nmda : n - methyl Search Results


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  • 99
    Millipore nmda
    Effects of parkin overexpression on retinal ganglion cells <t>(RGCs)</t> under glutamate excitotoxicity Compared with Ad-null-transfected RGCs, the expression of parkin protein a , b and immunoreactivity of parkin f , g were upregulated in Ad-parkin-transfected RGCs. Expression of isoform S2 of the optineurin protein in Ad-parkin-transfected RGCs was increased in the 0 and 100 μM glutamate and 100 μM <t>NMDA</t> groups, expression of isoform L of the optineurin protein was increased in the 0 and 100 μM glutamate groups, and expression of isoform S1 of the optineurin protein was increased in the 100 μM glutamate and 100 μM NMDA groups c . The ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I was increased in the 0 and 100 μM glutamate and 100 μM NMDA groups. d Expression of LAMP1 protein was increased in the 100 μM glutamate and 100 μM NMDA groups. e The Ad-parkin-transfected RGCs showed lower level of cytotoxicity f and less apoptotic cell death g – i under glutamate excitotoxicity. c n = 3, data are expressed as mean ± SD, * P
    Nmda, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1834 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Tocris n methyl d aspartate nmda
    A , Under the baseline condition of warmed skin and core temperatures, which eliminated basal brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT SNA), nanoinjection of <t>N-methyl-D-aspartate</t> <t>(NMDA,</t> dashed line) into the perifornical area of the lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) did not evoke any change in BAT SNA, BAT temperature (TBAT), expired CO 2 (Exp CO 2 ), core temperature (T Core ), skin temperature (T Skin ), heart rate (HR) or mean arterial pressure (MAP). The means ± SEM (n=4) of the time courses of the physiological variables (points are 30-s averages of the variable values) during the nanoinjection of NMDA into the PeF-LH are shown in B . C , Histological section showing the NMDA nanoinjection site (white arrowhead) in PeF-LH for the responses illustrated in A . D ) containing the PeF-LH. DMH, dorsomedial hypothalamus; mt, mammillothalamic tract; f, fornix.
    N Methyl D Aspartate Nmda, supplied by Tocris, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 86 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    95
    Millipore anti phospho n methyl d aspartate nr2b subunit ptyr1472 antibody
    A , Under the baseline condition of warmed skin and core temperatures, which eliminated basal brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT SNA), nanoinjection of <t>N-methyl-D-aspartate</t> <t>(NMDA,</t> dashed line) into the perifornical area of the lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) did not evoke any change in BAT SNA, BAT temperature (TBAT), expired CO 2 (Exp CO 2 ), core temperature (T Core ), skin temperature (T Skin ), heart rate (HR) or mean arterial pressure (MAP). The means ± SEM (n=4) of the time courses of the physiological variables (points are 30-s averages of the variable values) during the nanoinjection of NMDA into the PeF-LH are shown in B . C , Histological section showing the NMDA nanoinjection site (white arrowhead) in PeF-LH for the responses illustrated in A . D ) containing the PeF-LH. DMH, dorsomedial hypothalamus; mt, mammillothalamic tract; f, fornix.
    Anti Phospho N Methyl D Aspartate Nr2b Subunit Ptyr1472 Antibody, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 98 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Tocris n methyl d aspartic acid nmda receptor antagonist
    A , Under the baseline condition of warmed skin and core temperatures, which eliminated basal brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT SNA), nanoinjection of <t>N-methyl-D-aspartate</t> <t>(NMDA,</t> dashed line) into the perifornical area of the lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) did not evoke any change in BAT SNA, BAT temperature (TBAT), expired CO 2 (Exp CO 2 ), core temperature (T Core ), skin temperature (T Skin ), heart rate (HR) or mean arterial pressure (MAP). The means ± SEM (n=4) of the time courses of the physiological variables (points are 30-s averages of the variable values) during the nanoinjection of NMDA into the PeF-LH are shown in B . C , Histological section showing the NMDA nanoinjection site (white arrowhead) in PeF-LH for the responses illustrated in A . D ) containing the PeF-LH. DMH, dorsomedial hypothalamus; mt, mammillothalamic tract; f, fornix.
    N Methyl D Aspartic Acid Nmda Receptor Antagonist, supplied by Tocris, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Pain Therapeutics n methyl d aspartate receptor nmda antagonists
    Representative cresyl violet-stained spinal cord sections of sham-operated control rats (A), <t>NMDA-injected</t> rats (B), and QUIS-injected rats (C). Dilation of the central canal, ipsilateral neuronal loss of lamina III and V, and intraspinal cavities are seen in B and C. Scale bar in A (inset) equals 500 µm. NMDA : N-methyl D-aspartate, QUIS : quisqualate.
    N Methyl D Aspartate Receptor Nmda Antagonists, supplied by Pain Therapeutics, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    EUROIMMUN n methyl d aspartate receptor autoantibody test
    Representative cresyl violet-stained spinal cord sections of sham-operated control rats (A), <t>NMDA-injected</t> rats (B), and QUIS-injected rats (C). Dilation of the central canal, ipsilateral neuronal loss of lamina III and V, and intraspinal cavities are seen in B and C. Scale bar in A (inset) equals 500 µm. NMDA : N-methyl D-aspartate, QUIS : quisqualate.
    N Methyl D Aspartate Receptor Autoantibody Test, supplied by EUROIMMUN, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Abcam n methyl d aspartate
    Representative cresyl violet-stained spinal cord sections of sham-operated control rats (A), <t>NMDA-injected</t> rats (B), and QUIS-injected rats (C). Dilation of the central canal, ipsilateral neuronal loss of lamina III and V, and intraspinal cavities are seen in B and C. Scale bar in A (inset) equals 500 µm. NMDA : N-methyl D-aspartate, QUIS : quisqualate.
    N Methyl D Aspartate, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 12 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Tikvah Therapeutics n methyl d aspartate
    Representative cresyl violet-stained spinal cord sections of sham-operated control rats (A), <t>NMDA-injected</t> rats (B), and QUIS-injected rats (C). Dilation of the central canal, ipsilateral neuronal loss of lamina III and V, and intraspinal cavities are seen in B and C. Scale bar in A (inset) equals 500 µm. NMDA : N-methyl D-aspartate, QUIS : quisqualate.
    N Methyl D Aspartate, supplied by Tikvah Therapeutics, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Abcam anti n methyl d aspartate receptor subunit 1 nmdar1
    Representative cresyl violet-stained spinal cord sections of sham-operated control rats (A), <t>NMDA-injected</t> rats (B), and QUIS-injected rats (C). Dilation of the central canal, ipsilateral neuronal loss of lamina III and V, and intraspinal cavities are seen in B and C. Scale bar in A (inset) equals 500 µm. NMDA : N-methyl D-aspartate, QUIS : quisqualate.
    Anti N Methyl D Aspartate Receptor Subunit 1 Nmdar1, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 14 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Thermo Fisher anti n methyl d aspartate receptors1
    Representative cresyl violet-stained spinal cord sections of sham-operated control rats (A), <t>NMDA-injected</t> rats (B), and QUIS-injected rats (C). Dilation of the central canal, ipsilateral neuronal loss of lamina III and V, and intraspinal cavities are seen in B and C. Scale bar in A (inset) equals 500 µm. NMDA : N-methyl D-aspartate, QUIS : quisqualate.
    Anti N Methyl D Aspartate Receptors1, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 10 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Tocris reagents n methyl d aspartate
    Representative cresyl violet-stained spinal cord sections of sham-operated control rats (A), <t>NMDA-injected</t> rats (B), and QUIS-injected rats (C). Dilation of the central canal, ipsilateral neuronal loss of lamina III and V, and intraspinal cavities are seen in B and C. Scale bar in A (inset) equals 500 µm. NMDA : N-methyl D-aspartate, QUIS : quisqualate.
    Reagents N Methyl D Aspartate, supplied by Tocris, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore excitotoxin n methyl d aspartic acid
    Representative cresyl violet-stained spinal cord sections of sham-operated control rats (A), <t>NMDA-injected</t> rats (B), and QUIS-injected rats (C). Dilation of the central canal, ipsilateral neuronal loss of lamina III and V, and intraspinal cavities are seen in B and C. Scale bar in A (inset) equals 500 µm. NMDA : N-methyl D-aspartate, QUIS : quisqualate.
    Excitotoxin N Methyl D Aspartic Acid, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore n methyl d aspartate nmda receptors
    Representative cresyl violet-stained spinal cord sections of sham-operated control rats (A), <t>NMDA-injected</t> rats (B), and QUIS-injected rats (C). Dilation of the central canal, ipsilateral neuronal loss of lamina III and V, and intraspinal cavities are seen in B and C. Scale bar in A (inset) equals 500 µm. NMDA : N-methyl D-aspartate, QUIS : quisqualate.
    N Methyl D Aspartate Nmda Receptors, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 14 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore n methyl d aspartate nmda receptor antagonist
    Representative cresyl violet-stained spinal cord sections of sham-operated control rats (A), <t>NMDA-injected</t> rats (B), and QUIS-injected rats (C). Dilation of the central canal, ipsilateral neuronal loss of lamina III and V, and intraspinal cavities are seen in B and C. Scale bar in A (inset) equals 500 µm. NMDA : N-methyl D-aspartate, QUIS : quisqualate.
    N Methyl D Aspartate Nmda Receptor Antagonist, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Millipore n methyl d aspartate nmda receptor inhibitor
    Gut ghrelin increases hepatic glucose production by activating a gut-brain-liver neurocircuitry. a Schematic representation of the working hypothesis. Gut ghrelin was coinfused with tetracaine, which abolishes the ascending neuronal signal to the brain. A subgroup of rats was given MK-801, an <t>NMDA</t> receptor inhibitor, directly into the NTS. In another study, gut ghrelin was infused into rats with HVAG. b Experimental procedure and clamp protocol. Stereotaxic surgeries were conducted on day 1. A duodenal catheter or venous and arterial catheters were implanted on day 7. HVAG was performed immediately before the implantation of the duodenal and vascular catheters. c and d Gut ghrelin infusion decreased GIR and increased HGP. Rats that received tetracaine in the gut, MK-801 in the NTS or HVAG failed to respond to duodenal ghrelin to decrease the GIR and increase HGP. e Suppression of HGP during the clamp expressed as the percentage decrease from basal HGP. f Glucose uptake was unchanged in all groups. NTS, the nucleus of the solitary tract; HVAG, hepatic vagotomy; NMDA, N -methyl- D-aspartate; GIR, glucose infusion rate; HGP, hepatic glucose production. Values are shown as mean ± SEM. * P
    N Methyl D Aspartate Nmda Receptor Inhibitor, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Effects of parkin overexpression on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) under glutamate excitotoxicity Compared with Ad-null-transfected RGCs, the expression of parkin protein a , b and immunoreactivity of parkin f , g were upregulated in Ad-parkin-transfected RGCs. Expression of isoform S2 of the optineurin protein in Ad-parkin-transfected RGCs was increased in the 0 and 100 μM glutamate and 100 μM NMDA groups, expression of isoform L of the optineurin protein was increased in the 0 and 100 μM glutamate groups, and expression of isoform S1 of the optineurin protein was increased in the 100 μM glutamate and 100 μM NMDA groups c . The ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I was increased in the 0 and 100 μM glutamate and 100 μM NMDA groups. d Expression of LAMP1 protein was increased in the 100 μM glutamate and 100 μM NMDA groups. e The Ad-parkin-transfected RGCs showed lower level of cytotoxicity f and less apoptotic cell death g – i under glutamate excitotoxicity. c n = 3, data are expressed as mean ± SD, * P

    Journal: Cell Death & Disease

    Article Title: Overexpression of parkin protects retinal ganglion cells in experimental glaucoma

    doi: 10.1038/s41419-017-0146-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of parkin overexpression on retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) under glutamate excitotoxicity Compared with Ad-null-transfected RGCs, the expression of parkin protein a , b and immunoreactivity of parkin f , g were upregulated in Ad-parkin-transfected RGCs. Expression of isoform S2 of the optineurin protein in Ad-parkin-transfected RGCs was increased in the 0 and 100 μM glutamate and 100 μM NMDA groups, expression of isoform L of the optineurin protein was increased in the 0 and 100 μM glutamate groups, and expression of isoform S1 of the optineurin protein was increased in the 100 μM glutamate and 100 μM NMDA groups c . The ratio of LC3-II to LC3-I was increased in the 0 and 100 μM glutamate and 100 μM NMDA groups. d Expression of LAMP1 protein was increased in the 100 μM glutamate and 100 μM NMDA groups. e The Ad-parkin-transfected RGCs showed lower level of cytotoxicity f and less apoptotic cell death g – i under glutamate excitotoxicity. c n = 3, data are expressed as mean ± SD, * P

    Article Snippet: The cells were exposed to cell culture medium containing 100 μM glutamate (Sigma-Aldrich) or 100 μM NMDA (Sigma-Aldrich) for 24 h. Cytotoxicity of RGCs was detected by the LDH Cytotoxicity Detection Kit according to the standard protocol (TaKaRa Biotechnology, Dalian, China).

    Techniques: Over Expression, Transfection, Expressing

    Proposed model of the role of NMDAR-elicited SMO activation in the Tat-induced Nrf2 pathway. On the one hand, HIV-1 Tat induces neuronal cell death through the production of H 2 O 2 and 3-AP by a mechanism involving NMDAR-induced SMO activation. On the other hand, the same pathways are able to trigger an antioxidant response through the transcriptional induction of Nrf2-dependent ARE genes. For more details see text. Abbreviations: 3-AP, aldehyde 3-aminopropanal; ARE, antioxidant-response element; CAT, catalase; CHL, Chlorhexidine digluconate; DMF, dimethyl fumarate; H 2 O 2 , hydrogen peroxide; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; NQO1, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase type 1; HO, heme-oxygenase; NAC, N-acetylcysteine; NMDA, N-methyl-D-aspartate; Nrf2, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2; SMO, spermine oxidase; SOD, superoxide dismutase.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: HIV-Tat Induces the Nrf2/ARE Pathway through NMDA Receptor-Elicited Spermine Oxidase Activation in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149802

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Proposed model of the role of NMDAR-elicited SMO activation in the Tat-induced Nrf2 pathway. On the one hand, HIV-1 Tat induces neuronal cell death through the production of H 2 O 2 and 3-AP by a mechanism involving NMDAR-induced SMO activation. On the other hand, the same pathways are able to trigger an antioxidant response through the transcriptional induction of Nrf2-dependent ARE genes. For more details see text. Abbreviations: 3-AP, aldehyde 3-aminopropanal; ARE, antioxidant-response element; CAT, catalase; CHL, Chlorhexidine digluconate; DMF, dimethyl fumarate; H 2 O 2 , hydrogen peroxide; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; NQO1, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase type 1; HO, heme-oxygenase; NAC, N-acetylcysteine; NMDA, N-methyl-D-aspartate; Nrf2, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2; SMO, spermine oxidase; SOD, superoxide dismutase.

    Article Snippet: Materials Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHL) solution, MK-801 hydrogen maleate (MK-801), N-methyl D-aspartic acid (NMDA), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), fetal bovine serum (FBS), 0.25% Trypsin–EDTA solution, and gentamicin solution 50 mg/ml were obtained from Sigma–Aldrich (Milan, Italy).

    Techniques: Activation Assay

    A , Under the baseline condition of warmed skin and core temperatures, which eliminated basal brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT SNA), nanoinjection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, dashed line) into the perifornical area of the lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) did not evoke any change in BAT SNA, BAT temperature (TBAT), expired CO 2 (Exp CO 2 ), core temperature (T Core ), skin temperature (T Skin ), heart rate (HR) or mean arterial pressure (MAP). The means ± SEM (n=4) of the time courses of the physiological variables (points are 30-s averages of the variable values) during the nanoinjection of NMDA into the PeF-LH are shown in B . C , Histological section showing the NMDA nanoinjection site (white arrowhead) in PeF-LH for the responses illustrated in A . D ) containing the PeF-LH. DMH, dorsomedial hypothalamus; mt, mammillothalamic tract; f, fornix.

    Journal: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

    Article Title: An orexinergic projection from perifornical hypothalamus to raphe pallidus increases rat brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3909-11.2011

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A , Under the baseline condition of warmed skin and core temperatures, which eliminated basal brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT SNA), nanoinjection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, dashed line) into the perifornical area of the lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) did not evoke any change in BAT SNA, BAT temperature (TBAT), expired CO 2 (Exp CO 2 ), core temperature (T Core ), skin temperature (T Skin ), heart rate (HR) or mean arterial pressure (MAP). The means ± SEM (n=4) of the time courses of the physiological variables (points are 30-s averages of the variable values) during the nanoinjection of NMDA into the PeF-LH are shown in B . C , Histological section showing the NMDA nanoinjection site (white arrowhead) in PeF-LH for the responses illustrated in A . D ) containing the PeF-LH. DMH, dorsomedial hypothalamus; mt, mammillothalamic tract; f, fornix.

    Article Snippet: Orexin-A, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and the orexin antagonist, SB-334867, were obtained from Tocris and dissolved in isotonic saline, except SB-334867 that was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and diluted in isotonic saline to a final concentration of less than 10% DMSO.

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    A , Under the baseline condition of a low level of brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT SNA), elicited by skin and core cooling, nanoinjection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, dashed line) into the perifornical area of the lateral hypothalamus (PeF-LH) elicited a marked and sustained ( > 1h) enhancement of BAT SNA, BAT temperature (TBAT), and expired CO 2 (Exp CO 2 ), as well as an increase in core temperature (T Core ) and skin temperature (T Skin ). Note the early, rapidly-rising period (~3 min duration) of elevated BAT SNA. The means ± SEM (n=6) of the time courses of the physiological variables (points are 30-s averages of the variable values) during the nanoinjection of NMDA into PeF-LH are shown in B . § indicates significant (p

    Journal: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

    Article Title: An orexinergic projection from perifornical hypothalamus to raphe pallidus increases rat brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3909-11.2011

    Figure Lengend Snippet: A , Under the baseline condition of a low level of brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT SNA), elicited by skin and core cooling, nanoinjection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, dashed line) into the perifornical area of the lateral hypothalamus (PeF-LH) elicited a marked and sustained ( > 1h) enhancement of BAT SNA, BAT temperature (TBAT), and expired CO 2 (Exp CO 2 ), as well as an increase in core temperature (T Core ) and skin temperature (T Skin ). Note the early, rapidly-rising period (~3 min duration) of elevated BAT SNA. The means ± SEM (n=6) of the time courses of the physiological variables (points are 30-s averages of the variable values) during the nanoinjection of NMDA into PeF-LH are shown in B . § indicates significant (p

    Article Snippet: Orexin-A, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and the orexin antagonist, SB-334867, were obtained from Tocris and dissolved in isotonic saline, except SB-334867 that was dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and diluted in isotonic saline to a final concentration of less than 10% DMSO.

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    N‐Methyl‐D‐aspartate ( NMDA ) receptor involvement in plasticity at synapses of barrel cortex. At vertical synapses from L4 spiny stellate neurons to L2/3 pyramidal neurons, timing‐dependent long‐term potentiation (t‐LTP) requires postsynaptic GluN2A‐containing NMDA receptors, whereas t‐ LTD requires presynaptic GluN2C or ‐D‐containing receptors. In contrast, t‐ LTD at horizontal synapses between L2/3 pyramidal cells requires postsynaptic GluN2B‐containing receptors.

    Journal: Physiological Reports

    Article Title: High‐ and low‐conductance NMDA receptors are present in layer 4 spiny stellate and layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons of mouse barrel cortex. High‐ and low‐conductance NMDA receptors are present in layer 4 spiny stellate and layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons of mouse barrel cortex

    doi: 10.14814/phy2.13051

    Figure Lengend Snippet: N‐Methyl‐D‐aspartate ( NMDA ) receptor involvement in plasticity at synapses of barrel cortex. At vertical synapses from L4 spiny stellate neurons to L2/3 pyramidal neurons, timing‐dependent long‐term potentiation (t‐LTP) requires postsynaptic GluN2A‐containing NMDA receptors, whereas t‐ LTD requires presynaptic GluN2C or ‐D‐containing receptors. In contrast, t‐ LTD at horizontal synapses between L2/3 pyramidal cells requires postsynaptic GluN2B‐containing receptors.

    Article Snippet: N‐Methyl‐D‐aspartic acid was obtained from Tocris.

    Techniques:

    High‐ and low‐conductance N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate ( NMDA ) receptor openings and IV ‐curves. (A) Section of a current trace from a patch in which only high‐conductance NMDA receptors (NMDARs) were observed. Channel currents are negative (into the cell). Note the double openings in the first part of the trace. Red crosses: measurement points for the size of the single‐channel current, yielding 2.8 pA. The gray‐boxed section is shown at higher magnification in panel D. (Data from a L2/3 pyramidal cell. Pipette glutamate concentration: 100 nmol/L. Test voltage: 10 mV above resting potential ( RP ).) (B) Section of a current trace from a patch in which only low‐conductance NMDAR s were observed. Red crosses: measurement points for the size of the single‐channel current, yielding 1.9 pA . The gray‐boxed section is shown at higher magnification in panel E. (Data from a L4 spiny stellate cell. Pipette glutamate concentration: 75 nmol/L. Test voltage: 10 mV below RP .) (C) Section of a current trace from a patch showing simultaneous activity from a high‐ and a low‐conductance NMDAR . In the second half of the trace, only the low‐conductance channel is active. In the first part, both the high‐ and the low‐conductance channel are simultaneously active. All four possibilities (both closed, closed‐open, open‐closed, both open) and transitions between them can be observed. (Data from a L4 cell. Pipette glutamate concentration: 100 nmol/L . Test voltage: RP − 10 mV .) (D) Enlarged channel openings from panel A. (E) Enlarged channel openings from panel B. (F) Current‐voltage ( IV ) plot for the channel from which openings are shown in panel A. Black squares: measured single‐channel currents at a range of holding potentials from RP − 30 mV to RP + 30 mV . The data shown in panel A contribute the datapoint at RP + 10 mV . The total data come from a series of eight sweeps, with two traces at RP − 10 mV and one trace for each of the other six voltages. Black line: straight line fit, yielding a slope conductance of 46.0 ± 1.5 pS and a reversal potential of RP + 73 mV . The red lines indicate slope conductances expected for the main and subconductance levels of GluN2A or GluN2B receptor channels (45 pS , 36 pS ), the green lines for GluN2C and GluN2D receptors (31 pS , 20 pS , 14 pS ), with the same reversal potential as the straight line fit to the experimental data (black line). On the basis of the slope conductance, this channel was identified as a high‐conductance NMDAR . (G) IV plot for the channel from which openings are shown in panel B. Black squares: measured single‐channel currents at a range of holding potentials. The data shown in B contribute the datapoint at −10 mV . Black line: straight line fit, yielding a slope conductance of 26.3 ± 1.4 pS and a reversal potential of RP + 59 mV . Red and green lines same as in (F). The observed slope conductance falls into the range for low‐conductance NMDAR s. (H) Amplitude histogram of the current trace shown in (A). Gaussian functions were fitted to the baseline current peak (green) and the single‐opening peak (red), yielding the same single‐channel current as obtained by cursor measurement in (A).

    Journal: Physiological Reports

    Article Title: High‐ and low‐conductance NMDA receptors are present in layer 4 spiny stellate and layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons of mouse barrel cortex. High‐ and low‐conductance NMDA receptors are present in layer 4 spiny stellate and layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons of mouse barrel cortex

    doi: 10.14814/phy2.13051

    Figure Lengend Snippet: High‐ and low‐conductance N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate ( NMDA ) receptor openings and IV ‐curves. (A) Section of a current trace from a patch in which only high‐conductance NMDA receptors (NMDARs) were observed. Channel currents are negative (into the cell). Note the double openings in the first part of the trace. Red crosses: measurement points for the size of the single‐channel current, yielding 2.8 pA. The gray‐boxed section is shown at higher magnification in panel D. (Data from a L2/3 pyramidal cell. Pipette glutamate concentration: 100 nmol/L. Test voltage: 10 mV above resting potential ( RP ).) (B) Section of a current trace from a patch in which only low‐conductance NMDAR s were observed. Red crosses: measurement points for the size of the single‐channel current, yielding 1.9 pA . The gray‐boxed section is shown at higher magnification in panel E. (Data from a L4 spiny stellate cell. Pipette glutamate concentration: 75 nmol/L. Test voltage: 10 mV below RP .) (C) Section of a current trace from a patch showing simultaneous activity from a high‐ and a low‐conductance NMDAR . In the second half of the trace, only the low‐conductance channel is active. In the first part, both the high‐ and the low‐conductance channel are simultaneously active. All four possibilities (both closed, closed‐open, open‐closed, both open) and transitions between them can be observed. (Data from a L4 cell. Pipette glutamate concentration: 100 nmol/L . Test voltage: RP − 10 mV .) (D) Enlarged channel openings from panel A. (E) Enlarged channel openings from panel B. (F) Current‐voltage ( IV ) plot for the channel from which openings are shown in panel A. Black squares: measured single‐channel currents at a range of holding potentials from RP − 30 mV to RP + 30 mV . The data shown in panel A contribute the datapoint at RP + 10 mV . The total data come from a series of eight sweeps, with two traces at RP − 10 mV and one trace for each of the other six voltages. Black line: straight line fit, yielding a slope conductance of 46.0 ± 1.5 pS and a reversal potential of RP + 73 mV . The red lines indicate slope conductances expected for the main and subconductance levels of GluN2A or GluN2B receptor channels (45 pS , 36 pS ), the green lines for GluN2C and GluN2D receptors (31 pS , 20 pS , 14 pS ), with the same reversal potential as the straight line fit to the experimental data (black line). On the basis of the slope conductance, this channel was identified as a high‐conductance NMDAR . (G) IV plot for the channel from which openings are shown in panel B. Black squares: measured single‐channel currents at a range of holding potentials. The data shown in B contribute the datapoint at −10 mV . Black line: straight line fit, yielding a slope conductance of 26.3 ± 1.4 pS and a reversal potential of RP + 59 mV . Red and green lines same as in (F). The observed slope conductance falls into the range for low‐conductance NMDAR s. (H) Amplitude histogram of the current trace shown in (A). Gaussian functions were fitted to the baseline current peak (green) and the single‐opening peak (red), yielding the same single‐channel current as obtained by cursor measurement in (A).

    Article Snippet: N‐Methyl‐D‐aspartic acid was obtained from Tocris.

    Techniques: Transferring, Concentration Assay, Activity Assay

    Representative cresyl violet-stained spinal cord sections of sham-operated control rats (A), NMDA-injected rats (B), and QUIS-injected rats (C). Dilation of the central canal, ipsilateral neuronal loss of lamina III and V, and intraspinal cavities are seen in B and C. Scale bar in A (inset) equals 500 µm. NMDA : N-methyl D-aspartate, QUIS : quisqualate.

    Journal: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society

    Article Title: Comparison of the Spinal Neuropathic Pain Induced by Intraspinal Injection of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate and Quisquate in Rats

    doi: 10.3340/jkns.2011.50.5.420

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Representative cresyl violet-stained spinal cord sections of sham-operated control rats (A), NMDA-injected rats (B), and QUIS-injected rats (C). Dilation of the central canal, ipsilateral neuronal loss of lamina III and V, and intraspinal cavities are seen in B and C. Scale bar in A (inset) equals 500 µm. NMDA : N-methyl D-aspartate, QUIS : quisqualate.

    Article Snippet: N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA) antagonists as potential pain therapeutics.

    Techniques: Staining, Injection

    Gut ghrelin increases hepatic glucose production by activating a gut-brain-liver neurocircuitry. a Schematic representation of the working hypothesis. Gut ghrelin was coinfused with tetracaine, which abolishes the ascending neuronal signal to the brain. A subgroup of rats was given MK-801, an NMDA receptor inhibitor, directly into the NTS. In another study, gut ghrelin was infused into rats with HVAG. b Experimental procedure and clamp protocol. Stereotaxic surgeries were conducted on day 1. A duodenal catheter or venous and arterial catheters were implanted on day 7. HVAG was performed immediately before the implantation of the duodenal and vascular catheters. c and d Gut ghrelin infusion decreased GIR and increased HGP. Rats that received tetracaine in the gut, MK-801 in the NTS or HVAG failed to respond to duodenal ghrelin to decrease the GIR and increase HGP. e Suppression of HGP during the clamp expressed as the percentage decrease from basal HGP. f Glucose uptake was unchanged in all groups. NTS, the nucleus of the solitary tract; HVAG, hepatic vagotomy; NMDA, N -methyl- D-aspartate; GIR, glucose infusion rate; HGP, hepatic glucose production. Values are shown as mean ± SEM. * P

    Journal: Cell Communication and Signaling : CCS

    Article Title: Gut ghrelin regulates hepatic glucose production and insulin signaling via a gut-brain-liver pathway

    doi: 10.1186/s12964-019-0321-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Gut ghrelin increases hepatic glucose production by activating a gut-brain-liver neurocircuitry. a Schematic representation of the working hypothesis. Gut ghrelin was coinfused with tetracaine, which abolishes the ascending neuronal signal to the brain. A subgroup of rats was given MK-801, an NMDA receptor inhibitor, directly into the NTS. In another study, gut ghrelin was infused into rats with HVAG. b Experimental procedure and clamp protocol. Stereotaxic surgeries were conducted on day 1. A duodenal catheter or venous and arterial catheters were implanted on day 7. HVAG was performed immediately before the implantation of the duodenal and vascular catheters. c and d Gut ghrelin infusion decreased GIR and increased HGP. Rats that received tetracaine in the gut, MK-801 in the NTS or HVAG failed to respond to duodenal ghrelin to decrease the GIR and increase HGP. e Suppression of HGP during the clamp expressed as the percentage decrease from basal HGP. f Glucose uptake was unchanged in all groups. NTS, the nucleus of the solitary tract; HVAG, hepatic vagotomy; NMDA, N -methyl- D-aspartate; GIR, glucose infusion rate; HGP, hepatic glucose production. Values are shown as mean ± SEM. * P

    Article Snippet: In a separate cohort of rats undergoing NTS treatment procedures, MK-801, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor inhibitor (0.03 ng/min, Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA), was given at t = 90 to 200 min until the end of the PECs.

    Techniques: