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  • 85
    ATCC plasmid pcg4
    Plasmid Pcg4, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/plasmid pcg4/product/ATCC
    Average 85 stars, based on 1 article reviews
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    plasmid pcg4 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
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    91
    Thermo Fisher rs16930609 p 2157
    Rs16930609 P 2157, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    rs16930609 p 2157 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
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    93
    Millipore p ddd
    In situ hybridization of PR mRNA in the ovariectomized mouse uterus after exposure to oil, antiestrogen (ICI), estrogens (E 2 and 4-OH-E 2 ), or xenobiotics (Kepone, o,p ′-DDT, and <t>p,p</t> <t>′-DDD),</t> or the antiestrogen plus the estrogens or xenobiotics. Adult ovariectomized mice were injected with: oil (A and B), E 2 (C and D), E 2 plus ICI (E and F), Kepone (G and H), Kepone plus ICI (I and J), 4-OH-E 2 (K and L), 4-OH-E 2 plus ICI (M and N), o,p ′-DDT (O and P), o,p ′-DDT plus ICI (Q and R), p,p ′-DDD (S and T), and p,p ′-DDD plus ICI (U and V). Mice were killed 6 h after the injections of natural estrogens and/or ICI and 2 h after the injections of xenobiotics and/or ICI. Results obtained 6 h after injection of oil are shown. ICI alone did not produce any difference in signals compared with those obtained after oil injection (data not shown). Paraformaldehydefixed frozen longitudinal sections (10 μ m) were mounted onto glass slides, prehybridized, and hybridized with 35 S-labeled PR sense or antisense cRNA probes. RNase A-resistant hybrids were detected after 5–10 days of autoradiography. Bright- and darkfield photomicrographs of uterine sections are shown at ×100. No positive signals were observed when sections were hybridized with the sense probe (data not shown). le, Luminal epithelium; ge, glandular epithelium; s, stroma; myo, myometrium. These experiments were repeated twice with three mice per group, and similar results were obtained.
    P Ddd, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 34 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    p ddd - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
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    93
    Millipore p terphenyl p ter
    In situ hybridization of PR mRNA in the ovariectomized mouse uterus after exposure to oil, antiestrogen (ICI), estrogens (E 2 and 4-OH-E 2 ), or xenobiotics (Kepone, o,p ′-DDT, and <t>p,p</t> <t>′-DDD),</t> or the antiestrogen plus the estrogens or xenobiotics. Adult ovariectomized mice were injected with: oil (A and B), E 2 (C and D), E 2 plus ICI (E and F), Kepone (G and H), Kepone plus ICI (I and J), 4-OH-E 2 (K and L), 4-OH-E 2 plus ICI (M and N), o,p ′-DDT (O and P), o,p ′-DDT plus ICI (Q and R), p,p ′-DDD (S and T), and p,p ′-DDD plus ICI (U and V). Mice were killed 6 h after the injections of natural estrogens and/or ICI and 2 h after the injections of xenobiotics and/or ICI. Results obtained 6 h after injection of oil are shown. ICI alone did not produce any difference in signals compared with those obtained after oil injection (data not shown). Paraformaldehydefixed frozen longitudinal sections (10 μ m) were mounted onto glass slides, prehybridized, and hybridized with 35 S-labeled PR sense or antisense cRNA probes. RNase A-resistant hybrids were detected after 5–10 days of autoradiography. Bright- and darkfield photomicrographs of uterine sections are shown at ×100. No positive signals were observed when sections were hybridized with the sense probe (data not shown). le, Luminal epithelium; ge, glandular epithelium; s, stroma; myo, myometrium. These experiments were repeated twice with three mice per group, and similar results were obtained.
    P Terphenyl P Ter, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Millipore bisphenol p
    In situ hybridization of PR mRNA in the ovariectomized mouse uterus after exposure to oil, antiestrogen (ICI), estrogens (E 2 and 4-OH-E 2 ), or xenobiotics (Kepone, o,p ′-DDT, and <t>p,p</t> <t>′-DDD),</t> or the antiestrogen plus the estrogens or xenobiotics. Adult ovariectomized mice were injected with: oil (A and B), E 2 (C and D), E 2 plus ICI (E and F), Kepone (G and H), Kepone plus ICI (I and J), 4-OH-E 2 (K and L), 4-OH-E 2 plus ICI (M and N), o,p ′-DDT (O and P), o,p ′-DDT plus ICI (Q and R), p,p ′-DDD (S and T), and p,p ′-DDD plus ICI (U and V). Mice were killed 6 h after the injections of natural estrogens and/or ICI and 2 h after the injections of xenobiotics and/or ICI. Results obtained 6 h after injection of oil are shown. ICI alone did not produce any difference in signals compared with those obtained after oil injection (data not shown). Paraformaldehydefixed frozen longitudinal sections (10 μ m) were mounted onto glass slides, prehybridized, and hybridized with 35 S-labeled PR sense or antisense cRNA probes. RNase A-resistant hybrids were detected after 5–10 days of autoradiography. Bright- and darkfield photomicrographs of uterine sections are shown at ×100. No positive signals were observed when sections were hybridized with the sense probe (data not shown). le, Luminal epithelium; ge, glandular epithelium; s, stroma; myo, myometrium. These experiments were repeated twice with three mice per group, and similar results were obtained.
    Bisphenol P, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Millipore p xylylenediamine
    In situ hybridization of PR mRNA in the ovariectomized mouse uterus after exposure to oil, antiestrogen (ICI), estrogens (E 2 and 4-OH-E 2 ), or xenobiotics (Kepone, o,p ′-DDT, and <t>p,p</t> <t>′-DDD),</t> or the antiestrogen plus the estrogens or xenobiotics. Adult ovariectomized mice were injected with: oil (A and B), E 2 (C and D), E 2 plus ICI (E and F), Kepone (G and H), Kepone plus ICI (I and J), 4-OH-E 2 (K and L), 4-OH-E 2 plus ICI (M and N), o,p ′-DDT (O and P), o,p ′-DDT plus ICI (Q and R), p,p ′-DDD (S and T), and p,p ′-DDD plus ICI (U and V). Mice were killed 6 h after the injections of natural estrogens and/or ICI and 2 h after the injections of xenobiotics and/or ICI. Results obtained 6 h after injection of oil are shown. ICI alone did not produce any difference in signals compared with those obtained after oil injection (data not shown). Paraformaldehydefixed frozen longitudinal sections (10 μ m) were mounted onto glass slides, prehybridized, and hybridized with 35 S-labeled PR sense or antisense cRNA probes. RNase A-resistant hybrids were detected after 5–10 days of autoradiography. Bright- and darkfield photomicrographs of uterine sections are shown at ×100. No positive signals were observed when sections were hybridized with the sense probe (data not shown). le, Luminal epithelium; ge, glandular epithelium; s, stroma; myo, myometrium. These experiments were repeated twice with three mice per group, and similar results were obtained.
    P Xylylenediamine, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Brinkmann Instruments koopmans p p
    In situ hybridization of PR mRNA in the ovariectomized mouse uterus after exposure to oil, antiestrogen (ICI), estrogens (E 2 and 4-OH-E 2 ), or xenobiotics (Kepone, o,p ′-DDT, and <t>p,p</t> <t>′-DDD),</t> or the antiestrogen plus the estrogens or xenobiotics. Adult ovariectomized mice were injected with: oil (A and B), E 2 (C and D), E 2 plus ICI (E and F), Kepone (G and H), Kepone plus ICI (I and J), 4-OH-E 2 (K and L), 4-OH-E 2 plus ICI (M and N), o,p ′-DDT (O and P), o,p ′-DDT plus ICI (Q and R), p,p ′-DDD (S and T), and p,p ′-DDD plus ICI (U and V). Mice were killed 6 h after the injections of natural estrogens and/or ICI and 2 h after the injections of xenobiotics and/or ICI. Results obtained 6 h after injection of oil are shown. ICI alone did not produce any difference in signals compared with those obtained after oil injection (data not shown). Paraformaldehydefixed frozen longitudinal sections (10 μ m) were mounted onto glass slides, prehybridized, and hybridized with 35 S-labeled PR sense or antisense cRNA probes. RNase A-resistant hybrids were detected after 5–10 days of autoradiography. Bright- and darkfield photomicrographs of uterine sections are shown at ×100. No positive signals were observed when sections were hybridized with the sense probe (data not shown). le, Luminal epithelium; ge, glandular epithelium; s, stroma; myo, myometrium. These experiments were repeated twice with three mice per group, and similar results were obtained.
    Koopmans P P, supplied by Brinkmann Instruments, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 11 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    koopmans p p - by Bioz Stars, 2020-08
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    95
    Selleck Chemicals 740y p
    In situ hybridization of PR mRNA in the ovariectomized mouse uterus after exposure to oil, antiestrogen (ICI), estrogens (E 2 and 4-OH-E 2 ), or xenobiotics (Kepone, o,p ′-DDT, and <t>p,p</t> <t>′-DDD),</t> or the antiestrogen plus the estrogens or xenobiotics. Adult ovariectomized mice were injected with: oil (A and B), E 2 (C and D), E 2 plus ICI (E and F), Kepone (G and H), Kepone plus ICI (I and J), 4-OH-E 2 (K and L), 4-OH-E 2 plus ICI (M and N), o,p ′-DDT (O and P), o,p ′-DDT plus ICI (Q and R), p,p ′-DDD (S and T), and p,p ′-DDD plus ICI (U and V). Mice were killed 6 h after the injections of natural estrogens and/or ICI and 2 h after the injections of xenobiotics and/or ICI. Results obtained 6 h after injection of oil are shown. ICI alone did not produce any difference in signals compared with those obtained after oil injection (data not shown). Paraformaldehydefixed frozen longitudinal sections (10 μ m) were mounted onto glass slides, prehybridized, and hybridized with 35 S-labeled PR sense or antisense cRNA probes. RNase A-resistant hybrids were detected after 5–10 days of autoradiography. Bright- and darkfield photomicrographs of uterine sections are shown at ×100. No positive signals were observed when sections were hybridized with the sense probe (data not shown). le, Luminal epithelium; ge, glandular epithelium; s, stroma; myo, myometrium. These experiments were repeated twice with three mice per group, and similar results were obtained.
    740y P, supplied by Selleck Chemicals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Millipore necdin deficient
    Analysis of N-cadherin-mediated effect on synaptic vesicle accumulation in cholinergic neurons. CHO cells transfected with EGFP, N-cadherin-EGFP, or N-cadherin-EGFP and <t>p120-catenin-EGFP</t> were plated on 5 days old brainstem cholinergic nuclei explants and cocultured for 2 days. Tissue cultures were fixed and immunostained with SV2 (A) or synapsin I (B) antibodies. (A,B) Confocal images of CHO cells transfected with EGFP (a,b,c) , N-cadherin-EGFP (d,e,f) , or N-cadherin-EGFP and p120-catenin-EGFP (g,h,i) . Panels (a) , (d) , and (g) , show SV2 or synapsin I immunostaining (red); panels (b) , (e) , and (h) , show merged images with EGFP fluorescence (green); and panel (c) , (f) , and (i) , show EGFP fluorescence alone. A white dashed line delineates the contour of the transfected CHO cell in each panel. (C) N-cadherin expression levels in CHO cells transfected with N-cadherin or cotransfected with N-cadherin and p120-catenin were measured as pixels of N-cadherin immunolabeling over CHO cell surface area (μm 2 ) (N-cadherin, n = 31 cells; N-cadherin and p120-catenin, n = 27 cells). (D) Analysis of (a) SV2 immunolabeled area (μm 2 ) over transfected CHO cells normalized to CHO cell surface area (μm 2 ), and (b) SV2 average gray value [arbitrary units (AU)] over transfected CHO cells normalized to CHO cell surface area (μm 2 ) [EGFP ( n = 18), N-cadherin ( n = 24), and N-cadherin and p120-catenin ( n = 24)]. (E) Analysis of (a) synapsin I immunolabeled area (pixels) normalized to neurite length (μm) in contact with transfected CHO cells, and (b) synapsin I total gray value (AU) per neurite length (μm) in contact with transfected CHO cells [EGFP ( n = 10), N-cadherin ( n = 14), and N-cadherin and p120-catenin ( n = 12)]. (C) Student's T -test, * p
    Necdin Deficient, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 12 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology p p 65
    Analysis of N-cadherin-mediated effect on synaptic vesicle accumulation in cholinergic neurons. CHO cells transfected with EGFP, N-cadherin-EGFP, or N-cadherin-EGFP and <t>p120-catenin-EGFP</t> were plated on 5 days old brainstem cholinergic nuclei explants and cocultured for 2 days. Tissue cultures were fixed and immunostained with SV2 (A) or synapsin I (B) antibodies. (A,B) Confocal images of CHO cells transfected with EGFP (a,b,c) , N-cadherin-EGFP (d,e,f) , or N-cadherin-EGFP and p120-catenin-EGFP (g,h,i) . Panels (a) , (d) , and (g) , show SV2 or synapsin I immunostaining (red); panels (b) , (e) , and (h) , show merged images with EGFP fluorescence (green); and panel (c) , (f) , and (i) , show EGFP fluorescence alone. A white dashed line delineates the contour of the transfected CHO cell in each panel. (C) N-cadherin expression levels in CHO cells transfected with N-cadherin or cotransfected with N-cadherin and p120-catenin were measured as pixels of N-cadherin immunolabeling over CHO cell surface area (μm 2 ) (N-cadherin, n = 31 cells; N-cadherin and p120-catenin, n = 27 cells). (D) Analysis of (a) SV2 immunolabeled area (μm 2 ) over transfected CHO cells normalized to CHO cell surface area (μm 2 ), and (b) SV2 average gray value [arbitrary units (AU)] over transfected CHO cells normalized to CHO cell surface area (μm 2 ) [EGFP ( n = 18), N-cadherin ( n = 24), and N-cadherin and p120-catenin ( n = 24)]. (E) Analysis of (a) synapsin I immunolabeled area (pixels) normalized to neurite length (μm) in contact with transfected CHO cells, and (b) synapsin I total gray value (AU) per neurite length (μm) in contact with transfected CHO cells [EGFP ( n = 10), N-cadherin ( n = 14), and N-cadherin and p120-catenin ( n = 12)]. (C) Student's T -test, * p
    P P 65, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    95
    Millipore p 010
    Analysis of N-cadherin-mediated effect on synaptic vesicle accumulation in cholinergic neurons. CHO cells transfected with EGFP, N-cadherin-EGFP, or N-cadherin-EGFP and <t>p120-catenin-EGFP</t> were plated on 5 days old brainstem cholinergic nuclei explants and cocultured for 2 days. Tissue cultures were fixed and immunostained with SV2 (A) or synapsin I (B) antibodies. (A,B) Confocal images of CHO cells transfected with EGFP (a,b,c) , N-cadherin-EGFP (d,e,f) , or N-cadherin-EGFP and p120-catenin-EGFP (g,h,i) . Panels (a) , (d) , and (g) , show SV2 or synapsin I immunostaining (red); panels (b) , (e) , and (h) , show merged images with EGFP fluorescence (green); and panel (c) , (f) , and (i) , show EGFP fluorescence alone. A white dashed line delineates the contour of the transfected CHO cell in each panel. (C) N-cadherin expression levels in CHO cells transfected with N-cadherin or cotransfected with N-cadherin and p120-catenin were measured as pixels of N-cadherin immunolabeling over CHO cell surface area (μm 2 ) (N-cadherin, n = 31 cells; N-cadherin and p120-catenin, n = 27 cells). (D) Analysis of (a) SV2 immunolabeled area (μm 2 ) over transfected CHO cells normalized to CHO cell surface area (μm 2 ), and (b) SV2 average gray value [arbitrary units (AU)] over transfected CHO cells normalized to CHO cell surface area (μm 2 ) [EGFP ( n = 18), N-cadherin ( n = 24), and N-cadherin and p120-catenin ( n = 24)]. (E) Analysis of (a) synapsin I immunolabeled area (pixels) normalized to neurite length (μm) in contact with transfected CHO cells, and (b) synapsin I total gray value (AU) per neurite length (μm) in contact with transfected CHO cells [EGFP ( n = 10), N-cadherin ( n = 14), and N-cadherin and p120-catenin ( n = 12)]. (C) Student's T -test, * p
    P 010, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Cell Signaling Technology Inc p s6k p t421 p s424
    Analysis of N-cadherin-mediated effect on synaptic vesicle accumulation in cholinergic neurons. CHO cells transfected with EGFP, N-cadherin-EGFP, or N-cadherin-EGFP and <t>p120-catenin-EGFP</t> were plated on 5 days old brainstem cholinergic nuclei explants and cocultured for 2 days. Tissue cultures were fixed and immunostained with SV2 (A) or synapsin I (B) antibodies. (A,B) Confocal images of CHO cells transfected with EGFP (a,b,c) , N-cadherin-EGFP (d,e,f) , or N-cadherin-EGFP and p120-catenin-EGFP (g,h,i) . Panels (a) , (d) , and (g) , show SV2 or synapsin I immunostaining (red); panels (b) , (e) , and (h) , show merged images with EGFP fluorescence (green); and panel (c) , (f) , and (i) , show EGFP fluorescence alone. A white dashed line delineates the contour of the transfected CHO cell in each panel. (C) N-cadherin expression levels in CHO cells transfected with N-cadherin or cotransfected with N-cadherin and p120-catenin were measured as pixels of N-cadherin immunolabeling over CHO cell surface area (μm 2 ) (N-cadherin, n = 31 cells; N-cadherin and p120-catenin, n = 27 cells). (D) Analysis of (a) SV2 immunolabeled area (μm 2 ) over transfected CHO cells normalized to CHO cell surface area (μm 2 ), and (b) SV2 average gray value [arbitrary units (AU)] over transfected CHO cells normalized to CHO cell surface area (μm 2 ) [EGFP ( n = 18), N-cadherin ( n = 24), and N-cadherin and p120-catenin ( n = 24)]. (E) Analysis of (a) synapsin I immunolabeled area (pixels) normalized to neurite length (μm) in contact with transfected CHO cells, and (b) synapsin I total gray value (AU) per neurite length (μm) in contact with transfected CHO cells [EGFP ( n = 10), N-cadherin ( n = 14), and N-cadherin and p120-catenin ( n = 12)]. (C) Student's T -test, * p
    P S6k P T421 P S424, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    96
    Abcam substance p
    Mucosal protection and chemical denervation effects of Lipotoxin on the ketamine-treated rats’ bladders. ( A ) Red blood cell debris under suburothelium of rats in the ketamine group (arrows). H E, reduced from ×200. ( B ) Faint immunostaining of ZO-1 on the urothelium of ketamine-treated rats, and much improvement with Lipotoxin treatment. Reduced from ×200 and ×630. ( C ) Immunostaining of substance P. The abundant <t>substance</t> P stains were found on the rat’s urothelium of the ketamine group. The peppercorn-like spots indicate the substance P staining (arrows). Reduced from ×200 and ×630. ( D and E ) Western blots of mucosal E-cadherin and detrusor SNAP25. Data are expressed as means ± SEM. n = 8. *p
    Substance P, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 93 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Tocris substance p
    LTP is induced by time-based electrical stimulation (TBS) in STT neurons. (A) Fast monosynaptic, excitatory postsynaptic currents recorded from an identified STT neuron. (Aa) CNQX (10 µM), AMPA receptor antagonist, completely abolished the evoked postsynaptic current, indicating AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC). (Ab) STT neurons showed inward current in response to bath application of <t>substance</t> P (2 µM) in the presence of TTX (0.5 µM), Na channel blocker. The effect of substance P was inhibited by L-703,606, NK1 receptor antagonist. (B) LTP is induced by time-based electrical stimulation (TBS). Averaged time course of the change in evoked EPSC (eEPSC) by low-frequency TBS (2 Hz, n=33). Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean. Note that 2 Hz TBS can induce LTP in most recorded STT neurons (33 out of 36 neurons). Bar graphs represent the normalized current amplitude (mean±sem). *** p
    Substance P, supplied by Tocris, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 75 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Tocris 740y p
    Oocyte apoptosis in Figla null ovary is caspase dependent. Newborn ovary pairs from Figla null (A) and normal mice (B) were cultured in vitro with or without 100 µM caspase inhibitors (pan caspase: Z-VAD-fmk; caspase 2: Z-VDVAD-fmk; caspase 3: Z-DEVD-fmk; caspase 8: Z-IETD-fmk; caspase 12: Z-ATAD-fmk), 2 µM Bafilomycin A1, or 100 µM bpV(pic) plus 500 µg/mL <t>740Y-P</t> for 2 (except for pancaspase which was for 7) days at 37 °C. (A) Oocyte loss in Figla null ovaries was significantly inhibited in the presence of the pancaspase inhibitor and to a lesser extent with inhibitor for caspase 8 and 3. (B) The presence of inhibitors did not morphologically or physiologically affect normal oocytes. In these assays, only ovary pairs with comparable numbers of healthy oocytes were selected for in vitro culture. The hilum of each ovary was juxtaposed on the filter (Fig. 1D) and images were obtained by laser scanning confocal microscopy from the opposite side of the ovary. Z projections of EGFP fluorescence intensity were collapsed into a single plane to visualize the number of germ cells before and after treatment with inhibitors. Scale bar, 100 µm.
    740y P, supplied by Tocris, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 10 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    Tocris p chlorophenylalanine
    Oocyte apoptosis in Figla null ovary is caspase dependent. Newborn ovary pairs from Figla null (A) and normal mice (B) were cultured in vitro with or without 100 µM caspase inhibitors (pan caspase: Z-VAD-fmk; caspase 2: Z-VDVAD-fmk; caspase 3: Z-DEVD-fmk; caspase 8: Z-IETD-fmk; caspase 12: Z-ATAD-fmk), 2 µM Bafilomycin A1, or 100 µM bpV(pic) plus 500 µg/mL <t>740Y-P</t> for 2 (except for pancaspase which was for 7) days at 37 °C. (A) Oocyte loss in Figla null ovaries was significantly inhibited in the presence of the pancaspase inhibitor and to a lesser extent with inhibitor for caspase 8 and 3. (B) The presence of inhibitors did not morphologically or physiologically affect normal oocytes. In these assays, only ovary pairs with comparable numbers of healthy oocytes were selected for in vitro culture. The hilum of each ovary was juxtaposed on the filter (Fig. 1D) and images were obtained by laser scanning confocal microscopy from the opposite side of the ovary. Z projections of EGFP fluorescence intensity were collapsed into a single plane to visualize the number of germ cells before and after treatment with inhibitors. Scale bar, 100 µm.
    P Chlorophenylalanine, supplied by Tocris, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Quanterix p tau181
    Oocyte apoptosis in Figla null ovary is caspase dependent. Newborn ovary pairs from Figla null (A) and normal mice (B) were cultured in vitro with or without 100 µM caspase inhibitors (pan caspase: Z-VAD-fmk; caspase 2: Z-VDVAD-fmk; caspase 3: Z-DEVD-fmk; caspase 8: Z-IETD-fmk; caspase 12: Z-ATAD-fmk), 2 µM Bafilomycin A1, or 100 µM bpV(pic) plus 500 µg/mL <t>740Y-P</t> for 2 (except for pancaspase which was for 7) days at 37 °C. (A) Oocyte loss in Figla null ovaries was significantly inhibited in the presence of the pancaspase inhibitor and to a lesser extent with inhibitor for caspase 8 and 3. (B) The presence of inhibitors did not morphologically or physiologically affect normal oocytes. In these assays, only ovary pairs with comparable numbers of healthy oocytes were selected for in vitro culture. The hilum of each ovary was juxtaposed on the filter (Fig. 1D) and images were obtained by laser scanning confocal microscopy from the opposite side of the ovary. Z projections of EGFP fluorescence intensity were collapsed into a single plane to visualize the number of germ cells before and after treatment with inhibitors. Scale bar, 100 µm.
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    (a) An MS/MS spectrum of a methanesulfonate ester. (b) An MS/MS spectrum of a benzenesulfonate ester. (c) An MS/MS spectrum of a p <t>-toluenesulfonate</t> ester.
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    (a) An MS/MS spectrum of a methanesulfonate ester. (b) An MS/MS spectrum of a benzenesulfonate ester. (c) An MS/MS spectrum of a p <t>-toluenesulfonate</t> ester.
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    1 H NMR spectrum of (A) chlorhexidine acetate with characteristic peaks at 6.85 ppm and 6.71 ppm (labels 1–5 correspond to labeled chemical structure of chlorhexidine and cleavage sites are labeled CS-1 and CS-2) (B) <t>p-chloroaniline</t> with characteristic peaks at 7.01 ppm and 6.56 ppm (labels a and b correspond to labeled chemical structure of PCA). (C) Reaction precipitate sampled at 60 minutes with n-propanol added at 0.4 mg/ml as an internal standard (labels 1–3 corresponding to labeled chemical structure of n-propanol). All spectra were taken with 400-MHz Varian NMR System at 25°C, acquiring 32 scans, in d 6 -DMSO solvent.
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    1 H NMR spectrum of (A) chlorhexidine acetate with characteristic peaks at 6.85 ppm and 6.71 ppm (labels 1–5 correspond to labeled chemical structure of chlorhexidine and cleavage sites are labeled CS-1 and CS-2) (B) <t>p-chloroaniline</t> with characteristic peaks at 7.01 ppm and 6.56 ppm (labels a and b correspond to labeled chemical structure of PCA). (C) Reaction precipitate sampled at 60 minutes with n-propanol added at 0.4 mg/ml as an internal standard (labels 1–3 corresponding to labeled chemical structure of n-propanol). All spectra were taken with 400-MHz Varian NMR System at 25°C, acquiring 32 scans, in d 6 -DMSO solvent.
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    Schematics of the three different immobilization routes. ( a ) spontaneous immobilization at a water–decane interface. Particles within the monolayer simply become immobile with time; ( b ) nylon interfacial polymerization. After the spontaneous interfacial adsorption of 1,6-diaminohexane from the water phase, sebacoyl dichloride is injected into the organic phase to start the polymerization; ( c ) polystyrene interfacial polymerization. After the spontaneous interfacial adsorption of the monomer (styrene) and crosslinker ( p <t>-divinylbenzene)</t> from the oil phase and of the initiator (Irgacure 2959) from the water phase, the system is illuminated by UV light to initiate the free radical polymerization of styrene at the interface.
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    Image Search Results


    In situ hybridization of PR mRNA in the ovariectomized mouse uterus after exposure to oil, antiestrogen (ICI), estrogens (E 2 and 4-OH-E 2 ), or xenobiotics (Kepone, o,p ′-DDT, and p,p ′-DDD), or the antiestrogen plus the estrogens or xenobiotics. Adult ovariectomized mice were injected with: oil (A and B), E 2 (C and D), E 2 plus ICI (E and F), Kepone (G and H), Kepone plus ICI (I and J), 4-OH-E 2 (K and L), 4-OH-E 2 plus ICI (M and N), o,p ′-DDT (O and P), o,p ′-DDT plus ICI (Q and R), p,p ′-DDD (S and T), and p,p ′-DDD plus ICI (U and V). Mice were killed 6 h after the injections of natural estrogens and/or ICI and 2 h after the injections of xenobiotics and/or ICI. Results obtained 6 h after injection of oil are shown. ICI alone did not produce any difference in signals compared with those obtained after oil injection (data not shown). Paraformaldehydefixed frozen longitudinal sections (10 μ m) were mounted onto glass slides, prehybridized, and hybridized with 35 S-labeled PR sense or antisense cRNA probes. RNase A-resistant hybrids were detected after 5–10 days of autoradiography. Bright- and darkfield photomicrographs of uterine sections are shown at ×100. No positive signals were observed when sections were hybridized with the sense probe (data not shown). le, Luminal epithelium; ge, glandular epithelium; s, stroma; myo, myometrium. These experiments were repeated twice with three mice per group, and similar results were obtained.

    Journal: Endocrinology

    Article Title: Differential Spatiotemporal Regulation of Lactoferrin and Progesterone Receptor Genes in the Mouse Uterus by Primary Estrogen, Catechol Estrogen, and Xenoestrogen

    doi: 10.1210/endo.139.6.6051

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In situ hybridization of PR mRNA in the ovariectomized mouse uterus after exposure to oil, antiestrogen (ICI), estrogens (E 2 and 4-OH-E 2 ), or xenobiotics (Kepone, o,p ′-DDT, and p,p ′-DDD), or the antiestrogen plus the estrogens or xenobiotics. Adult ovariectomized mice were injected with: oil (A and B), E 2 (C and D), E 2 plus ICI (E and F), Kepone (G and H), Kepone plus ICI (I and J), 4-OH-E 2 (K and L), 4-OH-E 2 plus ICI (M and N), o,p ′-DDT (O and P), o,p ′-DDT plus ICI (Q and R), p,p ′-DDD (S and T), and p,p ′-DDD plus ICI (U and V). Mice were killed 6 h after the injections of natural estrogens and/or ICI and 2 h after the injections of xenobiotics and/or ICI. Results obtained 6 h after injection of oil are shown. ICI alone did not produce any difference in signals compared with those obtained after oil injection (data not shown). Paraformaldehydefixed frozen longitudinal sections (10 μ m) were mounted onto glass slides, prehybridized, and hybridized with 35 S-labeled PR sense or antisense cRNA probes. RNase A-resistant hybrids were detected after 5–10 days of autoradiography. Bright- and darkfield photomicrographs of uterine sections are shown at ×100. No positive signals were observed when sections were hybridized with the sense probe (data not shown). le, Luminal epithelium; ge, glandular epithelium; s, stroma; myo, myometrium. These experiments were repeated twice with three mice per group, and similar results were obtained.

    Article Snippet: E2 , 4-OH-E2 , and p,p ′-DDD were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO).

    Techniques: In Situ Hybridization, Mouse Assay, Injection, Labeling, Autoradiography

    Temporal effects of Kepone, o,p′-DDT, and p,p′-DDD on uterine expression of LF and PR mRNAs in ovariectomized mice. Adult ovariectomized mice were given a single injection of Kepone (A, 7.5 mg/kg), o,p ′-DDT (B, 7.5 mg/kg), and p,p ′-DDD (C, 7.5 mg/kg) and killed at the times indicated. Uteri of animals exposed to oil for 24 h served as the control group. Total uterine RNA (6 μ g) pooled from four or five mice was used for each group. Autoradiographic exposures were 2 h for rpL7, 3 h for LF, and 12 h for PR. These experiments were repeated twice with independent RNA samples, and the average value with the range of responses from two experiments are shown in the bar plots. Fold increases were calculated with respect to oil, and the increases were normalized with rpL7 mRNA expression.

    Journal: Endocrinology

    Article Title: Differential Spatiotemporal Regulation of Lactoferrin and Progesterone Receptor Genes in the Mouse Uterus by Primary Estrogen, Catechol Estrogen, and Xenoestrogen

    doi: 10.1210/endo.139.6.6051

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Temporal effects of Kepone, o,p′-DDT, and p,p′-DDD on uterine expression of LF and PR mRNAs in ovariectomized mice. Adult ovariectomized mice were given a single injection of Kepone (A, 7.5 mg/kg), o,p ′-DDT (B, 7.5 mg/kg), and p,p ′-DDD (C, 7.5 mg/kg) and killed at the times indicated. Uteri of animals exposed to oil for 24 h served as the control group. Total uterine RNA (6 μ g) pooled from four or five mice was used for each group. Autoradiographic exposures were 2 h for rpL7, 3 h for LF, and 12 h for PR. These experiments were repeated twice with independent RNA samples, and the average value with the range of responses from two experiments are shown in the bar plots. Fold increases were calculated with respect to oil, and the increases were normalized with rpL7 mRNA expression.

    Article Snippet: E2 , 4-OH-E2 , and p,p ′-DDD were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO).

    Techniques: Expressing, Mouse Assay, Injection

    Effects of ICI on uterine expression of LF in response to estrogens and xenobiotics in ovariectomized mice. Adult ovariectomized mice were given a single injection of oil, E 2 (10 μ g/kg), 4-OH-E 2 (10 μ g/kg), Kepone (7.5 mg/kg), o,p ′-DDT (7.5 mg/kg), p,p ′-DDD (7.5 mg/kg), or ICI (1 or 20 mg/kg) or were given ICI 30 min before the injection of each of the other compounds. Mice were killed 6 h after injection of the xenobiotics and/or ICI (B) and 24 h after the injection of estrogens and/or ICI (A). Total uterine RNA (6 μ g) pooled from three or four mice was used for each group. These experiments were repeated twice with independent RNA samples, and the average value with the range of responses from two experiments are shown in the bar plots. Fold increases were calculated with respect to oil, and the increases were normalized with rpL7 mRNA expression.

    Journal: Endocrinology

    Article Title: Differential Spatiotemporal Regulation of Lactoferrin and Progesterone Receptor Genes in the Mouse Uterus by Primary Estrogen, Catechol Estrogen, and Xenoestrogen

    doi: 10.1210/endo.139.6.6051

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of ICI on uterine expression of LF in response to estrogens and xenobiotics in ovariectomized mice. Adult ovariectomized mice were given a single injection of oil, E 2 (10 μ g/kg), 4-OH-E 2 (10 μ g/kg), Kepone (7.5 mg/kg), o,p ′-DDT (7.5 mg/kg), p,p ′-DDD (7.5 mg/kg), or ICI (1 or 20 mg/kg) or were given ICI 30 min before the injection of each of the other compounds. Mice were killed 6 h after injection of the xenobiotics and/or ICI (B) and 24 h after the injection of estrogens and/or ICI (A). Total uterine RNA (6 μ g) pooled from three or four mice was used for each group. These experiments were repeated twice with independent RNA samples, and the average value with the range of responses from two experiments are shown in the bar plots. Fold increases were calculated with respect to oil, and the increases were normalized with rpL7 mRNA expression.

    Article Snippet: E2 , 4-OH-E2 , and p,p ′-DDD were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO).

    Techniques: Expressing, Mouse Assay, Injection

    Effects of ICI on uterine expression of PR mRNA in response to estrogens or xenobiotics in ovariectomized mice. Adult ovariectomized mice were given a single injection of oil, E 2 (10 μ g/kg), 4-OH-E 2 (10 μ g/kg), Kepone (7.5 mg/kg), o,p ′-DDT (7.5 mg/kg), p,p ′-DDD (7.5 mg/kg), or ICI (20 mg/kg) or were given ICI 30 min before the injection of the other compounds. Mice were killed 6 h after the injections of estrogens and/or ICI (A) or 2 h after xenobiotics and/or ICI (B), respectively. Total uterine RNA (6 μ g) pooled from four or five mice was used for each group. The experiments were repeated twice with independent RNA samples, and the average value with the range of responses from two experiments are shown in the bar plots. Fold increases were calculated with respect to oil, and the increases were normalized with rpL7 mRNA expression.

    Journal: Endocrinology

    Article Title: Differential Spatiotemporal Regulation of Lactoferrin and Progesterone Receptor Genes in the Mouse Uterus by Primary Estrogen, Catechol Estrogen, and Xenoestrogen

    doi: 10.1210/endo.139.6.6051

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of ICI on uterine expression of PR mRNA in response to estrogens or xenobiotics in ovariectomized mice. Adult ovariectomized mice were given a single injection of oil, E 2 (10 μ g/kg), 4-OH-E 2 (10 μ g/kg), Kepone (7.5 mg/kg), o,p ′-DDT (7.5 mg/kg), p,p ′-DDD (7.5 mg/kg), or ICI (20 mg/kg) or were given ICI 30 min before the injection of the other compounds. Mice were killed 6 h after the injections of estrogens and/or ICI (A) or 2 h after xenobiotics and/or ICI (B), respectively. Total uterine RNA (6 μ g) pooled from four or five mice was used for each group. The experiments were repeated twice with independent RNA samples, and the average value with the range of responses from two experiments are shown in the bar plots. Fold increases were calculated with respect to oil, and the increases were normalized with rpL7 mRNA expression.

    Article Snippet: E2 , 4-OH-E2 , and p,p ′-DDD were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO).

    Techniques: Expressing, Mouse Assay, Injection

    In situ hybridization of LF mRNA in the ovariectomized mouse uterus after exposure to oil, antiestrogen (ICI), estrogens (E 2 and 4-OH-E 2 ), or xenobiotics (Kepone, o,p ′-DDT, and p,p ′-DDD), or antiestrogen plus these compounds. Adult ovariectomized mice were injected with: A, oil; B, ICI; C, E 2 ; D, E 2 plus ICI; E, 4-OH-E 2 ; F, 4-OH-E 2 plus ICI; G, Kepone; H, Kepone plus ICI; I, o,p ′-DDT; J, o,p ′-DDT plus ICI; K, p,p ′-DDD; and L, p,p ′-DDD plus ICI. Mice injected with the natural estrogens and/or ICI were killed 24 h after injections, whereas those given xenobiotics and/or ICI were killed after 6 h. Results with control mice injected with oil or ICI are shown at 24 h. Hybridization signals 6 h after oil or ICI injections were similar to those obtained at 24 h (data not shown). Paraformaldehyde-fixed frozen longitudinal sections (10 μ m) were mounted onto glass slides, prehybridized, and hybridized with 35 S-labeled LF sense or antisense cRNA probes. RNase A-resistant hybrids were detected after 3–5 days of autoradiography. Darkfield photomicrographs of uterine sections are shown at ×100. No positive signals were observed when sections were hybridized with the sense probe (data not shown). le, Luminal epithelium; ge, glandular epithelium; s, stroma; myo, myometrium. These experiments were repeated twice with three mice in each group, and similar results were obtained.

    Journal: Endocrinology

    Article Title: Differential Spatiotemporal Regulation of Lactoferrin and Progesterone Receptor Genes in the Mouse Uterus by Primary Estrogen, Catechol Estrogen, and Xenoestrogen

    doi: 10.1210/endo.139.6.6051

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In situ hybridization of LF mRNA in the ovariectomized mouse uterus after exposure to oil, antiestrogen (ICI), estrogens (E 2 and 4-OH-E 2 ), or xenobiotics (Kepone, o,p ′-DDT, and p,p ′-DDD), or antiestrogen plus these compounds. Adult ovariectomized mice were injected with: A, oil; B, ICI; C, E 2 ; D, E 2 plus ICI; E, 4-OH-E 2 ; F, 4-OH-E 2 plus ICI; G, Kepone; H, Kepone plus ICI; I, o,p ′-DDT; J, o,p ′-DDT plus ICI; K, p,p ′-DDD; and L, p,p ′-DDD plus ICI. Mice injected with the natural estrogens and/or ICI were killed 24 h after injections, whereas those given xenobiotics and/or ICI were killed after 6 h. Results with control mice injected with oil or ICI are shown at 24 h. Hybridization signals 6 h after oil or ICI injections were similar to those obtained at 24 h (data not shown). Paraformaldehyde-fixed frozen longitudinal sections (10 μ m) were mounted onto glass slides, prehybridized, and hybridized with 35 S-labeled LF sense or antisense cRNA probes. RNase A-resistant hybrids were detected after 3–5 days of autoradiography. Darkfield photomicrographs of uterine sections are shown at ×100. No positive signals were observed when sections were hybridized with the sense probe (data not shown). le, Luminal epithelium; ge, glandular epithelium; s, stroma; myo, myometrium. These experiments were repeated twice with three mice in each group, and similar results were obtained.

    Article Snippet: E2 , 4-OH-E2 , and p,p ′-DDD were purchased from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, MO).

    Techniques: In Situ Hybridization, Mouse Assay, Injection, Hybridization, Labeling, Autoradiography

    Analysis of N-cadherin-mediated effect on synaptic vesicle accumulation in cholinergic neurons. CHO cells transfected with EGFP, N-cadherin-EGFP, or N-cadherin-EGFP and p120-catenin-EGFP were plated on 5 days old brainstem cholinergic nuclei explants and cocultured for 2 days. Tissue cultures were fixed and immunostained with SV2 (A) or synapsin I (B) antibodies. (A,B) Confocal images of CHO cells transfected with EGFP (a,b,c) , N-cadherin-EGFP (d,e,f) , or N-cadherin-EGFP and p120-catenin-EGFP (g,h,i) . Panels (a) , (d) , and (g) , show SV2 or synapsin I immunostaining (red); panels (b) , (e) , and (h) , show merged images with EGFP fluorescence (green); and panel (c) , (f) , and (i) , show EGFP fluorescence alone. A white dashed line delineates the contour of the transfected CHO cell in each panel. (C) N-cadherin expression levels in CHO cells transfected with N-cadherin or cotransfected with N-cadherin and p120-catenin were measured as pixels of N-cadherin immunolabeling over CHO cell surface area (μm 2 ) (N-cadherin, n = 31 cells; N-cadherin and p120-catenin, n = 27 cells). (D) Analysis of (a) SV2 immunolabeled area (μm 2 ) over transfected CHO cells normalized to CHO cell surface area (μm 2 ), and (b) SV2 average gray value [arbitrary units (AU)] over transfected CHO cells normalized to CHO cell surface area (μm 2 ) [EGFP ( n = 18), N-cadherin ( n = 24), and N-cadherin and p120-catenin ( n = 24)]. (E) Analysis of (a) synapsin I immunolabeled area (pixels) normalized to neurite length (μm) in contact with transfected CHO cells, and (b) synapsin I total gray value (AU) per neurite length (μm) in contact with transfected CHO cells [EGFP ( n = 10), N-cadherin ( n = 14), and N-cadherin and p120-catenin ( n = 12)]. (C) Student's T -test, * p

    Journal: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience

    Article Title: N-cadherin induces partial differentiation of cholinergic presynaptic terminals in heterologous cultures of brainstem neurons and CHO cells

    doi: 10.3389/fnsyn.2012.00006

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Analysis of N-cadherin-mediated effect on synaptic vesicle accumulation in cholinergic neurons. CHO cells transfected with EGFP, N-cadherin-EGFP, or N-cadherin-EGFP and p120-catenin-EGFP were plated on 5 days old brainstem cholinergic nuclei explants and cocultured for 2 days. Tissue cultures were fixed and immunostained with SV2 (A) or synapsin I (B) antibodies. (A,B) Confocal images of CHO cells transfected with EGFP (a,b,c) , N-cadherin-EGFP (d,e,f) , or N-cadherin-EGFP and p120-catenin-EGFP (g,h,i) . Panels (a) , (d) , and (g) , show SV2 or synapsin I immunostaining (red); panels (b) , (e) , and (h) , show merged images with EGFP fluorescence (green); and panel (c) , (f) , and (i) , show EGFP fluorescence alone. A white dashed line delineates the contour of the transfected CHO cell in each panel. (C) N-cadherin expression levels in CHO cells transfected with N-cadherin or cotransfected with N-cadherin and p120-catenin were measured as pixels of N-cadherin immunolabeling over CHO cell surface area (μm 2 ) (N-cadherin, n = 31 cells; N-cadherin and p120-catenin, n = 27 cells). (D) Analysis of (a) SV2 immunolabeled area (μm 2 ) over transfected CHO cells normalized to CHO cell surface area (μm 2 ), and (b) SV2 average gray value [arbitrary units (AU)] over transfected CHO cells normalized to CHO cell surface area (μm 2 ) [EGFP ( n = 18), N-cadherin ( n = 24), and N-cadherin and p120-catenin ( n = 24)]. (E) Analysis of (a) synapsin I immunolabeled area (pixels) normalized to neurite length (μm) in contact with transfected CHO cells, and (b) synapsin I total gray value (AU) per neurite length (μm) in contact with transfected CHO cells [EGFP ( n = 10), N-cadherin ( n = 14), and N-cadherin and p120-catenin ( n = 12)]. (C) Student's T -test, * p

    Article Snippet: To detect N-cadherin and p120-catenin, cells were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, blocked and permeabilized with 5% donkey serum containing 0.2% Triton X-100 (Sigma) in D-PBS, and incubated with anti N-cadherin cytoplasmic domain mouse monoclonal antibodies (clone 32/N-cadherin) (BD Bioscience), washed, and incubated with an anti mouse IgG Cy3-conjugated secondary antibody (Jackson ImmunoResearch). p120-catenin was immunodetected with a mouse monoclonal antibody (Invitrogen, 6H11).

    Techniques: Transfection, Immunostaining, Fluorescence, Expressing, Immunolabeling

    (A) Cultured COS-7, CHO, HEK293, and L cells were lysed and analyzed by Western blot with antibodies against N-cadherin, E-cadherin, and β-tubulin. N-cadherin was detected in COS-7 and HEK293 cells, while E-cadherin detected in COS-7 cells and at very low levels in HEK293 cells. CHO and L cells were devoid of both cadherins. (B) CHO cells transfected with EGFP ( a , c , and e ) or with N-cadherin-EGFP ( b , d , and f ) were fixed 48 h after transfection and immunolabeled with anti p120-catenin antibodies and Cy3-conjugated secondary antibodies (red). In EGFP transfected cells, p120-catenin was localized to the cytosol (asterisks) while expression of N-cadherin shifted the subcellular localization of p120-catenin to the cell membrane (arrowheads in b , d , and f ). (C) Dorsal (a) and ventral (b) views of E16 ChAT BAC EGFP mouse brainstem showing EGFP expressing nuclei in the dorsomedial region (a) and in the ventrolateral quadrant (b) corresponding to the localization of preganglionic parasympathetic neurons [ (a) arrows], and of the facial motor nucleus [ (b) arrows], respectively. (D) N-cadherin transfected CHO cells were cocultured with 5 days old brainstem tissue explants of cholinergic nuclei expressing EGFP for 2 days, fixed, and immunostained for N-cadherin. (a,b) N-cadherin (red) expressing CHO cell (asterisks) interacting with a EGFP and N-cadherin expressing cholinergic axon (arrow). The contour of the transfected CHO cell is delineated with a white dashed line. (c) The micrograph shown in panel (a) was processed with the inversion tool of Adobe Photoshop to facilitate the visualization of the N-cadherin transfected CHO cell (asterisk) and non-transfected CHO cells [arrowhead in (a) and (c) ] that do not express N-cadherin. The contour of the N-cadherin expressing CHO is delineated with a dashed red line and the arrow points to the contacting axon. (d) The EGFP signal from panel (b) was selected and copied to a new panel with white background to visualize the axons (arrow) from the brainstem explant growing on top of the N-cadherin expressing CHO cell delineated with a dashed red line (asterisk). Scale bars in (B) , 5 μm; in (D) , 10 μm.

    Journal: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience

    Article Title: N-cadherin induces partial differentiation of cholinergic presynaptic terminals in heterologous cultures of brainstem neurons and CHO cells

    doi: 10.3389/fnsyn.2012.00006

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Cultured COS-7, CHO, HEK293, and L cells were lysed and analyzed by Western blot with antibodies against N-cadherin, E-cadherin, and β-tubulin. N-cadherin was detected in COS-7 and HEK293 cells, while E-cadherin detected in COS-7 cells and at very low levels in HEK293 cells. CHO and L cells were devoid of both cadherins. (B) CHO cells transfected with EGFP ( a , c , and e ) or with N-cadherin-EGFP ( b , d , and f ) were fixed 48 h after transfection and immunolabeled with anti p120-catenin antibodies and Cy3-conjugated secondary antibodies (red). In EGFP transfected cells, p120-catenin was localized to the cytosol (asterisks) while expression of N-cadherin shifted the subcellular localization of p120-catenin to the cell membrane (arrowheads in b , d , and f ). (C) Dorsal (a) and ventral (b) views of E16 ChAT BAC EGFP mouse brainstem showing EGFP expressing nuclei in the dorsomedial region (a) and in the ventrolateral quadrant (b) corresponding to the localization of preganglionic parasympathetic neurons [ (a) arrows], and of the facial motor nucleus [ (b) arrows], respectively. (D) N-cadherin transfected CHO cells were cocultured with 5 days old brainstem tissue explants of cholinergic nuclei expressing EGFP for 2 days, fixed, and immunostained for N-cadherin. (a,b) N-cadherin (red) expressing CHO cell (asterisks) interacting with a EGFP and N-cadherin expressing cholinergic axon (arrow). The contour of the transfected CHO cell is delineated with a white dashed line. (c) The micrograph shown in panel (a) was processed with the inversion tool of Adobe Photoshop to facilitate the visualization of the N-cadherin transfected CHO cell (asterisk) and non-transfected CHO cells [arrowhead in (a) and (c) ] that do not express N-cadherin. The contour of the N-cadherin expressing CHO is delineated with a dashed red line and the arrow points to the contacting axon. (d) The EGFP signal from panel (b) was selected and copied to a new panel with white background to visualize the axons (arrow) from the brainstem explant growing on top of the N-cadherin expressing CHO cell delineated with a dashed red line (asterisk). Scale bars in (B) , 5 μm; in (D) , 10 μm.

    Article Snippet: To detect N-cadherin and p120-catenin, cells were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde, blocked and permeabilized with 5% donkey serum containing 0.2% Triton X-100 (Sigma) in D-PBS, and incubated with anti N-cadherin cytoplasmic domain mouse monoclonal antibodies (clone 32/N-cadherin) (BD Bioscience), washed, and incubated with an anti mouse IgG Cy3-conjugated secondary antibody (Jackson ImmunoResearch). p120-catenin was immunodetected with a mouse monoclonal antibody (Invitrogen, 6H11).

    Techniques: Cell Culture, Western Blot, Transfection, Immunolabeling, Expressing, BAC Assay

    Mucosal protection and chemical denervation effects of Lipotoxin on the ketamine-treated rats’ bladders. ( A ) Red blood cell debris under suburothelium of rats in the ketamine group (arrows). H E, reduced from ×200. ( B ) Faint immunostaining of ZO-1 on the urothelium of ketamine-treated rats, and much improvement with Lipotoxin treatment. Reduced from ×200 and ×630. ( C ) Immunostaining of substance P. The abundant substance P stains were found on the rat’s urothelium of the ketamine group. The peppercorn-like spots indicate the substance P staining (arrows). Reduced from ×200 and ×630. ( D and E ) Western blots of mucosal E-cadherin and detrusor SNAP25. Data are expressed as means ± SEM. n = 8. *p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Potential Orphan Drug Therapy of Intravesical Liposomal Onabotulinumtoxin-A for Ketamine-Induced Cystitis by Mucosal Protection and Anti-inflammation in a Rat Model

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-24239-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mucosal protection and chemical denervation effects of Lipotoxin on the ketamine-treated rats’ bladders. ( A ) Red blood cell debris under suburothelium of rats in the ketamine group (arrows). H E, reduced from ×200. ( B ) Faint immunostaining of ZO-1 on the urothelium of ketamine-treated rats, and much improvement with Lipotoxin treatment. Reduced from ×200 and ×630. ( C ) Immunostaining of substance P. The abundant substance P stains were found on the rat’s urothelium of the ketamine group. The peppercorn-like spots indicate the substance P staining (arrows). Reduced from ×200 and ×630. ( D and E ) Western blots of mucosal E-cadherin and detrusor SNAP25. Data are expressed as means ± SEM. n = 8. *p

    Article Snippet: A primary antibody of ZO-1 (1: 500 dilution, Proteintech) or substance P (1: 1000 dilution, Abcam) was incubated with the sections.

    Techniques: Immunostaining, Staining, Western Blot

    LTP is induced by time-based electrical stimulation (TBS) in STT neurons. (A) Fast monosynaptic, excitatory postsynaptic currents recorded from an identified STT neuron. (Aa) CNQX (10 µM), AMPA receptor antagonist, completely abolished the evoked postsynaptic current, indicating AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC). (Ab) STT neurons showed inward current in response to bath application of substance P (2 µM) in the presence of TTX (0.5 µM), Na channel blocker. The effect of substance P was inhibited by L-703,606, NK1 receptor antagonist. (B) LTP is induced by time-based electrical stimulation (TBS). Averaged time course of the change in evoked EPSC (eEPSC) by low-frequency TBS (2 Hz, n=33). Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean. Note that 2 Hz TBS can induce LTP in most recorded STT neurons (33 out of 36 neurons). Bar graphs represent the normalized current amplitude (mean±sem). *** p

    Journal: The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology : Official Journal of the Korean Physiological Society and the Korean Society of Pharmacology

    Article Title: Long-Term Potentiation of Excitatory Synaptic Strength in Spinothalamic Tract Neurons of the Rat Spinal Cord

    doi: 10.4196/kjpp.2013.17.6.553

    Figure Lengend Snippet: LTP is induced by time-based electrical stimulation (TBS) in STT neurons. (A) Fast monosynaptic, excitatory postsynaptic currents recorded from an identified STT neuron. (Aa) CNQX (10 µM), AMPA receptor antagonist, completely abolished the evoked postsynaptic current, indicating AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC). (Ab) STT neurons showed inward current in response to bath application of substance P (2 µM) in the presence of TTX (0.5 µM), Na channel blocker. The effect of substance P was inhibited by L-703,606, NK1 receptor antagonist. (B) LTP is induced by time-based electrical stimulation (TBS). Averaged time course of the change in evoked EPSC (eEPSC) by low-frequency TBS (2 Hz, n=33). Error bars indicate the standard error of the mean. Note that 2 Hz TBS can induce LTP in most recorded STT neurons (33 out of 36 neurons). Bar graphs represent the normalized current amplitude (mean±sem). *** p

    Article Snippet: TTX, CNQX, substance P, and bicuculline were purchased from Tocris (Ellisville, MO, USA).

    Techniques:

    Oocyte apoptosis in Figla null ovary is caspase dependent. Newborn ovary pairs from Figla null (A) and normal mice (B) were cultured in vitro with or without 100 µM caspase inhibitors (pan caspase: Z-VAD-fmk; caspase 2: Z-VDVAD-fmk; caspase 3: Z-DEVD-fmk; caspase 8: Z-IETD-fmk; caspase 12: Z-ATAD-fmk), 2 µM Bafilomycin A1, or 100 µM bpV(pic) plus 500 µg/mL 740Y-P for 2 (except for pancaspase which was for 7) days at 37 °C. (A) Oocyte loss in Figla null ovaries was significantly inhibited in the presence of the pancaspase inhibitor and to a lesser extent with inhibitor for caspase 8 and 3. (B) The presence of inhibitors did not morphologically or physiologically affect normal oocytes. In these assays, only ovary pairs with comparable numbers of healthy oocytes were selected for in vitro culture. The hilum of each ovary was juxtaposed on the filter (Fig. 1D) and images were obtained by laser scanning confocal microscopy from the opposite side of the ovary. Z projections of EGFP fluorescence intensity were collapsed into a single plane to visualize the number of germ cells before and after treatment with inhibitors. Scale bar, 100 µm.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Figla-Cre Transgenic Mice Expressing Myristoylated EGFP in Germ Cells Provide a Model for Investigating Perinatal Oocyte Dynamics

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0084477

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Oocyte apoptosis in Figla null ovary is caspase dependent. Newborn ovary pairs from Figla null (A) and normal mice (B) were cultured in vitro with or without 100 µM caspase inhibitors (pan caspase: Z-VAD-fmk; caspase 2: Z-VDVAD-fmk; caspase 3: Z-DEVD-fmk; caspase 8: Z-IETD-fmk; caspase 12: Z-ATAD-fmk), 2 µM Bafilomycin A1, or 100 µM bpV(pic) plus 500 µg/mL 740Y-P for 2 (except for pancaspase which was for 7) days at 37 °C. (A) Oocyte loss in Figla null ovaries was significantly inhibited in the presence of the pancaspase inhibitor and to a lesser extent with inhibitor for caspase 8 and 3. (B) The presence of inhibitors did not morphologically or physiologically affect normal oocytes. In these assays, only ovary pairs with comparable numbers of healthy oocytes were selected for in vitro culture. The hilum of each ovary was juxtaposed on the filter (Fig. 1D) and images were obtained by laser scanning confocal microscopy from the opposite side of the ovary. Z projections of EGFP fluorescence intensity were collapsed into a single plane to visualize the number of germ cells before and after treatment with inhibitors. Scale bar, 100 µm.

    Article Snippet: 740Y-P was from Tocris (Bristol, UK).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Cell Culture, In Vitro, Confocal Microscopy, Fluorescence

    (a) An MS/MS spectrum of a methanesulfonate ester. (b) An MS/MS spectrum of a benzenesulfonate ester. (c) An MS/MS spectrum of a p -toluenesulfonate ester.

    Journal: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry

    Article Title: Simultaneous Determination of 15 Sulfonate Ester Impurities in Phentolamine Mesylate, Amlodipine Besylate, and Tosufloxacin Tosylate by LC-APCI-MS/MS

    doi: 10.1155/2019/4059765

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a) An MS/MS spectrum of a methanesulfonate ester. (b) An MS/MS spectrum of a benzenesulfonate ester. (c) An MS/MS spectrum of a p -toluenesulfonate ester.

    Article Snippet: Materials Reference standards were obtained as follows: the methyl (99%) and ethyl (98%) esters of methanesulfonate, methyl ester of benzenesulfonate (98%), and ethyl (98.0%) and isopropyl (97%) esters of p -toluenesulfonate were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA); the propyl (98.0%) and isopropyl (98.0%) esters of methanesulfonate, ethyl (98.0%) and n-butyl (98.0%) esters of benzenesulfonate, and methyl (98.0%), propyl (98.0%), and n-butyl (97.0%) esters of p -toluenesulfonate were obtained from Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (Chuo-ku, Tokyo, Japan); the propyl ester of benzenesulfonate (97%) was provided by Bide Pharmatech Ltd. (Shanghai, China); the isopropyl ester of benzenesulfonate (98%) was purchased from Adamas Reagent Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China); and the n -butyl ester of methanesulfonate (98.5%) was provided from J & K Scientific Ltd. (Beijing, China).

    Techniques: Mass Spectrometry

    (a) The 15 analytes in methanol containing 0.25% HAc (80 ng/mL): peaks 1–5, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, and butyl methanesulfonate, respectively; peaks 6–10, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, and butyl benzenesulfonate, respectively; and peaks 11–15, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, and butyl p -toluenesulfonate, respectively. (b) An MRM chromatogram of the extracted drug product of phentolamine mesylate. (c) An MRM chromatogram of the 15 analytes (50 ng/mL methanesulfonate esters and 10 ng/mL benzenesulfonate and p -toluenesulfonate esters) presented in the phentolamine mesylate tablet.

    Journal: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry

    Article Title: Simultaneous Determination of 15 Sulfonate Ester Impurities in Phentolamine Mesylate, Amlodipine Besylate, and Tosufloxacin Tosylate by LC-APCI-MS/MS

    doi: 10.1155/2019/4059765

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a) The 15 analytes in methanol containing 0.25% HAc (80 ng/mL): peaks 1–5, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, and butyl methanesulfonate, respectively; peaks 6–10, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, and butyl benzenesulfonate, respectively; and peaks 11–15, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, and butyl p -toluenesulfonate, respectively. (b) An MRM chromatogram of the extracted drug product of phentolamine mesylate. (c) An MRM chromatogram of the 15 analytes (50 ng/mL methanesulfonate esters and 10 ng/mL benzenesulfonate and p -toluenesulfonate esters) presented in the phentolamine mesylate tablet.

    Article Snippet: Materials Reference standards were obtained as follows: the methyl (99%) and ethyl (98%) esters of methanesulfonate, methyl ester of benzenesulfonate (98%), and ethyl (98.0%) and isopropyl (97%) esters of p -toluenesulfonate were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Co. (St. Louis, MO, USA); the propyl (98.0%) and isopropyl (98.0%) esters of methanesulfonate, ethyl (98.0%) and n-butyl (98.0%) esters of benzenesulfonate, and methyl (98.0%), propyl (98.0%), and n-butyl (97.0%) esters of p -toluenesulfonate were obtained from Tokyo Chemical Industry Co., Ltd. (Chuo-ku, Tokyo, Japan); the propyl ester of benzenesulfonate (97%) was provided by Bide Pharmatech Ltd. (Shanghai, China); the isopropyl ester of benzenesulfonate (98%) was purchased from Adamas Reagent Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China); and the n -butyl ester of methanesulfonate (98.5%) was provided from J & K Scientific Ltd. (Beijing, China).

    Techniques: HAC Assay

    1 H NMR spectrum of (A) chlorhexidine acetate with characteristic peaks at 6.85 ppm and 6.71 ppm (labels 1–5 correspond to labeled chemical structure of chlorhexidine and cleavage sites are labeled CS-1 and CS-2) (B) p-chloroaniline with characteristic peaks at 7.01 ppm and 6.56 ppm (labels a and b correspond to labeled chemical structure of PCA). (C) Reaction precipitate sampled at 60 minutes with n-propanol added at 0.4 mg/ml as an internal standard (labels 1–3 corresponding to labeled chemical structure of n-propanol). All spectra were taken with 400-MHz Varian NMR System at 25°C, acquiring 32 scans, in d 6 -DMSO solvent.

    Journal: Journal of endodontics

    Article Title: An In Vitro Spectroscopic Analysis to Determine Whether para-Chloroaniline is Produced from Mixing Sodium Hypochlorite and Chlorhexidine

    doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2009.10.028

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 1 H NMR spectrum of (A) chlorhexidine acetate with characteristic peaks at 6.85 ppm and 6.71 ppm (labels 1–5 correspond to labeled chemical structure of chlorhexidine and cleavage sites are labeled CS-1 and CS-2) (B) p-chloroaniline with characteristic peaks at 7.01 ppm and 6.56 ppm (labels a and b correspond to labeled chemical structure of PCA). (C) Reaction precipitate sampled at 60 minutes with n-propanol added at 0.4 mg/ml as an internal standard (labels 1–3 corresponding to labeled chemical structure of n-propanol). All spectra were taken with 400-MHz Varian NMR System at 25°C, acquiring 32 scans, in d 6 -DMSO solvent.

    Article Snippet: A commercially available sample of chlorhexidine acetate (CHXa) (Fischer Scientific, Pittsburgh, PA) and p-chloroaniline (Aldrich Chemical, St. Louis, MO) were analyzed with 1 H NMR spectroscopy (400-MHz Varian NMR System acquiring 32 scans/spectrum) with perdeuterated DMSO (d6 -DMSO) as a solvent.

    Techniques: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Labeling

    Schematics of the three different immobilization routes. ( a ) spontaneous immobilization at a water–decane interface. Particles within the monolayer simply become immobile with time; ( b ) nylon interfacial polymerization. After the spontaneous interfacial adsorption of 1,6-diaminohexane from the water phase, sebacoyl dichloride is injected into the organic phase to start the polymerization; ( c ) polystyrene interfacial polymerization. After the spontaneous interfacial adsorption of the monomer (styrene) and crosslinker ( p -divinylbenzene) from the oil phase and of the initiator (Irgacure 2959) from the water phase, the system is illuminated by UV light to initiate the free radical polymerization of styrene at the interface.

    Journal: Gels

    Article Title: Immobilization of Colloidal Monolayers at Fluid–Fluid Interfaces

    doi: 10.3390/gels2030019

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematics of the three different immobilization routes. ( a ) spontaneous immobilization at a water–decane interface. Particles within the monolayer simply become immobile with time; ( b ) nylon interfacial polymerization. After the spontaneous interfacial adsorption of 1,6-diaminohexane from the water phase, sebacoyl dichloride is injected into the organic phase to start the polymerization; ( c ) polystyrene interfacial polymerization. After the spontaneous interfacial adsorption of the monomer (styrene) and crosslinker ( p -divinylbenzene) from the oil phase and of the initiator (Irgacure 2959) from the water phase, the system is illuminated by UV light to initiate the free radical polymerization of styrene at the interface.

    Article Snippet: 5 mN/m against water for a minimum of 2 h. Styrene ( > 99%, TCI, Portland, OR, USA) and p -divinylbenzene (80%, Aldrich Chemistry) were each filtered through a basic alumina column to remove the inhibitor.

    Techniques: Adsorption, Injection