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  • 99
    ATCC bacteriophage ms2
    Batch experiments (A) and retentates of membrane filtration experiments (B) with bacteriophage <t>MS2</t> suspended in tap water containing 5 g/liter of NaCl. C / C 0 is the ratio of the quantity of total viral genomes (circles), broken particles (triangles), or infectious phage (squares) at time x over the initial quantity of total viral genomes in the experimental suspension (1 × 10 8 PFU/ml) after homogenization (time zero). Results are expressed as means ± standard deviations of results from triplicate experiments. The detection limit of the PFU method corresponds to −8 on the y axis.
    Bacteriophage Ms2, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 143 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore ms2 rna
    Sensitivity of RT-SIBA for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). a RSV-A <t>RNA</t> and b RSV-B RNA. c Melting curve profiles of RSV (1000 copies of RSV-A RNA) and <t>MS2</t> RNA in the same reaction tube. MS2 was used as the internal control (IC, 2000 copies per reaction). No template control (NTC)
    Ms2 Rna, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 22 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Addgene inc lenti ms2 p65 hsf1 hygro
    Heterologous activation of the IL8 enhancer triggers IL8 and CXCL1 expression A CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) strategy was applied to test enhancer functions individually. This approach involves a “dead” Cas9 ( blue ) and VP64 ( green ) fusion protein that recruits the NF‐κB ( orange ) and <t>HSF1</t> ( red ) transactivation domains via <t>MS2</t> recognition of two stem loops in the sgRNA scaffold ( magenta ). These complexes were targeted to the IL8 or CXCL2 enhancers and promoters (highlights) via different sgRNA pools in HeLa. The position of individual sgRNAs used for CRISPRa is shown in more detail in Fig EV1 . Left bar graphs: Wild‐type HeLa cells were transiently transfected with different combinations of plasmids encoding the “dead” Cas9‐VP64 fusion protein, the <t>MS2‐p65‐HSF1</t> fusion protein, and empty sgRNA vector or versions containing sgRNAs targeting the IL8 enhancer or promoter. Twenty‐four hours post‐transfection, cells were lysed and total RNA was analyzed for expression changes of the indicated genes compared to samples carrying dCas9‐VP64 and MS2‐p65‐HSF1 fusions, but no sgRNAs. Right bar graphs: The same experiments were performed using sgRNAs targeting the CXCL2 enhancer and promoter. Data information: All data are from four independent transfections. Shown are mean values ± SEM. P ‐values are derived from unpaired t ‐tests comparing every condition against cells expressing all transactivators but lacking sgRNAs (first lane in each graph). Only significant differences are marked by asterisks.
    Lenti Ms2 P65 Hsf1 Hygro, supplied by Addgene inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 129 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Matrix Science ms2 spectra
    Data retention throughout the pipeline. The bars show the numbers of “data elements” (spectra, PMSs, and peptides) under consideration as these numbers decrease from the start (left) to the end (right) of the proteogenomics pipeline. In detail, the bars represent the following (node numbers refer to the TOPPAS workflow in Figure 2 ): <t>“MS2</t> spectra”, input MS2 spectra in the C-HPP testis data set; “Mascot/MS-GF+ PSMs (all)”, spectra that generated PSMs using either search engine; “Mascot/MS-GF+ (1% PEP)”, PSMs after PSM-level filtering (node 15); “Consensus”, PSMs after ConsensusID (node 16); “Filter: contaminants”, PSMs after filtering for contaminants (node 18); “Filter: known proteins (exact)”, PSMs after filtering for exact matches to known proteins (node 20); “Filter: known proteins (approx.)”, PSMs after filtering for approximate matches to known proteins (final set; node 22); and “Novel peptides”, distinct novel peptides identified by the final set of PSMs.
    Ms2 Spectra, supplied by Matrix Science, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 76 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ms2  (ATCC)
    98
    ATCC ms2
    Fates of <t>MS2,</t> R17, and φX174 during batch experiments with varying concentrations of T-80. An AWI was present in all batch experiments. Also shown are measurements of the static solution surface tension for each concentration of T-80 used. Data are means from three experiments; error bars represent the standard deviations from the means.
    Ms2, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 98/100, based on 95 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Addgene inc ms2 p65 hsf1
    Graphic illustration of reprogramming human foreskin fibroblasts into iCPCs via SAM-mediated gene activation. The combination of dCas9-VP64, sgRNA and <t>MS2-P65-HSF1</t> is assembled SAM complex. Targeted and robust activation of endogenous genes, including GATA4 , HAND2 , MEF2C , TBX5 and MEIS1 , can reprogram human fibroblasts toward iCPCs.
    Ms2 P65 Hsf1, supplied by Addgene inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 117 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    DSMZ bacteriophage ms2
    Number of bacteriophages and pathogenic viruses adsorbed on the skin per surface area as a function of seeding concentration. The plots show the log 10 -transformed <t>MS2</t> (red circles), adenovirus (blue triangles), and coxsackievirus (green squares) adsorbed on the skin per surface area as a function of the log 10 -transformed concentration of virus in the liquid. The regression lines represent the multiple regression models for the number of viruses adsorbed per surface area as a function of concentration.
    Bacteriophage Ms2, supplied by DSMZ, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 25 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    Addgene inc pcdna3 1 ms2
    CCAT1 acts as a molecular sponge for let-7. (A) Bioinformatics predicted let-7 binding sites at two distinct positions in CCAT1. Partial sequences of CCAT1 and sequences of four let-7 subtypes are shown. Numbers are in nucleotides relative to the transcriptional start site of CCAT1. (B) Schematic outlining the <t>MS2-RIP</t> strategy to validate endogenous miRNA:CCAT1 binding. (C) MS2-RIP followed by miRNA qRT-PCR to detect miRNAs endogenously associated with CCAT1. (D) Expression levels of let-7 after the transfection of <t>pcDNA3.1-CCAT1</t> or pcDNA3.1 into SMMC-7721 cells. (E) Luciferase activity in SMMC-7721 cells cotransfected with let-7 and luciferase reporters containing nothing, CCAT1 or mutant CCAT1. Data are presented as the relative ratio of firefly luciferase activity to renilla luciferase activity. (F) CCAT1 expression levels after the transfection of let-7 mimics or the miRNA negative control into SMMC-7721 cells. All values are presented as mean ± standard error based on at least three independent experiments. *p
    Pcdna3 1 Ms2, supplied by Addgene inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 112 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    ATCC ms2 virus
    <t>MS2</t> loaded respirator coupons were incubated at 37°C and 80% relative humidity (RH), and viable MS2 were enumerated at 2 and 4 hours. ∗Significantly ( P
    Ms2 Virus, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 25 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    Addgene inc psl ms2 12x
    <t>MS2</t> loaded respirator coupons were incubated at 37°C and 80% relative humidity (RH), and viable MS2 were enumerated at 2 and 4 hours. ∗Significantly ( P
    Psl Ms2 12x, supplied by Addgene inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 113 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Addgene inc ms2 p65 hsf1 hygro
    <t>MS2</t> loaded respirator coupons were incubated at 37°C and 80% relative humidity (RH), and viable MS2 were enumerated at 2 and 4 hours. ∗Significantly ( P
    Ms2 P65 Hsf1 Hygro, supplied by Addgene inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 54 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Becton Dickinson bacteriophage ms2
    Overall distribution of environmental surface contamination with bacteriophage <t>MS2</t>
    Bacteriophage Ms2, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    3-D Matrix ms 2 1 s 1 1 s 12 deg
    Overall distribution of environmental surface contamination with bacteriophage <t>MS2</t>
    Ms 2 1 S 1 1 S 12 Deg, supplied by 3-D Matrix, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 21 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    US Biological Life Sciences ms2 phage rna
    Overall distribution of environmental surface contamination with bacteriophage <t>MS2</t>
    Ms2 Phage Rna, supplied by US Biological Life Sciences, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 15 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Addgene inc ms2 p65 hsf1 gfp
    Overall distribution of environmental surface contamination with bacteriophage <t>MS2</t>
    Ms2 P65 Hsf1 Gfp, supplied by Addgene inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 28 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Thermo Fisher thermo scientific ms2 processor
    Overall distribution of environmental surface contamination with bacteriophage <t>MS2</t>
    Thermo Scientific Ms2 Processor, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 34 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Addgene inc lenti sgrna ms2 zeo backbone
    Overall distribution of environmental surface contamination with bacteriophage <t>MS2</t>
    Lenti Sgrna Ms2 Zeo Backbone, supplied by Addgene inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 27 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Moldex bacteriophage ms2
    Efficacy of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light for decontamination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), bacteriophage <t>MS2,</t> and bacteriophage Phi6 on 3 different N95 respirators (3M 1860S, Moldex 1517, and Kimberly-Clark 46727). Aliquots of 10 μL containing 10 6 colony-forming units (CFU) or plaque-forming units (PFU) of the test organisms in the simulated mucus suspension were spread to cover an area of 1 cm 2 on 3 different areas on the respirator surface (top exterior, edge exterior, and interior) as shown in Figure 1 . The respirators were exposed to a 60-second cycle of UV-C inside a UV-C box. Error bars indicate standard error.
    Bacteriophage Ms2, supplied by Moldex, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    ZeptoMetrix bacteriophage ms2
    Efficacy of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light for decontamination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), bacteriophage <t>MS2,</t> and bacteriophage Phi6 on 3 different N95 respirators (3M 1860S, Moldex 1517, and Kimberly-Clark 46727). Aliquots of 10 μL containing 10 6 colony-forming units (CFU) or plaque-forming units (PFU) of the test organisms in the simulated mucus suspension were spread to cover an area of 1 cm 2 on 3 different areas on the respirator surface (top exterior, edge exterior, and interior) as shown in Figure 1 . The respirators were exposed to a 60-second cycle of UV-C inside a UV-C box. Error bars indicate standard error.
    Bacteriophage Ms2, supplied by ZeptoMetrix, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Addgene inc ms2 p65 hsf1 activator plasmid
    Efficacy of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light for decontamination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), bacteriophage <t>MS2,</t> and bacteriophage Phi6 on 3 different N95 respirators (3M 1860S, Moldex 1517, and Kimberly-Clark 46727). Aliquots of 10 μL containing 10 6 colony-forming units (CFU) or plaque-forming units (PFU) of the test organisms in the simulated mucus suspension were spread to cover an area of 1 cm 2 on 3 different areas on the respirator surface (top exterior, edge exterior, and interior) as shown in Figure 1 . The respirators were exposed to a 60-second cycle of UV-C inside a UV-C box. Error bars indicate standard error.
    Ms2 P65 Hsf1 Activator Plasmid, supplied by Addgene inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 18 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Agilent technologies hplc esi ms2 analysis
    Efficacy of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light for decontamination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), bacteriophage <t>MS2,</t> and bacteriophage Phi6 on 3 different N95 respirators (3M 1860S, Moldex 1517, and Kimberly-Clark 46727). Aliquots of 10 μL containing 10 6 colony-forming units (CFU) or plaque-forming units (PFU) of the test organisms in the simulated mucus suspension were spread to cover an area of 1 cm 2 on 3 different areas on the respirator surface (top exterior, edge exterior, and interior) as shown in Figure 1 . The respirators were exposed to a 60-second cycle of UV-C inside a UV-C box. Error bars indicate standard error.
    Hplc Esi Ms2 Analysis, supplied by Agilent technologies, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 13 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Addgene inc plasmid ms2 p65 hsf1 gfp
    Efficacy of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light for decontamination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), bacteriophage <t>MS2,</t> and bacteriophage Phi6 on 3 different N95 respirators (3M 1860S, Moldex 1517, and Kimberly-Clark 46727). Aliquots of 10 μL containing 10 6 colony-forming units (CFU) or plaque-forming units (PFU) of the test organisms in the simulated mucus suspension were spread to cover an area of 1 cm 2 on 3 different areas on the respirator surface (top exterior, edge exterior, and interior) as shown in Figure 1 . The respirators were exposed to a 60-second cycle of UV-C inside a UV-C box. Error bars indicate standard error.
    Plasmid Ms2 P65 Hsf1 Gfp, supplied by Addgene inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 26 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    ZeptoMetrix ms2 bacteriophage lysate
    Efficacy of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light for decontamination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), bacteriophage <t>MS2,</t> and bacteriophage Phi6 on 3 different N95 respirators (3M 1860S, Moldex 1517, and Kimberly-Clark 46727). Aliquots of 10 μL containing 10 6 colony-forming units (CFU) or plaque-forming units (PFU) of the test organisms in the simulated mucus suspension were spread to cover an area of 1 cm 2 on 3 different areas on the respirator surface (top exterior, edge exterior, and interior) as shown in Figure 1 . The respirators were exposed to a 60-second cycle of UV-C inside a UV-C box. Error bars indicate standard error.
    Ms2 Bacteriophage Lysate, supplied by ZeptoMetrix, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 17 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Batch experiments (A) and retentates of membrane filtration experiments (B) with bacteriophage MS2 suspended in tap water containing 5 g/liter of NaCl. C / C 0 is the ratio of the quantity of total viral genomes (circles), broken particles (triangles), or infectious phage (squares) at time x over the initial quantity of total viral genomes in the experimental suspension (1 × 10 8 PFU/ml) after homogenization (time zero). Results are expressed as means ± standard deviations of results from triplicate experiments. The detection limit of the PFU method corresponds to −8 on the y axis.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Effects of Ionic Strength on Bacteriophage MS2 Behavior and Their Implications for the Assessment of Virus Retention by Ultrafiltration Membranes ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.01075-10

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Batch experiments (A) and retentates of membrane filtration experiments (B) with bacteriophage MS2 suspended in tap water containing 5 g/liter of NaCl. C / C 0 is the ratio of the quantity of total viral genomes (circles), broken particles (triangles), or infectious phage (squares) at time x over the initial quantity of total viral genomes in the experimental suspension (1 × 10 8 PFU/ml) after homogenization (time zero). Results are expressed as means ± standard deviations of results from triplicate experiments. The detection limit of the PFU method corresponds to −8 on the y axis.

    Article Snippet: Bacteriophage MS2 (ATCC 15597-B1) was replicated using Escherichia coli W1485 (ATCC 12435) according to the Pasteur Institute (Paris, France) procedure with slight modifications.

    Techniques: Filtration, Homogenization

    Batch experiments with bacteriophage MS2 suspended in tap water in the presence of increasing concentrations of NaCl added (0 to 6 g/liter). The quantity of total viral genomes (circles), broken particles (triangles), or infectious phage (squares) in each solution was quantified at the beginning of the experiment, after homogenization (time zero). Results are expressed as means ± standard deviations of results from triplicate experiments. The quantification limit of the qRT-PCR is 10 2 eq PFU/ml.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Effects of Ionic Strength on Bacteriophage MS2 Behavior and Their Implications for the Assessment of Virus Retention by Ultrafiltration Membranes ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.01075-10

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Batch experiments with bacteriophage MS2 suspended in tap water in the presence of increasing concentrations of NaCl added (0 to 6 g/liter). The quantity of total viral genomes (circles), broken particles (triangles), or infectious phage (squares) in each solution was quantified at the beginning of the experiment, after homogenization (time zero). Results are expressed as means ± standard deviations of results from triplicate experiments. The quantification limit of the qRT-PCR is 10 2 eq PFU/ml.

    Article Snippet: Bacteriophage MS2 (ATCC 15597-B1) was replicated using Escherichia coli W1485 (ATCC 12435) according to the Pasteur Institute (Paris, France) procedure with slight modifications.

    Techniques: Homogenization, Quantitative RT-PCR

    Standard (A) and melting (B) curves of bacteriophage MS2 obtained using quantitative RT-PCR. (A) Results are expressed as means ± standard deviations of results from triplicate experiments. (B) The peak at 84.5°C represents MS2-specific amplification, while the peak at 77°C represents nonspecific amplicons that are observed in negative controls and in samples analyzed by qRT-PCR without the RNA extraction step. The quantification and detection limits of the qRT-PCR correspond to 10 2 and 10 1 equivalents of PFU/ml, respectively. Experiments were performed in triplicate. dT, deoxyribosylthymine.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Effects of Ionic Strength on Bacteriophage MS2 Behavior and Their Implications for the Assessment of Virus Retention by Ultrafiltration Membranes ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.01075-10

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Standard (A) and melting (B) curves of bacteriophage MS2 obtained using quantitative RT-PCR. (A) Results are expressed as means ± standard deviations of results from triplicate experiments. (B) The peak at 84.5°C represents MS2-specific amplification, while the peak at 77°C represents nonspecific amplicons that are observed in negative controls and in samples analyzed by qRT-PCR without the RNA extraction step. The quantification and detection limits of the qRT-PCR correspond to 10 2 and 10 1 equivalents of PFU/ml, respectively. Experiments were performed in triplicate. dT, deoxyribosylthymine.

    Article Snippet: Bacteriophage MS2 (ATCC 15597-B1) was replicated using Escherichia coli W1485 (ATCC 12435) according to the Pasteur Institute (Paris, France) procedure with slight modifications.

    Techniques: Quantitative RT-PCR, Amplification, RNA Extraction

    Batch experiments of bacteriophage MS2 suspended in ultrapure water (A), tap water (B), and PBS (C). C / C 0 is the ratio of the quantity of total viral genomes (circles), broken particles (triangles), or infectious phage (squares) at time x over the initial quantity of total viral genomes in experimental suspension (1 × 10 8 PFU/ml) after homogenization (time zero). Results are expressed as means ± standard deviations of results from triplicate experiments.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Effects of Ionic Strength on Bacteriophage MS2 Behavior and Their Implications for the Assessment of Virus Retention by Ultrafiltration Membranes ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.01075-10

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Batch experiments of bacteriophage MS2 suspended in ultrapure water (A), tap water (B), and PBS (C). C / C 0 is the ratio of the quantity of total viral genomes (circles), broken particles (triangles), or infectious phage (squares) at time x over the initial quantity of total viral genomes in experimental suspension (1 × 10 8 PFU/ml) after homogenization (time zero). Results are expressed as means ± standard deviations of results from triplicate experiments.

    Article Snippet: Bacteriophage MS2 (ATCC 15597-B1) was replicated using Escherichia coli W1485 (ATCC 12435) according to the Pasteur Institute (Paris, France) procedure with slight modifications.

    Techniques: Homogenization

    Retentates of membrane filtration experiments of bacteriophage MS2 suspended in tap water (A) and PBS (B). C / C 0 is the ratio of the quantity of total viral genomes (circles), broken particles (triangles), or infectious phage (squares) at time x over the initial quantity of total viral genomes in feed suspension (1 × 10 8 PFU/ml) after homogenization (time zero). Results are expressed as means ± standard deviations of results from duplicate experiments. The detection limit of the PFU method corresponds to −8 on the y axis.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Effects of Ionic Strength on Bacteriophage MS2 Behavior and Their Implications for the Assessment of Virus Retention by Ultrafiltration Membranes ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.01075-10

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Retentates of membrane filtration experiments of bacteriophage MS2 suspended in tap water (A) and PBS (B). C / C 0 is the ratio of the quantity of total viral genomes (circles), broken particles (triangles), or infectious phage (squares) at time x over the initial quantity of total viral genomes in feed suspension (1 × 10 8 PFU/ml) after homogenization (time zero). Results are expressed as means ± standard deviations of results from duplicate experiments. The detection limit of the PFU method corresponds to −8 on the y axis.

    Article Snippet: Bacteriophage MS2 (ATCC 15597-B1) was replicated using Escherichia coli W1485 (ATCC 12435) according to the Pasteur Institute (Paris, France) procedure with slight modifications.

    Techniques: Filtration, Homogenization

    Sensitivity of RT-SIBA for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). a RSV-A RNA and b RSV-B RNA. c Melting curve profiles of RSV (1000 copies of RSV-A RNA) and MS2 RNA in the same reaction tube. MS2 was used as the internal control (IC, 2000 copies per reaction). No template control (NTC)

    Journal: BMC Infectious Diseases

    Article Title: Rapid and sensitive real-time assay for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus using RT-SIBA®

    doi: 10.1186/s12879-017-2227-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sensitivity of RT-SIBA for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). a RSV-A RNA and b RSV-B RNA. c Melting curve profiles of RSV (1000 copies of RSV-A RNA) and MS2 RNA in the same reaction tube. MS2 was used as the internal control (IC, 2000 copies per reaction). No template control (NTC)

    Article Snippet: In total, 2000 copies of MS2 RNA (Sigma-Aldrich) were added to the reaction.

    Techniques:

    Heterologous activation of the IL8 enhancer triggers IL8 and CXCL1 expression A CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) strategy was applied to test enhancer functions individually. This approach involves a “dead” Cas9 ( blue ) and VP64 ( green ) fusion protein that recruits the NF‐κB ( orange ) and HSF1 ( red ) transactivation domains via MS2 recognition of two stem loops in the sgRNA scaffold ( magenta ). These complexes were targeted to the IL8 or CXCL2 enhancers and promoters (highlights) via different sgRNA pools in HeLa. The position of individual sgRNAs used for CRISPRa is shown in more detail in Fig EV1 . Left bar graphs: Wild‐type HeLa cells were transiently transfected with different combinations of plasmids encoding the “dead” Cas9‐VP64 fusion protein, the MS2‐p65‐HSF1 fusion protein, and empty sgRNA vector or versions containing sgRNAs targeting the IL8 enhancer or promoter. Twenty‐four hours post‐transfection, cells were lysed and total RNA was analyzed for expression changes of the indicated genes compared to samples carrying dCas9‐VP64 and MS2‐p65‐HSF1 fusions, but no sgRNAs. Right bar graphs: The same experiments were performed using sgRNAs targeting the CXCL2 enhancer and promoter. Data information: All data are from four independent transfections. Shown are mean values ± SEM. P ‐values are derived from unpaired t ‐tests comparing every condition against cells expressing all transactivators but lacking sgRNAs (first lane in each graph). Only significant differences are marked by asterisks.

    Journal: The EMBO Journal

    Article Title: Distinct IL‐1α‐responsive enhancers promote acute and coordinated changes in chromatin topology in a hierarchical manner

    doi: 10.15252/embj.2019101533

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Heterologous activation of the IL8 enhancer triggers IL8 and CXCL1 expression A CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) strategy was applied to test enhancer functions individually. This approach involves a “dead” Cas9 ( blue ) and VP64 ( green ) fusion protein that recruits the NF‐κB ( orange ) and HSF1 ( red ) transactivation domains via MS2 recognition of two stem loops in the sgRNA scaffold ( magenta ). These complexes were targeted to the IL8 or CXCL2 enhancers and promoters (highlights) via different sgRNA pools in HeLa. The position of individual sgRNAs used for CRISPRa is shown in more detail in Fig EV1 . Left bar graphs: Wild‐type HeLa cells were transiently transfected with different combinations of plasmids encoding the “dead” Cas9‐VP64 fusion protein, the MS2‐p65‐HSF1 fusion protein, and empty sgRNA vector or versions containing sgRNAs targeting the IL8 enhancer or promoter. Twenty‐four hours post‐transfection, cells were lysed and total RNA was analyzed for expression changes of the indicated genes compared to samples carrying dCas9‐VP64 and MS2‐p65‐HSF1 fusions, but no sgRNAs. Right bar graphs: The same experiments were performed using sgRNAs targeting the CXCL2 enhancer and promoter. Data information: All data are from four independent transfections. Shown are mean values ± SEM. P ‐values are derived from unpaired t ‐tests comparing every condition against cells expressing all transactivators but lacking sgRNAs (first lane in each graph). Only significant differences are marked by asterisks.

    Article Snippet: Plasmids and transient or stable transfections The following plasmids were gifts or were obtained commercially: pSpCas9(BB)‐2A‐Puro (pX459; Addgene (#48139)), pSpCas9(BB)‐2A‐Puro V2.0 (pX459V2.0, Addgene (#62988)), lenti‐sgRNA(MS2)‐zeo backbone (Addgene, #61427), lenti dCAS9‐VP64_Blast (Addgene, #61425), and lenti MS2‐P65‐HSF1_Hygro (Addgene, #61426).

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Expressing, CRISPR, Transfection, Plasmid Preparation, Derivative Assay

    Data retention throughout the pipeline. The bars show the numbers of “data elements” (spectra, PMSs, and peptides) under consideration as these numbers decrease from the start (left) to the end (right) of the proteogenomics pipeline. In detail, the bars represent the following (node numbers refer to the TOPPAS workflow in Figure 2 ): “MS2 spectra”, input MS2 spectra in the C-HPP testis data set; “Mascot/MS-GF+ PSMs (all)”, spectra that generated PSMs using either search engine; “Mascot/MS-GF+ (1% PEP)”, PSMs after PSM-level filtering (node 15); “Consensus”, PSMs after ConsensusID (node 16); “Filter: contaminants”, PSMs after filtering for contaminants (node 18); “Filter: known proteins (exact)”, PSMs after filtering for exact matches to known proteins (node 20); “Filter: known proteins (approx.)”, PSMs after filtering for approximate matches to known proteins (final set; node 22); and “Novel peptides”, distinct novel peptides identified by the final set of PSMs.

    Journal: Journal of Proteome Research

    Article Title: Flexible Data Analysis Pipeline for High-Confidence Proteogenomics

    doi: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.6b00765

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Data retention throughout the pipeline. The bars show the numbers of “data elements” (spectra, PMSs, and peptides) under consideration as these numbers decrease from the start (left) to the end (right) of the proteogenomics pipeline. In detail, the bars represent the following (node numbers refer to the TOPPAS workflow in Figure 2 ): “MS2 spectra”, input MS2 spectra in the C-HPP testis data set; “Mascot/MS-GF+ PSMs (all)”, spectra that generated PSMs using either search engine; “Mascot/MS-GF+ (1% PEP)”, PSMs after PSM-level filtering (node 15); “Consensus”, PSMs after ConsensusID (node 16); “Filter: contaminants”, PSMs after filtering for contaminants (node 18); “Filter: known proteins (exact)”, PSMs after filtering for exact matches to known proteins (node 20); “Filter: known proteins (approx.)”, PSMs after filtering for approximate matches to known proteins (final set; node 22); and “Novel peptides”, distinct novel peptides identified by the final set of PSMs.

    Article Snippet: Central to any proteomics analysis pipeline is the identification of peptides from the MS2 spectra, for which we used the database search engines Mascot (version 2.5.1, Matrix Science) and MS-GF+ (version 10089).

    Techniques: Mass Spectrometry, Generated

    Proteogenomics pipeline, as displayed in the TOPPAS workflow editor. The different stages of the pipeline are indicated using colored boxes. Additional output nodes, which would be used in practice to capture intermediate results at different stages, have been omitted for simplicity. The input file nodes 1–5 contain the following data: 1, MS2 spectra (mzML files); 2, combined target–decoy sequences (FASTA); 3, contaminant sequences (FASTA); 4, known protein sequences (FASTA); and 5, presumed noncoding sequences (FASTA).

    Journal: Journal of Proteome Research

    Article Title: Flexible Data Analysis Pipeline for High-Confidence Proteogenomics

    doi: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.6b00765

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Proteogenomics pipeline, as displayed in the TOPPAS workflow editor. The different stages of the pipeline are indicated using colored boxes. Additional output nodes, which would be used in practice to capture intermediate results at different stages, have been omitted for simplicity. The input file nodes 1–5 contain the following data: 1, MS2 spectra (mzML files); 2, combined target–decoy sequences (FASTA); 3, contaminant sequences (FASTA); 4, known protein sequences (FASTA); and 5, presumed noncoding sequences (FASTA).

    Article Snippet: Central to any proteomics analysis pipeline is the identification of peptides from the MS2 spectra, for which we used the database search engines Mascot (version 2.5.1, Matrix Science) and MS-GF+ (version 10089).

    Techniques:

    Fates of MS2, R17, and φX174 during batch experiments with varying concentrations of T-80. An AWI was present in all batch experiments. Also shown are measurements of the static solution surface tension for each concentration of T-80 used. Data are means from three experiments; error bars represent the standard deviations from the means.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Bacteriophage Inactivation at the Air-Water-Solid Interface in Dynamic Batch Systems

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fates of MS2, R17, and φX174 during batch experiments with varying concentrations of T-80. An AWI was present in all batch experiments. Also shown are measurements of the static solution surface tension for each concentration of T-80 used. Data are means from three experiments; error bars represent the standard deviations from the means.

    Article Snippet: MS2 (host, Escherichia coli ATCC 15597), R17 (host, E. coli ATCC 25868), and φX174 (host, E. coli ATCC 13706) were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    MS2 and R17 batch experiments performed at varying ionic strengths in glass and PP tubes with an AWI present. Data are means from three experiments; error bars represent the standard deviations from the means.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Bacteriophage Inactivation at the Air-Water-Solid Interface in Dynamic Batch Systems

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MS2 and R17 batch experiments performed at varying ionic strengths in glass and PP tubes with an AWI present. Data are means from three experiments; error bars represent the standard deviations from the means.

    Article Snippet: MS2 (host, Escherichia coli ATCC 15597), R17 (host, E. coli ATCC 25868), and φX174 (host, E. coli ATCC 13706) were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection.

    Techniques:

    Fates of MS2, R17, and φX174 during batch experiments in which glass tubes were packed with varying numbers of Teflon and glass beads. A surface area of 0 cm 2 implies that tubes were filled only with glass beads. An AWI was present in all batch experiments. Data are means from three experiments; error bars represent the standard deviations from the means. r 2 values from the regression analysis are given in the text.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Bacteriophage Inactivation at the Air-Water-Solid Interface in Dynamic Batch Systems

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fates of MS2, R17, and φX174 during batch experiments in which glass tubes were packed with varying numbers of Teflon and glass beads. A surface area of 0 cm 2 implies that tubes were filled only with glass beads. An AWI was present in all batch experiments. Data are means from three experiments; error bars represent the standard deviations from the means. r 2 values from the regression analysis are given in the text.

    Article Snippet: MS2 (host, Escherichia coli ATCC 15597), R17 (host, E. coli ATCC 25868), and φX174 (host, E. coli ATCC 13706) were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection.

    Techniques:

    Graphic illustration of reprogramming human foreskin fibroblasts into iCPCs via SAM-mediated gene activation. The combination of dCas9-VP64, sgRNA and MS2-P65-HSF1 is assembled SAM complex. Targeted and robust activation of endogenous genes, including GATA4 , HAND2 , MEF2C , TBX5 and MEIS1 , can reprogram human fibroblasts toward iCPCs.

    Journal: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B

    Article Title: Lineage reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced cardiac progenitor cells by CRISPR/Cas9-based transcriptional activators

    doi: 10.1016/j.apsb.2019.09.003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Graphic illustration of reprogramming human foreskin fibroblasts into iCPCs via SAM-mediated gene activation. The combination of dCas9-VP64, sgRNA and MS2-P65-HSF1 is assembled SAM complex. Targeted and robust activation of endogenous genes, including GATA4 , HAND2 , MEF2C , TBX5 and MEIS1 , can reprogram human fibroblasts toward iCPCs.

    Article Snippet: 2.5 Lentivirus transduction Briefly, 5 × 105 HFFs were seeded in T75 flask, cultured in growth medium without antibiotics for 24 h, and then transduced with lentiviral supernatant containing dCas9-VP64 (a gift from Feng Zhang, Addgene #61425) and MS2-P65-HSF1 (a gift from Feng Zhang, Addgene #61426) at a final concentration of 8 μg/mL polybrene.

    Techniques: Activation Assay

    Number of bacteriophages and pathogenic viruses adsorbed on the skin per surface area as a function of seeding concentration. The plots show the log 10 -transformed MS2 (red circles), adenovirus (blue triangles), and coxsackievirus (green squares) adsorbed on the skin per surface area as a function of the log 10 -transformed concentration of virus in the liquid. The regression lines represent the multiple regression models for the number of viruses adsorbed per surface area as a function of concentration.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Transfer of Enteric Viruses Adenovirus and Coxsackievirus and Bacteriophage MS2 from Liquid to Human Skin

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.01809-18

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Number of bacteriophages and pathogenic viruses adsorbed on the skin per surface area as a function of seeding concentration. The plots show the log 10 -transformed MS2 (red circles), adenovirus (blue triangles), and coxsackievirus (green squares) adsorbed on the skin per surface area as a function of the log 10 -transformed concentration of virus in the liquid. The regression lines represent the multiple regression models for the number of viruses adsorbed per surface area as a function of concentration.

    Article Snippet: The objectives of study B were to estimate the transfer of adenovirus and coxsackievirus from liquid to skin and to compare the transfer of both pathogenic viruses with bacteriophage MS2.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Transformation Assay

    Influence of experimental method on virus transfer to skin (adsorbed and unadsorbed). The plots show the number of MS2 (log 10 transformed) transferred to the skin per surface area as a function of the concentration of MS2 (log 10 transformed) in the liquid. Virus transfer was measured using two different experimental methods, as follows: (i) the finger-dipping method (data from Pitol et al. [ 34 ]), and (ii) the droplet method (this study). In the finger-dipping method, a set of 7 volunteers were asked to dip their fingers into a glass containing a saline solution with MS2, and the skin was sampled afterward. Each transfer event is represented by an open triangle. In the droplet method, the transfer events were carried out in cadavers' and volunteers' hands or arms by applying and removing a 20-μl droplet of buffer containing MS2. Each transfer event is represented by a blue circle.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Transfer of Enteric Viruses Adenovirus and Coxsackievirus and Bacteriophage MS2 from Liquid to Human Skin

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.01809-18

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Influence of experimental method on virus transfer to skin (adsorbed and unadsorbed). The plots show the number of MS2 (log 10 transformed) transferred to the skin per surface area as a function of the concentration of MS2 (log 10 transformed) in the liquid. Virus transfer was measured using two different experimental methods, as follows: (i) the finger-dipping method (data from Pitol et al. [ 34 ]), and (ii) the droplet method (this study). In the finger-dipping method, a set of 7 volunteers were asked to dip their fingers into a glass containing a saline solution with MS2, and the skin was sampled afterward. Each transfer event is represented by an open triangle. In the droplet method, the transfer events were carried out in cadavers' and volunteers' hands or arms by applying and removing a 20-μl droplet of buffer containing MS2. Each transfer event is represented by a blue circle.

    Article Snippet: The objectives of study B were to estimate the transfer of adenovirus and coxsackievirus from liquid to skin and to compare the transfer of both pathogenic viruses with bacteriophage MS2.

    Techniques: Transformation Assay, Concentration Assay

    Bacteriophage MS2 (log 10 transformed virus density) transferred to the skin, unadsorbed and adsorbed, as a function of skin type. The boxplots summarize the number of MS2 bacteriophages unadsorbed (A) and adsorbed (B) on three different skin types (volunteer skin, cadaver skin, and Vitro-Skin). The transfer studies were conducted using liquid containing 10 7.5 PFU/ml bacteriophage MS2. The boxplots summarize the data from 28 individual transfers for each skin type. The top and bottom of the boxplots represent the 25th and 75th percentiles, the center line represents the median value, and the whiskers extend to the highest and lowest concentrations. The statistical significance of the difference between each pair of skin types is indicated above the boxplots by the corresponding P values, with those

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Transfer of Enteric Viruses Adenovirus and Coxsackievirus and Bacteriophage MS2 from Liquid to Human Skin

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.01809-18

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bacteriophage MS2 (log 10 transformed virus density) transferred to the skin, unadsorbed and adsorbed, as a function of skin type. The boxplots summarize the number of MS2 bacteriophages unadsorbed (A) and adsorbed (B) on three different skin types (volunteer skin, cadaver skin, and Vitro-Skin). The transfer studies were conducted using liquid containing 10 7.5 PFU/ml bacteriophage MS2. The boxplots summarize the data from 28 individual transfers for each skin type. The top and bottom of the boxplots represent the 25th and 75th percentiles, the center line represents the median value, and the whiskers extend to the highest and lowest concentrations. The statistical significance of the difference between each pair of skin types is indicated above the boxplots by the corresponding P values, with those

    Article Snippet: The objectives of study B were to estimate the transfer of adenovirus and coxsackievirus from liquid to skin and to compare the transfer of both pathogenic viruses with bacteriophage MS2.

    Techniques: Transformation Assay

    CCAT1 acts as a molecular sponge for let-7. (A) Bioinformatics predicted let-7 binding sites at two distinct positions in CCAT1. Partial sequences of CCAT1 and sequences of four let-7 subtypes are shown. Numbers are in nucleotides relative to the transcriptional start site of CCAT1. (B) Schematic outlining the MS2-RIP strategy to validate endogenous miRNA:CCAT1 binding. (C) MS2-RIP followed by miRNA qRT-PCR to detect miRNAs endogenously associated with CCAT1. (D) Expression levels of let-7 after the transfection of pcDNA3.1-CCAT1 or pcDNA3.1 into SMMC-7721 cells. (E) Luciferase activity in SMMC-7721 cells cotransfected with let-7 and luciferase reporters containing nothing, CCAT1 or mutant CCAT1. Data are presented as the relative ratio of firefly luciferase activity to renilla luciferase activity. (F) CCAT1 expression levels after the transfection of let-7 mimics or the miRNA negative control into SMMC-7721 cells. All values are presented as mean ± standard error based on at least three independent experiments. *p

    Journal: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research : CR

    Article Title: Long noncoding RNA CCAT1 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression by functioning as let-7 sponge

    doi: 10.1186/s13046-015-0136-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CCAT1 acts as a molecular sponge for let-7. (A) Bioinformatics predicted let-7 binding sites at two distinct positions in CCAT1. Partial sequences of CCAT1 and sequences of four let-7 subtypes are shown. Numbers are in nucleotides relative to the transcriptional start site of CCAT1. (B) Schematic outlining the MS2-RIP strategy to validate endogenous miRNA:CCAT1 binding. (C) MS2-RIP followed by miRNA qRT-PCR to detect miRNAs endogenously associated with CCAT1. (D) Expression levels of let-7 after the transfection of pcDNA3.1-CCAT1 or pcDNA3.1 into SMMC-7721 cells. (E) Luciferase activity in SMMC-7721 cells cotransfected with let-7 and luciferase reporters containing nothing, CCAT1 or mutant CCAT1. Data are presented as the relative ratio of firefly luciferase activity to renilla luciferase activity. (F) CCAT1 expression levels after the transfection of let-7 mimics or the miRNA negative control into SMMC-7721 cells. All values are presented as mean ± standard error based on at least three independent experiments. *p

    Article Snippet: RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) SMMC-7721 cells were co-transfected with pcDNA3.1-MS2, pcDNA3.1-MS2-CCAT1 or pcDNA3.1-MS2-CCAT1-Mut and pMS2-GFP (Addgene).

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Quantitative RT-PCR, Expressing, Transfection, Luciferase, Activity Assay, Mutagenesis, Negative Control

    MS2 loaded respirator coupons were incubated at 37°C and 80% relative humidity (RH), and viable MS2 were enumerated at 2 and 4 hours. ∗Significantly ( P

    Journal: American Journal of Infection Control

    Article Title: Evaluation of the survivability of MS2 viral aerosols deposited on filtering face piece respirator samples incorporating antimicrobial technologies

    doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2009.08.006

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MS2 loaded respirator coupons were incubated at 37°C and 80% relative humidity (RH), and viable MS2 were enumerated at 2 and 4 hours. ∗Significantly ( P

    Article Snippet: MS2 virus selected for this study is a nonenveloped virus resistant to many antimicrobial agents.

    Techniques: Incubation

    MS2 loaded respirator coupons were incubated at 22°C and 30% relative humidity (RH), and viable MS2 were enumerated at 8 and 20 hours.

    Journal: American Journal of Infection Control

    Article Title: Evaluation of the survivability of MS2 viral aerosols deposited on filtering face piece respirator samples incorporating antimicrobial technologies

    doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2009.08.006

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MS2 loaded respirator coupons were incubated at 22°C and 30% relative humidity (RH), and viable MS2 were enumerated at 8 and 20 hours.

    Article Snippet: MS2 virus selected for this study is a nonenveloped virus resistant to many antimicrobial agents.

    Techniques: Incubation

    Overall distribution of environmental surface contamination with bacteriophage MS2

    Journal: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

    Article Title: A pilot study to assess use of fluorescent lotion in patient care simulations to illustrate pathogen dissemination and train personnel in correct use of personal protective equipment

    doi: 10.1186/s13756-016-0141-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Overall distribution of environmental surface contamination with bacteriophage MS2

    Article Snippet: After the intervention, the overall percentages of environmental contamination with fluorescent lotion (26/30, 87 % versus 23/30, 77 %; P = 0.50) or bacteriophage MS2 (13/30, 43 % versus 12/30, 37 %; P = 1.00) were not significantly different than before the intervention (Fig. ).

    Techniques:

    Contamination of environmental surfaces and healthcare personnel with fluorescent lotion and bacteriophage MS2 before and after an educational intervention

    Journal: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control

    Article Title: A pilot study to assess use of fluorescent lotion in patient care simulations to illustrate pathogen dissemination and train personnel in correct use of personal protective equipment

    doi: 10.1186/s13756-016-0141-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Contamination of environmental surfaces and healthcare personnel with fluorescent lotion and bacteriophage MS2 before and after an educational intervention

    Article Snippet: After the intervention, the overall percentages of environmental contamination with fluorescent lotion (26/30, 87 % versus 23/30, 77 %; P = 0.50) or bacteriophage MS2 (13/30, 43 % versus 12/30, 37 %; P = 1.00) were not significantly different than before the intervention (Fig. ).

    Techniques:

    Efficacy of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light for decontamination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), bacteriophage MS2, and bacteriophage Phi6 on 3 different N95 respirators (3M 1860S, Moldex 1517, and Kimberly-Clark 46727). Aliquots of 10 μL containing 10 6 colony-forming units (CFU) or plaque-forming units (PFU) of the test organisms in the simulated mucus suspension were spread to cover an area of 1 cm 2 on 3 different areas on the respirator surface (top exterior, edge exterior, and interior) as shown in Figure 1 . The respirators were exposed to a 60-second cycle of UV-C inside a UV-C box. Error bars indicate standard error.

    Journal: Pathogens and Immunity

    Article Title: Effectiveness of Ultraviolet-C Light and a High-Level Disinfection Cabinet for Decontamination of N95 Respirators

    doi: 10.20411/pai.v5i1.372

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Efficacy of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light for decontamination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), bacteriophage MS2, and bacteriophage Phi6 on 3 different N95 respirators (3M 1860S, Moldex 1517, and Kimberly-Clark 46727). Aliquots of 10 μL containing 10 6 colony-forming units (CFU) or plaque-forming units (PFU) of the test organisms in the simulated mucus suspension were spread to cover an area of 1 cm 2 on 3 different areas on the respirator surface (top exterior, edge exterior, and interior) as shown in Figure 1 . The respirators were exposed to a 60-second cycle of UV-C inside a UV-C box. Error bars indicate standard error.

    Article Snippet: Bacteriophage MS2 and bacteriophage Phi6 were less susceptible to UV-C than vegetative bacteria such as MRSA, but more susceptible than Candida species and C. difficile spores.

    Techniques:

    Efficacy of a multi-purpose high-level disinfection cabinet for decontamination or disinfection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and bacteriophage MS2 on N95 respirators. 10-μL aliquots containing 10 6 colony-forming units (CFU) or plaque-forming units (PFU) of the test organisms in the simulated mucous suspension were spread to cover an area of 1-cm 2 on 3 different areas on the respirator surface (top exterior, edge exterior, and interior) as shown in Figure 1 . The respirator was exposed to 1, 2, or 3 22-minute treatment cycles or a single extended cycle of 31 minutes. Error bars indicate standard error.

    Journal: Pathogens and Immunity

    Article Title: Effectiveness of Ultraviolet-C Light and a High-Level Disinfection Cabinet for Decontamination of N95 Respirators

    doi: 10.20411/pai.v5i1.372

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Efficacy of a multi-purpose high-level disinfection cabinet for decontamination or disinfection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and bacteriophage MS2 on N95 respirators. 10-μL aliquots containing 10 6 colony-forming units (CFU) or plaque-forming units (PFU) of the test organisms in the simulated mucous suspension were spread to cover an area of 1-cm 2 on 3 different areas on the respirator surface (top exterior, edge exterior, and interior) as shown in Figure 1 . The respirator was exposed to 1, 2, or 3 22-minute treatment cycles or a single extended cycle of 31 minutes. Error bars indicate standard error.

    Article Snippet: Bacteriophage MS2 and bacteriophage Phi6 were less susceptible to UV-C than vegetative bacteria such as MRSA, but more susceptible than Candida species and C. difficile spores.

    Techniques:

    Efficacy of ultraviolet (UV) light delivered by low-pressure mercury and pulsed-xenon room decontamination devices for decontamination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), bacteriophage MS2, and bacteriophage Phi6 on Moldex 1517 N95 respirators. 10-μL aliquots containing 106 colony-forming units (CFU) or plaque-forming units (PFU) of the test organisms in the simulated mucous suspension were spread to cover an area of 1-cm2 on 3 different areas on the respirator surface (top exterior, edge exterior, and interior) as shown in Figure 1 . The respirator was exposed to a 15-minute cycle of UV at 3 feet from the bulbs then turned for another 15-minute cycle on the opposite side. Error bars indicate standard error.

    Journal: Pathogens and Immunity

    Article Title: Effectiveness of Ultraviolet-C Light and a High-Level Disinfection Cabinet for Decontamination of N95 Respirators

    doi: 10.20411/pai.v5i1.372

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Efficacy of ultraviolet (UV) light delivered by low-pressure mercury and pulsed-xenon room decontamination devices for decontamination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), bacteriophage MS2, and bacteriophage Phi6 on Moldex 1517 N95 respirators. 10-μL aliquots containing 106 colony-forming units (CFU) or plaque-forming units (PFU) of the test organisms in the simulated mucous suspension were spread to cover an area of 1-cm2 on 3 different areas on the respirator surface (top exterior, edge exterior, and interior) as shown in Figure 1 . The respirator was exposed to a 15-minute cycle of UV at 3 feet from the bulbs then turned for another 15-minute cycle on the opposite side. Error bars indicate standard error.

    Article Snippet: Bacteriophage MS2 and bacteriophage Phi6 were less susceptible to UV-C than vegetative bacteria such as MRSA, but more susceptible than Candida species and C. difficile spores.

    Techniques: