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  • 76
    Millipore sodium hydroxide naoh
    Schematic reaction schemes for modification of the PVDF membrane; ( a ) <t>SAMB,</t> ( b ) Allyl, ( c ) KMnO 4 , ( d ) <t>NaOH.</t>
    Sodium Hydroxide Naoh, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 76/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    96
    Merck KGaA n naoh
    ( A ) The effects of compounds 1 and 8 on cell viability determined by MTT assay. Melanoma cells pretreated with 100 nM α-MSH were seeded at a density of 1 × 10 4 cells/well in a 12-well plate. Then, the melanoma cells were left to adhere overnight. Pure isolates (25, 50 and 100 μM) or arbutin (100 μM) were added to each well and incubated for another 72 h. Subsequently, the treated cells were labelled with MTT dye reagent in <t>PBS</t> (2 mg/mL) for 3 h. The formazan precipitates were dissolved by DMSO, and the concentrations were measured at 570 nm in a microplate reader. ( B ) The effects of compounds 1 and 8 on melanin contents in B16-F10 cells. Melanoma cells were seeded at a density of 1 × 10 4 cells/well in a 6-well plate and incubated overnight. The cells were exposed to various concentrations (25, 50 and 100 μM) of the pure isolates or arbutin for 72 h in the presence of 100 nM α-MSH. The cells were washed with PBS and lyzed with 150 μL of 1 N <t>NaOH</t> containing 10% DMSO for 1 h at 80 °C. The absorbance at 405 nm was measured using a microplate reader. Results were expressed as % control and data mean ± S.D. n = 3 in each group. * p
    N Naoh, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 21 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    79
    Xilong Chemical Co naoh
    ( A ) The effects of compounds 1 and 8 on cell viability determined by MTT assay. Melanoma cells pretreated with 100 nM α-MSH were seeded at a density of 1 × 10 4 cells/well in a 12-well plate. Then, the melanoma cells were left to adhere overnight. Pure isolates (25, 50 and 100 μM) or arbutin (100 μM) were added to each well and incubated for another 72 h. Subsequently, the treated cells were labelled with MTT dye reagent in <t>PBS</t> (2 mg/mL) for 3 h. The formazan precipitates were dissolved by DMSO, and the concentrations were measured at 570 nm in a microplate reader. ( B ) The effects of compounds 1 and 8 on melanin contents in B16-F10 cells. Melanoma cells were seeded at a density of 1 × 10 4 cells/well in a 6-well plate and incubated overnight. The cells were exposed to various concentrations (25, 50 and 100 μM) of the pure isolates or arbutin for 72 h in the presence of 100 nM α-MSH. The cells were washed with PBS and lyzed with 150 μL of 1 N <t>NaOH</t> containing 10% DMSO for 1 h at 80 °C. The absorbance at 405 nm was measured using a microplate reader. Results were expressed as % control and data mean ± S.D. n = 3 in each group. * p
    Naoh, supplied by Xilong Chemical Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    79
    Cayman Chemical naoh
    Detection of tyrosine nitration in E. coli wild type under different <t>peroxynitrite</t> concentrations in vivo . E. coli MG1655 wild type was grown in MOPS medium to an absorbance of 0.4 and exposed to peroxynitrite (1–3 m m ) or 0.3 m <t>NaOH</t> as vehicle
    Naoh, supplied by Cayman Chemical, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    79
    Alconox naoh
    4D time series of phase images of breast cancer cells as they dissolve after contact with pure water, <t>NaOH</t> and <t>Alconox®.</t> Imaging area is 200 × 300 μm. Data are taken at 20X with a 660 nm source and 2 ms exposures. Samples above
    Naoh, supplied by Alconox, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    79
    Fisher Scientific naoh
    Confocal images of the bacterial colonies after 15 min in suspension containing: (right side) <t>Henkel</t> Ti plate autoclaved in 5 M <t>NaOH</t> at 100°C/2 h and (left side) Ti plate (Titanium Inc.; anodized for 2 h and chemically etched for 5 s in EtOH/HF) exposed to UV beam for 20 min.
    Naoh, supplied by Fisher Scientific, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    79
    GE Healthcare naoh
    Effect of the application of a SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine hydrolysate <t>(L-BD4-T85-3)</t> on substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED) of Whatman paper (pure cellulose) at cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g glucan. (a) L-BD4-T85-3 neutralized using <t>NaOH</t> to pH 4.8; (b) L-BD4-T85-3 neutralized using Ca(OH) 2 to pH 4.8.
    Naoh, supplied by GE Healthcare, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    79
    Titanium Inc naoh
    Confocal images of the bacterial colonies after 15 min in suspension containing: (right side) <t>Henkel</t> Ti plate autoclaved in 5 M <t>NaOH</t> at 100°C/2 h and (left side) Ti plate (Titanium Inc.; anodized for 2 h and chemically etched for 5 s in EtOH/HF) exposed to UV beam for 20 min.
    Naoh, supplied by Titanium Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    79
    Loba Chemie naoh
    SEM images of papyrus sheets manufactured with some treatments and inoculated with Aspergillus niger . ( a1 , a2 ) Papyrus sheet manufactured with strips treated with 10% DMSO; ( b ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with S. babylonica leaf extract (2%); ( c ) Papyrus sheets manufactured from strips treated with E. camaldulensis bark extract (2%); ( d ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips soaked in tap water after hammering; ( e ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with <t>KOH</t> (2%), then 100 mL NaClO; ( f ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with <t>NaOH</t> (2%), then 100 mL NaClO; ( g ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with nano-cellulose and tylose (1:1 v / v , 0.25%); ( h ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with nano-cellulose and tylose (1:1 v / v , 0. 5%). Arrows refer to dense growth of the fungus.
    Naoh, supplied by Loba Chemie, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    79
    Avantor 1n naoh
    Responses of RKN J2 to water and 1 μl of 1N NaOH at 30 minutes. RKN J2 in water with normal movement at 30 minutes (A); RKN J2 exposed in 1 μl of 1N NaOH with curled and twisted body shape at 30 minutes(B).
    1n Naoh, supplied by Avantor, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    78
    Millipore naoh koh
    27 Al ( a ) and 11 B ( b ) Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies BSG glass in the as received state, after alkali activation (in ‘green’ foams, <t>NaOH/KOH</t> activation) and after firing (in final foams).
    Naoh Koh, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 78/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    77
    ATCC naoh 4 m ar4 2j cell line
    Expression of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9 in pancreatic acini and in <t>AR4-2J</t> cell clusters as determined by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunocytochemistry. ( A ) RT-PCR determination of TLR2, 4 and 9 ( Aa ). Activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) were used as positive controls. Lanes for acini or AR4-2J in the images were done with pancreatic acini from two different rats, or from two different AR4-2J cultures. TLR2, 4 and 9 mRNA contents normalized to that of GAPDH were quantified both in rat pancreatic acini and in AR-2J ( Ab ). ( B ) Protein extracts from rat pancreatic acini or AR4-2J were separated by SDS-PAGE, and Western blot was done using antibodies against TLR2, 4 and 9. The β-actin was used as internal controls ( Ba ). TLR2, 4 and 9 and β-actin bands in blots from ≥ 3 rats or ≥ 3 AR4-2J cultures were quantified by ImageJ; TLR2, 4 and 9 protein levels were expressed as ratios of TLR/β-actin. No statistically significant differences were found ( P > 0.05, Bb ). ( C ) Rat pancreatic acini or AR4-2J were fixed for immunocytochemistry. Antibodies against TLR2, 4 and 9 and TRITC-conjugated secondary antibody were used (red). The nucleus was counter-stained with Hoechst 33342 (blue). Confocal images were taken (Zeiss 700) with λ ex 555 nm (TRITC) or 405 nm (Hoechst 33342), λ em 576 nm and 461 nm respectively. Images from one typical experiment are shown. Scale bars: 10 μm. Both fluorescent and merged images are presented.
    Naoh 4 M Ar4 2j Cell Line, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 77/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    76
    Becton Dickinson reference nalc naoh method
    Distribution of 50 Mycobacterium isolates yielded by the broth protocol B <t>(NALC-NaOH/Bactec</t> 960 MGIT) and the agar protocol A (chlorhexidine-0.7%/MOD9) out of 300 inoculated specimens .
    Reference Nalc Naoh Method, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 76/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    The contents of the “Backpack PCR” platform. The entire

    Journal: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Article Title: Backpack PCR: A point-of-collection diagnostic platform for the rapid detection of Brugia parasites in mosquitoes

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006962

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The contents of the “Backpack PCR” platform. The entire "Backpack PCR" platform weighs less than 10 lbs and can be easily transported by a single person. The “Backpack PCR” platform, which couples a simple and inexpensive NaOH-based extraction method with miniPCR amplification and test strip detection, will facilitate the use of molecular xenomonitoring in resource-limited settings. Furthermore, as this platform is based upon commercially available technologies, it will prove readily adaptable to the detection of W . bancrofti and other mosquito-borne pathogens. Research to develop this platform for the detection of other parasite and viral pathogens found in mosquitos is ongoing in our laboratory.

    Article Snippet: The efficiency of the rapid NaOH-based DNA extraction methodology was examined through comparative real-time PCR testing of NaOH and Qiagen column-extracted sample panels.

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Stripping Membranes

    Schematic reaction schemes for modification of the PVDF membrane; ( a ) SAMB, ( b ) Allyl, ( c ) KMnO 4 , ( d ) NaOH.

    Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

    Article Title: Surface Modification of PVDF Membranes for Treating Produced Waters by Direct Contact Membrane Distillation

    doi: 10.3390/ijerph16050685

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic reaction schemes for modification of the PVDF membrane; ( a ) SAMB, ( b ) Allyl, ( c ) KMnO 4 , ( d ) NaOH.

    Article Snippet: Methanol, vinyl imidazole, allyl bromide, Poly N-(3-sulfopropyl)-N-(methacryloxyethyl)-N,N-dimethylammonium betaine (SAMB), potassium permanganate (KMnO4 ), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Modification

    The SEM images for ( A ) base membrane after DCMD; ( B ) base membrane after DCMD with PW pretreated using EC; ( C ) SAMB modified membrane after DCMD; ( D ) Allyl modified membrane after DCMD; ( E ) KMnO 4 treated membrane after DCMD; ( F ) NaOH treated membrane after DCMD.

    Journal: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

    Article Title: Surface Modification of PVDF Membranes for Treating Produced Waters by Direct Contact Membrane Distillation

    doi: 10.3390/ijerph16050685

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The SEM images for ( A ) base membrane after DCMD; ( B ) base membrane after DCMD with PW pretreated using EC; ( C ) SAMB modified membrane after DCMD; ( D ) Allyl modified membrane after DCMD; ( E ) KMnO 4 treated membrane after DCMD; ( F ) NaOH treated membrane after DCMD.

    Article Snippet: Methanol, vinyl imidazole, allyl bromide, Poly N-(3-sulfopropyl)-N-(methacryloxyethyl)-N,N-dimethylammonium betaine (SAMB), potassium permanganate (KMnO4 ), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were purchased from Sigma Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Modification

    Immunohistochemical reactions showing histological features of the non-cellular component of reticular dermal matrices at different incubation times (20X magnification). In control samples (T0) vimentin ( A ), laminin ( D ) and collagen IV ( G ) immunohistochemical reactions showed the presence of an intact basement membrane (stained in brown), which was progressively degraded during the decellularization process; in DMEM treated samples, the immunostaining was focal and weak after 5 weeks (T5) of treatment ( B : vimentin; E : laminin; H : collagen IV). Basement membrane degradations appeared more evident in T5 samples treated with NaOH, in which vimentin ( C ) and laminin ( F ) reactions were negative, and only collagen IV staining was still positive ( I ). Vimentin immunostaining also showed that both DMEM and NaOH were able to completely eliminate fibroblasts at T5.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Glycerolized Reticular Dermis as a New Human Acellular Dermal Matrix: An Exploratory Study

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149124

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunohistochemical reactions showing histological features of the non-cellular component of reticular dermal matrices at different incubation times (20X magnification). In control samples (T0) vimentin ( A ), laminin ( D ) and collagen IV ( G ) immunohistochemical reactions showed the presence of an intact basement membrane (stained in brown), which was progressively degraded during the decellularization process; in DMEM treated samples, the immunostaining was focal and weak after 5 weeks (T5) of treatment ( B : vimentin; E : laminin; H : collagen IV). Basement membrane degradations appeared more evident in T5 samples treated with NaOH, in which vimentin ( C ) and laminin ( F ) reactions were negative, and only collagen IV staining was still positive ( I ). Vimentin immunostaining also showed that both DMEM and NaOH were able to completely eliminate fibroblasts at T5.

    Article Snippet: RD derived grafts were incubated in two different media: DMEM (Biowest SAS, Nuaillé, France) or NaOH 0.06 N (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) at room temperature in continuous tilting [ ]; PD derived grafts were incubated in DMEM only.

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry, Incubation, Staining, Immunostaining

    Immunohistochemical reactions showing histological features of the cellular component of reticular dermal matrices at different incubation times (20X magnification). In control samples (T0), the CD31 immunohistochemical reaction showed the presence of intact vessels ( A ; endothelial cells are stained in brown), while immunostaining was focal and weak after 5 weeks (T5) of treatment with DMEM ( B ) and completely absent in NaOH treated samples ( C ). Immunohistochemistry also showed that at T0 both macrophages ( D , showing CD68 positive cells) and lymphocytes ( G , showing CD45/CLA positive cells) were present, concentrated in perivascular spaces and near the residual lower portion of hair follicles, while only non-specific focal and weak staining was present after 5 weeks (T5) of treatment with DMEM ( E , H ); reactions were completely negative in NaOH-treated samples ( F , I ).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Glycerolized Reticular Dermis as a New Human Acellular Dermal Matrix: An Exploratory Study

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149124

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Immunohistochemical reactions showing histological features of the cellular component of reticular dermal matrices at different incubation times (20X magnification). In control samples (T0), the CD31 immunohistochemical reaction showed the presence of intact vessels ( A ; endothelial cells are stained in brown), while immunostaining was focal and weak after 5 weeks (T5) of treatment with DMEM ( B ) and completely absent in NaOH treated samples ( C ). Immunohistochemistry also showed that at T0 both macrophages ( D , showing CD68 positive cells) and lymphocytes ( G , showing CD45/CLA positive cells) were present, concentrated in perivascular spaces and near the residual lower portion of hair follicles, while only non-specific focal and weak staining was present after 5 weeks (T5) of treatment with DMEM ( E , H ); reactions were completely negative in NaOH-treated samples ( F , I ).

    Article Snippet: RD derived grafts were incubated in two different media: DMEM (Biowest SAS, Nuaillé, France) or NaOH 0.06 N (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) at room temperature in continuous tilting [ ]; PD derived grafts were incubated in DMEM only.

    Techniques: Immunohistochemistry, Incubation, Staining, Immunostaining

    Histochemical reactions showing histological features of human acellular reticular dermal matrices at different incubation times (20X magnification). In comparison with control (T0) samples ( A : hematoxylin-eosin; D : trichrome staining), after 5 weeks of treatment (T5), specimens showed the presence of stromal shrinkage and tissue fragmentation, edema and focal condensations with spongy patterns; these denaturation artifacts were rare in samples treated with DMEM ( B : hematoxylin-eosin; E : trichrome staining) and more evident in those treated with NaOH ( C : hematoxylin-eosin; F : trichrome staining). Elastic fibers, stained in black using Elastic Von Gieson histochemical reaction, showed no significant alterations in terms of length, diameter and mean number comparing T0 samples ( G ) with T5 specimens treated with DMEM ( H ) or NaOH ( I ).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Glycerolized Reticular Dermis as a New Human Acellular Dermal Matrix: An Exploratory Study

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149124

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Histochemical reactions showing histological features of human acellular reticular dermal matrices at different incubation times (20X magnification). In comparison with control (T0) samples ( A : hematoxylin-eosin; D : trichrome staining), after 5 weeks of treatment (T5), specimens showed the presence of stromal shrinkage and tissue fragmentation, edema and focal condensations with spongy patterns; these denaturation artifacts were rare in samples treated with DMEM ( B : hematoxylin-eosin; E : trichrome staining) and more evident in those treated with NaOH ( C : hematoxylin-eosin; F : trichrome staining). Elastic fibers, stained in black using Elastic Von Gieson histochemical reaction, showed no significant alterations in terms of length, diameter and mean number comparing T0 samples ( G ) with T5 specimens treated with DMEM ( H ) or NaOH ( I ).

    Article Snippet: RD derived grafts were incubated in two different media: DMEM (Biowest SAS, Nuaillé, France) or NaOH 0.06 N (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) at room temperature in continuous tilting [ ]; PD derived grafts were incubated in DMEM only.

    Techniques: Incubation, Staining

    Mann-Whitney test. The amount of residual DNA from decellularized RD matrices was not significantly different using DMEM and NaOH.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Glycerolized Reticular Dermis as a New Human Acellular Dermal Matrix: An Exploratory Study

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149124

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mann-Whitney test. The amount of residual DNA from decellularized RD matrices was not significantly different using DMEM and NaOH.

    Article Snippet: RD derived grafts were incubated in two different media: DMEM (Biowest SAS, Nuaillé, France) or NaOH 0.06 N (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) at room temperature in continuous tilting [ ]; PD derived grafts were incubated in DMEM only.

    Techniques: MANN-WHITNEY

    Quantity of DNA in 1 mg of tissue obtained from RD matrices at different incubation times using different decellularization protocols. The amount of DNA is reported on the y-axis (ng/mg) and the time of incubation is reported on the x-axis (from T1 to T3), using different colors referring to different decellularization methods (blue for DMEM and red for NaOH).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Glycerolized Reticular Dermis as a New Human Acellular Dermal Matrix: An Exploratory Study

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0149124

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Quantity of DNA in 1 mg of tissue obtained from RD matrices at different incubation times using different decellularization protocols. The amount of DNA is reported on the y-axis (ng/mg) and the time of incubation is reported on the x-axis (from T1 to T3), using different colors referring to different decellularization methods (blue for DMEM and red for NaOH).

    Article Snippet: RD derived grafts were incubated in two different media: DMEM (Biowest SAS, Nuaillé, France) or NaOH 0.06 N (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) at room temperature in continuous tilting [ ]; PD derived grafts were incubated in DMEM only.

    Techniques: Incubation

    SEM images of a surface of LaMm-Ni 4.1 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.45 alloy not subjected to any treatment ( A ), and after electrochemical treatment in 1 M LiOH ( B ), 1 M NaOH ( C ), and 1 M KOH ( D ).

    Journal: Materials

    Article Title: Corrosion of Hydrogen Storage Metal Alloy LaMm-Ni4.1Al0.3Mn0.4Co0.45 in the Aqueous Solutions of Alkali Metal Hydroxides

    doi: 10.3390/ma11122423

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SEM images of a surface of LaMm-Ni 4.1 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.45 alloy not subjected to any treatment ( A ), and after electrochemical treatment in 1 M LiOH ( B ), 1 M NaOH ( C ), and 1 M KOH ( D ).

    Article Snippet: All electrolytes were prepared using high purity compounds: LiOH (POCh, Gliwice, Poland), NaOH (POCh), KOH (POCh; Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA), RbOH (Sigma Aldrich), and CsOH (Sigma Aldrich).

    Techniques:

    SEM images of a surface of LaMm-Ni 4.1 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.45 alloy not subjected to any treatment ( A ), and after electrochemical treatment at 6 M electrolytes: 6 M LiOH/KOH ( B ), 6 M NaOH/KOH ( C ), 6 M KOH ( D ), 6 M RbOH/KOH ( E ), and 6 M CsOH/KOH ( F ).

    Journal: Materials

    Article Title: Corrosion of Hydrogen Storage Metal Alloy LaMm-Ni4.1Al0.3Mn0.4Co0.45 in the Aqueous Solutions of Alkali Metal Hydroxides

    doi: 10.3390/ma11122423

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SEM images of a surface of LaMm-Ni 4.1 Al 0.3 Mn 0.4 Co 0.45 alloy not subjected to any treatment ( A ), and after electrochemical treatment at 6 M electrolytes: 6 M LiOH/KOH ( B ), 6 M NaOH/KOH ( C ), 6 M KOH ( D ), 6 M RbOH/KOH ( E ), and 6 M CsOH/KOH ( F ).

    Article Snippet: All electrolytes were prepared using high purity compounds: LiOH (POCh, Gliwice, Poland), NaOH (POCh), KOH (POCh; Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA), RbOH (Sigma Aldrich), and CsOH (Sigma Aldrich).

    Techniques:

    N -Glycan dependence of mAb-A4's binding to HES-3 and SKOV3. A, SDS-PAGE Western blot of the mAb-A4 antigen immunoprecipitated from SKOV3 and digested with no enzyme ( lanes 1 and 5 ), sialidase A ( lanes 2, 3, 6, and 7 ), PNGaseF ( lanes 3, 4, 7, and 8 ), or subjected to on-blot NaOH β-elimination ( lanes 5–8 ), and immunoblotted ( IB ) with mAb-A4. B, SDS-PAGE Western blot of HES-3 lysate treated with no enzyme ( lanes 1 and 3 ) or PNGaseF ( lanes 2 and 4 ) and subjected to on-blot β-elimination ( lanes 3 and 4 ), and immunoblotted with mAb-84. C, effect of 72 h of tunicamycin treatment on binding of mAb-A4, basigin ( BSG ), and biotinylated R. solanacearum lectin ( RSL ). Histograms show negative control ( filled ) overlaid with sample ( black line ). Dashed vertical lines show the mean fluorescence of the DMSO control without tunicamycin. D, effect of tunicamycin on the mean fluorescence of mAb-A4 binding to SKOV3. E, effect of tunicamycin on the cytotoxicity of mAb-A4 against SKOV3, as measured by relative viability through PI exclusion. F, effect of tunicamycin on the cytotoxicity of mAb-A4 against SKOV3. Contour plots of forward scatter versus PI uptake of FACS negative control ( left ), DMSO control ( middle ), and tunicamycin-treated ( right ). Data were representative of three biological replicates over successive passages. Error bars indicate one S.D.

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Characterization of H type 1 and type 1 N-acetyllactosamine glycan epitopes on ovarian cancer specifically recognized by the anti-glycan monoclonal antibody mAb-A4

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.768887

    Figure Lengend Snippet: N -Glycan dependence of mAb-A4's binding to HES-3 and SKOV3. A, SDS-PAGE Western blot of the mAb-A4 antigen immunoprecipitated from SKOV3 and digested with no enzyme ( lanes 1 and 5 ), sialidase A ( lanes 2, 3, 6, and 7 ), PNGaseF ( lanes 3, 4, 7, and 8 ), or subjected to on-blot NaOH β-elimination ( lanes 5–8 ), and immunoblotted ( IB ) with mAb-A4. B, SDS-PAGE Western blot of HES-3 lysate treated with no enzyme ( lanes 1 and 3 ) or PNGaseF ( lanes 2 and 4 ) and subjected to on-blot β-elimination ( lanes 3 and 4 ), and immunoblotted with mAb-84. C, effect of 72 h of tunicamycin treatment on binding of mAb-A4, basigin ( BSG ), and biotinylated R. solanacearum lectin ( RSL ). Histograms show negative control ( filled ) overlaid with sample ( black line ). Dashed vertical lines show the mean fluorescence of the DMSO control without tunicamycin. D, effect of tunicamycin on the mean fluorescence of mAb-A4 binding to SKOV3. E, effect of tunicamycin on the cytotoxicity of mAb-A4 against SKOV3, as measured by relative viability through PI exclusion. F, effect of tunicamycin on the cytotoxicity of mAb-A4 against SKOV3. Contour plots of forward scatter versus PI uptake of FACS negative control ( left ), DMSO control ( middle ), and tunicamycin-treated ( right ). Data were representative of three biological replicates over successive passages. Error bars indicate one S.D.

    Article Snippet: 3) O- Glycans were removed from proteins blotted on PVDF membrane by β-elimination by an overnight treatment in 50-ml centrifuge tubes with 50 mm NaOH (Sigma) at 42 °C, as described previously ( ).

    Techniques: Binding Assay, SDS Page, Western Blot, Immunoprecipitation, Negative Control, Fluorescence, FACS

    Alkaline hydrolysis of the genomic DNA. DNA was isolated from the ∆ rnhB mutants and M. smegmatis mc 2 155. The strains were grown in 7H9 medium supplemented with OADC. The DNA samples were treated with either NaOH or NaCl as a control. The fragmentation of the samples was visualized on alkaline agarose gels. Lanes 1a) GeneRuler 1-kb DNA Ladder, 2a) M. smegmatis mc 2 155 control DNA, 3a) ∆ rnhB mutant control DNA, 1b) GeneRuler 1-kb DNA Ladder, 2b) M. smegmatis mc 2 155 DNA hydrolyzed with NaOH, and 3b) ∆ rnhB mutant DNA hydrolyzed with NaOH. The level of ribonucleotide incorporated in the DNA of both strains was similar, as we did not observe differences in fragmentation of genomic DNA.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: The Deletion of rnhB in Mycobacterium smegmatis Does Not Affect the Level of RNase HII Substrates or Influence Genome Stability

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115521

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Alkaline hydrolysis of the genomic DNA. DNA was isolated from the ∆ rnhB mutants and M. smegmatis mc 2 155. The strains were grown in 7H9 medium supplemented with OADC. The DNA samples were treated with either NaOH or NaCl as a control. The fragmentation of the samples was visualized on alkaline agarose gels. Lanes 1a) GeneRuler 1-kb DNA Ladder, 2a) M. smegmatis mc 2 155 control DNA, 3a) ∆ rnhB mutant control DNA, 1b) GeneRuler 1-kb DNA Ladder, 2b) M. smegmatis mc 2 155 DNA hydrolyzed with NaOH, and 3b) ∆ rnhB mutant DNA hydrolyzed with NaOH. The level of ribonucleotide incorporated in the DNA of both strains was similar, as we did not observe differences in fragmentation of genomic DNA.

    Article Snippet: The DNA solution was incubated in 0.3 M NaOH (Sigma) for 2 h at 55°C.

    Techniques: Isolation, Mutagenesis

    ( A ) The effects of compounds 1 and 8 on cell viability determined by MTT assay. Melanoma cells pretreated with 100 nM α-MSH were seeded at a density of 1 × 10 4 cells/well in a 12-well plate. Then, the melanoma cells were left to adhere overnight. Pure isolates (25, 50 and 100 μM) or arbutin (100 μM) were added to each well and incubated for another 72 h. Subsequently, the treated cells were labelled with MTT dye reagent in PBS (2 mg/mL) for 3 h. The formazan precipitates were dissolved by DMSO, and the concentrations were measured at 570 nm in a microplate reader. ( B ) The effects of compounds 1 and 8 on melanin contents in B16-F10 cells. Melanoma cells were seeded at a density of 1 × 10 4 cells/well in a 6-well plate and incubated overnight. The cells were exposed to various concentrations (25, 50 and 100 μM) of the pure isolates or arbutin for 72 h in the presence of 100 nM α-MSH. The cells were washed with PBS and lyzed with 150 μL of 1 N NaOH containing 10% DMSO for 1 h at 80 °C. The absorbance at 405 nm was measured using a microplate reader. Results were expressed as % control and data mean ± S.D. n = 3 in each group. * p

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Melanogenesis Inhibitors from the Rhizoma of Ligusticum Sinense in B16-F10 Melanoma Cells In Vitro and Zebrafish In Vivo

    doi: 10.3390/ijms19123994

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( A ) The effects of compounds 1 and 8 on cell viability determined by MTT assay. Melanoma cells pretreated with 100 nM α-MSH were seeded at a density of 1 × 10 4 cells/well in a 12-well plate. Then, the melanoma cells were left to adhere overnight. Pure isolates (25, 50 and 100 μM) or arbutin (100 μM) were added to each well and incubated for another 72 h. Subsequently, the treated cells were labelled with MTT dye reagent in PBS (2 mg/mL) for 3 h. The formazan precipitates were dissolved by DMSO, and the concentrations were measured at 570 nm in a microplate reader. ( B ) The effects of compounds 1 and 8 on melanin contents in B16-F10 cells. Melanoma cells were seeded at a density of 1 × 10 4 cells/well in a 6-well plate and incubated overnight. The cells were exposed to various concentrations (25, 50 and 100 μM) of the pure isolates or arbutin for 72 h in the presence of 100 nM α-MSH. The cells were washed with PBS and lyzed with 150 μL of 1 N NaOH containing 10% DMSO for 1 h at 80 °C. The absorbance at 405 nm was measured using a microplate reader. Results were expressed as % control and data mean ± S.D. n = 3 in each group. * p

    Article Snippet: At the end of the treatment, the cells were washed with PBS and lyzed with 150 μL of 1 N NaOH (Merck, Germany) containing 10% DMSO for 1 h at 80 °C.

    Techniques: MTT Assay, Incubation

    ( A ) The antimelanogenesis effect of different extraction layers with particular concentration on B16-F10 melanoma cells. The B16-F10 melanoma cells were seeded and incubated overnight to allow cells to adhere. The cells were exposed to various concentrations (25, 50 and 100 μM) of the different extraction layers or arbutin for 72 h in the presence of 100 nM α-MSH. At the end of the treatment, the cells were washed with PBS and lyzed with 150 μL of 1 N NaOH containing 10% DMSO for 1 h at 80 °C. The absorbance at 405 nm was measured using a microplate reader. ( B ) Melanin contents in lyzed B16-F10 melanoma cells of vehicle control (C), positive control (arbutin 100 μM), treatments of crude extract (GBC, 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL), ethyl acetate layer (GBE, 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL), n -BuOH layer (GBB, 100 μg/mL), and H 2 O layer (GBH, 100 μg/mL) from rhizoma of L. sinense .

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Melanogenesis Inhibitors from the Rhizoma of Ligusticum Sinense in B16-F10 Melanoma Cells In Vitro and Zebrafish In Vivo

    doi: 10.3390/ijms19123994

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( A ) The antimelanogenesis effect of different extraction layers with particular concentration on B16-F10 melanoma cells. The B16-F10 melanoma cells were seeded and incubated overnight to allow cells to adhere. The cells were exposed to various concentrations (25, 50 and 100 μM) of the different extraction layers or arbutin for 72 h in the presence of 100 nM α-MSH. At the end of the treatment, the cells were washed with PBS and lyzed with 150 μL of 1 N NaOH containing 10% DMSO for 1 h at 80 °C. The absorbance at 405 nm was measured using a microplate reader. ( B ) Melanin contents in lyzed B16-F10 melanoma cells of vehicle control (C), positive control (arbutin 100 μM), treatments of crude extract (GBC, 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL), ethyl acetate layer (GBE, 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL), n -BuOH layer (GBB, 100 μg/mL), and H 2 O layer (GBH, 100 μg/mL) from rhizoma of L. sinense .

    Article Snippet: At the end of the treatment, the cells were washed with PBS and lyzed with 150 μL of 1 N NaOH (Merck, Germany) containing 10% DMSO for 1 h at 80 °C.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Incubation, Positive Control

    ( A ) The antimelanogenesis effect of different extraction layers with particular concentration on B16-F10 melanoma cells. The B16-F10 melanoma cells were seeded and incubated overnight to allow cells to adhere. The cells were exposed to various concentrations (25, 50 and 100 μM) of the different extraction layers or arbutin for 72 h in the presence of 100 nM α-MSH. At the end of the treatment, the cells were washed with PBS and lyzed with 150 μL of 1 N NaOH containing 10% DMSO for 1 h at 80 °C. The absorbance at 405 nm was measured using a microplate reader. ( B ) Melanin contents in lyzed B16-F10 melanoma cells of vehicle control (C), positive control (arbutin 100 μM), treatments of crude extract (GBC, 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL), ethyl acetate layer (GBE, 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL), n -BuOH layer (GBB, 100 μg/mL), and H2 O layer (GBH, 100 μg/mL) from rhizoma of L. sinense .

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Melanogenesis Inhibitors from the Rhizoma of Ligusticum Sinense in B16-F10 Melanoma Cells In Vitro and Zebrafish In Vivo

    doi: 10.3390/ijms19123994

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( A ) The antimelanogenesis effect of different extraction layers with particular concentration on B16-F10 melanoma cells. The B16-F10 melanoma cells were seeded and incubated overnight to allow cells to adhere. The cells were exposed to various concentrations (25, 50 and 100 μM) of the different extraction layers or arbutin for 72 h in the presence of 100 nM α-MSH. At the end of the treatment, the cells were washed with PBS and lyzed with 150 μL of 1 N NaOH containing 10% DMSO for 1 h at 80 °C. The absorbance at 405 nm was measured using a microplate reader. ( B ) Melanin contents in lyzed B16-F10 melanoma cells of vehicle control (C), positive control (arbutin 100 μM), treatments of crude extract (GBC, 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL), ethyl acetate layer (GBE, 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL), n -BuOH layer (GBB, 100 μg/mL), and H2 O layer (GBH, 100 μg/mL) from rhizoma of L. sinense .

    Article Snippet: At the end of the treatment, the cells were washed with PBS and lyzed with 150 μL of 1 N NaOH (Merck, Germany) containing 10% DMSO for 1 h at 80 °C.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Incubation, Positive Control

    Detection of tyrosine nitration in E. coli wild type under different peroxynitrite concentrations in vivo . E. coli MG1655 wild type was grown in MOPS medium to an absorbance of 0.4 and exposed to peroxynitrite (1–3 m m ) or 0.3 m NaOH as vehicle

    Journal:

    Article Title: Redox Proteomics Uncovers Peroxynitrite-sensitive Proteins That Help Escherichia col

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.457556

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Detection of tyrosine nitration in E. coli wild type under different peroxynitrite concentrations in vivo . E. coli MG1655 wild type was grown in MOPS medium to an absorbance of 0.4 and exposed to peroxynitrite (1–3 m m ) or 0.3 m NaOH as vehicle

    Article Snippet: Because of the instability of peroxynitrite, the concentration of the commercially available peroxynitrite stock solution in 0.3 m NaOH (Cayman, Ann Arbor, MI) was determined spectrophotometrically immediately before the experiment using the extinction coefficient of ϵ302 = 1670 m −1 cm−1 .

