Journal: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease
Article Title: Caveolae‐Mediated Activation of Mechanosensitive Chloride Channels in Pulmonary Veins Triggers Atrial Arrhythmogenesis
Figure Lengend Snippet: Molecular and structural remodeling of caveolar mechanosensitive complex. A , Immunoblots for ClC‐2, ClC‐3, SWELL 1, and Cav3 from Wistar ( WT ; n=4) and spontaneously hypertensive rat ( SHR ; n=4) pulmonary vein distal ( PV dis ) tissues. Expression levels were normalized to GAPDH . P values were determined by unpaired Student t test. B , Downregulation of Cav3 correlates with elevated membrane tension and disruption of caveolae structures during hypertension. Rep resentative composite electron micrographs showing the lateral sarcolemmal membranes of cardiomyocytes from nonstretched WT and SHR PV dis tissues. Blue arrowheads denote caveolae connected to plasma membrane (scale bars=200 nm). C and D , Quantification of caveolae density, normalized to membrane length ( C ), and membrane convolution index (L/L o −1) ( D ), n=40 cells per group. Box plots show medians with interquartile range; whiskers represent fifth and 95th percentile; each point represents 1 micrograph. P values were determined by unpaired Student t test. Cav3 indicates caveolin 3; ClC, chloride channel; L, length of membrane contour; L o , shortest length connecting end points of membrane segment; SWELL1, also known as LRRC8A (leucine rich repeat containing protein 8A).
Article Snippet: Immunohistochemistry Masson's trichrome staining and double‐immunolabeling for ClC‐2 (goat polyclonal; SAB2501373, Sigma‐Aldrich), ClC‐3 (rabbit polyclonal; ACL‐001, Alomone Labs), SWELL1 (anti‐LRRC8A, rabbit polyclonal; AAC‐001, Alomone Labs), and Cav3 (mouse monoclonal; 610421, BD Biosciences; rabbit polyclonal; ab2912, Abcam) were performed on paraffin‐embedded sections of unstretched PV preparations.
Techniques: Western Blot, Expressing