octanoic acid Search Results


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  • 96
    Millipore sodium octanoate
    Effect of inhibiting β-oxidation on ghrelin production in PG-1 cells. PG-1 cells were plated in 24-well plates and etomoxir (ET, 5 µmol/L), <t>octanoate</t> (OA, 50 µmol/L), or a mixture of stearate and palmitate (LA, 50 µmol/L) was added. After incubation, acyl-ghrelin levels (a) , des-acyl ghrelin levels (b) , and acyl/total ghrelin ratio (c) in the medium were measured. Des-acyl ghrelin levels were not different between groups. ET treatment decreased acyl-ghrelin levels and the acyl/total ghrelin ratio, and ET + OA rescued acyl-ghrelin and acyl/total ghrelin ratio (a–c) . On the other hand, Ghrl and Mboat4 mRNA expression was not changed between all experimental groups (d , e) . PG-1 cell morphology did not change after the etomoxir treatment (f) . This experiment was replicated twice and the results of 2nd data set were used in this figure. Scale bars=500 μm Each value represents the mean ± SEM. n = 3.
    Sodium Octanoate, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 44 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    Daiichi Sankyo laninamivir octanoate
    Histopathology of the lungs of infected mice with combination therapy or monotherapy. Mice intranasally inoculated with an extremely high dose (3741 MLD 50 ) of PR8 virus were treated with <t>laninamivir</t> <t>octanoate.</t> The mice were additionally administered artificial surfactant (combination therapy, right panels) or normal saline solution (monotherapy, left panels) intranasally once daily during 3–14 days postinfection. Five mice in each group were sacrificed at 7 days postinfection, when mouse survival rate in the normal saline solution group was approximately 50%. Enlarged images are inserted in each panel. (A and B) Hematoxylin and eosin staining, magnification, 40×. (C) The hyaline membrane (arrowheads) was specifically stained pastel purple by Masson's Trichrome (MT) method in alveoli and alveolar ducts throughout the lungs in the control group. Magnification, 200×. (D) Little, if any, hyaline membrane was stained in mouse lungs from the surfactant group. Magnification, 200×. (E) Severe alveolar collapse can be seen. Elastica van Gieson (EVG) staining was used. Magnification, 200×. (F) Mild alveolar collapse can be seen. Magnification, 200×. (G and H) Immunohistochemistry (IHC) using anti-influenza virus polyclonal antibodies is shown. Red indicates influenza virus antigen. Antigen-positive cell debris (arrowheads) is located in the bronchioles. No antigen-positive cells or cell debris were found in pulmonary parenchyma. Magnification, 200×.
    Laninamivir Octanoate, supplied by Daiichi Sankyo, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 85 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    96
    Millipore ethyl octanoate
    Histopathology of the lungs of infected mice with combination therapy or monotherapy. Mice intranasally inoculated with an extremely high dose (3741 MLD 50 ) of PR8 virus were treated with <t>laninamivir</t> <t>octanoate.</t> The mice were additionally administered artificial surfactant (combination therapy, right panels) or normal saline solution (monotherapy, left panels) intranasally once daily during 3–14 days postinfection. Five mice in each group were sacrificed at 7 days postinfection, when mouse survival rate in the normal saline solution group was approximately 50%. Enlarged images are inserted in each panel. (A and B) Hematoxylin and eosin staining, magnification, 40×. (C) The hyaline membrane (arrowheads) was specifically stained pastel purple by Masson's Trichrome (MT) method in alveoli and alveolar ducts throughout the lungs in the control group. Magnification, 200×. (D) Little, if any, hyaline membrane was stained in mouse lungs from the surfactant group. Magnification, 200×. (E) Severe alveolar collapse can be seen. Elastica van Gieson (EVG) staining was used. Magnification, 200×. (F) Mild alveolar collapse can be seen. Magnification, 200×. (G and H) Immunohistochemistry (IHC) using anti-influenza virus polyclonal antibodies is shown. Red indicates influenza virus antigen. Antigen-positive cell debris (arrowheads) is located in the bronchioles. No antigen-positive cells or cell debris were found in pulmonary parenchyma. Magnification, 200×.
    Ethyl Octanoate, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 26 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Millipore methyl octanoate
    Histopathology of the lungs of infected mice with combination therapy or monotherapy. Mice intranasally inoculated with an extremely high dose (3741 MLD 50 ) of PR8 virus were treated with <t>laninamivir</t> <t>octanoate.</t> The mice were additionally administered artificial surfactant (combination therapy, right panels) or normal saline solution (monotherapy, left panels) intranasally once daily during 3–14 days postinfection. Five mice in each group were sacrificed at 7 days postinfection, when mouse survival rate in the normal saline solution group was approximately 50%. Enlarged images are inserted in each panel. (A and B) Hematoxylin and eosin staining, magnification, 40×. (C) The hyaline membrane (arrowheads) was specifically stained pastel purple by Masson's Trichrome (MT) method in alveoli and alveolar ducts throughout the lungs in the control group. Magnification, 200×. (D) Little, if any, hyaline membrane was stained in mouse lungs from the surfactant group. Magnification, 200×. (E) Severe alveolar collapse can be seen. Elastica van Gieson (EVG) staining was used. Magnification, 200×. (F) Mild alveolar collapse can be seen. Magnification, 200×. (G and H) Immunohistochemistry (IHC) using anti-influenza virus polyclonal antibodies is shown. Red indicates influenza virus antigen. Antigen-positive cell debris (arrowheads) is located in the bronchioles. No antigen-positive cells or cell debris were found in pulmonary parenchyma. Magnification, 200×.
    Methyl Octanoate, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 28 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Cambridge Isotope Laboratories c octanoic acid
    Breath 13 CO 2 enrichments ( A ), 13 CO 2 production ( B ), % of 13 CO 2 recovery/h ( C ), and cumulative percentage recovery of 13 <t>C-octanoic</t> acid ( D ) determined at d 8 in partially enterally fed preterm pigs receiving a milk-based formula (Control) or formula supplemented with various amounts of MSG. Values are means ± SEMs; n = 5–7. APE, atom percent excess; MSG, monosodium glutamate.
    C Octanoic Acid, supplied by Cambridge Isotope Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 13 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    FUJIFILM octanoic acid
    Breath 13 CO 2 enrichments ( A ), 13 CO 2 production ( B ), % of 13 CO 2 recovery/h ( C ), and cumulative percentage recovery of 13 <t>C-octanoic</t> acid ( D ) determined at d 8 in partially enterally fed preterm pigs receiving a milk-based formula (Control) or formula supplemented with various amounts of MSG. Values are means ± SEMs; n = 5–7. APE, atom percent excess; MSG, monosodium glutamate.
    Octanoic Acid, supplied by FUJIFILM, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    EM Science Inc 1 octane sulfonic acid
    Breath 13 CO 2 enrichments ( A ), 13 CO 2 production ( B ), % of 13 CO 2 recovery/h ( C ), and cumulative percentage recovery of 13 <t>C-octanoic</t> acid ( D ) determined at d 8 in partially enterally fed preterm pigs receiving a milk-based formula (Control) or formula supplemented with various amounts of MSG. Values are means ± SEMs; n = 5–7. APE, atom percent excess; MSG, monosodium glutamate.
    1 Octane Sulfonic Acid, supplied by EM Science Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Cambridge Isotope Laboratories c labeled octanoic acid
    Box plots of the targeted metabolites. The box plots indicate the serum levels of the targeted metabolites, <t>octanoic</t> acid and 1,5-AG in the PR and non-PR groups. The boxes represent interquartile ranges. The horizontal bar within each box indicates the median value. The upper horizontal line of each box indicates the 75th percentile, and the lower horizontal line indicates the 25th percentile. The upper horizontal bar above the box indicates the 90th percentile, and the horizontal bar below the box indicates the 10th percentile. The circles represent data points beyond the 10th and 90th percentiles. 1,5-AG, 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol; PR, partial response.
    C Labeled Octanoic Acid, supplied by Cambridge Isotope Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 23 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    95
    Millipore 4 nitrophenyl octanoate npc
    Box plots of the targeted metabolites. The box plots indicate the serum levels of the targeted metabolites, <t>octanoic</t> acid and 1,5-AG in the PR and non-PR groups. The boxes represent interquartile ranges. The horizontal bar within each box indicates the median value. The upper horizontal line of each box indicates the 75th percentile, and the lower horizontal line indicates the 25th percentile. The upper horizontal bar above the box indicates the 90th percentile, and the horizontal bar below the box indicates the 10th percentile. The circles represent data points beyond the 10th and 90th percentiles. 1,5-AG, 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol; PR, partial response.
    4 Nitrophenyl Octanoate Npc, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore octanoate bsa
    Box plots of the targeted metabolites. The box plots indicate the serum levels of the targeted metabolites, <t>octanoic</t> acid and 1,5-AG in the PR and non-PR groups. The boxes represent interquartile ranges. The horizontal bar within each box indicates the median value. The upper horizontal line of each box indicates the 75th percentile, and the lower horizontal line indicates the 25th percentile. The upper horizontal bar above the box indicates the 90th percentile, and the horizontal bar below the box indicates the 10th percentile. The circles represent data points beyond the 10th and 90th percentiles. 1,5-AG, 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol; PR, partial response.
    Octanoate Bsa, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 19 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    Merck KGaA caprylic acid
    Box plots of the targeted metabolites. The box plots indicate the serum levels of the targeted metabolites, <t>octanoic</t> acid and 1,5-AG in the PR and non-PR groups. The boxes represent interquartile ranges. The horizontal bar within each box indicates the median value. The upper horizontal line of each box indicates the 75th percentile, and the lower horizontal line indicates the 25th percentile. The upper horizontal bar above the box indicates the 90th percentile, and the horizontal bar below the box indicates the 10th percentile. The circles represent data points beyond the 10th and 90th percentiles. 1,5-AG, 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol; PR, partial response.
    Caprylic Acid, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 31 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Thermo Fisher octanoic acid
    Box plots of the targeted metabolites. The box plots indicate the serum levels of the targeted metabolites, <t>octanoic</t> acid and 1,5-AG in the PR and non-PR groups. The boxes represent interquartile ranges. The horizontal bar within each box indicates the median value. The upper horizontal line of each box indicates the 75th percentile, and the lower horizontal line indicates the 25th percentile. The upper horizontal bar above the box indicates the 90th percentile, and the horizontal bar below the box indicates the 10th percentile. The circles represent data points beyond the 10th and 90th percentiles. 1,5-AG, 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol; PR, partial response.
    Octanoic Acid, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 47 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Tokyo Chemical Industry octanoic acid
    Effects of fatty acids on CD spectra for the interactions of ARP (A) and deschloro-ARP (B) with HSA at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. The concentrations of HSA, ligands, and fatty acids were 40, 20, and 120 μM, respectively. (a,d) Spectra without fatty acid. ((b,e) and (c,f)) Spectra with <t>octanoic</t> acid and myristic acid.
    Octanoic Acid, supplied by Tokyo Chemical Industry, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 12 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore caprylic
    Effects of fatty acids on CD spectra for the interactions of ARP (A) and deschloro-ARP (B) with HSA at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. The concentrations of HSA, ligands, and fatty acids were 40, 20, and 120 μM, respectively. (a,d) Spectra without fatty acid. ((b,e) and (c,f)) Spectra with <t>octanoic</t> acid and myristic acid.
    Caprylic, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 25 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore n octanoic acid
    Effects of fatty acids on CD spectra for the interactions of ARP (A) and deschloro-ARP (B) with HSA at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. The concentrations of HSA, ligands, and fatty acids were 40, 20, and 120 μM, respectively. (a,d) Spectra without fatty acid. ((b,e) and (c,f)) Spectra with <t>octanoic</t> acid and myristic acid.
    N Octanoic Acid, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 10 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore 1 4 diazabicyclo 2 2 2 octano
    Effects of fatty acids on CD spectra for the interactions of ARP (A) and deschloro-ARP (B) with HSA at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. The concentrations of HSA, ligands, and fatty acids were 40, 20, and 120 μM, respectively. (a,d) Spectra without fatty acid. ((b,e) and (c,f)) Spectra with <t>octanoic</t> acid and myristic acid.
    1 4 Diazabicyclo 2 2 2 Octano, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 23 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Merck & Co octane 1 sulfonic acid sodium salt
    Effects of fatty acids on CD spectra for the interactions of ARP (A) and deschloro-ARP (B) with HSA at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. The concentrations of HSA, ligands, and fatty acids were 40, 20, and 120 μM, respectively. (a,d) Spectra without fatty acid. ((b,e) and (c,f)) Spectra with <t>octanoic</t> acid and myristic acid.
    Octane 1 Sulfonic Acid Sodium Salt, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 19 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Cambridge Isotope Laboratories c4 octanoic acid
    Effects of fatty acids on CD spectra for the interactions of ARP (A) and deschloro-ARP (B) with HSA at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. The concentrations of HSA, ligands, and fatty acids were 40, 20, and 120 μM, respectively. (a,d) Spectra without fatty acid. ((b,e) and (c,f)) Spectra with <t>octanoic</t> acid and myristic acid.
    C4 Octanoic Acid, supplied by Cambridge Isotope Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Tokyo Chemical Industry n octanoic acid
    Effects of fatty acids on CD spectra for the interactions of ARP (A) and deschloro-ARP (B) with HSA at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. The concentrations of HSA, ligands, and fatty acids were 40, 20, and 120 μM, respectively. (a,d) Spectra without fatty acid. ((b,e) and (c,f)) Spectra with <t>octanoic</t> acid and myristic acid.
    N Octanoic Acid, supplied by Tokyo Chemical Industry, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Millipore 6 8 bis benzylthio octanoic acid
    Effects of fatty acids on CD spectra for the interactions of ARP (A) and deschloro-ARP (B) with HSA at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. The concentrations of HSA, ligands, and fatty acids were 40, 20, and 120 μM, respectively. (a,d) Spectra without fatty acid. ((b,e) and (c,f)) Spectra with <t>octanoic</t> acid and myristic acid.
    6 8 Bis Benzylthio Octanoic Acid, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    N/A
    Octanoic acid is found naturally in the milk of various mammals and as a minor constituent of coconut oil and palm kernel oil It is used in the production of
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    Image Search Results


    Effect of inhibiting β-oxidation on ghrelin production in PG-1 cells. PG-1 cells were plated in 24-well plates and etomoxir (ET, 5 µmol/L), octanoate (OA, 50 µmol/L), or a mixture of stearate and palmitate (LA, 50 µmol/L) was added. After incubation, acyl-ghrelin levels (a) , des-acyl ghrelin levels (b) , and acyl/total ghrelin ratio (c) in the medium were measured. Des-acyl ghrelin levels were not different between groups. ET treatment decreased acyl-ghrelin levels and the acyl/total ghrelin ratio, and ET + OA rescued acyl-ghrelin and acyl/total ghrelin ratio (a–c) . On the other hand, Ghrl and Mboat4 mRNA expression was not changed between all experimental groups (d , e) . PG-1 cell morphology did not change after the etomoxir treatment (f) . This experiment was replicated twice and the results of 2nd data set were used in this figure. Scale bars=500 μm Each value represents the mean ± SEM. n = 3.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: β-Oxidation in ghrelin-producing cells is important for ghrelin acyl-modification

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-27458-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of inhibiting β-oxidation on ghrelin production in PG-1 cells. PG-1 cells were plated in 24-well plates and etomoxir (ET, 5 µmol/L), octanoate (OA, 50 µmol/L), or a mixture of stearate and palmitate (LA, 50 µmol/L) was added. After incubation, acyl-ghrelin levels (a) , des-acyl ghrelin levels (b) , and acyl/total ghrelin ratio (c) in the medium were measured. Des-acyl ghrelin levels were not different between groups. ET treatment decreased acyl-ghrelin levels and the acyl/total ghrelin ratio, and ET + OA rescued acyl-ghrelin and acyl/total ghrelin ratio (a–c) . On the other hand, Ghrl and Mboat4 mRNA expression was not changed between all experimental groups (d , e) . PG-1 cell morphology did not change after the etomoxir treatment (f) . This experiment was replicated twice and the results of 2nd data set were used in this figure. Scale bars=500 μm Each value represents the mean ± SEM. n = 3.

    Article Snippet: Simultaneously, sodium octanoate (C5038, Sigma-Aldrich) or mixture of sodium stearate and palmitate (199–03285, Wako) was added at a final concentration of 50 µmol/L and cells were incubated in a 37 °C incubator with 5% CO2 for 24 hours.

    Techniques: Incubation, Expressing

    Histopathology of the lungs of infected mice with combination therapy or monotherapy. Mice intranasally inoculated with an extremely high dose (3741 MLD 50 ) of PR8 virus were treated with laninamivir octanoate. The mice were additionally administered artificial surfactant (combination therapy, right panels) or normal saline solution (monotherapy, left panels) intranasally once daily during 3–14 days postinfection. Five mice in each group were sacrificed at 7 days postinfection, when mouse survival rate in the normal saline solution group was approximately 50%. Enlarged images are inserted in each panel. (A and B) Hematoxylin and eosin staining, magnification, 40×. (C) The hyaline membrane (arrowheads) was specifically stained pastel purple by Masson's Trichrome (MT) method in alveoli and alveolar ducts throughout the lungs in the control group. Magnification, 200×. (D) Little, if any, hyaline membrane was stained in mouse lungs from the surfactant group. Magnification, 200×. (E) Severe alveolar collapse can be seen. Elastica van Gieson (EVG) staining was used. Magnification, 200×. (F) Mild alveolar collapse can be seen. Magnification, 200×. (G and H) Immunohistochemistry (IHC) using anti-influenza virus polyclonal antibodies is shown. Red indicates influenza virus antigen. Antigen-positive cell debris (arrowheads) is located in the bronchioles. No antigen-positive cells or cell debris were found in pulmonary parenchyma. Magnification, 200×.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Laninamivir Octanoate and Artificial Surfactant Combination Therapy Significantly Increases Survival of Mice Infected with Lethal Influenza H1N1 Virus

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042419

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Histopathology of the lungs of infected mice with combination therapy or monotherapy. Mice intranasally inoculated with an extremely high dose (3741 MLD 50 ) of PR8 virus were treated with laninamivir octanoate. The mice were additionally administered artificial surfactant (combination therapy, right panels) or normal saline solution (monotherapy, left panels) intranasally once daily during 3–14 days postinfection. Five mice in each group were sacrificed at 7 days postinfection, when mouse survival rate in the normal saline solution group was approximately 50%. Enlarged images are inserted in each panel. (A and B) Hematoxylin and eosin staining, magnification, 40×. (C) The hyaline membrane (arrowheads) was specifically stained pastel purple by Masson's Trichrome (MT) method in alveoli and alveolar ducts throughout the lungs in the control group. Magnification, 200×. (D) Little, if any, hyaline membrane was stained in mouse lungs from the surfactant group. Magnification, 200×. (E) Severe alveolar collapse can be seen. Elastica van Gieson (EVG) staining was used. Magnification, 200×. (F) Mild alveolar collapse can be seen. Magnification, 200×. (G and H) Immunohistochemistry (IHC) using anti-influenza virus polyclonal antibodies is shown. Red indicates influenza virus antigen. Antigen-positive cell debris (arrowheads) is located in the bronchioles. No antigen-positive cells or cell debris were found in pulmonary parenchyma. Magnification, 200×.

    Article Snippet: Laninamivir octanoate was synthesized by Daiichi Sankyo (Tokyo, Japan).

    Techniques: Histopathology, Infection, Mouse Assay, Staining, Immunohistochemistry

    Virus titers in the lungs and lung weights of infected mice with combination therapy or monotherapy. (A) Virus titers in the lung homogenates of infected mice are shown. Mice infected with an extremely high dose (3741 MLD 50 ) of PR8 virus were treated with laninamivir octanoate. The mice were additionally administered artificial surfactant (combination therapy, red bars) or normal saline solution (monotherapy, blue bars) intranasally once daily during 3–14 days postinfection. Four mice in each group were sacrificed at the indicated days postinfection and their lung homogenates were used for a plaque-forming assay. Mean ± SD viral titers are shown. The # symbol indicates under the detection limit. (B) Lung weights of four mice in the combination therapy (red bars) or monotherapy (blue bars) groups are shown. Mice were sacrificed at the indicated days postinfection and their lung weights were measured. Differences in means ± SD are shown.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Laninamivir Octanoate and Artificial Surfactant Combination Therapy Significantly Increases Survival of Mice Infected with Lethal Influenza H1N1 Virus

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042419

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Virus titers in the lungs and lung weights of infected mice with combination therapy or monotherapy. (A) Virus titers in the lung homogenates of infected mice are shown. Mice infected with an extremely high dose (3741 MLD 50 ) of PR8 virus were treated with laninamivir octanoate. The mice were additionally administered artificial surfactant (combination therapy, red bars) or normal saline solution (monotherapy, blue bars) intranasally once daily during 3–14 days postinfection. Four mice in each group were sacrificed at the indicated days postinfection and their lung homogenates were used for a plaque-forming assay. Mean ± SD viral titers are shown. The # symbol indicates under the detection limit. (B) Lung weights of four mice in the combination therapy (red bars) or monotherapy (blue bars) groups are shown. Mice were sacrificed at the indicated days postinfection and their lung weights were measured. Differences in means ± SD are shown.

    Article Snippet: Laninamivir octanoate was synthesized by Daiichi Sankyo (Tokyo, Japan).

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Survival curves and body weights of infected mice with combination therapy or monotherapy. (A) Survival curves of infected mice with combination therapy of artificial surfactant with laninamivir octanoate are shown. Mice infected with an extremely high dose (3741 MLD 50 ) of PR8 virus were treated with laninamivir octanoate. The mice were additionally administered artificial surfactant (combination therapy, red line) or normal saline solution (monotherapy, blue line) intranasally once daily during 3–14 days postinfection. Significant differences in mouse survival rates between the combination therapy and monotherapy groups were analyzed by the log-rank original method. Experiments were independently repeated three times. Percentage survival in a representative experiment is shown. (B) Mouse body weight of the combination therapy (red line) and monotherapy (blue line) groups is shown. Experiments were independently repeated three times. The percentage of mouse body weight in a representative experiment is shown. Differences in means ± SD are shown.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Laninamivir Octanoate and Artificial Surfactant Combination Therapy Significantly Increases Survival of Mice Infected with Lethal Influenza H1N1 Virus

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042419

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Survival curves and body weights of infected mice with combination therapy or monotherapy. (A) Survival curves of infected mice with combination therapy of artificial surfactant with laninamivir octanoate are shown. Mice infected with an extremely high dose (3741 MLD 50 ) of PR8 virus were treated with laninamivir octanoate. The mice were additionally administered artificial surfactant (combination therapy, red line) or normal saline solution (monotherapy, blue line) intranasally once daily during 3–14 days postinfection. Significant differences in mouse survival rates between the combination therapy and monotherapy groups were analyzed by the log-rank original method. Experiments were independently repeated three times. Percentage survival in a representative experiment is shown. (B) Mouse body weight of the combination therapy (red line) and monotherapy (blue line) groups is shown. Experiments were independently repeated three times. The percentage of mouse body weight in a representative experiment is shown. Differences in means ± SD are shown.

    Article Snippet: Laninamivir octanoate was synthesized by Daiichi Sankyo (Tokyo, Japan).

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Blood O 2 and CO 2 pressures of infected mice with combination therapy or monotherapy. Mice intranasally inoculated with an extremely high dose (3741 MLD 50 ) of PR8 virus were treated with laninamivir octanoate. The mice were additionally administered artificial surfactant (combination therapy, red lines) or normal saline solution (monotherapy, blue lines) intranasally once daily during 3–14 days postinfection. Mice ( n = 3–6) in each group were sacrificed at the indicated days postinfection. Mice in each group were sacrificed at 7 days postinfection, when the mouse survival rate in the monotherapy group was approximately 50%. Blood was collected and immediately measured for O 2 (left panel) and CO 2 (right panel) pressures using the i-STAT portable blood gas analyzer. Differences in means ± SD and p values are shown. * p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Laninamivir Octanoate and Artificial Surfactant Combination Therapy Significantly Increases Survival of Mice Infected with Lethal Influenza H1N1 Virus

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042419

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Blood O 2 and CO 2 pressures of infected mice with combination therapy or monotherapy. Mice intranasally inoculated with an extremely high dose (3741 MLD 50 ) of PR8 virus were treated with laninamivir octanoate. The mice were additionally administered artificial surfactant (combination therapy, red lines) or normal saline solution (monotherapy, blue lines) intranasally once daily during 3–14 days postinfection. Mice ( n = 3–6) in each group were sacrificed at the indicated days postinfection. Mice in each group were sacrificed at 7 days postinfection, when the mouse survival rate in the monotherapy group was approximately 50%. Blood was collected and immediately measured for O 2 (left panel) and CO 2 (right panel) pressures using the i-STAT portable blood gas analyzer. Differences in means ± SD and p values are shown. * p

    Article Snippet: Laninamivir octanoate was synthesized by Daiichi Sankyo (Tokyo, Japan).

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Gross pathology and hydrostatic test of lungs from infected mice with combination therapy or monotherapy. (A) Gross pathology of mouse lungs with combination therapy is shown. Mice intranasally inoculated with an extremely high dose (3741 MLD 50 ) of PR8 virus were treated with laninamivir octanoate. The mice were additionally administered artificial surfactant (combination therapy, lower panels) or normal saline solution (monotherapy, upper panels) intranasally once daily during 3–14 days postinfection. Five mice in each group were sacrificed at 7 days postinfection, when the mouse survival rate in the monotherapy group was approximately 50%. Arrowheads indicate the area that appeared relatively healthy. (B) Hydrostatic lung test using mouse lungs from the monotherapy (tube number 1–5) and the combination therapy (tube number 6–10) groups is shown. The arrow indicates collapsing lungs (tube numbers 2–5). The arrowhead indicates floating lungs.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Laninamivir Octanoate and Artificial Surfactant Combination Therapy Significantly Increases Survival of Mice Infected with Lethal Influenza H1N1 Virus

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042419

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Gross pathology and hydrostatic test of lungs from infected mice with combination therapy or monotherapy. (A) Gross pathology of mouse lungs with combination therapy is shown. Mice intranasally inoculated with an extremely high dose (3741 MLD 50 ) of PR8 virus were treated with laninamivir octanoate. The mice were additionally administered artificial surfactant (combination therapy, lower panels) or normal saline solution (monotherapy, upper panels) intranasally once daily during 3–14 days postinfection. Five mice in each group were sacrificed at 7 days postinfection, when the mouse survival rate in the monotherapy group was approximately 50%. Arrowheads indicate the area that appeared relatively healthy. (B) Hydrostatic lung test using mouse lungs from the monotherapy (tube number 1–5) and the combination therapy (tube number 6–10) groups is shown. The arrow indicates collapsing lungs (tube numbers 2–5). The arrowhead indicates floating lungs.

    Article Snippet: Laninamivir octanoate was synthesized by Daiichi Sankyo (Tokyo, Japan).

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Cytokine and chemokine expression in lungs from infected mice with combination therapy or monotherapy. Mice intranasally inoculated with an extremely high dose (3741 MLD 50 ) of PR8 virus were treated with laninamivir octanoate. The mice were additionally administered artificial surfactant (combination therapy, red bars) or normal saline solution (monotherapy, blue bars) intranasally once daily during 3–14 days postinfection. Three mice from each group were sacrificed at the indicated days postinfection and their lung homogenates were used to analyze the expression of 22 cytokines and chemokines using the MILLIPLEX MAP Panel. Only 12 cytokines and chemokines are shown; the remainder was under the limit of detection for the assay. The concentration in each panel is pg/ml. Differences in means ± SD are shown.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Laninamivir Octanoate and Artificial Surfactant Combination Therapy Significantly Increases Survival of Mice Infected with Lethal Influenza H1N1 Virus

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0042419

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cytokine and chemokine expression in lungs from infected mice with combination therapy or monotherapy. Mice intranasally inoculated with an extremely high dose (3741 MLD 50 ) of PR8 virus were treated with laninamivir octanoate. The mice were additionally administered artificial surfactant (combination therapy, red bars) or normal saline solution (monotherapy, blue bars) intranasally once daily during 3–14 days postinfection. Three mice from each group were sacrificed at the indicated days postinfection and their lung homogenates were used to analyze the expression of 22 cytokines and chemokines using the MILLIPLEX MAP Panel. Only 12 cytokines and chemokines are shown; the remainder was under the limit of detection for the assay. The concentration in each panel is pg/ml. Differences in means ± SD are shown.

    Article Snippet: Laninamivir octanoate was synthesized by Daiichi Sankyo (Tokyo, Japan).

    Techniques: Expressing, Infection, Mouse Assay, Concentration Assay

    Breath 13 CO 2 enrichments ( A ), 13 CO 2 production ( B ), % of 13 CO 2 recovery/h ( C ), and cumulative percentage recovery of 13 C-octanoic acid ( D ) determined at d 8 in partially enterally fed preterm pigs receiving a milk-based formula (Control) or formula supplemented with various amounts of MSG. Values are means ± SEMs; n = 5–7. APE, atom percent excess; MSG, monosodium glutamate.

    Journal: The Journal of Nutrition

    Article Title: Supplementing Monosodium Glutamate to Partial Enteral Nutrition Slows Gastric Emptying in Preterm Pigs 1Supplementing Monosodium Glutamate to Partial Enteral Nutrition Slows Gastric Emptying in Preterm Pigs 1 2Supplementing Monosodium Glutamate to Partial Enteral Nutrition Slows Gastric Emptying in Preterm Pigs 1 2 3

    doi: 10.3945/jn.112.167783

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Breath 13 CO 2 enrichments ( A ), 13 CO 2 production ( B ), % of 13 CO 2 recovery/h ( C ), and cumulative percentage recovery of 13 C-octanoic acid ( D ) determined at d 8 in partially enterally fed preterm pigs receiving a milk-based formula (Control) or formula supplemented with various amounts of MSG. Values are means ± SEMs; n = 5–7. APE, atom percent excess; MSG, monosodium glutamate.

    Article Snippet: Pigs were then given an intragastric bolus feeding (15 mL/kg) of their respective dietary treatment containing 313 μ mol/kg of [1-13 C]-octanoic acid (99% atom percent excess; Cambridge Isotope Laboratories).

    Techniques:

    Box plots of the targeted metabolites. The box plots indicate the serum levels of the targeted metabolites, octanoic acid and 1,5-AG in the PR and non-PR groups. The boxes represent interquartile ranges. The horizontal bar within each box indicates the median value. The upper horizontal line of each box indicates the 75th percentile, and the lower horizontal line indicates the 25th percentile. The upper horizontal bar above the box indicates the 90th percentile, and the horizontal bar below the box indicates the 10th percentile. The circles represent data points beyond the 10th and 90th percentiles. 1,5-AG, 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol; PR, partial response.

    Journal: Oncology Letters

    Article Title: Serum level of octanoic acid predicts the efficacy of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer

    doi: 10.3892/ol.2018.9731

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Box plots of the targeted metabolites. The box plots indicate the serum levels of the targeted metabolites, octanoic acid and 1,5-AG in the PR and non-PR groups. The boxes represent interquartile ranges. The horizontal bar within each box indicates the median value. The upper horizontal line of each box indicates the 75th percentile, and the lower horizontal line indicates the 25th percentile. The upper horizontal bar above the box indicates the 90th percentile, and the horizontal bar below the box indicates the 10th percentile. The circles represent data points beyond the 10th and 90th percentiles. 1,5-AG, 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol; PR, partial response.

    Article Snippet: Chemicals and isotopes [U-13 C6 (98%)]-labeled 1,5-Anhydro-D-glucitol, ([U-13 C6 (98%)]-labeled 1,5-AG) and [1-13 C]- labeled Octanoic acid were obtained from Cambridge Isotope Laboratories, Inc. (Tewksbury, MA, USA).

    Techniques:

    Kaplan-Meier curves of TTP based on the serum concentrations of the targeted metabolites. (A) Patients with lower serum octanoic acid levels, ≤4.80 µM, exhibited longer TTP compared with patients with serum octanoic acid levels of > 4.80 µM. (B) The analysis of 1,5-AG did not detect a significant intergroup difference. 1,5-AG, 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol; TTP, time to progression.

    Journal: Oncology Letters

    Article Title: Serum level of octanoic acid predicts the efficacy of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer

    doi: 10.3892/ol.2018.9731

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Kaplan-Meier curves of TTP based on the serum concentrations of the targeted metabolites. (A) Patients with lower serum octanoic acid levels, ≤4.80 µM, exhibited longer TTP compared with patients with serum octanoic acid levels of > 4.80 µM. (B) The analysis of 1,5-AG did not detect a significant intergroup difference. 1,5-AG, 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol; TTP, time to progression.

    Article Snippet: Chemicals and isotopes [U-13 C6 (98%)]-labeled 1,5-Anhydro-D-glucitol, ([U-13 C6 (98%)]-labeled 1,5-AG) and [1-13 C]- labeled Octanoic acid were obtained from Cambridge Isotope Laboratories, Inc. (Tewksbury, MA, USA).

    Techniques:

    Effects of fatty acids on CD spectra for the interactions of ARP (A) and deschloro-ARP (B) with HSA at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. The concentrations of HSA, ligands, and fatty acids were 40, 20, and 120 μM, respectively. (a,d) Spectra without fatty acid. ((b,e) and (c,f)) Spectra with octanoic acid and myristic acid.

    Journal: ACS Omega

    Article Title: Analysis of the Binding of Aripiprazole to Human Serum Albumin: The Importance of a Chloro-Group in the Chemical Structure

    doi: 10.1021/acsomega.8b02057

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of fatty acids on CD spectra for the interactions of ARP (A) and deschloro-ARP (B) with HSA at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. The concentrations of HSA, ligands, and fatty acids were 40, 20, and 120 μM, respectively. (a,d) Spectra without fatty acid. ((b,e) and (c,f)) Spectra with octanoic acid and myristic acid.

    Article Snippet: Deschloro-ARP was synthesized following a method reported by Banno et al. Octanoic acid and myristic acid were purchased from Tokyo Chemical Industry Co Ltd. (Tokyo, Japan).

    Techniques: