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  • 95
    Millipore brain heart infusion bhi
    Invasion of Listeria <t>monocytogenes</t> and L. innocua strains in HT-29 cells. HT-29 cell monolayers were incubated with Listeria strains grown to log-phase for invasion assays. Viable intracellular bacteria were counted after plating serial dilutions on <t>BHI</t> agar plates. The results were expressed as log numbers of CFU recovered relative to the number of bacteria (10 7 ) deposited per well. Mean values and standard deviations were calculated from three independent experiments.
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 46 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher brain heart infusion broth
    Invasion of Listeria <t>monocytogenes</t> and L. innocua strains in HT-29 cells. HT-29 cell monolayers were incubated with Listeria strains grown to log-phase for invasion assays. Viable intracellular bacteria were counted after plating serial dilutions on <t>BHI</t> agar plates. The results were expressed as log numbers of CFU recovered relative to the number of bacteria (10 7 ) deposited per well. Mean values and standard deviations were calculated from three independent experiments.
    Brain Heart Infusion Broth, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1930 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Bio-Rad brain heart infusion broth bhi
    Invasion of Listeria <t>monocytogenes</t> and L. innocua strains in HT-29 cells. HT-29 cell monolayers were incubated with Listeria strains grown to log-phase for invasion assays. Viable intracellular bacteria were counted after plating serial dilutions on <t>BHI</t> agar plates. The results were expressed as log numbers of CFU recovered relative to the number of bacteria (10 7 ) deposited per well. Mean values and standard deviations were calculated from three independent experiments.
    Brain Heart Infusion Broth Bhi, supplied by Bio-Rad, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Difco brain heart infusion bhi
    Growth of wild-type and sigB mutant strains of L. <t>monocytogenes</t> after osmotic upshift in <t>BHI</t> (A) or DM (B and C). (A) LO4035 (wild type) and LMA2B ( sigB :: km ) were grown in BHI, and the cultures were divided into two equal portions at 425 min (arrow). Sodium chloride was added to one portion to a final concentration of 6%, and both portions were further incubated. Symbols: ■, LO4035 without NaCl; □, LO4035 with 6% NaCl; •, LMA2B without NaCl; ○, LMA2B with 6% NaCl. (B) Equivalent volumes of 18-h cultures of LO4035 and LMA2B in DM were inoculated into DM without NaCl (▴, LO4035; ■, LMA2B), DM with 3% NaCl (✕⃒, LO4035; ×, LMA2B), and DM with 3% NaCl supplemented with 1 mM betaine (▵, LO4035; □, LMA2B. (C) Equivalent volumes of 18-h cultures of LO4035 and LMA2B in DM were inoculated into fresh DM (▴, LO4035; ■, LMA2B), DM with 3% NaCl (✕⃒, LO4035; ×, LMA2B), and DM with 3% NaCl supplemented with 1 mM carnitine (▵, LO4035; □, LMA2B).
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    Thermo Fisher brain heart infusion bhi
    Oxidative stress sensitivity of a S. aureus Δ cymR mutant. Viability of SA6 (SH1000/pMK4), SA30 (Δ cymR /pMK4) and SA31 (Δ cymR /pDIA5780) was tested. Exponential-phase cells grown in <t>TSB</t> medium with 2 mM cystine were treated for 1 h with 20 mM H 2 O 2 and plated on <t>BHI.</t> Results represent the mean values for survival with standard deviations and are representative of at least two independent experiments.
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 241 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Merck & Co brain heart infusion bhi
    Growth of L. <t>monocytogenes</t> with and without mitomycin C treatment. A118-cured L. monocytogenes ( Lm ) and Δmonocin mutant and Δ ftbQR mutant bacteria were grown in <t>BHI</t> rich medium at 30°C without (A) and with (B) mitomycin C (MC)
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 25 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Becton Dickinson brain heart infusion bhi
    Competence of S. mutans UA159 and its derivatives. Transformation efficiency of (A, B) parent UA159 and Δ <t>spxA</t> strains and (C, D) UA159 harboring the nisin-inducible pMSP3535 (control) or pMSP3535-Spx plasmids (Spx-overexpressing strains). The integration plasmid pMC340A (donor DNA) was added to cells in early-logarithmic phase (OD 600 of 0.15) with or without the addition of CSP or nisin. Cultures were incubated at 37°C in 5% CO 2 until entering stationary phase, serially diluted and plated in <t>BHI</t> for total CFU and in BHI containing kanamycin for transformants. (A) pMC340A only (B) pMC340A + CSP, (C) pMC340A only, and (D) pMC340A + nisin. The results represent the mean and standard deviations of at least three independent experiments. Asterisks indicate differences were statistically significant ( P ≤0.05) when compared to UA159 (A, B), or UA159 harboring the empty pMSP3535 vector (C, D).
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 433 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Merck KGaA brain heart infusion bhi
    Analysis of growth of normal S. aureus , <t>TD-SCV,</t> SCV/pCX19 thyA , SCV/pCX thyA induced with xylose, and SCV/pCX19empty. Bacteria were grown in <t>BHI</t> broth with or without 0.5% xylose on a rotary shaker at 35°C. Every hour, the OD 568 of the cultures
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 18 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Lab M Ltd brain heart infusion bhi
    Analysis of growth of normal S. aureus , <t>TD-SCV,</t> SCV/pCX19 thyA , SCV/pCX thyA induced with xylose, and SCV/pCX19empty. Bacteria were grown in <t>BHI</t> broth with or without 0.5% xylose on a rotary shaker at 35°C. Every hour, the OD 568 of the cultures
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi, supplied by Lab M Ltd, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Nissui Pharmaceutical brain heart infusion bhi
    Analysis of growth of normal S. aureus , <t>TD-SCV,</t> SCV/pCX19 thyA , SCV/pCX thyA induced with xylose, and SCV/pCX19empty. Bacteria were grown in <t>BHI</t> broth with or without 0.5% xylose on a rotary shaker at 35°C. Every hour, the OD 568 of the cultures
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi, supplied by Nissui Pharmaceutical, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    HiMedia Laboratories brain heart infusion bhi
    Analysis of growth of normal S. aureus , <t>TD-SCV,</t> SCV/pCX19 thyA , SCV/pCX thyA induced with xylose, and SCV/pCX19empty. Bacteria were grown in <t>BHI</t> broth with or without 0.5% xylose on a rotary shaker at 35°C. Every hour, the OD 568 of the cultures
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi, supplied by HiMedia Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 25 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Beijing Land Bridge Technology Co Ltd brain heart infusion bhi
    Analysis of growth of normal S. aureus , <t>TD-SCV,</t> SCV/pCX19 thyA , SCV/pCX thyA induced with xylose, and SCV/pCX19empty. Bacteria were grown in <t>BHI</t> broth with or without 0.5% xylose on a rotary shaker at 35°C. Every hour, the OD 568 of the cultures
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi, supplied by Beijing Land Bridge Technology Co Ltd, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Teknova brain heart infusion bhi
    Analysis of growth of normal S. aureus , <t>TD-SCV,</t> SCV/pCX19 thyA , SCV/pCX thyA induced with xylose, and SCV/pCX19empty. Bacteria were grown in <t>BHI</t> broth with or without 0.5% xylose on a rotary shaker at 35°C. Every hour, the OD 568 of the cultures
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi, supplied by Teknova, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Difco brain heart infusion broth bhi
    Expression of L. <t>monocytogenes</t> lipA in human blood. Transcriptional tiling maps of L. monocytogenes EGDe grown in <t>BHI</t> to exponential phase at 37°C (black dots) or in human blood at 37°C for 60 min (red dots) show normalized hybridization
    Brain Heart Infusion Broth Bhi, supplied by Difco, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 202 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Merck & Co brain heart infusion broth bhi
    Correlation of bioluminescence (relative light units [RLU]) and culture regimen-dependent viable cell count (CFU per square centimeter) measured at <t>10°C.</t> The A lines show the correlation on cheese after 14 days of storage (open squares) and during the first 3 days after inoculation (closed squares). The B lines show the correlation for Y . enterocolitica on <t>BHI</t> agar with 2.5% salt (closed triangles) and without salt (open triangles) on the first 5 days. The background luminescence of cheese and BHI agar has been subtracted. Immediately after the light intensity was measured, the plates or cheeses were used to determine the viable counts (see text).
    Brain Heart Infusion Broth Bhi, supplied by Merck & Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 22 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Becton Dickinson brain heart infusion bhi broth
    Prevention of infectious abortion by HO-1 and Bcl-XL expression. (A) Pregnant mice were infected with 10 5 cells of L. <t>monocytogenes</t> in 0.1 ml of saline at day 13.5 of pregnancy with or without Co-PP treatment (5 mg/kg). At day 16.5, the placentas, fetuses, and livers were removed. HO-1 and Bcl-XL expression in the placenta was analyzed by immunoblotting. A representative immunoblot of three independent experiments is shown. (B) Survival rates were determined by the presence or absence of a heartbeat in the fetuses. (C) Livers were homogenized in saline and diluted with PBS. CFU was determined by plating the diluted samples on <t>BHI</t> agar plate.
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Broth, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 98/100, based on 873 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Merck KGaA bhi brain heart infusion broth
    Optimization of bacteriocin-production by E . faecalis EF478. (A) Culture media (B) Medium pH (C) Incubation temperature (D) Incubation time. LB, <t>Luria-Bertani;</t> <t>BHI,</t> brain heart infusion; MRS, De Man Rogosa Sharpe. AU/ml: arbitrary unit.
    Bhi Brain Heart Infusion Broth, supplied by Merck KGaA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 74/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    HiMedia Laboratories brain heart infusion bhi broth
    Optimization of bacteriocin-production by E . faecalis EF478. (A) Culture media (B) Medium pH (C) Incubation temperature (D) Incubation time. LB, <t>Luria-Bertani;</t> <t>BHI,</t> brain heart infusion; MRS, De Man Rogosa Sharpe. AU/ml: arbitrary unit.
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Broth, supplied by HiMedia Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 81 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Carl Roth GmbH brain heart infusion bhi broth
    Optimization of bacteriocin-production by E . faecalis EF478. (A) Culture media (B) Medium pH (C) Incubation temperature (D) Incubation time. LB, <t>Luria-Bertani;</t> <t>BHI,</t> brain heart infusion; MRS, De Man Rogosa Sharpe. AU/ml: arbitrary unit.
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Broth, supplied by Carl Roth GmbH, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 16 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher brain heart infusion bhi broth
    Optimization of bacteriocin-production by E . faecalis EF478. (A) Culture media (B) Medium pH (C) Incubation temperature (D) Incubation time. LB, <t>Luria-Bertani;</t> <t>BHI,</t> brain heart infusion; MRS, De Man Rogosa Sharpe. AU/ml: arbitrary unit.
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Broth, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 772 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Carl Roth GmbH brain heart infusion bhi media
    Global (pan-genome) expression map of in vitro and in vivo derived S . aureus transcriptomes. Circular ideogram depicting variations in gene expression between S . aureus strains, in vitro growth media and in vivo conditions as mapped according to the 3466 core/variable OGs and 732 unique (strain-specific) proteins defined for the S . aureus pan-genome. RNAseq generated reads (plotted as log 10 expression values) were assigned to their respective OGs/proteins by rpstblastn (ordered from core–variable–unique) with each OG defined according to its major Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) class (outer circle). Expression values from a total of 7 conditions were mapped and represent (from outer to the inner): S . aureus <t>USA300</t> in vitro exponential (EX) and stationary (ST) phase growth in Brain Heart Infusion <t>(BHI)</t> media; S . aureus IPL32 in vitro EX and ST phase growth in BHI; S . aureus USA300 and IPL32 in vitro EX phase growth in Synthetic Nasal Medium (SNM); and transcripts taken from an in vivo (metatranscriptomic) sample generated from the human anterior nares of an S . aureus carrier. Inner circles represent: (A) the top 25-ranked most highly expressed genes in each of the 7 conditions (based on abundance of transcripts) and plotted as a tile graph where black lines (or tiles) correspond to a highly expressed gene under a given condition (ordered according to the outer circles), with those specific to in vivo conditions marked in bold; (B) fold-change (log 10 ) of in vitro EX growth of USA300 in SNM versus BHI media; (C) fold-change (log 10 ) of in vitro EX growth of IPL32 in SNM versus BHI media; and (D) total S . aureus- specific read counts (log 10 ) from the in vivo human anterior nares condition. Keys denote the color scheme used to distinguish COG classes and expression and fold-change/read count values.
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Media, supplied by Carl Roth GmbH, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 10 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Lab M Ltd brain heart infusion bhi broth
    Figure 5. σ B -dependent EGFP expression is induced after osmotic upshock in L. <t>monocytogenes</t> EGD-e wild-type P lmo2230 ::egfp integrant. Cells bearing P lmo2230 ::egfp fusion grown in <t>BHI</t> from OD 600 = 0.05 up to OD 600 = 0.6 when 0.5 M NaCl
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Broth, supplied by Lab M Ltd, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 33 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Avantor brain heart infusion bhi broth
    Invasion of CPEK monolayers by S. <t>pseudintermedius</t> strains. S. pseudintermedius cells were incubated with CPEK monolayers. Extracellular bacteria were killed with gentamicin, and internalized bacteria were quantified by plating lysates on <t>BHI</t> agar. The assay was performed three times. Each point represents the average value for three replicas, and error bars show the standard deviations (SD). Statistically significant ( P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Broth, supplied by Avantor, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 19 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    BioLife Solutions brain heart infusion bhi broth
    Invasion of CPEK monolayers by S. <t>pseudintermedius</t> strains. S. pseudintermedius cells were incubated with CPEK monolayers. Extracellular bacteria were killed with gentamicin, and internalized bacteria were quantified by plating lysates on <t>BHI</t> agar. The assay was performed three times. Each point represents the average value for three replicas, and error bars show the standard deviations (SD). Statistically significant ( P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Broth, supplied by BioLife Solutions, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Liofilchem brain heart infusion bhi broth
    Invasion of CPEK monolayers by S. <t>pseudintermedius</t> strains. S. pseudintermedius cells were incubated with CPEK monolayers. Extracellular bacteria were killed with gentamicin, and internalized bacteria were quantified by plating lysates on <t>BHI</t> agar. The assay was performed three times. Each point represents the average value for three replicas, and error bars show the standard deviations (SD). Statistically significant ( P
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Broth, supplied by Liofilchem, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 12 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Eiken Chemical brain heart infusion bhi broth
    Production of cytolysins by L. monocytogenes mutants. Wild-type and mutant L. monocytogenes strains were cultured first in <t>BHI</t> medium and then transferred into RPMI 1640 medium. Three hours after cultivation, the supernatant was collected by centrifugation. (A) An aliquot of supernatant was applied to SDS-polyacrylamide gels and transferred onto a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane. Immunoblotting was performed with anti-LLO polyclonal antibody (left) or anti-ILO polyclonal antibody (right). (B) Culture supernatants were twofold serially diluted with PBS and mixed with an equal volume of a 2% suspension of SRBCs. After incubation for 30 min at <t>37°C,</t> the hemolytic activity was measured by the amount of hemoglobin released into the supernatant. One hundred percent hemolysis was defined as the level of hemoglobin released after treatment with 2% Triton X-100.
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Broth, supplied by Eiken Chemical, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 16 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Hardy Diagnostics brain heart infusion bhi media
    Validation of in vitro phenotype of reconstructed virulence mutants. Growth of wild-type B. <t>anthracis</t> Sterne (WT) was compared to the growth of (A) Δ purH in minimal R-medium after 24 h (B) Δ mntA in H 2 O 2 after 24 h (C) Δ htrA in H 2 O 2 after 8 h and (D) Δ htrA at 44°C in <t>BHI.</t> Assays were repeated three independent times for (A,C,D) and four independent times for (B) and are presented as mean ± SD. * p
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Media, supplied by Hardy Diagnostics, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 81/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Laboratorios Conda brain heart infusion bhi broth
    Validation of in vitro phenotype of reconstructed virulence mutants. Growth of wild-type B. <t>anthracis</t> Sterne (WT) was compared to the growth of (A) Δ purH in minimal R-medium after 24 h (B) Δ mntA in H 2 O 2 after 24 h (C) Δ htrA in H 2 O 2 after 8 h and (D) Δ htrA at 44°C in <t>BHI.</t> Assays were repeated three independent times for (A,C,D) and four independent times for (B) and are presented as mean ± SD. * p
    Brain Heart Infusion Bhi Broth, supplied by Laboratorios Conda, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 12 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    scharlau brain heart infusion bhi broth
    Validation of in vitro phenotype of reconstructed virulence mutants. Growth of wild-type B. <t>anthracis</t> Sterne (WT) was compared to the growth of (A) Δ purH in minimal R-medium after 24 h (B) Δ mntA in H 2 O 2 after 24 h (C) Δ htrA in H 2 O 2 after 8 h and (D) Δ htrA at 44°C in <t>BHI.</t> Assays were repeated three independent times for (A,C,D) and four independent times for (B) and are presented as mean ± SD. * p
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    Difco brain heart infusion bhi medim
    Validation of in vitro phenotype of reconstructed virulence mutants. Growth of wild-type B. <t>anthracis</t> Sterne (WT) was compared to the growth of (A) Δ purH in minimal R-medium after 24 h (B) Δ mntA in H 2 O 2 after 24 h (C) Δ htrA in H 2 O 2 after 8 h and (D) Δ htrA at 44°C in <t>BHI.</t> Assays were repeated three independent times for (A,C,D) and four independent times for (B) and are presented as mean ± SD. * p
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    Hardy Diagnostics brain heart infusion bhi broth
    Validation of in vitro phenotype of reconstructed virulence mutants. Growth of wild-type B. <t>anthracis</t> Sterne (WT) was compared to the growth of (A) Δ purH in minimal R-medium after 24 h (B) Δ mntA in H 2 O 2 after 24 h (C) Δ htrA in H 2 O 2 after 8 h and (D) Δ htrA at 44°C in <t>BHI.</t> Assays were repeated three independent times for (A,C,D) and four independent times for (B) and are presented as mean ± SD. * p
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    Image Search Results


    Invasion of Listeria monocytogenes and L. innocua strains in HT-29 cells. HT-29 cell monolayers were incubated with Listeria strains grown to log-phase for invasion assays. Viable intracellular bacteria were counted after plating serial dilutions on BHI agar plates. The results were expressed as log numbers of CFU recovered relative to the number of bacteria (10 7 ) deposited per well. Mean values and standard deviations were calculated from three independent experiments.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: LMOf2365_0442 Encoding for a Fructose Specific PTS Permease IIA May Be Required for Virulence in L. monocytogenes Strain F2365

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01611

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Invasion of Listeria monocytogenes and L. innocua strains in HT-29 cells. HT-29 cell monolayers were incubated with Listeria strains grown to log-phase for invasion assays. Viable intracellular bacteria were counted after plating serial dilutions on BHI agar plates. The results were expressed as log numbers of CFU recovered relative to the number of bacteria (10 7 ) deposited per well. Mean values and standard deviations were calculated from three independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: Glycerol stock cultures of L. monocytogenes F2365 (serotype 4b), L. innocua (ATCC® 51742TM ), and three isogenic deletion mutants ΔLMOf2365_0442-0444 of the parent strain L. monocytogenes F2365 ( ) stored at -80°C were streaked onto Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) (Sigma–Aldrich St. Louis, MO, United States) agar plates.

    Techniques: Incubation

    Growth of wild-type and sigB mutant strains of L. monocytogenes after osmotic upshift in BHI (A) or DM (B and C). (A) LO4035 (wild type) and LMA2B ( sigB :: km ) were grown in BHI, and the cultures were divided into two equal portions at 425 min (arrow). Sodium chloride was added to one portion to a final concentration of 6%, and both portions were further incubated. Symbols: ■, LO4035 without NaCl; □, LO4035 with 6% NaCl; •, LMA2B without NaCl; ○, LMA2B with 6% NaCl. (B) Equivalent volumes of 18-h cultures of LO4035 and LMA2B in DM were inoculated into DM without NaCl (▴, LO4035; ■, LMA2B), DM with 3% NaCl (✕⃒, LO4035; ×, LMA2B), and DM with 3% NaCl supplemented with 1 mM betaine (▵, LO4035; □, LMA2B. (C) Equivalent volumes of 18-h cultures of LO4035 and LMA2B in DM were inoculated into fresh DM (▴, LO4035; ■, LMA2B), DM with 3% NaCl (✕⃒, LO4035; ×, LMA2B), and DM with 3% NaCl supplemented with 1 mM carnitine (▵, LO4035; □, LMA2B).

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: Identification of the Gene Encoding the Alternative Sigma Factor ?B from Listeria monocytogenes and Its Role in Osmotolerance †

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth of wild-type and sigB mutant strains of L. monocytogenes after osmotic upshift in BHI (A) or DM (B and C). (A) LO4035 (wild type) and LMA2B ( sigB :: km ) were grown in BHI, and the cultures were divided into two equal portions at 425 min (arrow). Sodium chloride was added to one portion to a final concentration of 6%, and both portions were further incubated. Symbols: ■, LO4035 without NaCl; □, LO4035 with 6% NaCl; •, LMA2B without NaCl; ○, LMA2B with 6% NaCl. (B) Equivalent volumes of 18-h cultures of LO4035 and LMA2B in DM were inoculated into DM without NaCl (▴, LO4035; ■, LMA2B), DM with 3% NaCl (✕⃒, LO4035; ×, LMA2B), and DM with 3% NaCl supplemented with 1 mM betaine (▵, LO4035; □, LMA2B. (C) Equivalent volumes of 18-h cultures of LO4035 and LMA2B in DM were inoculated into fresh DM (▴, LO4035; ■, LMA2B), DM with 3% NaCl (✕⃒, LO4035; ×, LMA2B), and DM with 3% NaCl supplemented with 1 mM carnitine (▵, LO4035; □, LMA2B).

    Article Snippet: L. monocytogenes cells were grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) (Difco, Detroit, Mich.) at 30°C unless otherwise specified.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Concentration Assay, Incubation

    pPplA enhances bacterial aggregation in broth culture. (A) Image of bacterial aggregation observed between the wild-type L . monocytogenes 10403S strain versus a prfA * mutant when bacterial cultures grown in BHI are left statically overnight at room-temperature (RT). (B) Measurement of the rate of bacterial aggregation in BHI. The optical-density at 600nm was monitored at the indicated time points for 1 mL of an overnight culture initially grown in BHI with shaking at 37°C then left statically at RT, where bacterial aggregation is measured as the decrease in the optical-density of the culture supernatant as the bacterial aggregate out of solution. (C) Measurement of bacterial aggregation of the indicated mutant strains resuspended in 1 mL of spent media derived from overnight stationary phase cultures either containing the pPplA peptide (G72stop) or lacking it (Δ pplA ). The ability of the pPplA containing media (G72stop) to restore bacterial aggregation indicates the presence of a secreted substance (potentially pPplA) that enhances bacterial aggregation in broth culture. (D) Measurement of bacterial aggregation as done in panel C, except strains were resuspended in 1 mL of BHI spent media derived from E . coli containing the complementation vector construct expressing the N-terminal 72 amino acids of PplA as described in Fig. 2A or the empty vector. The ability of spent media derived from an E . coli strain containing the first 72 amino acids of pPplA supports the secretion of a PplA N-terminus derived peptide that enhances bacterial aggregation. (E) Assessment of bacterial aggregation in a strain containing three amino acid substitutions within the predicted peptide sequence (referred to as prfA * pplA m ). Reduced aggregation of prfA * pplA m indicates the importance of these amino acids within the pPplA pheromone. (F) Bacterial aggregation of two oligopeptide transport mutants, a prfA * Δ ctaP compared to a prfA *- oppA insertion mutant. A prfA * Δ ctaP is impaired for bacterial aggregation, indicating a possible link between the pPplA peptide and import of the peptide through the CtaP transport system. For panels (B), (C) and (D), data is representative of at least three independent experiments.

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: Identification of a Peptide-Pheromone that Enhances Listeria monocytogenes Escape from Host Cell Vacuoles

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004707

    Figure Lengend Snippet: pPplA enhances bacterial aggregation in broth culture. (A) Image of bacterial aggregation observed between the wild-type L . monocytogenes 10403S strain versus a prfA * mutant when bacterial cultures grown in BHI are left statically overnight at room-temperature (RT). (B) Measurement of the rate of bacterial aggregation in BHI. The optical-density at 600nm was monitored at the indicated time points for 1 mL of an overnight culture initially grown in BHI with shaking at 37°C then left statically at RT, where bacterial aggregation is measured as the decrease in the optical-density of the culture supernatant as the bacterial aggregate out of solution. (C) Measurement of bacterial aggregation of the indicated mutant strains resuspended in 1 mL of spent media derived from overnight stationary phase cultures either containing the pPplA peptide (G72stop) or lacking it (Δ pplA ). The ability of the pPplA containing media (G72stop) to restore bacterial aggregation indicates the presence of a secreted substance (potentially pPplA) that enhances bacterial aggregation in broth culture. (D) Measurement of bacterial aggregation as done in panel C, except strains were resuspended in 1 mL of BHI spent media derived from E . coli containing the complementation vector construct expressing the N-terminal 72 amino acids of PplA as described in Fig. 2A or the empty vector. The ability of spent media derived from an E . coli strain containing the first 72 amino acids of pPplA supports the secretion of a PplA N-terminus derived peptide that enhances bacterial aggregation. (E) Assessment of bacterial aggregation in a strain containing three amino acid substitutions within the predicted peptide sequence (referred to as prfA * pplA m ). Reduced aggregation of prfA * pplA m indicates the importance of these amino acids within the pPplA pheromone. (F) Bacterial aggregation of two oligopeptide transport mutants, a prfA * Δ ctaP compared to a prfA *- oppA insertion mutant. A prfA * Δ ctaP is impaired for bacterial aggregation, indicating a possible link between the pPplA peptide and import of the peptide through the CtaP transport system. For panels (B), (C) and (D), data is representative of at least three independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: L . monocytogenes and E . coli strains were grown at 37°C in brain heart infusion (BHI) media (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI) and Luria broth (LB) (Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, CA).

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Derivative Assay, Plasmid Preparation, Construct, Expressing, Sequencing

    Construction of L . monocytogenes mutants that lack the PplA lipoprotein but retain peptide pheromone secretion. (A) Strategy for the construction of the in-frame pplA deletion and pplA -G72stop mutants that retain peptide pheromone secretion. The region used for complementation of the pplA deletion is indicated by the dashed lines. The C terminal lipoprotein region of PplA expressed and purified from E . coli that was used for affinity purification of the PplA antibody and also as the (+) control in western blots is indicated by the blue solid line. (B) Assessment of growth of the lipoprotein and pheromone mutants in BHI broth culture media. Overnight cultures of each strain grown shaking in BHI at 37°C were diluted 1:20 in fresh BHI media and the OD 600 was measured at the indicated time points. (C) Western blot analysis of both surface-associated and secreted PlpA lipoprotein isolated from stationary phase cultures grown overnight shaking at 37°C. Samples were normalized to OD 600 . Secreted PplA was TCA extracted from the culture supernatant and surface-associated PplA was isolated by boiling in SDS-boiling buffer. Arrow indicates the position of full length PplA. ‘*’ indicates truncated and purified PplA lipoprotein used as positive control for antibody recognition. PplA lipoprotein is primarily detected in the surface-associated preparations versus the supernatant of wild-type L . monocytogenes . For panels (B) and (C), data is representative of at least three-independent experiments.

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: Identification of a Peptide-Pheromone that Enhances Listeria monocytogenes Escape from Host Cell Vacuoles

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004707

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Construction of L . monocytogenes mutants that lack the PplA lipoprotein but retain peptide pheromone secretion. (A) Strategy for the construction of the in-frame pplA deletion and pplA -G72stop mutants that retain peptide pheromone secretion. The region used for complementation of the pplA deletion is indicated by the dashed lines. The C terminal lipoprotein region of PplA expressed and purified from E . coli that was used for affinity purification of the PplA antibody and also as the (+) control in western blots is indicated by the blue solid line. (B) Assessment of growth of the lipoprotein and pheromone mutants in BHI broth culture media. Overnight cultures of each strain grown shaking in BHI at 37°C were diluted 1:20 in fresh BHI media and the OD 600 was measured at the indicated time points. (C) Western blot analysis of both surface-associated and secreted PlpA lipoprotein isolated from stationary phase cultures grown overnight shaking at 37°C. Samples were normalized to OD 600 . Secreted PplA was TCA extracted from the culture supernatant and surface-associated PplA was isolated by boiling in SDS-boiling buffer. Arrow indicates the position of full length PplA. ‘*’ indicates truncated and purified PplA lipoprotein used as positive control for antibody recognition. PplA lipoprotein is primarily detected in the surface-associated preparations versus the supernatant of wild-type L . monocytogenes . For panels (B) and (C), data is representative of at least three-independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: L . monocytogenes and E . coli strains were grown at 37°C in brain heart infusion (BHI) media (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, MI) and Luria broth (LB) (Invitrogen Corp., Carlsbad, CA).

    Techniques: Purification, Affinity Purification, Western Blot, Isolation, Positive Control

    Growth of mutant H. influenzae Rd strains. The strains Rd, REI1012 (Δ hel :: kan ), and GK04 ( nadN :: cat Δ hel :: kan ) were grown on BHI agar plates supplemented with hemin (20 μg/ml) and different nicotinamide nucleotide concentrations and sources. Growth phenotype is shown with 1.5 and 35 μM NAD, with 1.5 and 15 μM NMN, and with 1.5 and 15 μM NR, as indicated.

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: NadN and e (P4) Are Essential for Utilization of NAD and Nicotinamide Mononucleotide but Not Nicotinamide Riboside in Haemophilus influenzae

    doi: 10.1128/JB.183.13.3974-3981.2001

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth of mutant H. influenzae Rd strains. The strains Rd, REI1012 (Δ hel :: kan ), and GK04 ( nadN :: cat Δ hel :: kan ) were grown on BHI agar plates supplemented with hemin (20 μg/ml) and different nicotinamide nucleotide concentrations and sources. Growth phenotype is shown with 1.5 and 35 μM NAD, with 1.5 and 15 μM NMN, and with 1.5 and 15 μM NR, as indicated.

    Article Snippet: H. influenzae was grown at 37°C under aerobic conditions on 3.8% brain heart infusion (BHI) agar (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.) supplemented with NAD (15 to 30 μM) and hemin-chloride (20 μg/ml) (Sigma, Deisenhofen, Germany).

    Techniques: Mutagenesis

    Oxidative stress sensitivity of a S. aureus Δ cymR mutant. Viability of SA6 (SH1000/pMK4), SA30 (Δ cymR /pMK4) and SA31 (Δ cymR /pDIA5780) was tested. Exponential-phase cells grown in TSB medium with 2 mM cystine were treated for 1 h with 20 mM H 2 O 2 and plated on BHI. Results represent the mean values for survival with standard deviations and are representative of at least two independent experiments.

    Journal: PLoS Pathogens

    Article Title: The Pleiotropic CymR Regulator of Staphylococcus aureus Plays an Important Role in Virulence and Stress Response

    doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000894

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Oxidative stress sensitivity of a S. aureus Δ cymR mutant. Viability of SA6 (SH1000/pMK4), SA30 (Δ cymR /pMK4) and SA31 (Δ cymR /pDIA5780) was tested. Exponential-phase cells grown in TSB medium with 2 mM cystine were treated for 1 h with 20 mM H 2 O 2 and plated on BHI. Results represent the mean values for survival with standard deviations and are representative of at least two independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: S. aureus was grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) (Oxoid) or tryptic soy broth/agar (TSB/TSA) (Difco) .

    Techniques: Mutagenesis

    Growth of L. monocytogenes with and without mitomycin C treatment. A118-cured L. monocytogenes ( Lm ) and Δmonocin mutant and Δ ftbQR mutant bacteria were grown in BHI rich medium at 30°C without (A) and with (B) mitomycin C (MC)

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: An Effective Counterselection System for Listeria monocytogenes and Its Use To Characterize the Monocin Genomic Region of Strain 10403S

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.02927-16

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth of L. monocytogenes with and without mitomycin C treatment. A118-cured L. monocytogenes ( Lm ) and Δmonocin mutant and Δ ftbQR mutant bacteria were grown in BHI rich medium at 30°C without (A) and with (B) mitomycin C (MC)

    Article Snippet: L. monocytogenes strains were grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) (Merck) medium at 37°C or 30°C as specified, and E. coli strains were grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) (Acumedia) medium at 37°C. p -Chloro-phenylalanine ( p -Cl-phe) (Acros Organics) was added to the BHI agar before autoclaving to help dissolve it.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis

    Competence of S. mutans UA159 and its derivatives. Transformation efficiency of (A, B) parent UA159 and Δ spxA strains and (C, D) UA159 harboring the nisin-inducible pMSP3535 (control) or pMSP3535-Spx plasmids (Spx-overexpressing strains). The integration plasmid pMC340A (donor DNA) was added to cells in early-logarithmic phase (OD 600 of 0.15) with or without the addition of CSP or nisin. Cultures were incubated at 37°C in 5% CO 2 until entering stationary phase, serially diluted and plated in BHI for total CFU and in BHI containing kanamycin for transformants. (A) pMC340A only (B) pMC340A + CSP, (C) pMC340A only, and (D) pMC340A + nisin. The results represent the mean and standard deviations of at least three independent experiments. Asterisks indicate differences were statistically significant ( P ≤0.05) when compared to UA159 (A, B), or UA159 harboring the empty pMSP3535 vector (C, D).

    Journal: Molecular oral microbiology

    Article Title: Inactivation of the spxA1 or spxA2 gene of Streptococcus mutans decreases virulence in the rat caries model

    doi: 10.1111/omi.12160

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Competence of S. mutans UA159 and its derivatives. Transformation efficiency of (A, B) parent UA159 and Δ spxA strains and (C, D) UA159 harboring the nisin-inducible pMSP3535 (control) or pMSP3535-Spx plasmids (Spx-overexpressing strains). The integration plasmid pMC340A (donor DNA) was added to cells in early-logarithmic phase (OD 600 of 0.15) with or without the addition of CSP or nisin. Cultures were incubated at 37°C in 5% CO 2 until entering stationary phase, serially diluted and plated in BHI for total CFU and in BHI containing kanamycin for transformants. (A) pMC340A only (B) pMC340A + CSP, (C) pMC340A only, and (D) pMC340A + nisin. The results represent the mean and standard deviations of at least three independent experiments. Asterisks indicate differences were statistically significant ( P ≤0.05) when compared to UA159 (A, B), or UA159 harboring the empty pMSP3535 vector (C, D).

    Article Snippet: The S. mutans UA159 (wild-type) and its Δ spx derivatives (Δ spxA 1, Δ spxA 2 and Δ spxA1 /Δ spxA2 ) were routinely grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) at 37°C under anaerobic conditions (BBL Gaspack system, BD, Franklin Lakes, NJ).

    Techniques: Transformation Assay, Plasmid Preparation, Incubation

    Mutacin production by S. mutans UA159 and its derivatives. Cultures of S. mutans were grown in BHI to OD 600 of 0.3 and 15 μl of each culture spotted on BHI plates followed by incubation at 37°C in 5% CO 2 . After 24 h incubation, plates were exposed to UV light for 20 min and then overlayed with 5 ml soft BHI agar containing 500 μl of overnight cultures of S. gordonii or L. lactis . Plates were incubated for additional 48 h and the zone of inhibition recorded.

    Journal: Molecular oral microbiology

    Article Title: Inactivation of the spxA1 or spxA2 gene of Streptococcus mutans decreases virulence in the rat caries model

    doi: 10.1111/omi.12160

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mutacin production by S. mutans UA159 and its derivatives. Cultures of S. mutans were grown in BHI to OD 600 of 0.3 and 15 μl of each culture spotted on BHI plates followed by incubation at 37°C in 5% CO 2 . After 24 h incubation, plates were exposed to UV light for 20 min and then overlayed with 5 ml soft BHI agar containing 500 μl of overnight cultures of S. gordonii or L. lactis . Plates were incubated for additional 48 h and the zone of inhibition recorded.

    Article Snippet: The S. mutans UA159 (wild-type) and its Δ spx derivatives (Δ spxA 1, Δ spxA 2 and Δ spxA1 /Δ spxA2 ) were routinely grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) at 37°C under anaerobic conditions (BBL Gaspack system, BD, Franklin Lakes, NJ).

    Techniques: Incubation, Inhibition

    (A) Growth curves for L. monocytogenes HL06CIP4 and HL06CIP4Δ lde in BHI broth. (B) Growth curves for L. monocytogenes HL06CIP4 and HL06CIP4Δ lde in BHI broth with 2 μg/ml of BC.

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Role of Efflux Pumps in the in vitro Development of Ciprofloxacin Resistance in Listeria monocytogenes

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02350

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Growth curves for L. monocytogenes HL06CIP4 and HL06CIP4Δ lde in BHI broth. (B) Growth curves for L. monocytogenes HL06CIP4 and HL06CIP4Δ lde in BHI broth with 2 μg/ml of BC.

    Article Snippet: L. monocytogenes strains were grown at 37°C on brain heart infusion (BHI) agar (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD, United States) or in BHI broth, and E. coli strains were grown at 37°C on Luria–Bertani (LB) agar (Becton Dickinson) or in LB broth.

    Techniques:

    Analysis of growth of normal S. aureus , TD-SCV, SCV/pCX19 thyA , SCV/pCX thyA induced with xylose, and SCV/pCX19empty. Bacteria were grown in BHI broth with or without 0.5% xylose on a rotary shaker at 35°C. Every hour, the OD 568 of the cultures

    Journal:

    Article Title: In Vivo Mutations of Thymidylate Synthase (Encoded by thyA) Are Responsible for Thymidine Dependency in Clinical Small-Colony Variants of Staphylococcus aureus ▿

    doi: 10.1128/JB.00912-07

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Analysis of growth of normal S. aureus , TD-SCV, SCV/pCX19 thyA , SCV/pCX thyA induced with xylose, and SCV/pCX19empty. Bacteria were grown in BHI broth with or without 0.5% xylose on a rotary shaker at 35°C. Every hour, the OD 568 of the cultures

    Article Snippet: Normal S. aureus and TD-SCV strains were grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) broth, which supports the growth of SCVs, while Escherichia coli was grown in Luria-Bertani broth.

    Techniques:

    Expression of L. monocytogenes lipA in human blood. Transcriptional tiling maps of L. monocytogenes EGDe grown in BHI to exponential phase at 37°C (black dots) or in human blood at 37°C for 60 min (red dots) show normalized hybridization

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: LipA, a Tyrosine and Lipid Phosphatase Involved in the Virulence of Listeria monocytogenes ▿ ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.05073-11

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression of L. monocytogenes lipA in human blood. Transcriptional tiling maps of L. monocytogenes EGDe grown in BHI to exponential phase at 37°C (black dots) or in human blood at 37°C for 60 min (red dots) show normalized hybridization

    Article Snippet: L. monocytogenes strains were routinely grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (Difco) at 37°C and 200 rpm or on Oxford agar plates (Merck) at 37°C.

    Techniques: Expressing, Hybridization

    Correlation of bioluminescence (relative light units [RLU]) and culture regimen-dependent viable cell count (CFU per square centimeter) measured at 10°C. The A lines show the correlation on cheese after 14 days of storage (open squares) and during the first 3 days after inoculation (closed squares). The B lines show the correlation for Y . enterocolitica on BHI agar with 2.5% salt (closed triangles) and without salt (open triangles) on the first 5 days. The background luminescence of cheese and BHI agar has been subtracted. Immediately after the light intensity was measured, the plates or cheeses were used to determine the viable counts (see text).

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Sensitive In Situ Monitoring of a Recombinant Bioluminescent Yersinia enterocolitica Reporter Mutant in Real Time on Camembert Cheese

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.68.11.5737-5740.2002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Correlation of bioluminescence (relative light units [RLU]) and culture regimen-dependent viable cell count (CFU per square centimeter) measured at 10°C. The A lines show the correlation on cheese after 14 days of storage (open squares) and during the first 3 days after inoculation (closed squares). The B lines show the correlation for Y . enterocolitica on BHI agar with 2.5% salt (closed triangles) and without salt (open triangles) on the first 5 days. The background luminescence of cheese and BHI agar has been subtracted. Immediately after the light intensity was measured, the plates or cheeses were used to determine the viable counts (see text).

    Article Snippet: They were grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (Merck) supplemented with 2.5% NaCl (10°C, 48 h).

    Techniques: Cell Counting

    Influence of growth temperature and growth phase on bioluminescence of Y . enterocolitica B94. The mutant was grown in BHI broth with 2.5% salt at different temperatures to an OD 600 of 0.15 (5 × 10 7 CFU/ml) (triangles) and to an OD 600 of 1.1 (4.5 × 10 8 CFU/ml) (diamonds). A 100-μl sample of the grown culture was spread on BHI plates preadjusted to 10°C. After 5 min at 10°C, bioluminescence was measured at 10°C. RLU, relative light units; 1.0E+02, 1 × 10 2 .

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Sensitive In Situ Monitoring of a Recombinant Bioluminescent Yersinia enterocolitica Reporter Mutant in Real Time on Camembert Cheese

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.68.11.5737-5740.2002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Influence of growth temperature and growth phase on bioluminescence of Y . enterocolitica B94. The mutant was grown in BHI broth with 2.5% salt at different temperatures to an OD 600 of 0.15 (5 × 10 7 CFU/ml) (triangles) and to an OD 600 of 1.1 (4.5 × 10 8 CFU/ml) (diamonds). A 100-μl sample of the grown culture was spread on BHI plates preadjusted to 10°C. After 5 min at 10°C, bioluminescence was measured at 10°C. RLU, relative light units; 1.0E+02, 1 × 10 2 .

    Article Snippet: They were grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (Merck) supplemented with 2.5% NaCl (10°C, 48 h).

    Techniques: Mutagenesis

    Prevention of infectious abortion by HO-1 and Bcl-XL expression. (A) Pregnant mice were infected with 10 5 cells of L. monocytogenes in 0.1 ml of saline at day 13.5 of pregnancy with or without Co-PP treatment (5 mg/kg). At day 16.5, the placentas, fetuses, and livers were removed. HO-1 and Bcl-XL expression in the placenta was analyzed by immunoblotting. A representative immunoblot of three independent experiments is shown. (B) Survival rates were determined by the presence or absence of a heartbeat in the fetuses. (C) Livers were homogenized in saline and diluted with PBS. CFU was determined by plating the diluted samples on BHI agar plate.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Protective Role of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Listeria monocytogenes-Induced Abortion

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025046

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Prevention of infectious abortion by HO-1 and Bcl-XL expression. (A) Pregnant mice were infected with 10 5 cells of L. monocytogenes in 0.1 ml of saline at day 13.5 of pregnancy with or without Co-PP treatment (5 mg/kg). At day 16.5, the placentas, fetuses, and livers were removed. HO-1 and Bcl-XL expression in the placenta was analyzed by immunoblotting. A representative immunoblot of three independent experiments is shown. (B) Survival rates were determined by the presence or absence of a heartbeat in the fetuses. (C) Livers were homogenized in saline and diluted with PBS. CFU was determined by plating the diluted samples on BHI agar plate.

    Article Snippet: Bacterial strains L. monocytogenes EGD was maintained as a frozen glycerol stock and cultured in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (Becton Dickinson) or on BHI broth containing 1.5% agar.

    Techniques: Expressing, Mouse Assay, Infection

    Decreased HO-1 and Bcl-XL expression in TG cells infected with L. monocytogenes . (A) TG cells were first treated with Co-PP and then infected with L. monocytogenes . The infected cells were cultured in 50 µg/ml of gentamicin. After 6 h, HO-1 and Bcl-XL expression was analyzed by immunoblotting. A representative immunoblot of three independent experiments is shown. (B) TG cells were treated with Co-PP and then infected with L. monocytogenes . The infected cells were cultured in 50 µg/ml of gentamicin. After 0.5, 2, and 6 h incubation, the infected cells were washed with PBS and lysed with cold distilled water. CFU were determined by serial dilution on BHI agar plates. (C) L. monocytogenes was deposited on TG cells by centrifugation at 150×g for 10 min at room temperature, incubated for 6 h, fixed, and stained. The figure shows FITC-labeled bacteria (green) and Alexa Fluor 594-labeled actin filaments (red) merged images. The left-hand panel shows untreated cells, the center panel Co-PP (9 µg/ml)-treated cells, and the right-hand panel, cytochalasin D-treated cells.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Protective Role of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Listeria monocytogenes-Induced Abortion

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025046

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Decreased HO-1 and Bcl-XL expression in TG cells infected with L. monocytogenes . (A) TG cells were first treated with Co-PP and then infected with L. monocytogenes . The infected cells were cultured in 50 µg/ml of gentamicin. After 6 h, HO-1 and Bcl-XL expression was analyzed by immunoblotting. A representative immunoblot of three independent experiments is shown. (B) TG cells were treated with Co-PP and then infected with L. monocytogenes . The infected cells were cultured in 50 µg/ml of gentamicin. After 0.5, 2, and 6 h incubation, the infected cells were washed with PBS and lysed with cold distilled water. CFU were determined by serial dilution on BHI agar plates. (C) L. monocytogenes was deposited on TG cells by centrifugation at 150×g for 10 min at room temperature, incubated for 6 h, fixed, and stained. The figure shows FITC-labeled bacteria (green) and Alexa Fluor 594-labeled actin filaments (red) merged images. The left-hand panel shows untreated cells, the center panel Co-PP (9 µg/ml)-treated cells, and the right-hand panel, cytochalasin D-treated cells.

    Article Snippet: Bacterial strains L. monocytogenes EGD was maintained as a frozen glycerol stock and cultured in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (Becton Dickinson) or on BHI broth containing 1.5% agar.

    Techniques: Expressing, Infection, Cell Culture, Incubation, Serial Dilution, Centrifugation, Staining, Labeling

    Prevention of cell death by HO-1 and Bcl-XL expression. (A) TG cells were treated for 48 h with either siRNA targeting HO-1, Bcl-XL, or control siRNA (QIAGEN AllStars Negative Control). Bcl-XL overexpression was achieved by transfecting the cells with pcDNA4/TO-Bcl-XL. HO-1 and Bcl-XL expression was monitored by immunoblotting. β-actin was used as an internal control. A representative immunoblot of three independent experiments is shown. (B) TG cells were infected with L. monocytogenes . The infected cells were cultured with media containing 50 µg/ml gentamicin for 2, 6, and 12 h. The cells were then washed with PBS and lysed with cold distilled water. CFU was determined by serial dilution on BHI agar plates. All values represent the average and the standard deviation of three identical experiments. (C) Cell death was determined using the JC-1 Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay Kit. One hundred TG cells per coverslip were examined to determine the total number of live or dead cells. All values represent the average and the standard deviation of three identical experiments. Statistically significant differences compared with the control are indicated by asterisks (*, P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Protective Role of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Listeria monocytogenes-Induced Abortion

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025046

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Prevention of cell death by HO-1 and Bcl-XL expression. (A) TG cells were treated for 48 h with either siRNA targeting HO-1, Bcl-XL, or control siRNA (QIAGEN AllStars Negative Control). Bcl-XL overexpression was achieved by transfecting the cells with pcDNA4/TO-Bcl-XL. HO-1 and Bcl-XL expression was monitored by immunoblotting. β-actin was used as an internal control. A representative immunoblot of three independent experiments is shown. (B) TG cells were infected with L. monocytogenes . The infected cells were cultured with media containing 50 µg/ml gentamicin for 2, 6, and 12 h. The cells were then washed with PBS and lysed with cold distilled water. CFU was determined by serial dilution on BHI agar plates. All values represent the average and the standard deviation of three identical experiments. (C) Cell death was determined using the JC-1 Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Assay Kit. One hundred TG cells per coverslip were examined to determine the total number of live or dead cells. All values represent the average and the standard deviation of three identical experiments. Statistically significant differences compared with the control are indicated by asterisks (*, P

    Article Snippet: Bacterial strains L. monocytogenes EGD was maintained as a frozen glycerol stock and cultured in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (Becton Dickinson) or on BHI broth containing 1.5% agar.

    Techniques: Expressing, Negative Control, Over Expression, Infection, Cell Culture, Serial Dilution, Standard Deviation

    Growth-dependent bioluminescence in phage-infected B. anthracis cells (A) Overnight Sterne cultures were diluted (1:100) with BHI broth and incubated at 35°C with continuous shaking (250 rpm) and assessed at various times for A 600 . At the times indicated (denoted by the arrows), samples were harvested and mixed with 10 9 PFU mL −1 (final concentration) phage and bioluminescence was determined after 1 h (B) . Numbers indicate the mean (n=3) ± SD. *p

    Journal: Journal of applied microbiology

    Article Title: Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spores from Environmental Water Using Bioluminescent Reporter Phage

    doi: 10.1111/jam.13569

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth-dependent bioluminescence in phage-infected B. anthracis cells (A) Overnight Sterne cultures were diluted (1:100) with BHI broth and incubated at 35°C with continuous shaking (250 rpm) and assessed at various times for A 600 . At the times indicated (denoted by the arrows), samples were harvested and mixed with 10 9 PFU mL −1 (final concentration) phage and bioluminescence was determined after 1 h (B) . Numbers indicate the mean (n=3) ± SD. *p

    Article Snippet: All strains ( B. anthracis and B. cereus ) were grown in BD™ Brain Heart Infusion broth (BHI), soft agar (broth and 0.7% Bacto agar) or broth plus 1.5% agar.

    Techniques: Infection, Incubation, Concentration Assay

    Optimization of bacteriocin-production by E . faecalis EF478. (A) Culture media (B) Medium pH (C) Incubation temperature (D) Incubation time. LB, Luria-Bertani; BHI, brain heart infusion; MRS, De Man Rogosa Sharpe. AU/ml: arbitrary unit.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: A novel bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecalis 478 exhibits a potent activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0186415

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Optimization of bacteriocin-production by E . faecalis EF478. (A) Culture media (B) Medium pH (C) Incubation temperature (D) Incubation time. LB, Luria-Bertani; BHI, brain heart infusion; MRS, De Man Rogosa Sharpe. AU/ml: arbitrary unit.

    Article Snippet: Three growth media namely Luria-Bertani medium (LB), De Man Rogosa Sharpe medium (MRS) and brain heart infusion broth (BHI) (all were purchased from Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) were used for comparison.

    Techniques: Incubation

    Global (pan-genome) expression map of in vitro and in vivo derived S . aureus transcriptomes. Circular ideogram depicting variations in gene expression between S . aureus strains, in vitro growth media and in vivo conditions as mapped according to the 3466 core/variable OGs and 732 unique (strain-specific) proteins defined for the S . aureus pan-genome. RNAseq generated reads (plotted as log 10 expression values) were assigned to their respective OGs/proteins by rpstblastn (ordered from core–variable–unique) with each OG defined according to its major Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) class (outer circle). Expression values from a total of 7 conditions were mapped and represent (from outer to the inner): S . aureus USA300 in vitro exponential (EX) and stationary (ST) phase growth in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) media; S . aureus IPL32 in vitro EX and ST phase growth in BHI; S . aureus USA300 and IPL32 in vitro EX phase growth in Synthetic Nasal Medium (SNM); and transcripts taken from an in vivo (metatranscriptomic) sample generated from the human anterior nares of an S . aureus carrier. Inner circles represent: (A) the top 25-ranked most highly expressed genes in each of the 7 conditions (based on abundance of transcripts) and plotted as a tile graph where black lines (or tiles) correspond to a highly expressed gene under a given condition (ordered according to the outer circles), with those specific to in vivo conditions marked in bold; (B) fold-change (log 10 ) of in vitro EX growth of USA300 in SNM versus BHI media; (C) fold-change (log 10 ) of in vitro EX growth of IPL32 in SNM versus BHI media; and (D) total S . aureus- specific read counts (log 10 ) from the in vivo human anterior nares condition. Keys denote the color scheme used to distinguish COG classes and expression and fold-change/read count values.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Application of a Novel “Pan-Genome”-Based Strategy for Assigning RNAseq Transcript Reads to Staphylococcus aureus Strains

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145861

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Global (pan-genome) expression map of in vitro and in vivo derived S . aureus transcriptomes. Circular ideogram depicting variations in gene expression between S . aureus strains, in vitro growth media and in vivo conditions as mapped according to the 3466 core/variable OGs and 732 unique (strain-specific) proteins defined for the S . aureus pan-genome. RNAseq generated reads (plotted as log 10 expression values) were assigned to their respective OGs/proteins by rpstblastn (ordered from core–variable–unique) with each OG defined according to its major Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) class (outer circle). Expression values from a total of 7 conditions were mapped and represent (from outer to the inner): S . aureus USA300 in vitro exponential (EX) and stationary (ST) phase growth in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) media; S . aureus IPL32 in vitro EX and ST phase growth in BHI; S . aureus USA300 and IPL32 in vitro EX phase growth in Synthetic Nasal Medium (SNM); and transcripts taken from an in vivo (metatranscriptomic) sample generated from the human anterior nares of an S . aureus carrier. Inner circles represent: (A) the top 25-ranked most highly expressed genes in each of the 7 conditions (based on abundance of transcripts) and plotted as a tile graph where black lines (or tiles) correspond to a highly expressed gene under a given condition (ordered according to the outer circles), with those specific to in vivo conditions marked in bold; (B) fold-change (log 10 ) of in vitro EX growth of USA300 in SNM versus BHI media; (C) fold-change (log 10 ) of in vitro EX growth of IPL32 in SNM versus BHI media; and (D) total S . aureus- specific read counts (log 10 ) from the in vivo human anterior nares condition. Keys denote the color scheme used to distinguish COG classes and expression and fold-change/read count values.

    Article Snippet: This list comprises the top 25-ranked OGs within each of the 7 conditions; in vitro exponential (EX) and stationary phase (ST) cultures of S . aureus USA300 strain LAC grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) media; in vitro EX and ST phase cultures of S . aureus strain IPL32 grown in BHI; in vitro EX phase cultures of both strains grown in a Synthetic Nasal Medium (SNM) replicating human nasal secretions, and in vivo S . aureus- specific component of the anterior nares.

    Techniques: Expressing, In Vitro, In Vivo, Derivative Assay, Generated

    Comparison of the global S . aureus transcriptome under in vivo and in vitro growth conditions. Comparison of the global S . aureus transcriptomic profile from 7 RNAseq libraries using (A) Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) and (B) agglomerative hierachical clustering (group-average linkage). Conditions included: in vitro exponential and stationary phase cultures of S . aureus USA300 strain LAC grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) media; in vitro EX and ST phase cultures of S . aureus strain IPL32 grown in BHI; in vitro EX phase cultures of both strains grown in a Synthetic Nasal Medium (SNM) that mimics the composition of the human nasal secretions [ 17 ]; and in vivo S . aureus within the complex bacterial community of the human anterior nares. The Bray-curtis similarity algorithm was used to assess the similarity between samples based on the relative abundance of transcripts for each OG, where 70.6% of the total variation could be explained by PCO1 and PCO2.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Application of a Novel “Pan-Genome”-Based Strategy for Assigning RNAseq Transcript Reads to Staphylococcus aureus Strains

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145861

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of the global S . aureus transcriptome under in vivo and in vitro growth conditions. Comparison of the global S . aureus transcriptomic profile from 7 RNAseq libraries using (A) Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) and (B) agglomerative hierachical clustering (group-average linkage). Conditions included: in vitro exponential and stationary phase cultures of S . aureus USA300 strain LAC grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) media; in vitro EX and ST phase cultures of S . aureus strain IPL32 grown in BHI; in vitro EX phase cultures of both strains grown in a Synthetic Nasal Medium (SNM) that mimics the composition of the human nasal secretions [ 17 ]; and in vivo S . aureus within the complex bacterial community of the human anterior nares. The Bray-curtis similarity algorithm was used to assess the similarity between samples based on the relative abundance of transcripts for each OG, where 70.6% of the total variation could be explained by PCO1 and PCO2.

    Article Snippet: This list comprises the top 25-ranked OGs within each of the 7 conditions; in vitro exponential (EX) and stationary phase (ST) cultures of S . aureus USA300 strain LAC grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) media; in vitro EX and ST phase cultures of S . aureus strain IPL32 grown in BHI; in vitro EX phase cultures of both strains grown in a Synthetic Nasal Medium (SNM) replicating human nasal secretions, and in vivo S . aureus- specific component of the anterior nares.

    Techniques: In Vivo, In Vitro

    Figure 5. σ B -dependent EGFP expression is induced after osmotic upshock in L. monocytogenes EGD-e wild-type P lmo2230 ::egfp integrant. Cells bearing P lmo2230 ::egfp fusion grown in BHI from OD 600 = 0.05 up to OD 600 = 0.6 when 0.5 M NaCl

    Journal: Bioengineered Bugs

    Article Title: Development and optimization of an EGFP-based reporter for measuring the general stress response in Listeria monocytogenes

    doi: 10.4161/bbug.19476

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Figure 5. σ B -dependent EGFP expression is induced after osmotic upshock in L. monocytogenes EGD-e wild-type P lmo2230 ::egfp integrant. Cells bearing P lmo2230 ::egfp fusion grown in BHI from OD 600 = 0.05 up to OD 600 = 0.6 when 0.5 M NaCl

    Article Snippet: L. monocytogenes strains were grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth or agar (LabM) at 37°C unless otherwise stated.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Invasion of CPEK monolayers by S. pseudintermedius strains. S. pseudintermedius cells were incubated with CPEK monolayers. Extracellular bacteria were killed with gentamicin, and internalized bacteria were quantified by plating lysates on BHI agar. The assay was performed three times. Each point represents the average value for three replicas, and error bars show the standard deviations (SD). Statistically significant ( P

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Fibronectin Binding Proteins SpsD and SpsL Both Support Invasion of Canine Epithelial Cells by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.00542-15

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Invasion of CPEK monolayers by S. pseudintermedius strains. S. pseudintermedius cells were incubated with CPEK monolayers. Extracellular bacteria were killed with gentamicin, and internalized bacteria were quantified by plating lysates on BHI agar. The assay was performed three times. Each point represents the average value for three replicas, and error bars show the standard deviations (SD). Statistically significant ( P

    Article Snippet: S. pseudintermedius ED99 and its mutants were grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (VWR International Srl, Milan, Italy) at 37°C with shaking.

    Techniques: Incubation

    Production of cytolysins by L. monocytogenes mutants. Wild-type and mutant L. monocytogenes strains were cultured first in BHI medium and then transferred into RPMI 1640 medium. Three hours after cultivation, the supernatant was collected by centrifugation. (A) An aliquot of supernatant was applied to SDS-polyacrylamide gels and transferred onto a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane. Immunoblotting was performed with anti-LLO polyclonal antibody (left) or anti-ILO polyclonal antibody (right). (B) Culture supernatants were twofold serially diluted with PBS and mixed with an equal volume of a 2% suspension of SRBCs. After incubation for 30 min at 37°C, the hemolytic activity was measured by the amount of hemoglobin released into the supernatant. One hundred percent hemolysis was defined as the level of hemoglobin released after treatment with 2% Triton X-100.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Cytolysin-Dependent Escape of the Bacterium from the Phagosome Is Required but Not Sufficient for Induction of the Th1 Immune Response against Listeria monocytogenes Infection: Distinct Role of Listeriolysin O Determined by Cytolysin Gene Replacement ▿

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.01779-06

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Production of cytolysins by L. monocytogenes mutants. Wild-type and mutant L. monocytogenes strains were cultured first in BHI medium and then transferred into RPMI 1640 medium. Three hours after cultivation, the supernatant was collected by centrifugation. (A) An aliquot of supernatant was applied to SDS-polyacrylamide gels and transferred onto a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane. Immunoblotting was performed with anti-LLO polyclonal antibody (left) or anti-ILO polyclonal antibody (right). (B) Culture supernatants were twofold serially diluted with PBS and mixed with an equal volume of a 2% suspension of SRBCs. After incubation for 30 min at 37°C, the hemolytic activity was measured by the amount of hemoglobin released into the supernatant. One hundred percent hemolysis was defined as the level of hemoglobin released after treatment with 2% Triton X-100.

    Article Snippet: Bacteria were grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth (EIKEN CHEMICAL, Tokyo, Japan) at 37°C with shaking.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Cell Culture, Centrifugation, Incubation, Activity Assay

    Validation of in vitro phenotype of reconstructed virulence mutants. Growth of wild-type B. anthracis Sterne (WT) was compared to the growth of (A) Δ purH in minimal R-medium after 24 h (B) Δ mntA in H 2 O 2 after 24 h (C) Δ htrA in H 2 O 2 after 8 h and (D) Δ htrA at 44°C in BHI. Assays were repeated three independent times for (A,C,D) and four independent times for (B) and are presented as mean ± SD. * p

    Journal: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology

    Article Title: Galleria mellonella as an Infection Model for Bacillus anthracis Sterne

    doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2019.00360

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Validation of in vitro phenotype of reconstructed virulence mutants. Growth of wild-type B. anthracis Sterne (WT) was compared to the growth of (A) Δ purH in minimal R-medium after 24 h (B) Δ mntA in H 2 O 2 after 24 h (C) Δ htrA in H 2 O 2 after 8 h and (D) Δ htrA at 44°C in BHI. Assays were repeated three independent times for (A,C,D) and four independent times for (B) and are presented as mean ± SD. * p

    Article Snippet: Bacterial Growth Conditions and Strains Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain 34F2 (pX01+ , pX02− ) was cultured in Brain-Heart Infusion (BHI) media (Hardy Diagnostics, Santa Maria CA, USA) at 37°C under aerobic conditions.

    Techniques: In Vitro