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  • 99
    Thermo Fisher nacl
    Changes in the length of the primary roots ( A ) and the total number of roots ( B ) of <t>QXN233</t> under <t>NaCl</t> with/without Pi. The values represent the means ± SEs (n = 3, * P
    Nacl, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 14373 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore m nacl
    Changes in the length of the primary roots ( A ) and the total number of roots ( B ) of <t>QXN233</t> under <t>NaCl</t> with/without Pi. The values represent the means ± SEs (n = 3, * P
    M Nacl, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 10213 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    FUJIFILM m nacl
    Changes in the length of the primary roots ( A ) and the total number of roots ( B ) of <t>QXN233</t> under <t>NaCl</t> with/without Pi. The values represent the means ± SEs (n = 3, * P
    M Nacl, supplied by FUJIFILM, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 75 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Fisher Scientific m nacl
    Changes in the length of the primary roots ( A ) and the total number of roots ( B ) of <t>QXN233</t> under <t>NaCl</t> with/without Pi. The values represent the means ± SEs (n = 3, * P
    M Nacl, supplied by Fisher Scientific, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 72 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Merck KGaA m nacl
    Changes in the length of the primary roots ( A ) and the total number of roots ( B ) of <t>QXN233</t> under <t>NaCl</t> with/without Pi. The values represent the means ± SEs (n = 3, * P
    M Nacl, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 132 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher igg elution buffer 4 m nacl
    Changes in the length of the primary roots ( A ) and the total number of roots ( B ) of <t>QXN233</t> under <t>NaCl</t> with/without Pi. The values represent the means ± SEs (n = 3, * P
    Igg Elution Buffer 4 M Nacl, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 18 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Bio-Rad m nacl
    Changes in the length of the primary roots ( A ) and the total number of roots ( B ) of <t>QXN233</t> under <t>NaCl</t> with/without Pi. The values represent the means ± SEs (n = 3, * P
    M Nacl, supplied by Bio-Rad, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 585 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Carl Roth GmbH m nacl
    Changes in the length of the primary roots ( A ) and the total number of roots ( B ) of <t>QXN233</t> under <t>NaCl</t> with/without Pi. The values represent the means ± SEs (n = 3, * P
    M Nacl, supplied by Carl Roth GmbH, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 79 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Merck & Co m nacl
    Changes in the length of the primary roots ( A ) and the total number of roots ( B ) of <t>QXN233</t> under <t>NaCl</t> with/without Pi. The values represent the means ± SEs (n = 3, * P
    M Nacl, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 89 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Bioanalytical Systems ag agcl 3 m nacl reference electrode
    Changes in the length of the primary roots ( A ) and the total number of roots ( B ) of <t>QXN233</t> under <t>NaCl</t> with/without Pi. The values represent the means ± SEs (n = 3, * P
    Ag Agcl 3 M Nacl Reference Electrode, supplied by Bioanalytical Systems, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore protease inhibitor cocktail
    Changes in the length of the primary roots ( A ) and the total number of roots ( B ) of <t>QXN233</t> under <t>NaCl</t> with/without Pi. The values represent the means ± SEs (n = 3, * P
    Protease Inhibitor Cocktail, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 134786 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore sodium chloride
    Changes in the length of the primary roots ( A ) and the total number of roots ( B ) of <t>QXN233</t> under <t>NaCl</t> with/without Pi. The values represent the means ± SEs (n = 3, * P
    Sodium Chloride, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 7258 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Changes in the length of the primary roots ( A ) and the total number of roots ( B ) of QXN233 under NaCl with/without Pi. The values represent the means ± SEs (n = 3, * P

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Exogenous Pi supplementation improved the salt tolerance of maize (Zea mays L.) by promoting Na+ exclusion

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-34320-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Changes in the length of the primary roots ( A ) and the total number of roots ( B ) of QXN233 under NaCl with/without Pi. The values represent the means ± SEs (n = 3, * P

    Article Snippet: The total RNA of the leaves and roots was extracted from three-leaf-stage QXN233 seedlings growing under conditions of 200 mM NaCl or 200 mM NaCl + 3 mM Pi for 30 days by using TRIzol (Invitrogen, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