    Techniques: Nitration, In Vivo

    Detection of glutathionylated and sulfenylated proteins in cells treated with peroxynitrite. A, Western blot of protein extracts of bacterial cell cultures treated with peroxynitrite and NaOH (vehicle control) with a monoclonal anti-glutathione antibody.

    Journal:

    Article Title: Redox Proteomics Uncovers Peroxynitrite-sensitive Proteins That Help Escherichia col

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.457556

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Detection of glutathionylated and sulfenylated proteins in cells treated with peroxynitrite. A, Western blot of protein extracts of bacterial cell cultures treated with peroxynitrite and NaOH (vehicle control) with a monoclonal anti-glutathione antibody.

    Article Snippet: Because of the instability of peroxynitrite, the concentration of the commercially available peroxynitrite stock solution in 0.3 m NaOH (Cayman, Ann Arbor, MI) was determined spectrophotometrically immediately before the experiment using the extinction coefficient of ϵ302 = 1670 m −1 cm−1 .

    Techniques: Western Blot

    4D time series of phase images of breast cancer cells as they dissolve after contact with pure water, NaOH and Alconox®. Imaging area is 200 × 300 μm. Data are taken at 20X with a 660 nm source and 2 ms exposures. Samples above

    Journal:

    Article Title: Dynamic Phase Imaging for in Vitro Process Monitoring and Cell Tracking

    doi: 10.1109/IEMBS.2011.6091477

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 4D time series of phase images of breast cancer cells as they dissolve after contact with pure water, NaOH and Alconox®. Imaging area is 200 × 300 μm. Data are taken at 20X with a 660 nm source and 2 ms exposures. Samples above

    Article Snippet: Once the cells have osmotically swelled from purified water and begun breaking down by NaOH, the Alconox® further breaks down the cell walls and the cells dissolve. shows a series of images from a longer 4D phase movie taken as the cells were dissolving.

    Techniques: Imaging, Mass Spectrometry

    Confocal images of the bacterial colonies after 15 min in suspension containing: (right side) Henkel Ti plate autoclaved in 5 M NaOH at 100°C/2 h and (left side) Ti plate (Titanium Inc.; anodized for 2 h and chemically etched for 5 s in EtOH/HF) exposed to UV beam for 20 min.

    Journal: Advances in Orthopedics

    Article Title: Infection Mitigation Efficacy of Photoactive Titania on Orthopedic Implant Materials

    doi: 10.4061/2011/571652

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Confocal images of the bacterial colonies after 15 min in suspension containing: (right side) Henkel Ti plate autoclaved in 5 M NaOH at 100°C/2 h and (left side) Ti plate (Titanium Inc.; anodized for 2 h and chemically etched for 5 s in EtOH/HF) exposed to UV beam for 20 min.

    Article Snippet: The heat-treated Henkel plates were subjected to autoclaving in 5 M NaOH (Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) for 2 h at 100°C at a ramp rate of 3°/min.

    Techniques:

    Confocal images of the bacterial colonies at different times in suspension containing Henkel Ti plate (autoclaved in 5 M NaOH at 100°C/2 h) and exposed to a handheld IR laser ( λ = 808 nm) for 30 s.

    Journal: Advances in Orthopedics

    Article Title: Infection Mitigation Efficacy of Photoactive Titania on Orthopedic Implant Materials

    doi: 10.4061/2011/571652

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Confocal images of the bacterial colonies at different times in suspension containing Henkel Ti plate (autoclaved in 5 M NaOH at 100°C/2 h) and exposed to a handheld IR laser ( λ = 808 nm) for 30 s.

    Article Snippet: The heat-treated Henkel plates were subjected to autoclaving in 5 M NaOH (Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) for 2 h at 100°C at a ramp rate of 3°/min.

    Techniques:

    Effect of the application of a SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine hydrolysate (L-BD4-T85-3) on substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED) of Whatman paper (pure cellulose) at cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g glucan. (a) L-BD4-T85-3 neutralized using NaOH to pH 4.8; (b) L-BD4-T85-3 neutralized using Ca(OH) 2 to pH 4.8.

    Journal: Biotechnology for Biofuels

    Article Title: Lignosulfonate and elevated pH can enhance enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses

    doi: 10.1186/1754-6834-6-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of the application of a SPORL-pretreated lodgepole pine hydrolysate (L-BD4-T85-3) on substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED) of Whatman paper (pure cellulose) at cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g glucan. (a) L-BD4-T85-3 neutralized using NaOH to pH 4.8; (b) L-BD4-T85-3 neutralized using Ca(OH) 2 to pH 4.8.

    Article Snippet: The SPORL hydrolysate, L-BD4-T85-3, was first neutralized from pH approximately 1.5 to 4.8 using NaOH before adding to the Whatman paper suspension.

    Techniques:

    Effect of the application of different SPORL-pretreatment lodgepole pine hydrolysates (spent liquors) produced under different pretreatment durations on SED of SP-BD4. (a) Liquors neutralized using NaOH to 4.8; (b) Liquors neutralized using Ca(OH) 2 to 4.8.

    Journal: Biotechnology for Biofuels

    Article Title: Lignosulfonate and elevated pH can enhance enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses

    doi: 10.1186/1754-6834-6-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of the application of different SPORL-pretreatment lodgepole pine hydrolysates (spent liquors) produced under different pretreatment durations on SED of SP-BD4. (a) Liquors neutralized using NaOH to 4.8; (b) Liquors neutralized using Ca(OH) 2 to 4.8.

    Article Snippet: The SPORL hydrolysate, L-BD4-T85-3, was first neutralized from pH approximately 1.5 to 4.8 using NaOH before adding to the Whatman paper suspension.

    Techniques: Produced

    Confocal images of the bacterial colonies after 15 min in suspension containing: (right side) Henkel Ti plate autoclaved in 5 M NaOH at 100°C/2 h and (left side) Ti plate (Titanium Inc.; anodized for 2 h and chemically etched for 5 s in EtOH/HF) exposed to UV beam for 20 min.

    Journal: Advances in Orthopedics

    Article Title: Infection Mitigation Efficacy of Photoactive Titania on Orthopedic Implant Materials

    doi: 10.4061/2011/571652

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Confocal images of the bacterial colonies after 15 min in suspension containing: (right side) Henkel Ti plate autoclaved in 5 M NaOH at 100°C/2 h and (left side) Ti plate (Titanium Inc.; anodized for 2 h and chemically etched for 5 s in EtOH/HF) exposed to UV beam for 20 min.

    Article Snippet: The confocal data shown above, led to the conclusion that, among all Ti samples tested with the IR laser, two sets of results were most promising: (i) the Henkel Ti plates autoclaved in 5 M NaOH at 100°C for 2 h, and (ii) the plates from Titanium Inc. that were anodized for 2 h and chemically etched for 5 s in EtOH/HF mixture.

    Techniques:

    Confocal images of the bacterial colonies at different times in suspension containing Henkel Ti plate (autoclaved in 5 M NaOH at 100°C/2 h) and exposed to a handheld IR laser ( λ = 808 nm) for 30 s.

    Journal: Advances in Orthopedics

    Article Title: Infection Mitigation Efficacy of Photoactive Titania on Orthopedic Implant Materials

    doi: 10.4061/2011/571652

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Confocal images of the bacterial colonies at different times in suspension containing Henkel Ti plate (autoclaved in 5 M NaOH at 100°C/2 h) and exposed to a handheld IR laser ( λ = 808 nm) for 30 s.

    Article Snippet: The confocal data shown above, led to the conclusion that, among all Ti samples tested with the IR laser, two sets of results were most promising: (i) the Henkel Ti plates autoclaved in 5 M NaOH at 100°C for 2 h, and (ii) the plates from Titanium Inc. that were anodized for 2 h and chemically etched for 5 s in EtOH/HF mixture.

    Techniques:

    SEM images of papyrus sheets manufactured with some treatments and inoculated with Aspergillus niger . ( a1 , a2 ) Papyrus sheet manufactured with strips treated with 10% DMSO; ( b ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with S. babylonica leaf extract (2%); ( c ) Papyrus sheets manufactured from strips treated with E. camaldulensis bark extract (2%); ( d ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips soaked in tap water after hammering; ( e ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with KOH (2%), then 100 mL NaClO; ( f ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with NaOH (2%), then 100 mL NaClO; ( g ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with nano-cellulose and tylose (1:1 v / v , 0.25%); ( h ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with nano-cellulose and tylose (1:1 v / v , 0. 5%). Arrows refer to dense growth of the fungus.

    Journal: Materials

    Article Title: Assessment of the Impact of Different Treatments on the Technological and Antifungal Properties of Papyrus (Cyperus Papyrus L.) Sheets

    doi: 10.3390/ma12040620

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SEM images of papyrus sheets manufactured with some treatments and inoculated with Aspergillus niger . ( a1 , a2 ) Papyrus sheet manufactured with strips treated with 10% DMSO; ( b ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with S. babylonica leaf extract (2%); ( c ) Papyrus sheets manufactured from strips treated with E. camaldulensis bark extract (2%); ( d ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips soaked in tap water after hammering; ( e ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with KOH (2%), then 100 mL NaClO; ( f ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with NaOH (2%), then 100 mL NaClO; ( g ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with nano-cellulose and tylose (1:1 v / v , 0.25%); ( h ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with nano-cellulose and tylose (1:1 v / v , 0. 5%). Arrows refer to dense growth of the fungus.

    Article Snippet: Different chemical compounds, such as nano-cellulose (Sigma-Aldrich, Darmstadt, Germany), Tylose (Methyl hydroxyethyl cellulose) (Sigma-Aldrich, Darmstadt, Germany), dimethyl sulfoxide (Sigma-Aldrich, Darmstadt, Germany), as well as NaOH, KOH and NaClO (Loba Chemie Pvt.

    Techniques:

    SEM images of Papyrus sheets manufactured with some treatments and inoculated with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides . ( a ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with 10% DMSO; ( b1 , b2 ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips soaked in tap water; ( c1 , c2 ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips soaked in tap water and un-hammered; ( d ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with KOH (2%), then 100 mL NaClO; ( e ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with NaOH (2%), then 100 mL NaClO. Arrows refer to dense growth of the fungus.

    Journal: Materials

    Article Title: Assessment of the Impact of Different Treatments on the Technological and Antifungal Properties of Papyrus (Cyperus Papyrus L.) Sheets

    doi: 10.3390/ma12040620

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SEM images of Papyrus sheets manufactured with some treatments and inoculated with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides . ( a ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with 10% DMSO; ( b1 , b2 ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips soaked in tap water; ( c1 , c2 ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips soaked in tap water and un-hammered; ( d ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with KOH (2%), then 100 mL NaClO; ( e ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with NaOH (2%), then 100 mL NaClO. Arrows refer to dense growth of the fungus.

    Article Snippet: Different chemical compounds, such as nano-cellulose (Sigma-Aldrich, Darmstadt, Germany), Tylose (Methyl hydroxyethyl cellulose) (Sigma-Aldrich, Darmstadt, Germany), dimethyl sulfoxide (Sigma-Aldrich, Darmstadt, Germany), as well as NaOH, KOH and NaClO (Loba Chemie Pvt.

    Techniques:

    SEM images of papyrus sheets manufactured with some treatments and inoculated with Aspergillus flavus . ( a1 , a2 ) Papyrus sheet manufactured with strips treated with 10% DMSO; ( b ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with S. babylonica leaf extract (2%); ( c ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with E. camaldulensis bark extract (2%); ( d ) Papyrus sheet manufactured with strips soaked in tap water after hammering; ( e ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with KOH (2%), then 100 mL NaClO for bleaching; ( f ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with NaOH (2%), then 100 mL NaClO for bleaching; ( g ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with nano-cellulose and tylose (1:1 v / v , 0.25%); ( h ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with nano-cellulose and tylose (1:1 v / v , 0. 5%); ( i1 , i2 ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with nano-cellulose (0.5%). Arrows refer to dense growth of the fungus.

    Journal: Materials

    Article Title: Assessment of the Impact of Different Treatments on the Technological and Antifungal Properties of Papyrus (Cyperus Papyrus L.) Sheets

    doi: 10.3390/ma12040620

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SEM images of papyrus sheets manufactured with some treatments and inoculated with Aspergillus flavus . ( a1 , a2 ) Papyrus sheet manufactured with strips treated with 10% DMSO; ( b ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with S. babylonica leaf extract (2%); ( c ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with E. camaldulensis bark extract (2%); ( d ) Papyrus sheet manufactured with strips soaked in tap water after hammering; ( e ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with KOH (2%), then 100 mL NaClO for bleaching; ( f ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with NaOH (2%), then 100 mL NaClO for bleaching; ( g ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with nano-cellulose and tylose (1:1 v / v , 0.25%); ( h ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with nano-cellulose and tylose (1:1 v / v , 0. 5%); ( i1 , i2 ) Papyrus sheets manufactured with strips treated with nano-cellulose (0.5%). Arrows refer to dense growth of the fungus.

    Article Snippet: Different chemical compounds, such as nano-cellulose (Sigma-Aldrich, Darmstadt, Germany), Tylose (Methyl hydroxyethyl cellulose) (Sigma-Aldrich, Darmstadt, Germany), dimethyl sulfoxide (Sigma-Aldrich, Darmstadt, Germany), as well as NaOH, KOH and NaClO (Loba Chemie Pvt.

    Techniques:

    Responses of RKN J2 to water and 1 μl of 1N NaOH at 30 minutes. RKN J2 in water with normal movement at 30 minutes (A); RKN J2 exposed in 1 μl of 1N NaOH with curled and twisted body shape at 30 minutes(B).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Optimization of In Vitro Techniques for Distinguishing between Live and Dead Second Stage Juveniles of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154818

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Responses of RKN J2 to water and 1 μl of 1N NaOH at 30 minutes. RKN J2 in water with normal movement at 30 minutes (A); RKN J2 exposed in 1 μl of 1N NaOH with curled and twisted body shape at 30 minutes(B).

    Article Snippet: Solutions of 1N Na2 CO3 , 1N NaHCO3 , and 1N NaOH (VWR, Suwanee, GA) were prepared individually by dissolving 21.1, 16.8, or 8.0 g of the compounds, respectively in 200 ml of distilled sterile water.

    Techniques:

    RKN J2 responded to three sodium chemicals, 1N Na 2 CO 3 , 1N NaHCO 3 , and 1N NaOH at 20 μl application.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Optimization of In Vitro Techniques for Distinguishing between Live and Dead Second Stage Juveniles of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154818

    Figure Lengend Snippet: RKN J2 responded to three sodium chemicals, 1N Na 2 CO 3 , 1N NaHCO 3 , and 1N NaOH at 20 μl application.

    Article Snippet: Solutions of 1N Na2 CO3 , 1N NaHCO3 , and 1N NaOH (VWR, Suwanee, GA) were prepared individually by dissolving 21.1, 16.8, or 8.0 g of the compounds, respectively in 200 ml of distilled sterile water.

    Techniques:

    SCN J2 responded to three sodium chemicals, 1N Na 2 CO 3 , 1N NaHCO 3 , and 1N NaOH at 20 μl application.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Optimization of In Vitro Techniques for Distinguishing between Live and Dead Second Stage Juveniles of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154818

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SCN J2 responded to three sodium chemicals, 1N Na 2 CO 3 , 1N NaHCO 3 , and 1N NaOH at 20 μl application.

    Article Snippet: Solutions of 1N Na2 CO3 , 1N NaHCO3 , and 1N NaOH (VWR, Suwanee, GA) were prepared individually by dissolving 21.1, 16.8, or 8.0 g of the compounds, respectively in 200 ml of distilled sterile water.

    Techniques:

    Responses of SCN J2 to test agents at 30 minutes. SCN J2 response to 1 μl 1N Na 2 CO 3  at 30 minutes (A); SCN J2 response to 10 μl 1N NaHCO 3  at 30minutes (B); SCN J2 in water control at 30 minutes (C); Dead SCN J2 did not response to any test agent (D); SCN J2 response to 10 μl 1N NaOH at 30 minutes (E).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Optimization of In Vitro Techniques for Distinguishing between Live and Dead Second Stage Juveniles of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154818

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Responses of SCN J2 to test agents at 30 minutes. SCN J2 response to 1 μl 1N Na 2 CO 3 at 30 minutes (A); SCN J2 response to 10 μl 1N NaHCO 3 at 30minutes (B); SCN J2 in water control at 30 minutes (C); Dead SCN J2 did not response to any test agent (D); SCN J2 response to 10 μl 1N NaOH at 30 minutes (E).

    Article Snippet: Solutions of 1N Na2 CO3 , 1N NaHCO3 , and 1N NaOH (VWR, Suwanee, GA) were prepared individually by dissolving 21.1, 16.8, or 8.0 g of the compounds, respectively in 200 ml of distilled sterile water.

    Techniques:

    27 Al ( a ) and 11 B ( b ) Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies BSG glass in the as received state, after alkali activation (in ‘green’ foams, NaOH/KOH activation) and after firing (in final foams).

    Journal: Materials

    Article Title: Extension of the ‘Inorganic Gel Casting’ Process to the Manufacturing of Boro-Alumino-Silicate Glass Foams

    doi: 10.3390/ma11122545

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 27 Al ( a ) and 11 B ( b ) Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies BSG glass in the as received state, after alkali activation (in ‘green’ foams, NaOH/KOH activation) and after firing (in final foams).

    Article Snippet: Fine powders, after preliminary dry ball milling (Pulverisette 7 planetary ball mill, Fritsch, Idar-Oberstein, Germany) and manual sieving ( < 75 µm), were cast in aqueous solutions containing 2.5 M NaOH or 2.5 M NaOH/KOH (reagent grade, Sigma-Aldrich, Gillingham, UK) for a solid loading of 68 wt %.

    Techniques: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Activation Assay

    29 Si NMR studies of BSG glass: ( a ) comparison of spectra in the as received state, after alkali activation (in ‘green’ foams, NaOH/KOH activation) and after firing (in final foams); ( b ) deconvolution analysis: blue lines, from experimental spectra, overlap with fitted curves, in red.

    Journal: Materials

    Article Title: Extension of the ‘Inorganic Gel Casting’ Process to the Manufacturing of Boro-Alumino-Silicate Glass Foams

    doi: 10.3390/ma11122545

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 29 Si NMR studies of BSG glass: ( a ) comparison of spectra in the as received state, after alkali activation (in ‘green’ foams, NaOH/KOH activation) and after firing (in final foams); ( b ) deconvolution analysis: blue lines, from experimental spectra, overlap with fitted curves, in red.

    Article Snippet: Fine powders, after preliminary dry ball milling (Pulverisette 7 planetary ball mill, Fritsch, Idar-Oberstein, Germany) and manual sieving ( < 75 µm), were cast in aqueous solutions containing 2.5 M NaOH or 2.5 M NaOH/KOH (reagent grade, Sigma-Aldrich, Gillingham, UK) for a solid loading of 68 wt %.

    Techniques: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Activation Assay

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of boro-alumino-silicated glass (BSG) in the as received state, after alkali activation (in ‘green’ foams, NaOH/KOH activation) and after firing (in final foams)

    Journal: Materials

    Article Title: Extension of the ‘Inorganic Gel Casting’ Process to the Manufacturing of Boro-Alumino-Silicate Glass Foams

    doi: 10.3390/ma11122545

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of boro-alumino-silicated glass (BSG) in the as received state, after alkali activation (in ‘green’ foams, NaOH/KOH activation) and after firing (in final foams)

    Article Snippet: Fine powders, after preliminary dry ball milling (Pulverisette 7 planetary ball mill, Fritsch, Idar-Oberstein, Germany) and manual sieving ( < 75 µm), were cast in aqueous solutions containing 2.5 M NaOH or 2.5 M NaOH/KOH (reagent grade, Sigma-Aldrich, Gillingham, UK) for a solid loading of 68 wt %.

    Techniques: Activation Assay

    Morphology of BSG-derived glass foams (surfactant: Triton X-100): ( a , c ) NaOH activation; ( b , d ) NaOH/KOH activation.

    Journal: Materials

    Article Title: Extension of the ‘Inorganic Gel Casting’ Process to the Manufacturing of Boro-Alumino-Silicate Glass Foams

    doi: 10.3390/ma11122545

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Morphology of BSG-derived glass foams (surfactant: Triton X-100): ( a , c ) NaOH activation; ( b , d ) NaOH/KOH activation.

    Article Snippet: Fine powders, after preliminary dry ball milling (Pulverisette 7 planetary ball mill, Fritsch, Idar-Oberstein, Germany) and manual sieving ( < 75 µm), were cast in aqueous solutions containing 2.5 M NaOH or 2.5 M NaOH/KOH (reagent grade, Sigma-Aldrich, Gillingham, UK) for a solid loading of 68 wt %.

    Techniques: Derivative Assay, Activation Assay

    Morphology of foams in the ‘green’ state (before firing): ( a ) NaOH/KOH activation; ( b ) KOH activation.

    Journal: Materials

    Article Title: Extension of the ‘Inorganic Gel Casting’ Process to the Manufacturing of Boro-Alumino-Silicate Glass Foams

    doi: 10.3390/ma11122545

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Morphology of foams in the ‘green’ state (before firing): ( a ) NaOH/KOH activation; ( b ) KOH activation.

    Article Snippet: Fine powders, after preliminary dry ball milling (Pulverisette 7 planetary ball mill, Fritsch, Idar-Oberstein, Germany) and manual sieving ( < 75 µm), were cast in aqueous solutions containing 2.5 M NaOH or 2.5 M NaOH/KOH (reagent grade, Sigma-Aldrich, Gillingham, UK) for a solid loading of 68 wt %.

    Techniques: Activation Assay

    Expression of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9 in pancreatic acini and in AR4-2J cell clusters as determined by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunocytochemistry. ( A ) RT-PCR determination of TLR2, 4 and 9 ( Aa ). Activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) were used as positive controls. Lanes for acini or AR4-2J in the images were done with pancreatic acini from two different rats, or from two different AR4-2J cultures. TLR2, 4 and 9 mRNA contents normalized to that of GAPDH were quantified both in rat pancreatic acini and in AR-2J ( Ab ). ( B ) Protein extracts from rat pancreatic acini or AR4-2J were separated by SDS-PAGE, and Western blot was done using antibodies against TLR2, 4 and 9. The β-actin was used as internal controls ( Ba ). TLR2, 4 and 9 and β-actin bands in blots from ≥ 3 rats or ≥ 3 AR4-2J cultures were quantified by ImageJ; TLR2, 4 and 9 protein levels were expressed as ratios of TLR/β-actin. No statistically significant differences were found ( P > 0.05, Bb ). ( C ) Rat pancreatic acini or AR4-2J were fixed for immunocytochemistry. Antibodies against TLR2, 4 and 9 and TRITC-conjugated secondary antibody were used (red). The nucleus was counter-stained with Hoechst 33342 (blue). Confocal images were taken (Zeiss 700) with λ ex 555 nm (TRITC) or 405 nm (Hoechst 33342), λ em 576 nm and 461 nm respectively. Images from one typical experiment are shown. Scale bars: 10 μm. Both fluorescent and merged images are presented.

    Journal: Cells

    Article Title: Extracellular Histones Activate Plasma Membrane Toll-Like Receptor 9 to Trigger Calcium Oscillations in Rat Pancreatic Acinar Tumor Cell AR4-2J

    doi: 10.3390/cells8010003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of TLR2, TLR4, TLR9 in pancreatic acini and in AR4-2J cell clusters as determined by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunocytochemistry. ( A ) RT-PCR determination of TLR2, 4 and 9 ( Aa ). Activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) were used as positive controls. Lanes for acini or AR4-2J in the images were done with pancreatic acini from two different rats, or from two different AR4-2J cultures. TLR2, 4 and 9 mRNA contents normalized to that of GAPDH were quantified both in rat pancreatic acini and in AR-2J ( Ab ). ( B ) Protein extracts from rat pancreatic acini or AR4-2J were separated by SDS-PAGE, and Western blot was done using antibodies against TLR2, 4 and 9. The β-actin was used as internal controls ( Ba ). TLR2, 4 and 9 and β-actin bands in blots from ≥ 3 rats or ≥ 3 AR4-2J cultures were quantified by ImageJ; TLR2, 4 and 9 protein levels were expressed as ratios of TLR/β-actin. No statistically significant differences were found ( P > 0.05, Bb ). ( C ) Rat pancreatic acini or AR4-2J were fixed for immunocytochemistry. Antibodies against TLR2, 4 and 9 and TRITC-conjugated secondary antibody were used (red). The nucleus was counter-stained with Hoechst 33342 (blue). Confocal images were taken (Zeiss 700) with λ ex 555 nm (TRITC) or 405 nm (Hoechst 33342), λ em 576 nm and 461 nm respectively. Images from one typical experiment are shown. Scale bars: 10 μm. Both fluorescent and merged images are presented.

    Article Snippet: Buffer pH was adjusted to 7.4 with NaOH 4 M. AR4-2J cell line was purchased from American Type Culture Collection (Rockville, MD, USA) and cultured in DMEM/F12 supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics in a CO2 incubator with 5% CO2 /95% air as reported before [ , , , ].

    Techniques: Expressing, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Western Blot, Immunocytochemistry, SDS Page, Staining

    Effects of extracellular histones on calcium signal in rat normal and tumoral pancreatic acinar cells. ( A ) Histones have no effects on basal calcium but block CCK stimulation in rat pancreatic acinus. Each acinar cell has one apical, two lateral and one basal side. The lower panel indicates that in tandem stimulations the second dose of CCK does not induce calcium oscillations after histone treatment (Hx). ( B ) Histones stimulate TLR9 to elicit calcium oscillations in AR4-2J cell clusters. Each cell has two neighboring and one basal/peripheral side. The lower panel shows that H4 induces calcium oscillations which are stronger and longer-lasting than CCK stimulation. The color-coded abbreviations are listed. APM, apical plasma membrane; BPM, basal plasma membrane; CCK, cholecystokinin; H, histones; Hx, mixed histones; LPM, lateral/neighboring plasma membrane; N, nucleus; PPM, peripheral plasma membrane; TLR2, 4 and 9, Toll-like receptor 2, 4 and 9; ZG, zymogen granules. The calcium traces shown in ( A , B ) lower parts are taken from Figure 1 r and Figure 6 (Ba) respectively. For clarity, CCK1 receptors are omitted from the diagram.

    Journal: Cells

    Article Title: Extracellular Histones Activate Plasma Membrane Toll-Like Receptor 9 to Trigger Calcium Oscillations in Rat Pancreatic Acinar Tumor Cell AR4-2J

    doi: 10.3390/cells8010003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of extracellular histones on calcium signal in rat normal and tumoral pancreatic acinar cells. ( A ) Histones have no effects on basal calcium but block CCK stimulation in rat pancreatic acinus. Each acinar cell has one apical, two lateral and one basal side. The lower panel indicates that in tandem stimulations the second dose of CCK does not induce calcium oscillations after histone treatment (Hx). ( B ) Histones stimulate TLR9 to elicit calcium oscillations in AR4-2J cell clusters. Each cell has two neighboring and one basal/peripheral side. The lower panel shows that H4 induces calcium oscillations which are stronger and longer-lasting than CCK stimulation. The color-coded abbreviations are listed. APM, apical plasma membrane; BPM, basal plasma membrane; CCK, cholecystokinin; H, histones; Hx, mixed histones; LPM, lateral/neighboring plasma membrane; N, nucleus; PPM, peripheral plasma membrane; TLR2, 4 and 9, Toll-like receptor 2, 4 and 9; ZG, zymogen granules. The calcium traces shown in ( A , B ) lower parts are taken from Figure 1 r and Figure 6 (Ba) respectively. For clarity, CCK1 receptors are omitted from the diagram.

    Article Snippet: Buffer pH was adjusted to 7.4 with NaOH 4 M. AR4-2J cell line was purchased from American Type Culture Collection (Rockville, MD, USA) and cultured in DMEM/F12 supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics in a CO2 incubator with 5% CO2 /95% air as reported before [ , , , ].

    Techniques: Blocking Assay

    TLR9 migrates from the peripheral plasma membrane to cell interiors after Dex treatment, with concurrent disappearance of histone-induced calcium oscillations in AR4-2J cell clusters. ( A ) TLR9 migration from peripheral plasma membrane to cell interiors after Dex. AR4-2J cells were grown in normal medium (AR4-2J-CT) or in medium containing Dex 10 nM (AR4-2J + Dex) for 5 days before immunocytochemistry. Anti-TLR9 primary and TRITC-conjugated secondary antibodies were used (red). The nucleus was counter-stained with Hoechst 33342 (blue). Confocal images were taken (Zeiss 700) with λ ex : TRITC/555 nm, Hoechst 33342/405; λ em : 576 nm and 461 nm respectively. Both fluorescent and merged images are shown. The distribution of TLR9 protein content along the dashed thin yellow lines in the images was quantified by fluorescence line scans. Fluorescence intensity was concentrated on the plasma membrane and cell interiors in control (left) and Dex-treated (right) AR4-2J cells respectively. ( B ) Disappearance of histone-induced calcium oscillations after Dex. AR4-2J cells were treated with Dex 10 nM for 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 days ( a – e ) before detachment and measurements of H4 induction of calcium oscillations. Fura-2-loaded AR4-2J cells were perifused; CCK and H4 were added as indicated by the horizontal bars. In each experiment, CCK 20 pM was followed by H4 at 5 mgL −1 in AR4-2J treated with Dex 10 nM for 0 ( a ), 1 ( b ), 3 ( c ), 5 ( d ) or 7 days ( e ). Ratios of integrated ca lcium responses H4 (25–55 min)/CCK (5–15 min) (area under peaks above the basal level) were plotted against days of Dex treatment ( f ). The dashed thin pink horizontal line in ( f ) indicates the ratio (H4/CCK) in control AR4-2J not treated with Dex. Asterisk (*) indicates P

    Journal: Cells

    Article Title: Extracellular Histones Activate Plasma Membrane Toll-Like Receptor 9 to Trigger Calcium Oscillations in Rat Pancreatic Acinar Tumor Cell AR4-2J

    doi: 10.3390/cells8010003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TLR9 migrates from the peripheral plasma membrane to cell interiors after Dex treatment, with concurrent disappearance of histone-induced calcium oscillations in AR4-2J cell clusters. ( A ) TLR9 migration from peripheral plasma membrane to cell interiors after Dex. AR4-2J cells were grown in normal medium (AR4-2J-CT) or in medium containing Dex 10 nM (AR4-2J + Dex) for 5 days before immunocytochemistry. Anti-TLR9 primary and TRITC-conjugated secondary antibodies were used (red). The nucleus was counter-stained with Hoechst 33342 (blue). Confocal images were taken (Zeiss 700) with λ ex : TRITC/555 nm, Hoechst 33342/405; λ em : 576 nm and 461 nm respectively. Both fluorescent and merged images are shown. The distribution of TLR9 protein content along the dashed thin yellow lines in the images was quantified by fluorescence line scans. Fluorescence intensity was concentrated on the plasma membrane and cell interiors in control (left) and Dex-treated (right) AR4-2J cells respectively. ( B ) Disappearance of histone-induced calcium oscillations after Dex. AR4-2J cells were treated with Dex 10 nM for 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 days ( a – e ) before detachment and measurements of H4 induction of calcium oscillations. Fura-2-loaded AR4-2J cells were perifused; CCK and H4 were added as indicated by the horizontal bars. In each experiment, CCK 20 pM was followed by H4 at 5 mgL −1 in AR4-2J treated with Dex 10 nM for 0 ( a ), 1 ( b ), 3 ( c ), 5 ( d ) or 7 days ( e ). Ratios of integrated ca lcium responses H4 (25–55 min)/CCK (5–15 min) (area under peaks above the basal level) were plotted against days of Dex treatment ( f ). The dashed thin pink horizontal line in ( f ) indicates the ratio (H4/CCK) in control AR4-2J not treated with Dex. Asterisk (*) indicates P

    Article Snippet: Buffer pH was adjusted to 7.4 with NaOH 4 M. AR4-2J cell line was purchased from American Type Culture Collection (Rockville, MD, USA) and cultured in DMEM/F12 supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics in a CO2 incubator with 5% CO2 /95% air as reported before [ , , , ].

    Techniques: Migration, Immunocytochemistry, Staining, Fluorescence

    Distribution of 50 Mycobacterium isolates yielded by the broth protocol B (NALC-NaOH/Bactec 960 MGIT) and the agar protocol A (chlorhexidine-0.7%/MOD9) out of 300 inoculated specimens .

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: A Chlorhexidine- Agar Plate Culture Medium Protocol to Complement Standard Broth Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00030

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Distribution of 50 Mycobacterium isolates yielded by the broth protocol B (NALC-NaOH/Bactec 960 MGIT) and the agar protocol A (chlorhexidine-0.7%/MOD9) out of 300 inoculated specimens .

    Article Snippet: In the standard broth protocol A, respiratory tract and stools specimens decontaminated using the reference NALC-NaOH method (Becton Dickinson, Le Pont-de-Claix, France) ( ) were inoculated into a MGIT tube (Becton Dickinson) supplemented with 500 μL of PANTA antibiotic cocktail (Becton Dickinson).

    Techniques: