferred to normal solutions for physiological recovery for 20 h. Physiological changes were indexed with the Fv/Fm parameter. Data are mean ± s.d. ( n = 5); ( B ) Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of transcription levels of drnf1 gene under 0.4 M NaCl for different times. 16S rRNA gene was used an internal reference.

    Journal: Genes

    Article Title: The drnf1 Gene from the Drought-Adapted Cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme Improved Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Synechocystis and Arabidopsis Plant

    doi: 10.3390/genes9090441

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Salt stress response of Nostoc flagelliforme and induction of drnf1 transcription. ( A ) Physiologically recovered samples were treated by NaCl solutions for 27 h and then transferred to normal solutions for physiological recovery for 20 h. Physiological changes were indexed with the Fv/Fm parameter. Data are mean ± s.d. ( n = 5); ( B ) Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of transcription levels of drnf1 gene under 0.4 M NaCl for different times. 16S rRNA gene was used an internal reference.

    Article Snippet: The drnf1 sequence was amplified by PCR with the primers drnf1 -F and drnf1 -R. The PCR fragment was ligated into pMD18-T vector (Takara, Dalian, China) for sequencing.

    Techniques: Quantitative RT-PCR

    Characteristics of the sequences used to assemble the Bison priscus mitochondrial genome. (A) Size distribution of the 3,851 unique Illumina reads. (B) Coverage for each position of the SGE2seq sequence obtained by merging the sequences of Illumina reads and PCR fragments.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Hunting the Extinct Steppe Bison (Bison priscus) Mitochondrial Genome in the Trois-Frères Paleolithic Painted Cave

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128267

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Characteristics of the sequences used to assemble the Bison priscus mitochondrial genome. (A) Size distribution of the 3,851 unique Illumina reads. (B) Coverage for each position of the SGE2seq sequence obtained by merging the sequences of Illumina reads and PCR fragments.

    Article Snippet: The final sequence, termed SGE2seq, was established using 81 consensus sequences of PCR fragments to complement the information derived from the Illumina reads.

    Techniques: Sequencing, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Validation of microarray data by qRT PCR analysis. The 32 glioma samples and 4 NBT were analyzed by RT-qPCR for the expression of the 22 miRNAs identified by microarray profiling. Boxplots of miRNAs expression in normal brain tissues (NBT), WHO grade II gliomas (II) and WHO grade III and IV gliomas (III+IV). Expression levels are expressed as: target miRNA/RNU48 multiplied by 1000. The boxes mark the interquartile range, (interval between the 25th and 75th percentile). The lines inside the boxes denote median values, the symbol * denote the outliers. #NBT vs II vs III+IV comparison by Kruskall Wallis Test; §II vs III+IV comparison by Mann Whitney test.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: A MiRNA Signature for Defining Aggressive Phenotype and Prognosis in Gliomas

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108950

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Validation of microarray data by qRT PCR analysis. The 32 glioma samples and 4 NBT were analyzed by RT-qPCR for the expression of the 22 miRNAs identified by microarray profiling. Boxplots of miRNAs expression in normal brain tissues (NBT), WHO grade II gliomas (II) and WHO grade III and IV gliomas (III+IV). Expression levels are expressed as: target miRNA/RNU48 multiplied by 1000. The boxes mark the interquartile range, (interval between the 25th and 75th percentile). The lines inside the boxes denote median values, the symbol * denote the outliers. #NBT vs II vs III+IV comparison by Kruskall Wallis Test; §II vs III+IV comparison by Mann Whitney test.

    Article Snippet: PCR fragments for each of the 22 miRNAs and RNU48 endogenous control were generated using TaqMan miRNA assay, cloned in the StrataClone PCR Cloning Vector pSC-A (Stratagene, Santa Clara, CA) and introduced in StrataClone SoloPack Competent Cells.

    Techniques: Microarray, Quantitative RT-PCR, Expressing, MANN-WHITNEY

    MCU includes two highly conserved transmembrane domains and is ubiquitously expressed in mammals, similarly to its putative regulator MICU1 a , Alignment of the putative transmembrane domain and pore region of MCU proteins from 14 different species. b , Quantitative Real Time PCR analysis of mouse tissues. mRNA extraction and quantitative PCR as described in the methods section. Expression levels are normalized to skeletal muscle, and presented as means ± S.D. (n = 3).

    Journal: Nature

    Article Title: A 40 kDa protein of the inner membrane is the mitochondrial calcium uniporter

    doi: 10.1038/nature10230

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MCU includes two highly conserved transmembrane domains and is ubiquitously expressed in mammals, similarly to its putative regulator MICU1 a , Alignment of the putative transmembrane domain and pore region of MCU proteins from 14 different species. b , Quantitative Real Time PCR analysis of mouse tissues. mRNA extraction and quantitative PCR as described in the methods section. Expression levels are normalized to skeletal muscle, and presented as means ± S.D. (n = 3).

    Article Snippet: - For the cloning of MCU in pIVEX 1.3 WG: fw: 5′-ACATATGGCGGCCGCCGCAGGTAGATC-3′ rv: 5′-TCTCGAGTTCCTTTTCTCCGATCTGTC-3′ The PCR fragment was cloned into NdeI and XhoI sites in pIVEX 1.3 WG (Roche).

    Techniques: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Conditional dab2 deletion by Meox2-Cre and Sox2-Cre transgene. Female dab2 (fl/fl) mice were crossed with male dab2 (df/+);Meox2-Cre or dab2 (df/+);Sox2-Cre mice to produce mosaic mutant mice without deletion in the extraembryonic endoderm. Mice of around the age of 3 months were used for these analyses. (A) An example of PCR genotyping assay using tail DNA of the progenies (#1 to 12) generated from the cross between dab2 (fl/fl) and dab2 (df/+);Meox2-Cre. Specific PCR amplifications to identify the locus for cre, fl, df, and wt were performed either separately or in a combined reaction. Examples of Dab2 immunostainings in kidney of a dab2 (df/fl) (B) and a dab2 (df/fl);Meox2-Cre (C) mouse are shown, with corresponding PCR genotyping results shown at the upper right corner. (D) An example of PCR genotyping assay using tail DNA of the progenies (#71 to 94) generated from crosses between dab2 (fl/fl) and dab2 (df/+);Sox2-Cre. (E) DNA gel resolving the genotyping PCR products shows a comparison of the deletion efficiency generated by Sox2-Cre or Meox2-Cre. Corresponding Dab2 stainings show the extent of Dab2 mosaicism in the kidney sections from dab2 (+/df) (F) , dab2 (fl/df);Sox2-Cre (G) , and dab2 (fl/df);Meox2-Cre (H) mice.

    Journal: BMC Developmental Biology

    Article Title: Differential requirement for Dab2 in the development of embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues

    doi: 10.1186/1471-213X-13-39

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Conditional dab2 deletion by Meox2-Cre and Sox2-Cre transgene. Female dab2 (fl/fl) mice were crossed with male dab2 (df/+);Meox2-Cre or dab2 (df/+);Sox2-Cre mice to produce mosaic mutant mice without deletion in the extraembryonic endoderm. Mice of around the age of 3 months were used for these analyses. (A) An example of PCR genotyping assay using tail DNA of the progenies (#1 to 12) generated from the cross between dab2 (fl/fl) and dab2 (df/+);Meox2-Cre. Specific PCR amplifications to identify the locus for cre, fl, df, and wt were performed either separately or in a combined reaction. Examples of Dab2 immunostainings in kidney of a dab2 (df/fl) (B) and a dab2 (df/fl);Meox2-Cre (C) mouse are shown, with corresponding PCR genotyping results shown at the upper right corner. (D) An example of PCR genotyping assay using tail DNA of the progenies (#71 to 94) generated from crosses between dab2 (fl/fl) and dab2 (df/+);Sox2-Cre. (E) DNA gel resolving the genotyping PCR products shows a comparison of the deletion efficiency generated by Sox2-Cre or Meox2-Cre. Corresponding Dab2 stainings show the extent of Dab2 mosaicism in the kidney sections from dab2 (+/df) (F) , dab2 (fl/df);Sox2-Cre (G) , and dab2 (fl/df);Meox2-Cre (H) mice.

    Article Snippet: Each PCR fragment generated was amplified using cloned-Pfu DNA polymerase (Stratagene), which has a proofreading activity that results in high-fidelity DNA replication.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Mutagenesis, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Genotyping Assay, Generated

    Conditional targeting strategy and screening for homologous recombination of dab2 gene. (A) Schematic illustration of dab2 gene targeting strategy and gene deletion in mutant mice is shown. The targeting construct was made by inserting a neomycin resistance gene (Neo-R) flanked by Frt sites (closed triangles) between exon 4 and 5. LoxP sites (open triangles) were placed flanking exon 3 and 4. Correct homologous recombination of the targeting construct did not alter dab2 gene but allowed expression of Neo-R for selection of mutant ES clones. Following selection and verification, chimeric and then germline mutant mice were made from the mutant ES cells. The Neo-R cassette was excised by crossing with Flp expression mice to generate the floxed allele. The deletion of exon 4 removed a potential alternative translation start site, indicated as “ATG”. (B) Examples of PCR screening assay of neomycin resistant clones (#25-30) following transfection of linearized targeting construct and drug selection. Each clone was amplified separately for wildtype (886 bp) and recombinant allele (1714 bp, as predicted). Here, clone #28 was identified as positive. In the agarose gel: lane 1: Mw markers; lane 2: control mouse DNA; lane 3: KO construct; lane 4: control WT mix, no DNA; 5: control mix for mutant, no DNA; lanes 6 to 17, amplification using DNA template from clone #25 to 30. (C) Examples of targeted allele in selected clones (#1, #28, and #121). Here, clone #1 was found to lack the loxP1 site, whereas clones #28 and #121 contained all components: LoxP1, 1714 bp; LoxP2, 795 bp; Frt1, 635 bp; Frt2, 837 bp; and Neo, 617 bp.

    Journal: BMC Developmental Biology

    Article Title: Differential requirement for Dab2 in the development of embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues

    doi: 10.1186/1471-213X-13-39

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Conditional targeting strategy and screening for homologous recombination of dab2 gene. (A) Schematic illustration of dab2 gene targeting strategy and gene deletion in mutant mice is shown. The targeting construct was made by inserting a neomycin resistance gene (Neo-R) flanked by Frt sites (closed triangles) between exon 4 and 5. LoxP sites (open triangles) were placed flanking exon 3 and 4. Correct homologous recombination of the targeting construct did not alter dab2 gene but allowed expression of Neo-R for selection of mutant ES clones. Following selection and verification, chimeric and then germline mutant mice were made from the mutant ES cells. The Neo-R cassette was excised by crossing with Flp expression mice to generate the floxed allele. The deletion of exon 4 removed a potential alternative translation start site, indicated as “ATG”. (B) Examples of PCR screening assay of neomycin resistant clones (#25-30) following transfection of linearized targeting construct and drug selection. Each clone was amplified separately for wildtype (886 bp) and recombinant allele (1714 bp, as predicted). Here, clone #28 was identified as positive. In the agarose gel: lane 1: Mw markers; lane 2: control mouse DNA; lane 3: KO construct; lane 4: control WT mix, no DNA; 5: control mix for mutant, no DNA; lanes 6 to 17, amplification using DNA template from clone #25 to 30. (C) Examples of targeted allele in selected clones (#1, #28, and #121). Here, clone #1 was found to lack the loxP1 site, whereas clones #28 and #121 contained all components: LoxP1, 1714 bp; LoxP2, 795 bp; Frt1, 635 bp; Frt2, 837 bp; and Neo, 617 bp.

    Article Snippet: Each PCR fragment generated was amplified using cloned-Pfu DNA polymerase (Stratagene), which has a proofreading activity that results in high-fidelity DNA replication.

    Techniques: Homologous Recombination, Mutagenesis, Mouse Assay, Construct, Expressing, Selection, Clone Assay, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Screening Assay, Transfection, Amplification, Recombinant, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    Electropherograms of the COL6A1:c.289G > T variant. A fragment harboring exon 3 and flanking sequences of the COL6A1 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced with the Sanger method. Shown are representative traces from Landseer dogs with the three different genotypes. The position of the variant is indicated by an arrow.

    Journal: G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics

    Article Title: A Nonsense Variant in COL6A1 in Landseer Dogs with Muscular Dystrophy

    doi: 10.1534/g3.115.021923

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Electropherograms of the COL6A1:c.289G > T variant. A fragment harboring exon 3 and flanking sequences of the COL6A1 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced with the Sanger method. Shown are representative traces from Landseer dogs with the three different genotypes. The position of the variant is indicated by an arrow.

    Article Snippet: Whole-genome sequencing of an affected Landseer dog We prepared a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-free fragment library with 300-bp insert size and collected 330,331,465 Illumina HiSeq2500 paired-end reads (2 × 100 bp) or roughly 14.2× coverage.

    Techniques: Variant Assay, Amplification, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Forest plots of subgroup analysis of the association between IGFBP3 polymorphism and PCa susceptibility in the dominant model. Notes: ( A ) Stratified by genotyping method; ( B ) stratified by source of controls. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; HB, hospital-based controls; IGFBP3, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3; OR, odds ratio; PB, population-based controls; PCa, prostate cancer; PCR-RLFP, polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    Journal: OncoTargets and therapy

    Article Title: Association between insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 polymorphism-202 A/C and the risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis

    doi: 10.2147/OTT.S107595

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Forest plots of subgroup analysis of the association between IGFBP3 polymorphism and PCa susceptibility in the dominant model. Notes: ( A ) Stratified by genotyping method; ( B ) stratified by source of controls. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; HB, hospital-based controls; IGFBP3, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3; OR, odds ratio; PB, population-based controls; PCa, prostate cancer; PCR-RLFP, polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism.

    Article Snippet: In these studies, three genotyping methods were applied: TaqMan, polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism, and Sequenom.

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    ( A ) Schematic of the gene targeting strategy to insert a GFP-Luc reporter gene under control of the hsp70 promoter in the pfs47 locus, showing the genomic locus of the wild-type (WT) and gene deletion mutants ∆pf47 containing the GFP-luciferase ORF before and after removal of the hdhfr resistance marker. P1, P2 : primers MWV300 and MWV301, respectively, used for PCR analysis; X ( XcmI ), N ( NcoI ): restriction sites used for conformation of LR-PCR analysis; pf47 : pf47 locus; hrp: histidine rich protein; cam: calmodulin; hsp: heat shock protein; hdhfr : human dihydrodrofolate reductase coding region; GFP-Luc : GFP-luciferase fusion protein; fcu: cytosine deaminase/uracil phosphoribosyl transferase; pbdt: P. berghei dhfr transcription termination region; kb: kilo basepairs. ( B ) Verification of the integration site by PCR and restriction digestion. Genomic DNA fragments from the parental NF54 strain (WT), intermediate transgene NF54-HGL-hDHFR and final transgene NF54-HGL were amplified by PCR using primers MWV300 and MWV301 (P1 and P2) and analysed by DNA gel electrophoresis. Where indicated, the PCR fragment was subjected to restriction digestion with XcmI/NcoI (X/N) ( C ) Luminescence intensity (relative light units, RLU) as a function of cell number. The figure shows a comparison between uninfected red blood cells (RBC), immature gametocytes (Day 8 GCT), mature gametocytes (Day 14 GCT) and asexual blood stage parasites. ( D–G ) FLP-FRT mediated excision of the selection marker restores sensitivity to antifolates. Drug sensitivity analysis of WT, ∆Pf47GFP-luc-hdhfr and ∆Pf47GFP-luc to DHA ( D ), Chloroquine ( E ), Pyrimethamine ( F ), and WR99210 ( G ) in a dose dependent asexual growth inhibition assay using pLDH enzyme activity as a readout. Depicted data represents a triplicate measurement and was normalized to the MIN (10 μM DHA) and MAX (0.1% DMSO) controls. Error bars indicate standard deviations.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: A semi-automated luminescence based standard membrane feeding assay identifies novel small molecules that inhibit transmission of malaria parasites by mosquitoes

    doi: 10.1038/srep18704

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( A ) Schematic of the gene targeting strategy to insert a GFP-Luc reporter gene under control of the hsp70 promoter in the pfs47 locus, showing the genomic locus of the wild-type (WT) and gene deletion mutants ∆pf47 containing the GFP-luciferase ORF before and after removal of the hdhfr resistance marker. P1, P2 : primers MWV300 and MWV301, respectively, used for PCR analysis; X ( XcmI ), N ( NcoI ): restriction sites used for conformation of LR-PCR analysis; pf47 : pf47 locus; hrp: histidine rich protein; cam: calmodulin; hsp: heat shock protein; hdhfr : human dihydrodrofolate reductase coding region; GFP-Luc : GFP-luciferase fusion protein; fcu: cytosine deaminase/uracil phosphoribosyl transferase; pbdt: P. berghei dhfr transcription termination region; kb: kilo basepairs. ( B ) Verification of the integration site by PCR and restriction digestion. Genomic DNA fragments from the parental NF54 strain (WT), intermediate transgene NF54-HGL-hDHFR and final transgene NF54-HGL were amplified by PCR using primers MWV300 and MWV301 (P1 and P2) and analysed by DNA gel electrophoresis. Where indicated, the PCR fragment was subjected to restriction digestion with XcmI/NcoI (X/N) ( C ) Luminescence intensity (relative light units, RLU) as a function of cell number. The figure shows a comparison between uninfected red blood cells (RBC), immature gametocytes (Day 8 GCT), mature gametocytes (Day 14 GCT) and asexual blood stage parasites. ( D–G ) FLP-FRT mediated excision of the selection marker restores sensitivity to antifolates. Drug sensitivity analysis of WT, ∆Pf47GFP-luc-hdhfr and ∆Pf47GFP-luc to DHA ( D ), Chloroquine ( E ), Pyrimethamine ( F ), and WR99210 ( G ) in a dose dependent asexual growth inhibition assay using pLDH enzyme activity as a readout. Depicted data represents a triplicate measurement and was normalized to the MIN (10 μM DHA) and MAX (0.1% DMSO) controls. Error bars indicate standard deviations.

    Article Snippet: Pfs47 target regions, 5′hsp70 and 3′hsp86 fragments were amplified by PCR amplification (Phusion, Finnzymes) from genomic P. falciparum DNA (NF54 strain) and all PCR fragments were sequenced after TOPO TA (Invitrogen) sub-cloning.

    Techniques: Luciferase, Marker, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane Assay, Amplification, DNA Gel Electrophoresis, Selection, Growth Inhibition Assay, Activity Assay