    Techniques:

    Changes in net Na + and K + fluxes in QXN233. The ion fluxes were measured in the root mature zone of QXN233 under NaCl with/without Pi. The values represent the means ± SEs (n = 3, * P

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Exogenous Pi supplementation improved the salt tolerance of maize (Zea mays L.) by promoting Na+ exclusion

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-34320-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Changes in net Na + and K + fluxes in QXN233. The ion fluxes were measured in the root mature zone of QXN233 under NaCl with/without Pi. The values represent the means ± SEs (n = 3, * P

    Article Snippet: The total RNA of the leaves and roots was extracted from three-leaf-stage QXN233 seedlings growing under conditions of 200 mM NaCl or 200 mM NaCl + 3 mM Pi for 30 days by using TRIzol (Invitrogen, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

    Techniques:

    Changes in the Na + ( A ) K + ( B ) and Pi ( D ) contents and the Na + /K + ratio ( C ) in QXN233 under NaCl with/without Pi. The values represent the means ± SEs (n = 3, * P

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Exogenous Pi supplementation improved the salt tolerance of maize (Zea mays L.) by promoting Na+ exclusion

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-34320-y

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Changes in the Na + ( A ) K + ( B ) and Pi ( D ) contents and the Na + /K + ratio ( C ) in QXN233 under NaCl with/without Pi. The values represent the means ± SEs (n = 3, * P

    Article Snippet: The total RNA of the leaves and roots was extracted from three-leaf-stage QXN233 seedlings growing under conditions of 200 mM NaCl or 200 mM NaCl + 3 mM Pi for 30 days by using TRIzol (Invitrogen, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

    Techniques:

    Characterization of the hybrid pore formation. a Typical current profile over time recorded through a 5.5 nm diameter SS pore at +100 mV. After injection of 0.1 nmol of portal protein, short current drops are detected, interpreted as portal collisions with the solid-state nanopore. b A representative current vs time trace recorded for a 5.4 nm SS nanopore at +80 mV, showing stable insertion of a portal protein. c Current as a function of the applied voltage for a 5.7 nm diameter SS pore recorded before (red markers) and after insertion of a portal protein (purple). d Current noise analysis of a 5.5 nm diameter solid-state nanopore before (red) and after insertion of a portal protein (purple). e Conductance of solid-state nanopore vs conductance of hybrid SS-portal pores formed after electrokinetic corking of the portal protein within the SS nanopore ( n = 32 for CD/N hybrids and n = 15 for CGG hybrids). Experiments were performed in 0.5 M NaCl, 20 mM Tris, pH 7.5

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Thermostable virus portal proteins as reprogrammable adapters for solid-state nanopore sensors

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-07116-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Characterization of the hybrid pore formation. a Typical current profile over time recorded through a 5.5 nm diameter SS pore at +100 mV. After injection of 0.1 nmol of portal protein, short current drops are detected, interpreted as portal collisions with the solid-state nanopore. b A representative current vs time trace recorded for a 5.4 nm SS nanopore at +80 mV, showing stable insertion of a portal protein. c Current as a function of the applied voltage for a 5.7 nm diameter SS pore recorded before (red markers) and after insertion of a portal protein (purple). d Current noise analysis of a 5.5 nm diameter solid-state nanopore before (red) and after insertion of a portal protein (purple). e Conductance of solid-state nanopore vs conductance of hybrid SS-portal pores formed after electrokinetic corking of the portal protein within the SS nanopore ( n = 32 for CD/N hybrids and n = 15 for CGG hybrids). Experiments were performed in 0.5 M NaCl, 20 mM Tris, pH 7.5

    Article Snippet: Protein was exchanged into 20 mM Tris pH 7.5, 0.5 M NaCl buffer (Zeba Spin Columns, Thermofisher) for use in hybrid nanopore formation.

    Techniques: Injection

    Sensing different biopolymers using a hybrid nanopore. Current vs time trace recorded through the hybrid pore at +60 mV in the presence of a 36.0 μM insulin, b 7.7 μM DNA hairpin, c 10.3 μM TPX2 peptide and d 16.6 μM ssDNA. The data in a were filtered at 10 kHz (gray) or 0.5 kHz (green). e Scatter plot of Δ I vs dwell time for the DNA hairpin (red, n = 5883 events), the peptide (purple, n = 3368 events) and the ssDNA (orange, n = 18,812 events)). Experiments were performed in 0.5 M NaCl, 20 mM Tris, pH 7.5

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Thermostable virus portal proteins as reprogrammable adapters for solid-state nanopore sensors

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-07116-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sensing different biopolymers using a hybrid nanopore. Current vs time trace recorded through the hybrid pore at +60 mV in the presence of a 36.0 μM insulin, b 7.7 μM DNA hairpin, c 10.3 μM TPX2 peptide and d 16.6 μM ssDNA. The data in a were filtered at 10 kHz (gray) or 0.5 kHz (green). e Scatter plot of Δ I vs dwell time for the DNA hairpin (red, n = 5883 events), the peptide (purple, n = 3368 events) and the ssDNA (orange, n = 18,812 events)). Experiments were performed in 0.5 M NaCl, 20 mM Tris, pH 7.5

    Article Snippet: Protein was exchanged into 20 mM Tris pH 7.5, 0.5 M NaCl buffer (Zeba Spin Columns, Thermofisher) for use in hybrid nanopore formation.

    Techniques:

    Dynamics of TPX2 peptide transport. a Current vs time trace recorded through a hybrid pore at +30, +40 and +55 mV in the presence of 10.3 μM TPX2 peptide. b Semi-log plot of the event frequency as a function of the applied voltage. c Semi-log plot of the peptide dwell time as a function of the applied voltage. The lines in ( b , c ) are exponential fits to the data. Experiments were performed in 0.5 M NaCl, 20 mM Tris, pH 7.5. Data shown in semi-log plots are mean and s.d. of 23,516 events (total for all points) from one hybrid nanopore

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Thermostable virus portal proteins as reprogrammable adapters for solid-state nanopore sensors

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-07116-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dynamics of TPX2 peptide transport. a Current vs time trace recorded through a hybrid pore at +30, +40 and +55 mV in the presence of 10.3 μM TPX2 peptide. b Semi-log plot of the event frequency as a function of the applied voltage. c Semi-log plot of the peptide dwell time as a function of the applied voltage. The lines in ( b , c ) are exponential fits to the data. Experiments were performed in 0.5 M NaCl, 20 mM Tris, pH 7.5. Data shown in semi-log plots are mean and s.d. of 23,516 events (total for all points) from one hybrid nanopore

    Article Snippet: Protein was exchanged into 20 mM Tris pH 7.5, 0.5 M NaCl buffer (Zeba Spin Columns, Thermofisher) for use in hybrid nanopore formation.

    Techniques:

    Design of a bio-inspired lipid-free hybrid nanopore. a Cartoon of the DNA packaging machine of a dsDNA virus. Viral genomic DNA (red) is translocated into the preformed virus capsid by the packaging ATPase (yellow) through the portal protein (aqua) embedded in viral capsid (gray). b Left, electrostatic properties of the tunnel in wild-type and mutant portal proteins. Slice through the middle of molecular surface colored according to charge from red (−1 kT e −1 ) to blue (+1 kT e −1 ). b Right (gray box), dimensions of the portal protein (teal, L) and the SS nanopore (pink, R). c Insertion of the purified portal protein into a nanopore fabricated in a thin solid-state (SS) membrane. Portal protein is applied to the trans chamber of a SS nanopore device containing an electrolyte solution of 20 mM Tris pH 7.5, 0.5 M NaCl. The protein electrokinetically inserts into the SS pore during application of a positive voltage. d Cartoon image of the hybrid pore, in which application of voltage results in ion current through the pore (blue arrows), as well as leakage current that is peripheral to the pore (red arrows)

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Thermostable virus portal proteins as reprogrammable adapters for solid-state nanopore sensors

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-07116-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Design of a bio-inspired lipid-free hybrid nanopore. a Cartoon of the DNA packaging machine of a dsDNA virus. Viral genomic DNA (red) is translocated into the preformed virus capsid by the packaging ATPase (yellow) through the portal protein (aqua) embedded in viral capsid (gray). b Left, electrostatic properties of the tunnel in wild-type and mutant portal proteins. Slice through the middle of molecular surface colored according to charge from red (−1 kT e −1 ) to blue (+1 kT e −1 ). b Right (gray box), dimensions of the portal protein (teal, L) and the SS nanopore (pink, R). c Insertion of the purified portal protein into a nanopore fabricated in a thin solid-state (SS) membrane. Portal protein is applied to the trans chamber of a SS nanopore device containing an electrolyte solution of 20 mM Tris pH 7.5, 0.5 M NaCl. The protein electrokinetically inserts into the SS pore during application of a positive voltage. d Cartoon image of the hybrid pore, in which application of voltage results in ion current through the pore (blue arrows), as well as leakage current that is peripheral to the pore (red arrows)

    Article Snippet: Protein was exchanged into 20 mM Tris pH 7.5, 0.5 M NaCl buffer (Zeba Spin Columns, Thermofisher) for use in hybrid nanopore formation.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Purification

    Effects of NaCl stress (150 mM NaCl) on the H 2 O 2 production in the meristem, elongation, and mature root zones of 2 x and 6 x I. trifida . (A) Representative images showing the alteration of H 2 O 2 accumulation before and after NaCl treatment. Boxes indicate the AOI for the quantification of fluorescence intensity by using Image-Pro Plus 6.0. (B) DCF fluorescence intensity in (A). For each treatment, 20 root segments from 10 individual plants were observed and quantified. Columns labeled with different letters indicate significant difference at P

    Journal: Journal of Experimental Botany

    Article Title: Root-zone-specific sensitivity of K+-and Ca2+-permeable channels to H2O2 determines ion homeostasis in salinized diploid and hexaploid Ipomoea trifida

    doi: 10.1093/jxb/ery461

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of NaCl stress (150 mM NaCl) on the H 2 O 2 production in the meristem, elongation, and mature root zones of 2 x and 6 x I. trifida . (A) Representative images showing the alteration of H 2 O 2 accumulation before and after NaCl treatment. Boxes indicate the AOI for the quantification of fluorescence intensity by using Image-Pro Plus 6.0. (B) DCF fluorescence intensity in (A). For each treatment, 20 root segments from 10 individual plants were observed and quantified. Columns labeled with different letters indicate significant difference at P

    Article Snippet: Root tips (3 cm) were collected from non-treated or NaCl-treated 2x and 6x I. trifida and were incubated in staining buffer containing 5 mM KCl/MES and 3 μg ml−1 PI (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) for 20 min.

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Labeling

    Effects of DPI on the NaCl-triggered K + efflux in the meristematic root zone of 2 x and 6 x I. trifida. (A and B) Transient K + flux kinetics measured at 500 µm from the tip. Each point represents the mean of the 10 roots collected from five individual plants. (C and D) Columns show the mean rate of K + flux before the addition of NaCl (~5 min) and after the addition of NaCl (~30 min). Different letters denote significant differences at P

    Journal: Journal of Experimental Botany

    Article Title: Root-zone-specific sensitivity of K+-and Ca2+-permeable channels to H2O2 determines ion homeostasis in salinized diploid and hexaploid Ipomoea trifida

    doi: 10.1093/jxb/ery461

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of DPI on the NaCl-triggered K + efflux in the meristematic root zone of 2 x and 6 x I. trifida. (A and B) Transient K + flux kinetics measured at 500 µm from the tip. Each point represents the mean of the 10 roots collected from five individual plants. (C and D) Columns show the mean rate of K + flux before the addition of NaCl (~5 min) and after the addition of NaCl (~30 min). Different letters denote significant differences at P

    Article Snippet: Root tips (3 cm) were collected from non-treated or NaCl-treated 2x and 6x I. trifida and were incubated in staining buffer containing 5 mM KCl/MES and 3 μg ml−1 PI (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) for 20 min.

    Techniques:

    Effects of NaCl stress (150 mM) on the transient net K + flux kinetics at the meristem (A: 500 µm from the tip), elongation (B: 3 mm from the tip), and mature (C: 15 mm from the tip) root zones in 2 x and 6 x I. trifida . Each point represents the mean of 20 roots collected from 10 individual plants. (D–F) Columns show the mean rate of K + flux before the addition of NaCl (~5 min) and after the addition of NaCl (~30 min). Different letters denote a significant differences at P

    Journal: Journal of Experimental Botany

    Article Title: Root-zone-specific sensitivity of K+-and Ca2+-permeable channels to H2O2 determines ion homeostasis in salinized diploid and hexaploid Ipomoea trifida

    doi: 10.1093/jxb/ery461

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of NaCl stress (150 mM) on the transient net K + flux kinetics at the meristem (A: 500 µm from the tip), elongation (B: 3 mm from the tip), and mature (C: 15 mm from the tip) root zones in 2 x and 6 x I. trifida . Each point represents the mean of 20 roots collected from 10 individual plants. (D–F) Columns show the mean rate of K + flux before the addition of NaCl (~5 min) and after the addition of NaCl (~30 min). Different letters denote a significant differences at P

    Article Snippet: Root tips (3 cm) were collected from non-treated or NaCl-treated 2x and 6x I. trifida and were incubated in staining buffer containing 5 mM KCl/MES and 3 μg ml−1 PI (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) for 20 min.

    Techniques:

    Effects of NaCl stress (150 mM) on the transient net Ca 2+ flux kinetics at the meristem (A: 500 µm from the tip), elongation (B: 3 mm from the tip), and mature (C: 15 mm from the tip) root zones in 2 x and 6 x I. trifida . Each point represents the mean of 12 roots collected from six individual plants. (D–F) Columns show the mean rate of Ca 2+ flux before the addition of NaCl (~5 min), the early period of NaCl stress (~15 min), and the later period of NaCl stress (~15 min). Different letters denote significant differences at P

    Journal: Journal of Experimental Botany

    Article Title: Root-zone-specific sensitivity of K+-and Ca2+-permeable channels to H2O2 determines ion homeostasis in salinized diploid and hexaploid Ipomoea trifida

    doi: 10.1093/jxb/ery461

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of NaCl stress (150 mM) on the transient net Ca 2+ flux kinetics at the meristem (A: 500 µm from the tip), elongation (B: 3 mm from the tip), and mature (C: 15 mm from the tip) root zones in 2 x and 6 x I. trifida . Each point represents the mean of 12 roots collected from six individual plants. (D–F) Columns show the mean rate of Ca 2+ flux before the addition of NaCl (~5 min), the early period of NaCl stress (~15 min), and the later period of NaCl stress (~15 min). Different letters denote significant differences at P

    Article Snippet: Root tips (3 cm) were collected from non-treated or NaCl-treated 2x and 6x I. trifida and were incubated in staining buffer containing 5 mM KCl/MES and 3 μg ml−1 PI (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) for 20 min.

    Techniques:

    Effects of NaCl stress on the growth (A), root cell membrane integrity (B), tissue K + (C and D), and Na + (E and F) contents in 2 x and 6 x I. trifida. – NaCl indicates that plants were grown in the non-buffered culture solution; + NaCl indicates that plants were exposed to 150 mM NaCl stress for 7 d. (B) Representative PI staining image of the root elongation zone (three independent experiments) for each treatment; scale bar=0.2 mm. (C–F) Data were expressed as the mean ±SE (three independent experiments). Columns with different letters are significantly different at P

    Journal: Journal of Experimental Botany

    Article Title: Root-zone-specific sensitivity of K+-and Ca2+-permeable channels to H2O2 determines ion homeostasis in salinized diploid and hexaploid Ipomoea trifida

    doi: 10.1093/jxb/ery461

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of NaCl stress on the growth (A), root cell membrane integrity (B), tissue K + (C and D), and Na + (E and F) contents in 2 x and 6 x I. trifida. – NaCl indicates that plants were grown in the non-buffered culture solution; + NaCl indicates that plants were exposed to 150 mM NaCl stress for 7 d. (B) Representative PI staining image of the root elongation zone (three independent experiments) for each treatment; scale bar=0.2 mm. (C–F) Data were expressed as the mean ±SE (three independent experiments). Columns with different letters are significantly different at P

    Article Snippet: Root tips (3 cm) were collected from non-treated or NaCl-treated 2x and 6x I. trifida and were incubated in staining buffer containing 5 mM KCl/MES and 3 μg ml−1 PI (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) for 20 min.

    Techniques: Staining

    Effects of NaCl stress (150 mM) on the steady-state flux of Na + and intracellular Na + accumulation in roots of 2 x and 6 x I. trifida . (A and B) Na + flux. The steady-state Na + flux was measured from the meristem (300–600 µm from the tip), elongation (1–3 mm from the tip), and mature (10–15 mm from the tip) root zones after 24 h (A) and 5 d (B) of NaCl treatment. Each column is equivalent to the mean of 12 roots collected from six individual seedlings. The bars represent the SE. Columns labeled with different letters indicate a significant difference at P

    Journal: Journal of Experimental Botany

    Article Title: Root-zone-specific sensitivity of K+-and Ca2+-permeable channels to H2O2 determines ion homeostasis in salinized diploid and hexaploid Ipomoea trifida

    doi: 10.1093/jxb/ery461

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of NaCl stress (150 mM) on the steady-state flux of Na + and intracellular Na + accumulation in roots of 2 x and 6 x I. trifida . (A and B) Na + flux. The steady-state Na + flux was measured from the meristem (300–600 µm from the tip), elongation (1–3 mm from the tip), and mature (10–15 mm from the tip) root zones after 24 h (A) and 5 d (B) of NaCl treatment. Each column is equivalent to the mean of 12 roots collected from six individual seedlings. The bars represent the SE. Columns labeled with different letters indicate a significant difference at P

    Article Snippet: Root tips (3 cm) were collected from non-treated or NaCl-treated 2x and 6x I. trifida and were incubated in staining buffer containing 5 mM KCl/MES and 3 μg ml−1 PI (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) for 20 min.

    Techniques: Labeling

    Schematic model of the mediation of root K + /Na + homeostasis in the response of 2 x and 6 x I. trifida to NaCl stress (solid arrows indicate the ion flux direction and width reflects flux magnitude). In all root regions, NaCl stress results in a similar activation of PM H + -ATPase activity in 2 x and 6 x I. trifida , causing a similar K + loss through depolarization-activated K + channels. The increment in cytosolic Na + triggers an elevation of cytosolic Ca 2+ and stimulates NADPH oxidase activity, resulting in H 2 O 2 accumulation within the cells or in the apoplast and activating a series of H 2 O 2 -specific K + - and Ca 2+ -permeable channels. In the meristem zone, the lower sensitivity of K + -permeable channels to H 2 O 2 contributes to the lower K + loss in 6 x I. trifida . The drastic K + loss in the meristem zone of 2 x I. trifida may trigger the longitudinal transport of K + to regain the optimal K + level of the meristematic cells, thereby causing the K + deprivation at the whole-root level. In the elongation and mature zones, the increased sensitivity of Ca 2+ -permeable channels to H 2 O 2 causes a robust Ca 2+ influx through the H 2 O 2 -activated Ca 2+ -permeable channels, thereby triggering stronger Na + /H + antiport activity across the PM in 6 x I. trifida . Charge imbalance caused by the Ca 2+ influx may be offset by the OH . -activated K + efflux. Hence, the K + /Na + homeostasis in root tissues is retained in salinized 6 x I. trifida .

    Journal: Journal of Experimental Botany

    Article Title: Root-zone-specific sensitivity of K+-and Ca2+-permeable channels to H2O2 determines ion homeostasis in salinized diploid and hexaploid Ipomoea trifida

    doi: 10.1093/jxb/ery461

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Schematic model of the mediation of root K + /Na + homeostasis in the response of 2 x and 6 x I. trifida to NaCl stress (solid arrows indicate the ion flux direction and width reflects flux magnitude). In all root regions, NaCl stress results in a similar activation of PM H + -ATPase activity in 2 x and 6 x I. trifida , causing a similar K + loss through depolarization-activated K + channels. The increment in cytosolic Na + triggers an elevation of cytosolic Ca 2+ and stimulates NADPH oxidase activity, resulting in H 2 O 2 accumulation within the cells or in the apoplast and activating a series of H 2 O 2 -specific K + - and Ca 2+ -permeable channels. In the meristem zone, the lower sensitivity of K + -permeable channels to H 2 O 2 contributes to the lower K + loss in 6 x I. trifida . The drastic K + loss in the meristem zone of 2 x I. trifida may trigger the longitudinal transport of K + to regain the optimal K + level of the meristematic cells, thereby causing the K + deprivation at the whole-root level. In the elongation and mature zones, the increased sensitivity of Ca 2+ -permeable channels to H 2 O 2 causes a robust Ca 2+ influx through the H 2 O 2 -activated Ca 2+ -permeable channels, thereby triggering stronger Na + /H + antiport activity across the PM in 6 x I. trifida . Charge imbalance caused by the Ca 2+ influx may be offset by the OH . -activated K + efflux. Hence, the K + /Na + homeostasis in root tissues is retained in salinized 6 x I. trifida .

    Article Snippet: Root tips (3 cm) were collected from non-treated or NaCl-treated 2x and 6x I. trifida and were incubated in staining buffer containing 5 mM KCl/MES and 3 μg ml−1 PI (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) for 20 min.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Activity Assay

    Effects of NaCl stress (150 mM) on the transient net H + flux kinetics at the meristem (A: 500 µm from the tip), elongation (B: 3 mm from the tip), and mature (C: 15 mm from the tip) root zones in 2 x and 6 x I. trifida . Each point represents the mean of 20 roots collected from 10 individual plants. (D–F) Columns show the mean rate of H + flux before the addition of NaCl (~5 min) and after the addition of NaCl (~30 min). Different letters denote a significant difference at P

    Journal: Journal of Experimental Botany

    Article Title: Root-zone-specific sensitivity of K+-and Ca2+-permeable channels to H2O2 determines ion homeostasis in salinized diploid and hexaploid Ipomoea trifida

    doi: 10.1093/jxb/ery461

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of NaCl stress (150 mM) on the transient net H + flux kinetics at the meristem (A: 500 µm from the tip), elongation (B: 3 mm from the tip), and mature (C: 15 mm from the tip) root zones in 2 x and 6 x I. trifida . Each point represents the mean of 20 roots collected from 10 individual plants. (D–F) Columns show the mean rate of H + flux before the addition of NaCl (~5 min) and after the addition of NaCl (~30 min). Different letters denote a significant difference at P

    Article Snippet: Root tips (3 cm) were collected from non-treated or NaCl-treated 2x and 6x I. trifida and were incubated in staining buffer containing 5 mM KCl/MES and 3 μg ml−1 PI (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) for 20 min.

    Techniques:

    Effects of NaCl stress (150 mM) on the steady-state flux of K + at the different root regions of 2 x and 6 x I. trifida . The steady-state K + flux was measured from the meristem (300–600 µm from the tip), elongation (1–3 mm from the tip), and mature (10–15 mm from the tip) root zones after 24 h (A) and 5 d (B) of NaCl treatment. Each column is equivalent to the mean of 12 roots collected from six individual seedlings. The bars represent the SE of the mean. Columns labeled with different letters indicate a significant difference at P

    Journal: Journal of Experimental Botany

    Article Title: Root-zone-specific sensitivity of K+-and Ca2+-permeable channels to H2O2 determines ion homeostasis in salinized diploid and hexaploid Ipomoea trifida

    doi: 10.1093/jxb/ery461

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of NaCl stress (150 mM) on the steady-state flux of K + at the different root regions of 2 x and 6 x I. trifida . The steady-state K + flux was measured from the meristem (300–600 µm from the tip), elongation (1–3 mm from the tip), and mature (10–15 mm from the tip) root zones after 24 h (A) and 5 d (B) of NaCl treatment. Each column is equivalent to the mean of 12 roots collected from six individual seedlings. The bars represent the SE of the mean. Columns labeled with different letters indicate a significant difference at P

    Article Snippet: Root tips (3 cm) were collected from non-treated or NaCl-treated 2x and 6x I. trifida and were incubated in staining buffer containing 5 mM KCl/MES and 3 μg ml−1 PI (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA, USA) for 20 min.

    Techniques: Labeling