pan caspase inhibitor zvad Search Results


  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 99
    Millipore pan caspase inhibitor zvad
    MHV nsp15 mutant viruses induce early apoptosis in macrophages. ( A ) B6 BMDMs were infected with WT or mutant MHV at an MOI of 0.1 and subsequently treated with either DMSO, <t>zVAD</t> (20 μM), Nec-1 (25 μM), or VX-765 (20 μM). Cell viability was measured at 24 hpi by a CellTiter Glo assay. Results are reported relative to DMSO-treated mock cells and were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA test by virus. ( B ) B6 BMDMs were infected with WT or mutant MHV at an MOI of 0.1. At indicated time points, <t>caspase-3/7</t> activity was determined by a Caspase-Glo 3/7 assay. Values are displayed in relative light units (RLU) and were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA test by time. ( C ) B6 BMDMs were infected with WT or mutant MHV at an MOI of 0.1. At indicated time points, cell lysates were collected for the detection of cleaved–caspase-3, N protein, and β-actin by Western blotting. ( D and E ) ifih1 −/− BMDMs were infected at an MOI of 0.1. ( D ) Cell viability and ( E ) caspase-3/7 activity were evaluated. Values were analyzed using two-way ANOVA test by time. Data are representative of two to three independent experiments and presented as the mean ± SD in A and B . ** P
    Pan Caspase Inhibitor Zvad, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 42 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pan caspase inhibitor zvad/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 42 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pan caspase inhibitor zvad - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    92
    Thermo Fisher pan caspase inhibitor zvad
    TNFR2-induced upregulation of NFκB-regulated factors is inhibited by necrostatin-1 in <t>caspase-inhibited</t> macrophages. a Macrophages were stimulated with the indicated mixtures of TNC-sc(mu)TNF80 (TNC…80, 200 ng/ml), <t>ZVAD</t> (Z, 20 µM), and necrostatin-1 (N, 45 µM). Next day, mRNA was isolated and expression of Tnf, Cflar , A20 , and Traf 1 were determined by qPCR. Shown are the mean ± SEM of four (TNF, FLIP, A20) or three (TRAF1) independent experiments. * p
    Pan Caspase Inhibitor Zvad, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 22 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pan caspase inhibitor zvad/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 92 stars, based on 22 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pan caspase inhibitor zvad - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    92/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    89
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology pan caspase inhibitor zvad
    MSCs transduced with Ad.TR can induce apoptosis in A549 cells. ( A ) MSCs were transduced with Ad.BGal (100 pfu/cell) or Ad.TR (100 pfu/cell). After 48 hrs MSCs were trypsinized and 10 4 of these cells were added to wells that had been seeded the day before with A549 cells at 10 5 cells per well. After 48 hrs, wells were trypsinized and the complete mixed cell population was measured by Nicoletti apoptosis assay. A549 cells and MSCs cultured alone as well as A549 cells mixed with MSCs transduced with Ad.BGal showed only background apoptosis of below 5%. In contrast, in A549 mixed with MSCs transduced with Ad.TR apoptosis rates of almost 30% could be measured. This apoptosis could be inhibited by TRAIL neutralizing antibodies (α-TR-ab) and the <t>pan-caspase</t> inhibitor <t>zVAD.</t> Numbers represent mean values of three samples ± standard deviation. ** P
    Pan Caspase Inhibitor Zvad, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pan caspase inhibitor zvad/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
    Average 89 stars, based on 9 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pan caspase inhibitor zvad - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    89/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    90
    R&D Systems pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk zvad
    Knockdown of RIPK1 causes massive hepatic apoptosis in response to αGalCer. Animals were pretreated with Cont ASO or RIPK1 ASO to silence RIPK1 prior to αGalCer (4μg/mouse i.p.). ( A ) TUNEL staining of liver sections at 6hr after αGalCer. DAPI was used for nucleus staining, representative of images with similar results. ( B ) Western blotting for hepatic <t>caspase-3</t> and cleaved caspase-3 in whole liver lysates at 6hr after αGalCer. Representative of three separate experiments. ( C–E ) Pre-treatment by pan-caspase inhibitor <t>zVAD</t> almost completely protects against the exacerbated liver injury and lethality in RIPK1 ASO+αGalCer-treated mice. RIPK1 ASO were either pre-treated with vehicle or zVAD (10mg/kg i.p.) 15min prior to αGalCer treatment (4μg/mouse i.p.). ( C ) Serum ALT measured at 6hr after αGalCer (n=5 per group, p
    Pan Caspase Inhibitor Zvad Fmk Zvad, supplied by R&D Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk zvad/product/R&D Systems
    Average 90 stars, based on 9 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk zvad - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    Abcam pan caspase inhibitor zvad
    Knockdown of RIPK1 causes massive hepatic apoptosis in response to αGalCer. Animals were pretreated with Cont ASO or RIPK1 ASO to silence RIPK1 prior to αGalCer (4μg/mouse i.p.). ( A ) TUNEL staining of liver sections at 6hr after αGalCer. DAPI was used for nucleus staining, representative of images with similar results. ( B ) Western blotting for hepatic <t>caspase-3</t> and cleaved caspase-3 in whole liver lysates at 6hr after αGalCer. Representative of three separate experiments. ( C–E ) Pre-treatment by pan-caspase inhibitor <t>zVAD</t> almost completely protects against the exacerbated liver injury and lethality in RIPK1 ASO+αGalCer-treated mice. RIPK1 ASO were either pre-treated with vehicle or zVAD (10mg/kg i.p.) 15min prior to αGalCer treatment (4μg/mouse i.p.). ( C ) Serum ALT measured at 6hr after αGalCer (n=5 per group, p
    Pan Caspase Inhibitor Zvad, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pan caspase inhibitor zvad/product/Abcam
    Average 93 stars, based on 8 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pan caspase inhibitor zvad - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    89
    Enzo Biochem pan caspase inhibitor zvad
    Enhanced <t>caspase</t> activity and suppression of enhanced cell death by caspase inhibition in Parg −/− ES cells, following treatment with 0.3 mM MMS. ( a ) Caspase activity. ( b ) Cell death in Parg −/− ES cells in the presence and absence of the caspase inhibitor <t>ZVAD</t> at 20 and 50 μ M. Mean values of representative duplicate experiments are plotted
    Pan Caspase Inhibitor Zvad, supplied by Enzo Biochem, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 15 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pan caspase inhibitor zvad/product/Enzo Biochem
    Average 89 stars, based on 15 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pan caspase inhibitor zvad - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    89/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    91
    Merck KGaA pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk
    Exposure to n‐butyrate results in downregulation of PU.1 expression in primary human PBMO. PBMO were cultured in the absence or presence of different concentrations of n‐butyrate (1 mM, 0.5 mM). (A) After 24 h of culture in the presence of the <t>pan‐caspase</t> inhibitor <t>z‐VAD‐fmk,</t> protein expression of PU.1, STAT3 and histone H4 (loading control) as well as the acetylation state of histone H4 (acetyl‐H4) was determined in PBMO lysates by Western blotting using PU.1, STAT3, histone H4, and acetylated histone H4 specific antibodies (left panel). Corresponding densitometric quantification of protein expression levels was performed as described in Materials and Methods (right panel). Shown are the means ± SEM as well as individual data points of 5 independent experiments. (B) Cells were stained for Hoechst 33342, CD33, annexin V, and PU.1 and analyzed by InFlow microscopy. At least 10,000 images were collected and gating was performed to generate a set of single, in‐focus cell images. A region was created on CD33 + annexin V − PBMO. Left panel: Representative images of PU.1 in annexin V − PBMO (−/+ n‐butyrate) were selected and are shown with the overlay images of PU.1, Hoechst 33342 and CD33 (termed merge) in the 4th column. BF: bright field. Right panel: PU.1 expression (measured as fluorescence intensity) in annexin V − untreated PBMO (Medium) was set to 100%. PU.1 expression levels in n‐butyrate (1 mM, 0.5 mM) treated PBMO was calculated as % expression of untreated control. Shown are the means ± SEM as well as individual data points of 3 independent experiments. (C) After 4 h of culture, expression of the gene encoding PU.1 (SPI1) was determined by qPCR. Normalized transcript levels in n‐butyrate (1 mM, 0.5 mM) treated PBMO were presented as % expression of untreated control (medium). Shown are the means ± SEM as well as individual data points of 3–4 independent experiments. Numbers in brackets indicate the mean transcript numbers (normalized to PPIB) of 3–4 independent experiments.
    Pan Caspase Inhibitor Zvad Fmk, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk/product/Merck KGaA
    Average 91 stars, based on 6 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    91/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    91
    Valiant pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk
    Exposure to n‐butyrate results in downregulation of PU.1 expression in primary human PBMO. PBMO were cultured in the absence or presence of different concentrations of n‐butyrate (1 mM, 0.5 mM). (A) After 24 h of culture in the presence of the <t>pan‐caspase</t> inhibitor <t>z‐VAD‐fmk,</t> protein expression of PU.1, STAT3 and histone H4 (loading control) as well as the acetylation state of histone H4 (acetyl‐H4) was determined in PBMO lysates by Western blotting using PU.1, STAT3, histone H4, and acetylated histone H4 specific antibodies (left panel). Corresponding densitometric quantification of protein expression levels was performed as described in Materials and Methods (right panel). Shown are the means ± SEM as well as individual data points of 5 independent experiments. (B) Cells were stained for Hoechst 33342, CD33, annexin V, and PU.1 and analyzed by InFlow microscopy. At least 10,000 images were collected and gating was performed to generate a set of single, in‐focus cell images. A region was created on CD33 + annexin V − PBMO. Left panel: Representative images of PU.1 in annexin V − PBMO (−/+ n‐butyrate) were selected and are shown with the overlay images of PU.1, Hoechst 33342 and CD33 (termed merge) in the 4th column. BF: bright field. Right panel: PU.1 expression (measured as fluorescence intensity) in annexin V − untreated PBMO (Medium) was set to 100%. PU.1 expression levels in n‐butyrate (1 mM, 0.5 mM) treated PBMO was calculated as % expression of untreated control. Shown are the means ± SEM as well as individual data points of 3 independent experiments. (C) After 4 h of culture, expression of the gene encoding PU.1 (SPI1) was determined by qPCR. Normalized transcript levels in n‐butyrate (1 mM, 0.5 mM) treated PBMO were presented as % expression of untreated control (medium). Shown are the means ± SEM as well as individual data points of 3–4 independent experiments. Numbers in brackets indicate the mean transcript numbers (normalized to PPIB) of 3–4 independent experiments.
    Pan Caspase Inhibitor Zvad Fmk, supplied by Valiant, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 95 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk/product/Valiant
    Average 91 stars, based on 95 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    91/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    91
    FUJIFILM pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk
    Effect of TS depletion on apoptosis in lung cancer cells. ( A ) The indicated cell lines were transfected with nonspecific (NS) or TS-1 siRNAs for 48 or 72 h and were then fixed, stained with propidium iodide, and subjected to flow cytometry for quantitation of the sub-G 1 population. Data are means±s.d. of triplicates from experiments that were repeated on two additional occasions with similar results. ( B ) Cells were transfected with NS or TS-1 siRNAs for 72 h, after which cell lysates were prepared and subjected to immunoblot analysis with antibodies to TS, PARP, and β -actin. The positions of intact and cleaved forms of PARP are indicated. ( C ) Cells were transfected with NS or TS-1 siRNAs for 48 or 72 h, lysed, and assayed for <t>caspase-3</t> activity. Data are expressed relative to the value for cells transfected with NS siRNA and are means±s.d. from three independent experiments. ( D ) Cells were incubated for 2 h with or without <t>ZVAD-FMK</t> (50 μ ), transfected with NS or TS-1 siRNAs for 48 or 72 h (in the continued absence or presence of ZVAD-FMK), and then evaluated for the size of the sub-G 1 population as in ( A ). Data are means±s.d. of triplicates from experiments that were repeated on two additional occasions with similar results. * P
    Pan Caspase Inhibitor Zvad Fmk, supplied by FUJIFILM, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk/product/FUJIFILM
    Average 91 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    91/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    91
    Becton Dickinson pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk
    Apoptosis signals after E gene expression in SW480 cells. ( A ) SW480/12/E cells before and after Dox induction at times indicated were analyzed by FACScan to determine apoptotic cell death. The apoptosis was assessed after propidium iodine staining by calculating the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 fraction. SW480/12/E cells treated with <t>zVAD-fmk</t> were also analyzed at 72 hours. SW480 parental cells were used as the control. Data shown are representative results from four independent experiments. ( B ) Activated (cleaved) <t>caspase-3,</t> caspase-9, and pro-caspase-8 were detected by Western blot analysis using specific antibodies at the indicated time points after Dox treatment. zVAD-fmk was applied to determine whether caspases were involved in the apoptotic process in SW480/12/E cells induced with Dox (72 hours). The filter was probed with a β-actin antibody to determine whether the amounts of protein in each lane were comparable. Immunoblots were visualized using an enhanced chemiluminescence detection system. Abbreviation: Dox, doxorubicin.
    Pan Caspase Inhibitor Zvad Fmk, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 31 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk/product/Becton Dickinson
    Average 91 stars, based on 31 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    91/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    BioVision pan caspase inhibitor zvad
    Apoptosis signals after E gene expression in SW480 cells. ( A ) SW480/12/E cells before and after Dox induction at times indicated were analyzed by FACScan to determine apoptotic cell death. The apoptosis was assessed after propidium iodine staining by calculating the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 fraction. SW480/12/E cells treated with <t>zVAD-fmk</t> were also analyzed at 72 hours. SW480 parental cells were used as the control. Data shown are representative results from four independent experiments. ( B ) Activated (cleaved) <t>caspase-3,</t> caspase-9, and pro-caspase-8 were detected by Western blot analysis using specific antibodies at the indicated time points after Dox treatment. zVAD-fmk was applied to determine whether caspases were involved in the apoptotic process in SW480/12/E cells induced with Dox (72 hours). The filter was probed with a β-actin antibody to determine whether the amounts of protein in each lane were comparable. Immunoblots were visualized using an enhanced chemiluminescence detection system. Abbreviation: Dox, doxorubicin.
    Pan Caspase Inhibitor Zvad, supplied by BioVision, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 12 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pan caspase inhibitor zvad/product/BioVision
    Average 93 stars, based on 12 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pan caspase inhibitor zvad - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    91
    Enzo Biochem pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk
    Orlistat-induced activation of the <t>caspase</t> cascade depends on caspase-2 ( A ) Cotreatment with the caspase-2 inhibitor <t>zVDVAD-fmk</t> prevented orlistat from inducing a decrease in full-length Bid (short exposure) and the appearance of truncated Bid (long exposure; solid and empty arrows indicate full-length and cleaved Bid, respectively). ( B) Inhibition of FASN by orlistat activated Bax and Bak. Active Bax or Bak were immunoprecipitated (IP) from the whole cell lysate (WCL) and detected as described in the Materials and Methods. ( C ) Downregulation of caspase-2 by RNAi dampened orlistat-induced Bax activation. ( D ) Inhibition of caspase-2 suppressed the activation of the caspase cascade (Solid and empty arrows indicate full-length and cleaved caspases, respectively). The loss of caspase-2 was revealed by a monoclonal caspase-2 antibody 11B4. 420 cell lysates were collected 12 h (A–C) or 24 h (D) post treatment.
    Pan Caspase Inhibitor Zvad Fmk, supplied by Enzo Biochem, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 91 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk/product/Enzo Biochem
    Average 91 stars, based on 91 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    91/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    91
    Axxora pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk
    Orlistat-induced activation of the <t>caspase</t> cascade depends on caspase-2 ( A ) Cotreatment with the caspase-2 inhibitor <t>zVDVAD-fmk</t> prevented orlistat from inducing a decrease in full-length Bid (short exposure) and the appearance of truncated Bid (long exposure; solid and empty arrows indicate full-length and cleaved Bid, respectively). ( B) Inhibition of FASN by orlistat activated Bax and Bak. Active Bax or Bak were immunoprecipitated (IP) from the whole cell lysate (WCL) and detected as described in the Materials and Methods. ( C ) Downregulation of caspase-2 by RNAi dampened orlistat-induced Bax activation. ( D ) Inhibition of caspase-2 suppressed the activation of the caspase cascade (Solid and empty arrows indicate full-length and cleaved caspases, respectively). The loss of caspase-2 was revealed by a monoclonal caspase-2 antibody 11B4. 420 cell lysates were collected 12 h (A–C) or 24 h (D) post treatment.
    Pan Caspase Inhibitor Zvad Fmk, supplied by Axxora, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 10 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk/product/Axxora
    Average 91 stars, based on 10 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    91/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    85
    Enzo Biochem pan caspase inhibtor zvad fmk
    Orlistat-induced activation of the <t>caspase</t> cascade depends on caspase-2 ( A ) Cotreatment with the caspase-2 inhibitor <t>zVDVAD-fmk</t> prevented orlistat from inducing a decrease in full-length Bid (short exposure) and the appearance of truncated Bid (long exposure; solid and empty arrows indicate full-length and cleaved Bid, respectively). ( B) Inhibition of FASN by orlistat activated Bax and Bak. Active Bax or Bak were immunoprecipitated (IP) from the whole cell lysate (WCL) and detected as described in the Materials and Methods. ( C ) Downregulation of caspase-2 by RNAi dampened orlistat-induced Bax activation. ( D ) Inhibition of caspase-2 suppressed the activation of the caspase cascade (Solid and empty arrows indicate full-length and cleaved caspases, respectively). The loss of caspase-2 was revealed by a monoclonal caspase-2 antibody 11B4. 420 cell lysates were collected 12 h (A–C) or 24 h (D) post treatment.
    Pan Caspase Inhibtor Zvad Fmk, supplied by Enzo Biochem, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pan caspase inhibtor zvad fmk/product/Enzo Biochem
    Average 85 stars, based on 3 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pan caspase inhibtor zvad fmk - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    85/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    91
    Merck & Co pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk
    Catechins induced <t>caspase</t> activation, Bcl-xL downregulation, and the degradation of PML-RARα fusion protein in NB4 cells. (A) Western blot analysis of caspase-3, −8, −9, and PARP in NB4 cells treated with 100 μM and 200 μM Catechins for 24 h. Caspase-3 was activated with caspase-8 and caspase-9 and PARP cleaved. (B) The expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bax protein were determined by Western blot. Bcl-xL expression was reduced in NB4 cells treated with 100 μM and 200 μM Catechins for 24 h. (C) PML-RARα was decreased upon treatment with 100 μM and 200 μM Catechins at 12 h and 24 h. (D and E) PML-RARα was not affected by pan-caspase inhibitor <t>ZVAD-FMK</t> (50 μM), but partially blocked by proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (0.1 μM). Three independent experiments were performed and representative results were shown.
    Pan Caspase Inhibitor Zvad Fmk, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk/product/Merck & Co
    Average 91 stars, based on 6 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    91/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    90
    MBL International pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk
    A) Effect of A-779024 treatment on cell death in MIA-PaCa-2 cells at 24 and 48 hours of therapy over a broad dose-range, with effect of <t>caspase</t> inhibition by <t>ZVad-fmk</t> co-treatment at 48 hrs (5 µM A-779024 treatment), and B) effect of A-779024 treatment on caspase 3 cleavage in MIA-PaCa-2 cells at 24 and 48 hours, with effect of caspase inhibition by ZVad-fmk co-treatment. Paclitaxel is used as a positive control for caspase 3 cleavage.
    Pan Caspase Inhibitor Zvad Fmk, supplied by MBL International, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk/product/MBL International
    Average 90 stars, based on 5 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    98
    Promega pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk
    SpyA stimulates a <t>caspase-1-dependent</t> inflammatory response and IL-1β production in macrophages. (A) BMDMs were infected with GAS (AP) at an MOI of ~10. At the end of the assay, cells were washed and stained for 1 h with FAM <t>YVAD-FMK</t> to visualize activated caspase-1 (green) and for 5 min with Hoechst 33342 to visualize DNA (blue) under an epifluorescent microscope. Scale bar, 100 µm. (B) Quantification of FMK YVAD-FMK-positive cells (per 100 cells) from multiple random fields of view ( n = 10) per sample. (C) Western blot illustrating the abundance of pro-caspase-1 and its p10 subunit in GAS-infected BMDM cell lysates and caspase-1 p10 subunit released in the supernatants (Sup). Data represent densitometry quantifications illustrating average levels of active caspase-1 p10 expression in lysates and supernatants relative to pro-caspase 1 expression. Error bars, SEM. *, P
    Pan Caspase Inhibitor Zvad Fmk, supplied by Promega, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 98/100, based on 20 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk/product/Promega
    Average 98 stars, based on 20 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pan caspase inhibitor zvad fmk - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    98/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    89
    Becton Dickinson pan caspase inhibitor zvad
    ERK1 and/or ERK2 shRNA triggers <t>caspase</t> cascade including PARP cleavage, and caspase inhibitor partial block of killing of A375 cells . A . Western blot analysis of caspase 3, caspase 8 and PARP including both intact (inactive) and cleaved (active) forms in A375 cells on days 2, 4 and 6 following exposure to shRNAs. GAPDH confirms equivalent loading. B) . Addition of pan-caspase inhibitor, <t>ZVAD</t> (20 mM; last 2 days) reduces killing of A375 cells triggered by ERK1 and/or ERK2 shRNA. Histograms represent the means +/- SEM from 3 independent experiments. Statistical significance portrayed as follows: * p
    Pan Caspase Inhibitor Zvad, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 15 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/pan caspase inhibitor zvad/product/Becton Dickinson
    Average 89 stars, based on 15 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    pan caspase inhibitor zvad - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
    89/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    MHV nsp15 mutant viruses induce early apoptosis in macrophages. ( A ) B6 BMDMs were infected with WT or mutant MHV at an MOI of 0.1 and subsequently treated with either DMSO, zVAD (20 μM), Nec-1 (25 μM), or VX-765 (20 μM). Cell viability was measured at 24 hpi by a CellTiter Glo assay. Results are reported relative to DMSO-treated mock cells and were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA test by virus. ( B ) B6 BMDMs were infected with WT or mutant MHV at an MOI of 0.1. At indicated time points, caspase-3/7 activity was determined by a Caspase-Glo 3/7 assay. Values are displayed in relative light units (RLU) and were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA test by time. ( C ) B6 BMDMs were infected with WT or mutant MHV at an MOI of 0.1. At indicated time points, cell lysates were collected for the detection of cleaved–caspase-3, N protein, and β-actin by Western blotting. ( D and E ) ifih1 −/− BMDMs were infected at an MOI of 0.1. ( D ) Cell viability and ( E ) caspase-3/7 activity were evaluated. Values were analyzed using two-way ANOVA test by time. Data are representative of two to three independent experiments and presented as the mean ± SD in A and B . ** P

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Coronavirus nonstructural protein 15 mediates evasion of dsRNA sensors and limits apoptosis in macrophages

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1618310114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MHV nsp15 mutant viruses induce early apoptosis in macrophages. ( A ) B6 BMDMs were infected with WT or mutant MHV at an MOI of 0.1 and subsequently treated with either DMSO, zVAD (20 μM), Nec-1 (25 μM), or VX-765 (20 μM). Cell viability was measured at 24 hpi by a CellTiter Glo assay. Results are reported relative to DMSO-treated mock cells and were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA test by virus. ( B ) B6 BMDMs were infected with WT or mutant MHV at an MOI of 0.1. At indicated time points, caspase-3/7 activity was determined by a Caspase-Glo 3/7 assay. Values are displayed in relative light units (RLU) and were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA test by time. ( C ) B6 BMDMs were infected with WT or mutant MHV at an MOI of 0.1. At indicated time points, cell lysates were collected for the detection of cleaved–caspase-3, N protein, and β-actin by Western blotting. ( D and E ) ifih1 −/− BMDMs were infected at an MOI of 0.1. ( D ) Cell viability and ( E ) caspase-3/7 activity were evaluated. Values were analyzed using two-way ANOVA test by time. Data are representative of two to three independent experiments and presented as the mean ± SD in A and B . ** P

    Article Snippet: Chemical inhibitors were obtained from the following sources: pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD (#627610, Millipore), Nec-1 (#480065, Millipore), PKR inhibitor C16 (#527450, Millipore), VX-765 (#F7120, UBPbio), and staurosporine (#ALX-380-014, Enzo Life Sciences).

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Infection, Glo Assay, Activity Assay, Caspase-Glo Assay, Western Blot

    Real-time RT-PCR analysis in BMM after the addition of 100 ng/ml ricin for 5 hrs, in the presence or absence of a 30 min pretreatment with 25 μM zVAD.fmk. The results were expressed as fold induction, using glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as invariant comparator. The experiment was repeated three times, with similar results. Each treatment was performed on triplicate culture dishes. Data are displayed as mean ± standard error of the mean. Asterisks above bars show comparison between treatments and controls; P values displayed below bars of ricin plus zVAD.fmk treatment show the comparison of this treatment to treatment by ricin alone. NS, not significantly different; *, p

    Journal: Molecular immunology

    Article Title: Role of Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in Regulation of Inflammatory Responses to Ricin in Primary Murine Macrophages

    doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2006.10.025

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Real-time RT-PCR analysis in BMM after the addition of 100 ng/ml ricin for 5 hrs, in the presence or absence of a 30 min pretreatment with 25 μM zVAD.fmk. The results were expressed as fold induction, using glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as invariant comparator. The experiment was repeated three times, with similar results. Each treatment was performed on triplicate culture dishes. Data are displayed as mean ± standard error of the mean. Asterisks above bars show comparison between treatments and controls; P values displayed below bars of ricin plus zVAD.fmk treatment show the comparison of this treatment to treatment by ricin alone. NS, not significantly different; *, p

    Article Snippet: The pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk and the fluorogenic caspase-9 substrate (cat.#218765) were obtained from Calbiochem (La Jolla, CA).

    Techniques: Quantitative RT-PCR

    TNF-α protein released into the culture medium after the addition of 100 ng/ml ricin for 6 hrs, in the presence or absence of a 30 min pretreatment with 25 μM zVAD.fmk. Each treatment was performed on triplicate culture dishes. Asterisks above bars show comparison between treatment and control; P value displayed below bar of ricin plus zVAD.fmk treatment show the comparison of this treatment to treatment by ricin alone. NS, not significantly different ; *, p

    Journal: Molecular immunology

    Article Title: Role of Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in Regulation of Inflammatory Responses to Ricin in Primary Murine Macrophages

    doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2006.10.025

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TNF-α protein released into the culture medium after the addition of 100 ng/ml ricin for 6 hrs, in the presence or absence of a 30 min pretreatment with 25 μM zVAD.fmk. Each treatment was performed on triplicate culture dishes. Asterisks above bars show comparison between treatment and control; P value displayed below bar of ricin plus zVAD.fmk treatment show the comparison of this treatment to treatment by ricin alone. NS, not significantly different ; *, p

    Article Snippet: The pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk and the fluorogenic caspase-9 substrate (cat.#218765) were obtained from Calbiochem (La Jolla, CA).

    Techniques:

    LMP2A inhibits TGF-β1-induced cleavage of PARP. Parental (P), vector control (V), and LMP2A-expressing Ramos (A) and HSC-39 (B) cells (10 6 /ml) were cultured for 1 h with or without serum. Cells were preincubated for 1 h without or with zVAD-fmk (50 μM) before incubation without or with TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml). After 24 h of incubation, PARP cleavage was analyzed by immunoblotting with a specific anti-PARP antibody. The full-length 113-kDa and cleaved 89-kDa (fragment) PARP proteins are indicated at the right. The amount of protein loaded in each lane was assessed by rehybridization of the filter with a specific antibody for human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH).

    Journal: Journal of Virology

    Article Title: Latent Membrane Protein 2A Inhibits Transforming Growth Factor-?1-Induced Apoptosis through the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.78.4.1697-1705.2004

    Figure Lengend Snippet: LMP2A inhibits TGF-β1-induced cleavage of PARP. Parental (P), vector control (V), and LMP2A-expressing Ramos (A) and HSC-39 (B) cells (10 6 /ml) were cultured for 1 h with or without serum. Cells were preincubated for 1 h without or with zVAD-fmk (50 μM) before incubation without or with TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml). After 24 h of incubation, PARP cleavage was analyzed by immunoblotting with a specific anti-PARP antibody. The full-length 113-kDa and cleaved 89-kDa (fragment) PARP proteins are indicated at the right. The amount of protein loaded in each lane was assessed by rehybridization of the filter with a specific antibody for human glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH).

    Article Snippet: The pan-specific caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk was purchased from Calbiochem., a PI3-K-specific inhibitor, was obtained from Cell Signaling Technologies.

    Techniques: Plasmid Preparation, Expressing, Cell Culture, Incubation

    LMP2A inhibits TGF-β1-induced DNA fragmentation in Ramos and HSC-39 cells. Parental (P), vector control (V), and LMP2A-expressing Ramos (A) and HSC-39 (B) cells (10 6 /ml) were cultured for 1 h with or without serum. Cells were preincubated for 1 h without or with zVAD-fmk (50 μM) before incubation without or with TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml). After 24 h of incubation, cells were analyzed for DNA content by propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry. Gates used to ascertain cell cycle distribution and the percentage of cells with sub-G 1 (

    Journal: Journal of Virology

    Article Title: Latent Membrane Protein 2A Inhibits Transforming Growth Factor-?1-Induced Apoptosis through the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Pathway

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.78.4.1697-1705.2004

    Figure Lengend Snippet: LMP2A inhibits TGF-β1-induced DNA fragmentation in Ramos and HSC-39 cells. Parental (P), vector control (V), and LMP2A-expressing Ramos (A) and HSC-39 (B) cells (10 6 /ml) were cultured for 1 h with or without serum. Cells were preincubated for 1 h without or with zVAD-fmk (50 μM) before incubation without or with TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml). After 24 h of incubation, cells were analyzed for DNA content by propidium iodide (PI) staining and flow cytometry. Gates used to ascertain cell cycle distribution and the percentage of cells with sub-G 1 (

    Article Snippet: The pan-specific caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk was purchased from Calbiochem., a PI3-K-specific inhibitor, was obtained from Cell Signaling Technologies.

    Techniques: Plasmid Preparation, Expressing, Cell Culture, Incubation, Staining, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    TNFR2-induced upregulation of NFκB-regulated factors is inhibited by necrostatin-1 in caspase-inhibited macrophages. a Macrophages were stimulated with the indicated mixtures of TNC-sc(mu)TNF80 (TNC…80, 200 ng/ml), ZVAD (Z, 20 µM), and necrostatin-1 (N, 45 µM). Next day, mRNA was isolated and expression of Tnf, Cflar , A20 , and Traf 1 were determined by qPCR. Shown are the mean ± SEM of four (TNF, FLIP, A20) or three (TRAF1) independent experiments. * p

    Journal: Cell Death & Disease

    Article Title: TNFR2 unlocks a RIPK1 kinase activity-dependent mode of proinflammatory TNFR1 signaling

    doi: 10.1038/s41419-018-0973-3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TNFR2-induced upregulation of NFκB-regulated factors is inhibited by necrostatin-1 in caspase-inhibited macrophages. a Macrophages were stimulated with the indicated mixtures of TNC-sc(mu)TNF80 (TNC…80, 200 ng/ml), ZVAD (Z, 20 µM), and necrostatin-1 (N, 45 µM). Next day, mRNA was isolated and expression of Tnf, Cflar , A20 , and Traf 1 were determined by qPCR. Shown are the mean ± SEM of four (TNF, FLIP, A20) or three (TRAF1) independent experiments. * p

    Article Snippet: The pan caspase inhibitor ZVAD was purchased from Thermo Fisher Scientific Waltham, MA, USA (Bachem #N-1510.0025) and the RIPK1 inhibitor necrostatin-1 was from Biomol, Hamburg, Germany (#AP-309).

    Techniques: Isolation, Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    MSCs transduced with Ad.TR can induce apoptosis in A549 cells. ( A ) MSCs were transduced with Ad.BGal (100 pfu/cell) or Ad.TR (100 pfu/cell). After 48 hrs MSCs were trypsinized and 10 4 of these cells were added to wells that had been seeded the day before with A549 cells at 10 5 cells per well. After 48 hrs, wells were trypsinized and the complete mixed cell population was measured by Nicoletti apoptosis assay. A549 cells and MSCs cultured alone as well as A549 cells mixed with MSCs transduced with Ad.BGal showed only background apoptosis of below 5%. In contrast, in A549 mixed with MSCs transduced with Ad.TR apoptosis rates of almost 30% could be measured. This apoptosis could be inhibited by TRAIL neutralizing antibodies (α-TR-ab) and the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD. Numbers represent mean values of three samples ± standard deviation. ** P

    Journal: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine

    Article Title: Mesenchymal stem cells expressing TRAIL lead to tumour growth inhibition in an experimental lung cancer model

    doi: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2008.00317.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MSCs transduced with Ad.TR can induce apoptosis in A549 cells. ( A ) MSCs were transduced with Ad.BGal (100 pfu/cell) or Ad.TR (100 pfu/cell). After 48 hrs MSCs were trypsinized and 10 4 of these cells were added to wells that had been seeded the day before with A549 cells at 10 5 cells per well. After 48 hrs, wells were trypsinized and the complete mixed cell population was measured by Nicoletti apoptosis assay. A549 cells and MSCs cultured alone as well as A549 cells mixed with MSCs transduced with Ad.BGal showed only background apoptosis of below 5%. In contrast, in A549 mixed with MSCs transduced with Ad.TR apoptosis rates of almost 30% could be measured. This apoptosis could be inhibited by TRAIL neutralizing antibodies (α-TR-ab) and the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD. Numbers represent mean values of three samples ± standard deviation. ** P

    Article Snippet: The pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD was bought from Santa Cruz (Santa Cruz, CA, USA).

    Techniques: Transduction, Apoptosis Assay, Cell Culture, Standard Deviation

    Knockdown of RIPK1 causes massive hepatic apoptosis in response to αGalCer. Animals were pretreated with Cont ASO or RIPK1 ASO to silence RIPK1 prior to αGalCer (4μg/mouse i.p.). ( A ) TUNEL staining of liver sections at 6hr after αGalCer. DAPI was used for nucleus staining, representative of images with similar results. ( B ) Western blotting for hepatic caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3 in whole liver lysates at 6hr after αGalCer. Representative of three separate experiments. ( C–E ) Pre-treatment by pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD almost completely protects against the exacerbated liver injury and lethality in RIPK1 ASO+αGalCer-treated mice. RIPK1 ASO were either pre-treated with vehicle or zVAD (10mg/kg i.p.) 15min prior to αGalCer treatment (4μg/mouse i.p.). ( C ) Serum ALT measured at 6hr after αGalCer (n=5 per group, p

    Journal: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

    Article Title: Knockdown of RIPK1 Markedly Exacerbates Murine Immune-Mediated Liver Injury Through Massive Apoptosis of Hepatocytes, Independent of Necroptosis and Inhibition of NF-κB

    doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1600690

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Knockdown of RIPK1 causes massive hepatic apoptosis in response to αGalCer. Animals were pretreated with Cont ASO or RIPK1 ASO to silence RIPK1 prior to αGalCer (4μg/mouse i.p.). ( A ) TUNEL staining of liver sections at 6hr after αGalCer. DAPI was used for nucleus staining, representative of images with similar results. ( B ) Western blotting for hepatic caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3 in whole liver lysates at 6hr after αGalCer. Representative of three separate experiments. ( C–E ) Pre-treatment by pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD almost completely protects against the exacerbated liver injury and lethality in RIPK1 ASO+αGalCer-treated mice. RIPK1 ASO were either pre-treated with vehicle or zVAD (10mg/kg i.p.) 15min prior to αGalCer treatment (4μg/mouse i.p.). ( C ) Serum ALT measured at 6hr after αGalCer (n=5 per group, p

    Article Snippet: Pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD.fmk (zVAD) from R & D Systems (Minneapolis, MN).

    Techniques: Allele-specific Oligonucleotide, TUNEL Assay, Staining, Western Blot, Mouse Assay

    Constitutive spontaneous neutrophil PCD. A. Kinetics of spontaneous constitutive neutrophil PCD. Neutrophils were isolated and allowed to undergo spontaneous constitutive PCD at a concentration of 1×10 6 /ml. Samples were obtained at the indicated intervals, and the apoptosis rate was measured using Annexin V-FITC and PI staining. B. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of spontaneous constitutive neutrophil PCD. Morphology of viable or early apoptotic (white arrow) and apoptotic (black arrows) neutrophils is shown. Apoptotic cells show the typical morphology of condensed cytoplasm and chromatin. Cells were prepared for TEM as described in Materials and methods . C. Inhibition of spontaneous constitutive neutrophil PCD by pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. Sample dot plots of AnnexinV-PI staining of neutrophils undergoing spontaneous constitutive PCD for 14 h at a concentration of 1×10 6 /ml, in the presence or absence of 20 µM Zvad-fmk. Pan-caspase inhibition rescued cells from apoptotic death and viable cells are increased from 19 to 49% ( p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Constitutive Neutrophil Apoptosis: Regulation by Cell Concentration via S100 A8/9 and the MEK - ERK Pathway

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029333

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Constitutive spontaneous neutrophil PCD. A. Kinetics of spontaneous constitutive neutrophil PCD. Neutrophils were isolated and allowed to undergo spontaneous constitutive PCD at a concentration of 1×10 6 /ml. Samples were obtained at the indicated intervals, and the apoptosis rate was measured using Annexin V-FITC and PI staining. B. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of spontaneous constitutive neutrophil PCD. Morphology of viable or early apoptotic (white arrow) and apoptotic (black arrows) neutrophils is shown. Apoptotic cells show the typical morphology of condensed cytoplasm and chromatin. Cells were prepared for TEM as described in Materials and methods . C. Inhibition of spontaneous constitutive neutrophil PCD by pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. Sample dot plots of AnnexinV-PI staining of neutrophils undergoing spontaneous constitutive PCD for 14 h at a concentration of 1×10 6 /ml, in the presence or absence of 20 µM Zvad-fmk. Pan-caspase inhibition rescued cells from apoptotic death and viable cells are increased from 19 to 49% ( p

    Article Snippet: The pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk was purchased from R & D systems (Minneapolis, MN).

    Techniques: Isolation, Concentration Assay, Staining, Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Inhibition

    Enhanced caspase activity and suppression of enhanced cell death by caspase inhibition in Parg −/− ES cells, following treatment with 0.3 mM MMS. ( a ) Caspase activity. ( b ) Cell death in Parg −/− ES cells in the presence and absence of the caspase inhibitor ZVAD at 20 and 50 μ M. Mean values of representative duplicate experiments are plotted

    Journal: Cell Death & Disease

    Article Title: PARG dysfunction enhances DNA double strand break formation in S-phase after alkylation DNA damage and augments different cell death pathways

    doi: 10.1038/cddis.2013.133

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Enhanced caspase activity and suppression of enhanced cell death by caspase inhibition in Parg −/− ES cells, following treatment with 0.3 mM MMS. ( a ) Caspase activity. ( b ) Cell death in Parg −/− ES cells in the presence and absence of the caspase inhibitor ZVAD at 20 and 50 μ M. Mean values of representative duplicate experiments are plotted

    Article Snippet: The effect of the pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD (Enzo Life Science, Farmingdale, NY, USA) at 20 and 50 μ M was examined by flow cytometry.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Inhibition

    Exposure to n‐butyrate results in downregulation of PU.1 expression in primary human PBMO. PBMO were cultured in the absence or presence of different concentrations of n‐butyrate (1 mM, 0.5 mM). (A) After 24 h of culture in the presence of the pan‐caspase inhibitor z‐VAD‐fmk, protein expression of PU.1, STAT3 and histone H4 (loading control) as well as the acetylation state of histone H4 (acetyl‐H4) was determined in PBMO lysates by Western blotting using PU.1, STAT3, histone H4, and acetylated histone H4 specific antibodies (left panel). Corresponding densitometric quantification of protein expression levels was performed as described in Materials and Methods (right panel). Shown are the means ± SEM as well as individual data points of 5 independent experiments. (B) Cells were stained for Hoechst 33342, CD33, annexin V, and PU.1 and analyzed by InFlow microscopy. At least 10,000 images were collected and gating was performed to generate a set of single, in‐focus cell images. A region was created on CD33 + annexin V − PBMO. Left panel: Representative images of PU.1 in annexin V − PBMO (−/+ n‐butyrate) were selected and are shown with the overlay images of PU.1, Hoechst 33342 and CD33 (termed merge) in the 4th column. BF: bright field. Right panel: PU.1 expression (measured as fluorescence intensity) in annexin V − untreated PBMO (Medium) was set to 100%. PU.1 expression levels in n‐butyrate (1 mM, 0.5 mM) treated PBMO was calculated as % expression of untreated control. Shown are the means ± SEM as well as individual data points of 3 independent experiments. (C) After 4 h of culture, expression of the gene encoding PU.1 (SPI1) was determined by qPCR. Normalized transcript levels in n‐butyrate (1 mM, 0.5 mM) treated PBMO were presented as % expression of untreated control (medium). Shown are the means ± SEM as well as individual data points of 3–4 independent experiments. Numbers in brackets indicate the mean transcript numbers (normalized to PPIB) of 3–4 independent experiments.

    Journal: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease

    Article Title: Human monocytes downregulate innate response receptors following exposure to the microbial metabolite n‐butyrate

    doi: 10.1002/iid3.184

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Exposure to n‐butyrate results in downregulation of PU.1 expression in primary human PBMO. PBMO were cultured in the absence or presence of different concentrations of n‐butyrate (1 mM, 0.5 mM). (A) After 24 h of culture in the presence of the pan‐caspase inhibitor z‐VAD‐fmk, protein expression of PU.1, STAT3 and histone H4 (loading control) as well as the acetylation state of histone H4 (acetyl‐H4) was determined in PBMO lysates by Western blotting using PU.1, STAT3, histone H4, and acetylated histone H4 specific antibodies (left panel). Corresponding densitometric quantification of protein expression levels was performed as described in Materials and Methods (right panel). Shown are the means ± SEM as well as individual data points of 5 independent experiments. (B) Cells were stained for Hoechst 33342, CD33, annexin V, and PU.1 and analyzed by InFlow microscopy. At least 10,000 images were collected and gating was performed to generate a set of single, in‐focus cell images. A region was created on CD33 + annexin V − PBMO. Left panel: Representative images of PU.1 in annexin V − PBMO (−/+ n‐butyrate) were selected and are shown with the overlay images of PU.1, Hoechst 33342 and CD33 (termed merge) in the 4th column. BF: bright field. Right panel: PU.1 expression (measured as fluorescence intensity) in annexin V − untreated PBMO (Medium) was set to 100%. PU.1 expression levels in n‐butyrate (1 mM, 0.5 mM) treated PBMO was calculated as % expression of untreated control. Shown are the means ± SEM as well as individual data points of 3 independent experiments. (C) After 4 h of culture, expression of the gene encoding PU.1 (SPI1) was determined by qPCR. Normalized transcript levels in n‐butyrate (1 mM, 0.5 mM) treated PBMO were presented as % expression of untreated control (medium). Shown are the means ± SEM as well as individual data points of 3–4 independent experiments. Numbers in brackets indicate the mean transcript numbers (normalized to PPIB) of 3–4 independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: Where indicated, the culture was performed in the presence of the pan‐caspase inhibitor zVAD‐fmk (Merck Millipore).

    Techniques: Expressing, Cell Culture, Western Blot, Staining, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Effect of TS depletion on apoptosis in lung cancer cells. ( A ) The indicated cell lines were transfected with nonspecific (NS) or TS-1 siRNAs for 48 or 72 h and were then fixed, stained with propidium iodide, and subjected to flow cytometry for quantitation of the sub-G 1 population. Data are means±s.d. of triplicates from experiments that were repeated on two additional occasions with similar results. ( B ) Cells were transfected with NS or TS-1 siRNAs for 72 h, after which cell lysates were prepared and subjected to immunoblot analysis with antibodies to TS, PARP, and β -actin. The positions of intact and cleaved forms of PARP are indicated. ( C ) Cells were transfected with NS or TS-1 siRNAs for 48 or 72 h, lysed, and assayed for caspase-3 activity. Data are expressed relative to the value for cells transfected with NS siRNA and are means±s.d. from three independent experiments. ( D ) Cells were incubated for 2 h with or without ZVAD-FMK (50 μ ), transfected with NS or TS-1 siRNAs for 48 or 72 h (in the continued absence or presence of ZVAD-FMK), and then evaluated for the size of the sub-G 1 population as in ( A ). Data are means±s.d. of triplicates from experiments that were repeated on two additional occasions with similar results. * P

    Journal: British Journal of Cancer

    Article Title: Identification of thymidylate synthase as a potential therapeutic target for lung cancer

    doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6605793

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of TS depletion on apoptosis in lung cancer cells. ( A ) The indicated cell lines were transfected with nonspecific (NS) or TS-1 siRNAs for 48 or 72 h and were then fixed, stained with propidium iodide, and subjected to flow cytometry for quantitation of the sub-G 1 population. Data are means±s.d. of triplicates from experiments that were repeated on two additional occasions with similar results. ( B ) Cells were transfected with NS or TS-1 siRNAs for 72 h, after which cell lysates were prepared and subjected to immunoblot analysis with antibodies to TS, PARP, and β -actin. The positions of intact and cleaved forms of PARP are indicated. ( C ) Cells were transfected with NS or TS-1 siRNAs for 48 or 72 h, lysed, and assayed for caspase-3 activity. Data are expressed relative to the value for cells transfected with NS siRNA and are means±s.d. from three independent experiments. ( D ) Cells were incubated for 2 h with or without ZVAD-FMK (50 μ ), transfected with NS or TS-1 siRNAs for 48 or 72 h (in the continued absence or presence of ZVAD-FMK), and then evaluated for the size of the sub-G 1 population as in ( A ). Data are means±s.d. of triplicates from experiments that were repeated on two additional occasions with similar results. * P

    Article Snippet: The pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD-FMK was from Wako (Osaka, Japan).

    Techniques: Transfection, Staining, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Quantitation Assay, Activity Assay, Incubation

    Apoptosis signals after E gene expression in SW480 cells. ( A ) SW480/12/E cells before and after Dox induction at times indicated were analyzed by FACScan to determine apoptotic cell death. The apoptosis was assessed after propidium iodine staining by calculating the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 fraction. SW480/12/E cells treated with zVAD-fmk were also analyzed at 72 hours. SW480 parental cells were used as the control. Data shown are representative results from four independent experiments. ( B ) Activated (cleaved) caspase-3, caspase-9, and pro-caspase-8 were detected by Western blot analysis using specific antibodies at the indicated time points after Dox treatment. zVAD-fmk was applied to determine whether caspases were involved in the apoptotic process in SW480/12/E cells induced with Dox (72 hours). The filter was probed with a β-actin antibody to determine whether the amounts of protein in each lane were comparable. Immunoblots were visualized using an enhanced chemiluminescence detection system. Abbreviation: Dox, doxorubicin.

    Journal: International Journal of Nanomedicine

    Article Title: 5-Fluorouracil-loaded poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles combined with phage E gene therapy as a new strategy against colon cancer

    doi: 10.2147/IJN.S26401

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Apoptosis signals after E gene expression in SW480 cells. ( A ) SW480/12/E cells before and after Dox induction at times indicated were analyzed by FACScan to determine apoptotic cell death. The apoptosis was assessed after propidium iodine staining by calculating the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 fraction. SW480/12/E cells treated with zVAD-fmk were also analyzed at 72 hours. SW480 parental cells were used as the control. Data shown are representative results from four independent experiments. ( B ) Activated (cleaved) caspase-3, caspase-9, and pro-caspase-8 were detected by Western blot analysis using specific antibodies at the indicated time points after Dox treatment. zVAD-fmk was applied to determine whether caspases were involved in the apoptotic process in SW480/12/E cells induced with Dox (72 hours). The filter was probed with a β-actin antibody to determine whether the amounts of protein in each lane were comparable. Immunoblots were visualized using an enhanced chemiluminescence detection system. Abbreviation: Dox, doxorubicin.

    Article Snippet: To determine possible caspase activation during E gene expression, a sample of transfected cells was preincubated in the pan caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk (BD Pharmingen, San Jose, CA) at 200 mM, 2 hours before the induction of E gene expression.

    Techniques: Expressing, Staining, Western Blot

    Orlistat-induced activation of the caspase cascade depends on caspase-2 ( A ) Cotreatment with the caspase-2 inhibitor zVDVAD-fmk prevented orlistat from inducing a decrease in full-length Bid (short exposure) and the appearance of truncated Bid (long exposure; solid and empty arrows indicate full-length and cleaved Bid, respectively). ( B) Inhibition of FASN by orlistat activated Bax and Bak. Active Bax or Bak were immunoprecipitated (IP) from the whole cell lysate (WCL) and detected as described in the Materials and Methods. ( C ) Downregulation of caspase-2 by RNAi dampened orlistat-induced Bax activation. ( D ) Inhibition of caspase-2 suppressed the activation of the caspase cascade (Solid and empty arrows indicate full-length and cleaved caspases, respectively). The loss of caspase-2 was revealed by a monoclonal caspase-2 antibody 11B4. 420 cell lysates were collected 12 h (A–C) or 24 h (D) post treatment.

    Journal: Oncogene

    Article Title: Fatty Acid Synthase inhibition engages a novel caspase-2 regulatory mechanism to induce ovarian cancer cell death

    doi: 10.1038/onc.2014.271

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Orlistat-induced activation of the caspase cascade depends on caspase-2 ( A ) Cotreatment with the caspase-2 inhibitor zVDVAD-fmk prevented orlistat from inducing a decrease in full-length Bid (short exposure) and the appearance of truncated Bid (long exposure; solid and empty arrows indicate full-length and cleaved Bid, respectively). ( B) Inhibition of FASN by orlistat activated Bax and Bak. Active Bax or Bak were immunoprecipitated (IP) from the whole cell lysate (WCL) and detected as described in the Materials and Methods. ( C ) Downregulation of caspase-2 by RNAi dampened orlistat-induced Bax activation. ( D ) Inhibition of caspase-2 suppressed the activation of the caspase cascade (Solid and empty arrows indicate full-length and cleaved caspases, respectively). The loss of caspase-2 was revealed by a monoclonal caspase-2 antibody 11B4. 420 cell lysates were collected 12 h (A–C) or 24 h (D) post treatment.

    Article Snippet: Caspase-2 specific inhibitor zVDVAD-fmk (Enzo, Farmingdale, NY, USA) was utilized at 50 μM when indicated, while 50 μM pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk (Enzo) was cotreated with orlistat to examine REDD1 expression, unless otherwise specified.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Inhibition, Immunoprecipitation

    Catechins induced caspase activation, Bcl-xL downregulation, and the degradation of PML-RARα fusion protein in NB4 cells. (A) Western blot analysis of caspase-3, −8, −9, and PARP in NB4 cells treated with 100 μM and 200 μM Catechins for 24 h. Caspase-3 was activated with caspase-8 and caspase-9 and PARP cleaved. (B) The expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bax protein were determined by Western blot. Bcl-xL expression was reduced in NB4 cells treated with 100 μM and 200 μM Catechins for 24 h. (C) PML-RARα was decreased upon treatment with 100 μM and 200 μM Catechins at 12 h and 24 h. (D and E) PML-RARα was not affected by pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD-FMK (50 μM), but partially blocked by proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (0.1 μM). Three independent experiments were performed and representative results were shown.

    Journal: Journal of Hematology & Oncology

    Article Title: Catechins induced acute promyelocytic leukemia cell apoptosis and triggered PML-RARα oncoprotein degradation

    doi: 10.1186/s13045-014-0075-3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Catechins induced caspase activation, Bcl-xL downregulation, and the degradation of PML-RARα fusion protein in NB4 cells. (A) Western blot analysis of caspase-3, −8, −9, and PARP in NB4 cells treated with 100 μM and 200 μM Catechins for 24 h. Caspase-3 was activated with caspase-8 and caspase-9 and PARP cleaved. (B) The expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bax protein were determined by Western blot. Bcl-xL expression was reduced in NB4 cells treated with 100 μM and 200 μM Catechins for 24 h. (C) PML-RARα was decreased upon treatment with 100 μM and 200 μM Catechins at 12 h and 24 h. (D and E) PML-RARα was not affected by pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD-FMK (50 μM), but partially blocked by proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (0.1 μM). Three independent experiments were performed and representative results were shown.

    Article Snippet: Pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD-FMK (627610) was from Merck & Co. Inc. Bortezomib was from Millennium Pharmaceuticals (Cambridge, MA, USA).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Western Blot, Expressing

    Catechins induced mitochondrial trans-membrane potential collapse, cytochrome C loss and ROS production in NB4 cells. (A) The inhibitory effect of NB4-R1, NB4-R2 and NB4 cells in response to ATRA (1 μM), As 2 O 3 (1 μM), EGCG (100 μM), ECG (100 μM), EGC (100 μM) and Catechins (100 μM) treatment for 24 and 48 h. (B) Growth inhibition of NB4 cells was significantly abrogated by pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD-FMK (50 μM). **P

    Journal: Journal of Hematology & Oncology

    Article Title: Catechins induced acute promyelocytic leukemia cell apoptosis and triggered PML-RARα oncoprotein degradation

    doi: 10.1186/s13045-014-0075-3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Catechins induced mitochondrial trans-membrane potential collapse, cytochrome C loss and ROS production in NB4 cells. (A) The inhibitory effect of NB4-R1, NB4-R2 and NB4 cells in response to ATRA (1 μM), As 2 O 3 (1 μM), EGCG (100 μM), ECG (100 μM), EGC (100 μM) and Catechins (100 μM) treatment for 24 and 48 h. (B) Growth inhibition of NB4 cells was significantly abrogated by pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD-FMK (50 μM). **P

    Article Snippet: Pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD-FMK (627610) was from Merck & Co. Inc. Bortezomib was from Millennium Pharmaceuticals (Cambridge, MA, USA).

    Techniques: Inhibition

    A) Effect of A-779024 treatment on cell death in MIA-PaCa-2 cells at 24 and 48 hours of therapy over a broad dose-range, with effect of caspase inhibition by ZVad-fmk co-treatment at 48 hrs (5 µM A-779024 treatment), and B) effect of A-779024 treatment on caspase 3 cleavage in MIA-PaCa-2 cells at 24 and 48 hours, with effect of caspase inhibition by ZVad-fmk co-treatment. Paclitaxel is used as a positive control for caspase 3 cleavage.

    Journal: The Journal of surgical research

    Article Title: Targeting Bcl-2-mediated cell death as a novel therapy in pancreatic cancer

    doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2010.02.021

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A) Effect of A-779024 treatment on cell death in MIA-PaCa-2 cells at 24 and 48 hours of therapy over a broad dose-range, with effect of caspase inhibition by ZVad-fmk co-treatment at 48 hrs (5 µM A-779024 treatment), and B) effect of A-779024 treatment on caspase 3 cleavage in MIA-PaCa-2 cells at 24 and 48 hours, with effect of caspase inhibition by ZVad-fmk co-treatment. Paclitaxel is used as a positive control for caspase 3 cleavage.

    Article Snippet: The pan-Caspase inhibitor ZVAD-FMK was purchased from MBL International (Woburn, MA).

    Techniques: Inhibition, Positive Control

    SpyA stimulates a caspase-1-dependent inflammatory response and IL-1β production in macrophages. (A) BMDMs were infected with GAS (AP) at an MOI of ~10. At the end of the assay, cells were washed and stained for 1 h with FAM YVAD-FMK to visualize activated caspase-1 (green) and for 5 min with Hoechst 33342 to visualize DNA (blue) under an epifluorescent microscope. Scale bar, 100 µm. (B) Quantification of FMK YVAD-FMK-positive cells (per 100 cells) from multiple random fields of view ( n = 10) per sample. (C) Western blot illustrating the abundance of pro-caspase-1 and its p10 subunit in GAS-infected BMDM cell lysates and caspase-1 p10 subunit released in the supernatants (Sup). Data represent densitometry quantifications illustrating average levels of active caspase-1 p10 expression in lysates and supernatants relative to pro-caspase 1 expression. Error bars, SEM. *, P

    Journal: mBio

    Article Title: A Group A Streptococcus ADP-Ribosyltransferase Toxin Stimulates a Protective Interleukin 1β-Dependent Macrophage Immune Response

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.00133-15

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SpyA stimulates a caspase-1-dependent inflammatory response and IL-1β production in macrophages. (A) BMDMs were infected with GAS (AP) at an MOI of ~10. At the end of the assay, cells were washed and stained for 1 h with FAM YVAD-FMK to visualize activated caspase-1 (green) and for 5 min with Hoechst 33342 to visualize DNA (blue) under an epifluorescent microscope. Scale bar, 100 µm. (B) Quantification of FMK YVAD-FMK-positive cells (per 100 cells) from multiple random fields of view ( n = 10) per sample. (C) Western blot illustrating the abundance of pro-caspase-1 and its p10 subunit in GAS-infected BMDM cell lysates and caspase-1 p10 subunit released in the supernatants (Sup). Data represent densitometry quantifications illustrating average levels of active caspase-1 p10 expression in lysates and supernatants relative to pro-caspase 1 expression. Error bars, SEM. *, P

    Article Snippet: Prior to infection with GAS, BMDMs were treated with 10 µM pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD-FMK (Promega) or 25 µM caspase-1-specific inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CHO (Promega).

    Techniques: Infection, Staining, Microscopy, Western Blot, Expressing

    GAS SpyA activation of a caspase-1-dependent inflammasome response is required for bacterial clearance by cultured BMDMs and in vivo . (A) BMDMs were coincubated with GAS (AP) at an MOI of 20 plus 10 µM pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-FMK (ZVAD) or 25 µM caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CHO (YVAD) for 2 h. Data shown are representative of the results of multiple experiments. (B) Relative levels of LDH release (percentages compared to levels in uninfected [UI] cells; left panel) and bacterial killing (right panel) by WT and Casp-1 −/− BMDMs 2 h postinfection. (C) Relative levels of LDH release (left panel) and bacterial killing (right panel) 2 h postinfection (MOI = 5) by BMDMs isolated from wild-type (C57bl6), Nlrp3 −/− , Asc −/− , and IL-1β −/− mice ( n = 3). Data shown are representative of the results from two or more animals. (D) ELISA shows IL-1β secreted by BMDMs isolated from wild-type (C57bl6), Nlrp3 −/− , Asc −/− , and IL-1β −/− mice after 2 h coincubation with GAS at an MOI of 20. Data shown are representative of the results from two animals. (E) CD1 mice were infected with 7 × 10 5 CFU of WT or Δ spyA GAS (AP) via tail-vein injection ( n = 7 per group). Immediately after infection, anakinra (IL-1 receptor antagonist) was subcutaneously injected at 100 mg/kg over a 12-h interval until the end of survival curve. WT plus saline solution versus Δ spyA plus saline solution, *, P = 0.04; WT plus saline solution versus WT plus anakinra. **, P = 0.0036; WT plus anakinra versus Δ spyA plus anakinra, P = 0.06; Δ spyA plus saline solution versus Δ spyA plus anakinra, P = 0.07 (log rank test with 95% confidence interval); N.S., not significant ( P > 0.05). (F) GAS-infected mice ( n = 8 to 10) were sacrificed 2 days postinfection; heart, spleen, and liver were harvested for CFU enumeration; no statistically significant differences were observed between WT and Δ spyA -infected animals that received anakinra treatment or for Δ spyA -infected animals with saline solution treatment. Closed symbols = WT; open symbols = Δ spyA . Black = control mice, red = anakinra-treated mice. Error bars, SEM. Statistical analysis: *, P

    Journal: mBio

    Article Title: A Group A Streptococcus ADP-Ribosyltransferase Toxin Stimulates a Protective Interleukin 1β-Dependent Macrophage Immune Response

    doi: 10.1128/mBio.00133-15

    Figure Lengend Snippet: GAS SpyA activation of a caspase-1-dependent inflammasome response is required for bacterial clearance by cultured BMDMs and in vivo . (A) BMDMs were coincubated with GAS (AP) at an MOI of 20 plus 10 µM pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-FMK (ZVAD) or 25 µM caspase-1 inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CHO (YVAD) for 2 h. Data shown are representative of the results of multiple experiments. (B) Relative levels of LDH release (percentages compared to levels in uninfected [UI] cells; left panel) and bacterial killing (right panel) by WT and Casp-1 −/− BMDMs 2 h postinfection. (C) Relative levels of LDH release (left panel) and bacterial killing (right panel) 2 h postinfection (MOI = 5) by BMDMs isolated from wild-type (C57bl6), Nlrp3 −/− , Asc −/− , and IL-1β −/− mice ( n = 3). Data shown are representative of the results from two or more animals. (D) ELISA shows IL-1β secreted by BMDMs isolated from wild-type (C57bl6), Nlrp3 −/− , Asc −/− , and IL-1β −/− mice after 2 h coincubation with GAS at an MOI of 20. Data shown are representative of the results from two animals. (E) CD1 mice were infected with 7 × 10 5 CFU of WT or Δ spyA GAS (AP) via tail-vein injection ( n = 7 per group). Immediately after infection, anakinra (IL-1 receptor antagonist) was subcutaneously injected at 100 mg/kg over a 12-h interval until the end of survival curve. WT plus saline solution versus Δ spyA plus saline solution, *, P = 0.04; WT plus saline solution versus WT plus anakinra. **, P = 0.0036; WT plus anakinra versus Δ spyA plus anakinra, P = 0.06; Δ spyA plus saline solution versus Δ spyA plus anakinra, P = 0.07 (log rank test with 95% confidence interval); N.S., not significant ( P > 0.05). (F) GAS-infected mice ( n = 8 to 10) were sacrificed 2 days postinfection; heart, spleen, and liver were harvested for CFU enumeration; no statistically significant differences were observed between WT and Δ spyA -infected animals that received anakinra treatment or for Δ spyA -infected animals with saline solution treatment. Closed symbols = WT; open symbols = Δ spyA . Black = control mice, red = anakinra-treated mice. Error bars, SEM. Statistical analysis: *, P

    Article Snippet: Prior to infection with GAS, BMDMs were treated with 10 µM pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD-FMK (Promega) or 25 µM caspase-1-specific inhibitor Ac-YVAD-CHO (Promega).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Cell Culture, In Vivo, Isolation, Mouse Assay, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, Infection, Injection

    ERK1 and/or ERK2 shRNA triggers caspase cascade including PARP cleavage, and caspase inhibitor partial block of killing of A375 cells . A . Western blot analysis of caspase 3, caspase 8 and PARP including both intact (inactive) and cleaved (active) forms in A375 cells on days 2, 4 and 6 following exposure to shRNAs. GAPDH confirms equivalent loading. B) . Addition of pan-caspase inhibitor, ZVAD (20 mM; last 2 days) reduces killing of A375 cells triggered by ERK1 and/or ERK2 shRNA. Histograms represent the means +/- SEM from 3 independent experiments. Statistical significance portrayed as follows: * p

    Journal: Journal of Translational Medicine

    Article Title: Specifically targeting ERK1 or ERK2 kills Melanoma cells

    doi: 10.1186/1479-5876-10-15

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ERK1 and/or ERK2 shRNA triggers caspase cascade including PARP cleavage, and caspase inhibitor partial block of killing of A375 cells . A . Western blot analysis of caspase 3, caspase 8 and PARP including both intact (inactive) and cleaved (active) forms in A375 cells on days 2, 4 and 6 following exposure to shRNAs. GAPDH confirms equivalent loading. B) . Addition of pan-caspase inhibitor, ZVAD (20 mM; last 2 days) reduces killing of A375 cells triggered by ERK1 and/or ERK2 shRNA. Histograms represent the means +/- SEM from 3 independent experiments. Statistical significance portrayed as follows: * p

    Article Snippet: Pan-caspase inhibitor ZVAD was purchased from BD Biosciences (San Jose, CA, USA).

    Techniques: shRNA, Blocking Assay, Western Blot