human rsv Atcc Search Results


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  • 99
    Thermo Fisher human cells
    Human Cells, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 158 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore triton x 100
    Triton X 100, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 65173 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    76
    ATCC human adenovirus 5 atcc vr 5
    Human Adenovirus 5 Atcc Vr 5, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 76/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    ATCC human rsv
    Human Rsv, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 40 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    ATCC human rsv a2
    Co-infection elicited reduction in the number of CD11b or CD11c myeloid cells. Six groups of BALB/c mice were intranasally treated with 32 μl of normal saline (uninfected), <t>RSV</t> A2 (RSV(R)), Pr/H3N2 (IAV (I)) or co-treated simultaneously (I + R) or one after the other at 24 hours interval (IR and RI). On days 2, 4 and 7 splenic cells (n = 5) were processed for flow cytometric analysis. to determine the frequency of NK1.1 gated on CD3 negative cells. (A) Proportion of CD11b myeloid cells, which was significantly low in the I + R group on day 2 was increased by day 7. (B) Proportions of CD11c myeloid cells were lower in I + R group compared to other groups on days 2 and 7. Unless indicated by lines, a vs uninfected, b vs IAV (I), c vs RSV (R), d vs IR, e vs RI. No data was available for IR and RI as well as for IAV (I), RSV(R) and I + R groups on day 2 and day 4 respectively.
    Human Rsv A2, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 30 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    77
    Advanced Biotechnologies Inc human rsv strain a2
    Pulmonary viral loads were elevated in the lungs of neonatal mice infected with rA2-19F. Lungs were isolated and viral load determined at various time points. a Viral load kinetics of rA2-19F infection determined by TCID 50 method. N = 4. b Viral load kinetics of rA2-19F infection determined by qPCR (relative expression of <t>RSV</t> NS1 gene). N = 3-4. c Viral load by TCID 50 assay at 4 dpi. N = 4-9. d Viral load by qPCR at 4 dpi. N = 4-7. A2: Neonates infected with A2 strain; rA2-19F: Neonates infected with rA2-19F. Line 19: Neonates infected with line 19. These figures are representative of 2 independent experiments. *: p
    Human Rsv Strain A2, supplied by Advanced Biotechnologies Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 77/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    87
    ATCC human rsv strain long
    Effects of P point mutations on <t>RSV</t> polymerase activity. (A) Sequence alignments of the C-terminal region of P of the pneumoviruses human RSV (HRSV), bovine RSV (BRSV), ovine RSV (ORSV), pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), and canine pneumovirus (CPV) (GenBank
    Human Rsv Strain Long, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 87/100, based on 28 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    ATCC human rsv strain a2
    Effects of P point mutations on <t>RSV</t> polymerase activity. (A) Sequence alignments of the C-terminal region of P of the pneumoviruses human RSV (HRSV), bovine RSV (BRSV), ovine RSV (ORSV), pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), and canine pneumovirus (CPV) (GenBank
    Human Rsv Strain A2, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 24 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    ATCC plaque purified human rsv
    Effects of P point mutations on <t>RSV</t> polymerase activity. (A) Sequence alignments of the C-terminal region of P of the pneumoviruses human RSV (HRSV), bovine RSV (BRSV), ovine RSV (ORSV), pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), and canine pneumovirus (CPV) (GenBank
    Plaque Purified Human Rsv, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 31 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Thermo Fisher rpmi 1640 medium
    Effects of P point mutations on <t>RSV</t> polymerase activity. (A) Sequence alignments of the C-terminal region of P of the pneumoviruses human RSV (HRSV), bovine RSV (BRSV), ovine RSV (ORSV), pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), and canine pneumovirus (CPV) (GenBank
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    81
    ATCC rsv culture human rsv strain a2
    Effects of P point mutations on <t>RSV</t> polymerase activity. (A) Sequence alignments of the C-terminal region of P of the pneumoviruses human RSV (HRSV), bovine RSV (BRSV), ovine RSV (ORSV), pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), and canine pneumovirus (CPV) (GenBank
    Rsv Culture Human Rsv Strain A2, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 81/100, based on 15 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC recombinant human rsv preparation vero cells
    Effects of P point mutations on <t>RSV</t> polymerase activity. (A) Sequence alignments of the C-terminal region of P of the pneumoviruses human RSV (HRSV), bovine RSV (BRSV), ovine RSV (ORSV), pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), and canine pneumovirus (CPV) (GenBank
    Recombinant Human Rsv Preparation Vero Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 76/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC human hek 293t cells
    Effects of P point mutations on <t>RSV</t> polymerase activity. (A) Sequence alignments of the C-terminal region of P of the pneumoviruses human RSV (HRSV), bovine RSV (BRSV), ovine RSV (ORSV), pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), and canine pneumovirus (CPV) (GenBank
    Human Hek 293t Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 86 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC hep 2 human epithelial cells
    Effects of P point mutations on <t>RSV</t> polymerase activity. (A) Sequence alignments of the C-terminal region of P of the pneumoviruses human RSV (HRSV), bovine RSV (BRSV), ovine RSV (ORSV), pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), and canine pneumovirus (CPV) (GenBank
    Hep 2 Human Epithelial Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 24 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    ATCC human laryngeal carcinoma cell line
    Effects of P point mutations on <t>RSV</t> polymerase activity. (A) Sequence alignments of the C-terminal region of P of the pneumoviruses human RSV (HRSV), bovine RSV (BRSV), ovine RSV (ORSV), pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), and canine pneumovirus (CPV) (GenBank
    Human Laryngeal Carcinoma Cell Line, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 14 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore goat anti rabbit igg atto 647n
    Effects of P point mutations on <t>RSV</t> polymerase activity. (A) Sequence alignments of the C-terminal region of P of the pneumoviruses human RSV (HRSV), bovine RSV (BRSV), ovine RSV (ORSV), pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), and canine pneumovirus (CPV) (GenBank
    Goat Anti Rabbit Igg Atto 647n, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    79
    ATCC human herpes simplex virus type 1
    Effects of P point mutations on <t>RSV</t> polymerase activity. (A) Sequence alignments of the C-terminal region of P of the pneumoviruses human RSV (HRSV), bovine RSV (BRSV), ovine RSV (ORSV), pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), and canine pneumovirus (CPV) (GenBank
    Human Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    81
    ATCC hep 2 human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells
    Effects of P point mutations on <t>RSV</t> polymerase activity. (A) Sequence alignments of the C-terminal region of P of the pneumoviruses human RSV (HRSV), bovine RSV (BRSV), ovine RSV (ORSV), pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), and canine pneumovirus (CPV) (GenBank
    Hep 2 Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 81/100, based on 17 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    84
    ATCC human alveolar type ii like epithelial cells
    Effects of P point mutations on <t>RSV</t> polymerase activity. (A) Sequence alignments of the C-terminal region of P of the pneumoviruses human RSV (HRSV), bovine RSV (BRSV), ovine RSV (ORSV), pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), and canine pneumovirus (CPV) (GenBank
    Human Alveolar Type Ii Like Epithelial Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 84/100, based on 32 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    76
    ATCC pts human breast epithelial mcf10a cell line
    Cancer-specific effects of RSV and <t>PTS:</t> inhibition of cell growth and invasive capacities. (A,B) Effect on cell growth after 4-day- and 9-day treatment with RSV (A) and PTS (B) at 5–20 µM concentrations in MCF10CA1h ( 1 ) and MCF10CA1a ( 2 ) breast cancer cells and in <t>MCF10A</t> ( 3 ) immortalized mammary epithelial cells; (C,D) effect on cell invasion (C) and anchorage-independent growth (D) as measured by Boyden chamber invasion assay and soft agar, respectively, upon 9-day exposure to 15 µM RSV and 7 µM PTS. All results represent mean ± SD of three independent experiments; *** P
    Pts Human Breast Epithelial Mcf10a Cell Line, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 76/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    78
    ATCC human respiratory syncytial virus a strain long rsv
    Cancer-specific effects of RSV and <t>PTS:</t> inhibition of cell growth and invasive capacities. (A,B) Effect on cell growth after 4-day- and 9-day treatment with RSV (A) and PTS (B) at 5–20 µM concentrations in MCF10CA1h ( 1 ) and MCF10CA1a ( 2 ) breast cancer cells and in <t>MCF10A</t> ( 3 ) immortalized mammary epithelial cells; (C,D) effect on cell invasion (C) and anchorage-independent growth (D) as measured by Boyden chamber invasion assay and soft agar, respectively, upon 9-day exposure to 15 µM RSV and 7 µM PTS. All results represent mean ± SD of three independent experiments; *** P
    Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus A Strain Long Rsv, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 78/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    79
    ATCC recombinant rsv hep 2 cells
    Synergistic antiviral effect of ALS-8112 and AZ-27 on <t>RSV</t> replication. ( A ) Isobologram analysis of ALS-8112 and AZ-27 interaction in <t>HEp-2</t> cells against RSV replication. AZ-27 and ALS-8112 concentrations were on the x- and y- axis respectively. The three lines intersecting both axes represent additivity for EC 50 (red), EC 75 (green) and EC 90 (blue). The calculated CI for EC 50 , EC 75 , and EC 90 all fall below their respective additivity lines, indicating a synergy (0.3–0.7). ( B ) Prichard’s model for 3-D drug interaction dose-responses. The synergy volume was above the 0% plane and falls within 50–100 range, indicating a significant synergy (n = 5).
    Recombinant Rsv Hep 2 Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    75
    ATCC respiratory syncytial virus rsv strain a 2
    Synergistic antiviral effect of ALS-8112 and AZ-27 on <t>RSV</t> replication. ( A ) Isobologram analysis of ALS-8112 and AZ-27 interaction in <t>HEp-2</t> cells against RSV replication. AZ-27 and ALS-8112 concentrations were on the x- and y- axis respectively. The three lines intersecting both axes represent additivity for EC 50 (red), EC 75 (green) and EC 90 (blue). The calculated CI for EC 50 , EC 75 , and EC 90 all fall below their respective additivity lines, indicating a synergy (0.3–0.7). ( B ) Prichard’s model for 3-D drug interaction dose-responses. The synergy volume was above the 0% plane and falls within 50–100 range, indicating a significant synergy (n = 5).
    Respiratory Syncytial Virus Rsv Strain A 2, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 75/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    79
    ATCC wt rsv virus preparations hep 2 cells
    Viral titers in FLNA knockdown cells. <t>HEp-2</t> cells were transduced with a lentivirus encoding an shRNA directed against the indicated protein. After selection, cell lysates were harvest and immunoblotted for the presence of filamin A, GAPDH, or actin (A). The same cells then were infected with <t>RSV</t> stain A2 at an MOI = 0.05 for 72 hours. Both cell-associated (B) and supernatant virus (C) yields were quantified by a plaque assay.
    Wt Rsv Virus Preparations Hep 2 Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    79
    Abcam anti rsv f protein mouse monoclonal antibody mab
    Viral titers in FLNA knockdown cells. <t>HEp-2</t> cells were transduced with a lentivirus encoding an shRNA directed against the indicated protein. After selection, cell lysates were harvest and immunoblotted for the presence of filamin A, GAPDH, or actin (A). The same cells then were infected with <t>RSV</t> stain A2 at an MOI = 0.05 for 72 hours. Both cell-associated (B) and supernatant virus (C) yields were quantified by a plaque assay.
    Anti Rsv F Protein Mouse Monoclonal Antibody Mab, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    84
    ATCC sabin strain chat
    Viral titers in FLNA knockdown cells. <t>HEp-2</t> cells were transduced with a lentivirus encoding an shRNA directed against the indicated protein. After selection, cell lysates were harvest and immunoblotted for the presence of filamin A, GAPDH, or actin (A). The same cells then were infected with <t>RSV</t> stain A2 at an MOI = 0.05 for 72 hours. Both cell-associated (B) and supernatant virus (C) yields were quantified by a plaque assay.
    Sabin Strain Chat, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 84/100, based on 12 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC hek 293t cells
    Viral titers in FLNA knockdown cells. <t>HEp-2</t> cells were transduced with a lentivirus encoding an shRNA directed against the indicated protein. After selection, cell lysates were harvest and immunoblotted for the presence of filamin A, GAPDH, or actin (A). The same cells then were infected with <t>RSV</t> stain A2 at an MOI = 0.05 for 72 hours. Both cell-associated (B) and supernatant virus (C) yields were quantified by a plaque assay.
    Hek 293t Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 4182 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC monolayered hep 2 cells
    Viral titers in FLNA knockdown cells. <t>HEp-2</t> cells were transduced with a lentivirus encoding an shRNA directed against the indicated protein. After selection, cell lysates were harvest and immunoblotted for the presence of filamin A, GAPDH, or actin (A). The same cells then were infected with <t>RSV</t> stain A2 at an MOI = 0.05 for 72 hours. Both cell-associated (B) and supernatant virus (C) yields were quantified by a plaque assay.
    Monolayered Hep 2 Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 77/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC herpes simplex virus type 1
    Viral titers in FLNA knockdown cells. <t>HEp-2</t> cells were transduced with a lentivirus encoding an shRNA directed against the indicated protein. After selection, cell lysates were harvest and immunoblotted for the presence of filamin A, GAPDH, or actin (A). The same cells then were infected with <t>RSV</t> stain A2 at an MOI = 0.05 for 72 hours. Both cell-associated (B) and supernatant virus (C) yields were quantified by a plaque assay.
    Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 80/100, based on 23 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC hek 293 t cells
    Viral titers in FLNA knockdown cells. <t>HEp-2</t> cells were transduced with a lentivirus encoding an shRNA directed against the indicated protein. After selection, cell lysates were harvest and immunoblotted for the presence of filamin A, GAPDH, or actin (A). The same cells then were infected with <t>RSV</t> stain A2 at an MOI = 0.05 for 72 hours. Both cell-associated (B) and supernatant virus (C) yields were quantified by a plaque assay.
    Hek 293 T Cells, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 893 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    77
    ATCC adenovirus type 6
    Viral titers in FLNA knockdown cells. <t>HEp-2</t> cells were transduced with a lentivirus encoding an shRNA directed against the indicated protein. After selection, cell lysates were harvest and immunoblotted for the presence of filamin A, GAPDH, or actin (A). The same cells then were infected with <t>RSV</t> stain A2 at an MOI = 0.05 for 72 hours. Both cell-associated (B) and supernatant virus (C) yields were quantified by a plaque assay.
    Adenovirus Type 6, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 77/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Co-infection elicited reduction in the number of CD11b or CD11c myeloid cells. Six groups of BALB/c mice were intranasally treated with 32 μl of normal saline (uninfected), RSV A2 (RSV(R)), Pr/H3N2 (IAV (I)) or co-treated simultaneously (I + R) or one after the other at 24 hours interval (IR and RI). On days 2, 4 and 7 splenic cells (n = 5) were processed for flow cytometric analysis. to determine the frequency of NK1.1 gated on CD3 negative cells. (A) Proportion of CD11b myeloid cells, which was significantly low in the I + R group on day 2 was increased by day 7. (B) Proportions of CD11c myeloid cells were lower in I + R group compared to other groups on days 2 and 7. Unless indicated by lines, a vs uninfected, b vs IAV (I), c vs RSV (R), d vs IR, e vs RI. No data was available for IR and RI as well as for IAV (I), RSV(R) and I + R groups on day 2 and day 4 respectively.

    Journal: Heliyon

    Article Title: Virus genes and host correlates of pathology are markedly reduced during respiratory syncytial and influenza virus co-infection in BALB/c mice

    doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e01094

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Co-infection elicited reduction in the number of CD11b or CD11c myeloid cells. Six groups of BALB/c mice were intranasally treated with 32 μl of normal saline (uninfected), RSV A2 (RSV(R)), Pr/H3N2 (IAV (I)) or co-treated simultaneously (I + R) or one after the other at 24 hours interval (IR and RI). On days 2, 4 and 7 splenic cells (n = 5) were processed for flow cytometric analysis. to determine the frequency of NK1.1 gated on CD3 negative cells. (A) Proportion of CD11b myeloid cells, which was significantly low in the I + R group on day 2 was increased by day 7. (B) Proportions of CD11c myeloid cells were lower in I + R group compared to other groups on days 2 and 7. Unless indicated by lines, a vs uninfected, b vs IAV (I), c vs RSV (R), d vs IR, e vs RI. No data was available for IR and RI as well as for IAV (I), RSV(R) and I + R groups on day 2 and day 4 respectively.

    Article Snippet: Human RSV A2 (ATCC-1540) was obtained from the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), Potters Bar, Hertfordshire, EN6 3QG, WHO International Laboratory for Biological Standard, UK Official Medicine Control Laboratory, and was propagated on Hep-2 cell line.

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay, Flow Cytometry

    Co-infection elicited very low numbers of CD8 and CD8+CD25 frequencies during the course of infection. Six groups of BALB/c mice were intranasally treated with 32 μl of normal saline (uninfected), RSV A2 (RSV(R)), Pr/H3N2 (IAV (I)) or co-treated simultaneously (I + R) or one after the other at 24 hours interval (IR and RI). On days 2, 4 and 7 splenic cells (n = 5) were processed for flow cytometric analysis. (A) CD8 T cells proportions were very low in I + R group compared to other groups. (B) The frequency of CD8+CD25 T cells was very low in I + R group compared to other groups. Unless indicated by lines, a vs uninfected, b vs IAV (I), c vs RSV (R), d vs IR, e vs RI. No data was available for IR and RI as well as for IAV (I), RSV(R) and I + R groups on day 2 and day 4 respectively.

    Journal: Heliyon

    Article Title: Virus genes and host correlates of pathology are markedly reduced during respiratory syncytial and influenza virus co-infection in BALB/c mice

    doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e01094

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Co-infection elicited very low numbers of CD8 and CD8+CD25 frequencies during the course of infection. Six groups of BALB/c mice were intranasally treated with 32 μl of normal saline (uninfected), RSV A2 (RSV(R)), Pr/H3N2 (IAV (I)) or co-treated simultaneously (I + R) or one after the other at 24 hours interval (IR and RI). On days 2, 4 and 7 splenic cells (n = 5) were processed for flow cytometric analysis. (A) CD8 T cells proportions were very low in I + R group compared to other groups. (B) The frequency of CD8+CD25 T cells was very low in I + R group compared to other groups. Unless indicated by lines, a vs uninfected, b vs IAV (I), c vs RSV (R), d vs IR, e vs RI. No data was available for IR and RI as well as for IAV (I), RSV(R) and I + R groups on day 2 and day 4 respectively.

    Article Snippet: Human RSV A2 (ATCC-1540) was obtained from the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), Potters Bar, Hertfordshire, EN6 3QG, WHO International Laboratory for Biological Standard, UK Official Medicine Control Laboratory, and was propagated on Hep-2 cell line.

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay, Flow Cytometry

    Co-infection elicited high proportions of NKT cells. Six groups of BALB/c mice were intranasally treated with 32 μl of normal saline (uninfected), RSV A2 (RSV(R)), Pr/H3N2 (IAV (I)) or co-treated simultaneously (I + R) or one after the other at 24 hours interval (IR and RI). On days 2, 4 and 7 splenic cells (n = 5) were processed for flow cytometric analysis. (A) Proportions of NK1.1 cells gated on CD3 on day 2. (B) Frequency of NKT cells on day 4. (C) Frequency of NKT cells on day 7. Unless indicated by lines, a vs uninfected, b vs IAV (I), c vs RSV (R), d vs IR, e vs RI.

    Journal: Heliyon

    Article Title: Virus genes and host correlates of pathology are markedly reduced during respiratory syncytial and influenza virus co-infection in BALB/c mice

    doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e01094

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Co-infection elicited high proportions of NKT cells. Six groups of BALB/c mice were intranasally treated with 32 μl of normal saline (uninfected), RSV A2 (RSV(R)), Pr/H3N2 (IAV (I)) or co-treated simultaneously (I + R) or one after the other at 24 hours interval (IR and RI). On days 2, 4 and 7 splenic cells (n = 5) were processed for flow cytometric analysis. (A) Proportions of NK1.1 cells gated on CD3 on day 2. (B) Frequency of NKT cells on day 4. (C) Frequency of NKT cells on day 7. Unless indicated by lines, a vs uninfected, b vs IAV (I), c vs RSV (R), d vs IR, e vs RI.

    Article Snippet: Human RSV A2 (ATCC-1540) was obtained from the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), Potters Bar, Hertfordshire, EN6 3QG, WHO International Laboratory for Biological Standard, UK Official Medicine Control Laboratory, and was propagated on Hep-2 cell line.

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay, Flow Cytometry

    Co-infection elicited very high numbers of CD4 and CD4+CD25 frequencies towards the later stages of infection. Six groups of BALB/c mice were intranasally treated with 32 μl of normal saline (uninfected), RSV A2 (RSV(R)), Pr/H3N2 (IAV (I)) or co-treated simultaneously (I + R) or one after the other at 24 hours interval (IR and RI). On days 2, 4 and 7 splenic cells (n = 5) were processed for flow cytometric analysis. (A) CD4 T cells proportions were high on days 2 and 7 in I + R group. (B) The frequency of CD4+CD25 T cells was highest in I + R on day 7. Unless indicated by lines, a vs uninfected, b vs IAV (I), c vs RSV (R), d vs IR, e vs RI. No data was available for IR and RI as well as for IAV (I), RSV(R) and I + R groups on day 2 and day 4 respectively.

    Journal: Heliyon

    Article Title: Virus genes and host correlates of pathology are markedly reduced during respiratory syncytial and influenza virus co-infection in BALB/c mice

    doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e01094

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Co-infection elicited very high numbers of CD4 and CD4+CD25 frequencies towards the later stages of infection. Six groups of BALB/c mice were intranasally treated with 32 μl of normal saline (uninfected), RSV A2 (RSV(R)), Pr/H3N2 (IAV (I)) or co-treated simultaneously (I + R) or one after the other at 24 hours interval (IR and RI). On days 2, 4 and 7 splenic cells (n = 5) were processed for flow cytometric analysis. (A) CD4 T cells proportions were high on days 2 and 7 in I + R group. (B) The frequency of CD4+CD25 T cells was highest in I + R on day 7. Unless indicated by lines, a vs uninfected, b vs IAV (I), c vs RSV (R), d vs IR, e vs RI. No data was available for IR and RI as well as for IAV (I), RSV(R) and I + R groups on day 2 and day 4 respectively.

    Article Snippet: Human RSV A2 (ATCC-1540) was obtained from the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), Potters Bar, Hertfordshire, EN6 3QG, WHO International Laboratory for Biological Standard, UK Official Medicine Control Laboratory, and was propagated on Hep-2 cell line.

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay, Flow Cytometry

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) NS1 and NS2 genes expressions across the experimental groups. Six groups of BALB/c mice were intranasally treated with 32 μl of normal saline (uninfected), RSV A2 (RSV(R)), Pr/H3N2 (IAV (I)) or co-treated simultaneously (I + R) or one after the other at 24 hours interval (IR and RI). On days 2, 4 and 7, mRNA was extracted from lungs (n = 5) for real time PCR analysis of RSV genes. (A) mRNA expression level of NS1 gene (B) mRNA expression level of NS2. RSV NS1 and NS2 expressions were downregulated by day 7 in I + R group. CT values were normalized with GADPH, mRNA expression level was calculated using 2 −ΔΔCT method and presented as Log10 fold increase relative to uninfected controls. mRNA expressions for RSV NS1 and NS2 were not detected in IAV (single virus) infected mice. * vs Day 2 and # vs Day 4 for within group comparison while a vs RI, b vs IR and c vs I + R for comparing between groups of the same day (p

    Journal: Heliyon

    Article Title: Virus genes and host correlates of pathology are markedly reduced during respiratory syncytial and influenza virus co-infection in BALB/c mice

    doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e01094

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) NS1 and NS2 genes expressions across the experimental groups. Six groups of BALB/c mice were intranasally treated with 32 μl of normal saline (uninfected), RSV A2 (RSV(R)), Pr/H3N2 (IAV (I)) or co-treated simultaneously (I + R) or one after the other at 24 hours interval (IR and RI). On days 2, 4 and 7, mRNA was extracted from lungs (n = 5) for real time PCR analysis of RSV genes. (A) mRNA expression level of NS1 gene (B) mRNA expression level of NS2. RSV NS1 and NS2 expressions were downregulated by day 7 in I + R group. CT values were normalized with GADPH, mRNA expression level was calculated using 2 −ΔΔCT method and presented as Log10 fold increase relative to uninfected controls. mRNA expressions for RSV NS1 and NS2 were not detected in IAV (single virus) infected mice. * vs Day 2 and # vs Day 4 for within group comparison while a vs RI, b vs IR and c vs I + R for comparing between groups of the same day (p

    Article Snippet: Human RSV A2 (ATCC-1540) was obtained from the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), Potters Bar, Hertfordshire, EN6 3QG, WHO International Laboratory for Biological Standard, UK Official Medicine Control Laboratory, and was propagated on Hep-2 cell line.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing, Infection

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F, G and M genes expressions across the experimental groups. Six groups of BALB/c mice were intranasally treated with 32 μl of normal saline (uninfected), RSV A2 (RSV(R)), Pr/H3N2 (IAV (I)) or co-treated simultaneously (I + R) or one after the other at 24 hours interval (IR and RI). On days 2, 4 and 7, mRNA was extracted from lungs (n = 5) for real time PCR analysis of RSV genes. (A) mRNA expression level of F gene (B) mRNA expression level of M (C) mRNA expression level of G. RSV F and G expression were markedly downregulated in I + R group by day 7 while RSV M expression was very low throughout the infection period in I + R group. CT values were normalized with GADPH, mRNA expression level was calculated using 2 −ΔΔCT method and presented as Log10 fold increase relative to uninfected controls. mRNA expressions for RSV F, M and G were not detected in IAV (single virus) infected mice. * vs Day 2 and # vs Day 4 for within group comparison while a vs RI, b vs IR and c vs I + R for comparing between groups of the same day (p

    Journal: Heliyon

    Article Title: Virus genes and host correlates of pathology are markedly reduced during respiratory syncytial and influenza virus co-infection in BALB/c mice

    doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e01094

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) F, G and M genes expressions across the experimental groups. Six groups of BALB/c mice were intranasally treated with 32 μl of normal saline (uninfected), RSV A2 (RSV(R)), Pr/H3N2 (IAV (I)) or co-treated simultaneously (I + R) or one after the other at 24 hours interval (IR and RI). On days 2, 4 and 7, mRNA was extracted from lungs (n = 5) for real time PCR analysis of RSV genes. (A) mRNA expression level of F gene (B) mRNA expression level of M (C) mRNA expression level of G. RSV F and G expression were markedly downregulated in I + R group by day 7 while RSV M expression was very low throughout the infection period in I + R group. CT values were normalized with GADPH, mRNA expression level was calculated using 2 −ΔΔCT method and presented as Log10 fold increase relative to uninfected controls. mRNA expressions for RSV F, M and G were not detected in IAV (single virus) infected mice. * vs Day 2 and # vs Day 4 for within group comparison while a vs RI, b vs IR and c vs I + R for comparing between groups of the same day (p

    Article Snippet: Human RSV A2 (ATCC-1540) was obtained from the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), Potters Bar, Hertfordshire, EN6 3QG, WHO International Laboratory for Biological Standard, UK Official Medicine Control Laboratory, and was propagated on Hep-2 cell line.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing, Infection

    Pulmonary viral loads were elevated in the lungs of neonatal mice infected with rA2-19F. Lungs were isolated and viral load determined at various time points. a Viral load kinetics of rA2-19F infection determined by TCID 50 method. N = 4. b Viral load kinetics of rA2-19F infection determined by qPCR (relative expression of RSV NS1 gene). N = 3-4. c Viral load by TCID 50 assay at 4 dpi. N = 4-9. d Viral load by qPCR at 4 dpi. N = 4-7. A2: Neonates infected with A2 strain; rA2-19F: Neonates infected with rA2-19F. Line 19: Neonates infected with line 19. These figures are representative of 2 independent experiments. *: p

    Journal: Respiratory Research

    Article Title: Building a better neonatal mouse model to understand infant respiratory syncytial virus disease

    doi: 10.1186/s12931-015-0244-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pulmonary viral loads were elevated in the lungs of neonatal mice infected with rA2-19F. Lungs were isolated and viral load determined at various time points. a Viral load kinetics of rA2-19F infection determined by TCID 50 method. N = 4. b Viral load kinetics of rA2-19F infection determined by qPCR (relative expression of RSV NS1 gene). N = 3-4. c Viral load by TCID 50 assay at 4 dpi. N = 4-9. d Viral load by qPCR at 4 dpi. N = 4-7. A2: Neonates infected with A2 strain; rA2-19F: Neonates infected with rA2-19F. Line 19: Neonates infected with line 19. These figures are representative of 2 independent experiments. *: p

    Article Snippet: Viruses and the infection Human RSV A2 strain was purchased from Advanced Biotechnologies Inc (Columbia, MD, USA) and passaged in Vero cells (ATCC; Manassas, VA, USA) cultured in serum-free-media (SFM4MegaVir; Hyclone, Logan, UT, USA).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Infection, Isolation, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing

    Effects of P point mutations on RSV polymerase activity. (A) Sequence alignments of the C-terminal region of P of the pneumoviruses human RSV (HRSV), bovine RSV (BRSV), ovine RSV (ORSV), pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), and canine pneumovirus (CPV) (GenBank

    Journal: Journal of Virology

    Article Title: Fine Mapping and Characterization of the L-Polymerase-Binding Domain of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus Phosphoprotein

    doi: 10.1128/JVI.03619-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of P point mutations on RSV polymerase activity. (A) Sequence alignments of the C-terminal region of P of the pneumoviruses human RSV (HRSV), bovine RSV (BRSV), ovine RSV (ORSV), pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), and canine pneumovirus (CPV) (GenBank

    Article Snippet: All sequences were from human RSV strain Long, ATCC VR-26 (GenBank accession no. ).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Sequencing, Mouse Assay

    Cancer-specific effects of RSV and PTS: inhibition of cell growth and invasive capacities. (A,B) Effect on cell growth after 4-day- and 9-day treatment with RSV (A) and PTS (B) at 5–20 µM concentrations in MCF10CA1h ( 1 ) and MCF10CA1a ( 2 ) breast cancer cells and in MCF10A ( 3 ) immortalized mammary epithelial cells; (C,D) effect on cell invasion (C) and anchorage-independent growth (D) as measured by Boyden chamber invasion assay and soft agar, respectively, upon 9-day exposure to 15 µM RSV and 7 µM PTS. All results represent mean ± SD of three independent experiments; *** P

    Journal: Carcinogenesis

    Article Title: Stilbenoids remodel the DNA methylation patterns in breast cancer cells and inhibit oncogenic NOTCH signaling through epigenetic regulation of MAML2 transcriptional activity

    doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgw048

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cancer-specific effects of RSV and PTS: inhibition of cell growth and invasive capacities. (A,B) Effect on cell growth after 4-day- and 9-day treatment with RSV (A) and PTS (B) at 5–20 µM concentrations in MCF10CA1h ( 1 ) and MCF10CA1a ( 2 ) breast cancer cells and in MCF10A ( 3 ) immortalized mammary epithelial cells; (C,D) effect on cell invasion (C) and anchorage-independent growth (D) as measured by Boyden chamber invasion assay and soft agar, respectively, upon 9-day exposure to 15 µM RSV and 7 µM PTS. All results represent mean ± SD of three independent experiments; *** P

    Article Snippet: Cell culture and treatment with RSV and PTS Human breast epithelial MCF10A cell line was purchased from American Type Culture Collection (CRL-10317, USA).

    Techniques: Inhibition, Invasion Assay

    Epigenetic silencing of MAML2 in response to RSV or PTS is associated with attenuation of the activity of the NOTCH signaling pathway. (A,B) The effects of 4-day and 9-day treatment with 15 µM RSV or 7 µM PTS on expression of NOTCH target genes, HES1 , HEY1 and NOTCH1 , in MCF10CA1h (A) and MCF10CA1a (B) breast cancer cells as determined by QPCR. Expression was expressed as a percentage of mRNA levels in untreated cells (% control). (C,D) Levels of expression of NOTCH target genes in untreated mammary epithelial MCF10A cells (‘normal’ cell model) and in MCF10CA1h (C) and MCF10CA1a (D) breast cancer cells untreated or upon 9-day treatment with 15 µM RSV. Expression was assessed by QPCR and expressed as a percentage of mRNA levels in untreated cancer cells (% control). All results represent mean ± SD of three independent experiments; *** P

    Journal: Carcinogenesis

    Article Title: Stilbenoids remodel the DNA methylation patterns in breast cancer cells and inhibit oncogenic NOTCH signaling through epigenetic regulation of MAML2 transcriptional activity

    doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgw048

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Epigenetic silencing of MAML2 in response to RSV or PTS is associated with attenuation of the activity of the NOTCH signaling pathway. (A,B) The effects of 4-day and 9-day treatment with 15 µM RSV or 7 µM PTS on expression of NOTCH target genes, HES1 , HEY1 and NOTCH1 , in MCF10CA1h (A) and MCF10CA1a (B) breast cancer cells as determined by QPCR. Expression was expressed as a percentage of mRNA levels in untreated cells (% control). (C,D) Levels of expression of NOTCH target genes in untreated mammary epithelial MCF10A cells (‘normal’ cell model) and in MCF10CA1h (C) and MCF10CA1a (D) breast cancer cells untreated or upon 9-day treatment with 15 µM RSV. Expression was assessed by QPCR and expressed as a percentage of mRNA levels in untreated cancer cells (% control). All results represent mean ± SD of three independent experiments; *** P

    Article Snippet: Cell culture and treatment with RSV and PTS Human breast epithelial MCF10A cell line was purchased from American Type Culture Collection (CRL-10317, USA).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Hypermethylation and silencing of MAML2 in response to RSV or PTS in breast cancer cells. (A) Magnified display from chromosome 11 demonstrates hypermethylation within MAML2 enhancer as determined by Illumina 450K microarray (representative picture for MCF10CA1h cells, red indicating hypermethylation upon treatment with 15 µM RSV on day 9). The region within MAML2 enhancer containing the most significantly methylated probes is shaded in light blue. CpG site with the highest difference in methylation is marked with green star. (B) Illumina 450K microarray tracks demonstrating methylation levels at the most differentially methylated CpG site (green star) within MAML2 enhancer in mammary epithelial MCF10A cells (‘normal’ cell model) and in MCF10CA1h breast cancer cells untreated or treated with 15 µM RSV for 9 days. (C) Occupancy of histone H3 acetylation at lysine 27 (H3K27ac) within the MAML2 tested region in MCF10CA1a cells after 9-day treatment with 15 µM RSV as assessed by qChIP and expressed as a percentage of the binding level in control cells. H3K27ac marks active enhancers. (D) A map of the MAML2 enhancer where the light blue-shaded region represents the entire fragment tested by pyrosequencing and qChIP. The CpG sites, whose elevated methylation was validated by pyrosequencing, are circled and numbered. Putative transcription factor binding sites are indicated as predicted using TransFac. (E–H) Average methylation status of CpG sites in the MAML2 enhancer as determined by pyrosequencing in MCF10CA1h (E,G) and MCF10CA1a (F,H) breast cancer cells exposed for 9 days to 15 µM RSV (E,F) or 7 µM PTS (G,H). Numbers in X axis correspond to CpG sites within the tested region. (I,J) The effects of 4 day- and 9 day-treatment with 15µM RSV or 7 µM PTS on expression of MAML2 in MCF10CA1h (I) or MCF10CA1a (J) breast cancer cells as determined by QPCR. All results represent mean ± SD of three independent experiments; *** P

    Journal: Carcinogenesis

    Article Title: Stilbenoids remodel the DNA methylation patterns in breast cancer cells and inhibit oncogenic NOTCH signaling through epigenetic regulation of MAML2 transcriptional activity

    doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgw048

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Hypermethylation and silencing of MAML2 in response to RSV or PTS in breast cancer cells. (A) Magnified display from chromosome 11 demonstrates hypermethylation within MAML2 enhancer as determined by Illumina 450K microarray (representative picture for MCF10CA1h cells, red indicating hypermethylation upon treatment with 15 µM RSV on day 9). The region within MAML2 enhancer containing the most significantly methylated probes is shaded in light blue. CpG site with the highest difference in methylation is marked with green star. (B) Illumina 450K microarray tracks demonstrating methylation levels at the most differentially methylated CpG site (green star) within MAML2 enhancer in mammary epithelial MCF10A cells (‘normal’ cell model) and in MCF10CA1h breast cancer cells untreated or treated with 15 µM RSV for 9 days. (C) Occupancy of histone H3 acetylation at lysine 27 (H3K27ac) within the MAML2 tested region in MCF10CA1a cells after 9-day treatment with 15 µM RSV as assessed by qChIP and expressed as a percentage of the binding level in control cells. H3K27ac marks active enhancers. (D) A map of the MAML2 enhancer where the light blue-shaded region represents the entire fragment tested by pyrosequencing and qChIP. The CpG sites, whose elevated methylation was validated by pyrosequencing, are circled and numbered. Putative transcription factor binding sites are indicated as predicted using TransFac. (E–H) Average methylation status of CpG sites in the MAML2 enhancer as determined by pyrosequencing in MCF10CA1h (E,G) and MCF10CA1a (F,H) breast cancer cells exposed for 9 days to 15 µM RSV (E,F) or 7 µM PTS (G,H). Numbers in X axis correspond to CpG sites within the tested region. (I,J) The effects of 4 day- and 9 day-treatment with 15µM RSV or 7 µM PTS on expression of MAML2 in MCF10CA1h (I) or MCF10CA1a (J) breast cancer cells as determined by QPCR. All results represent mean ± SD of three independent experiments; *** P

    Article Snippet: Cell culture and treatment with RSV and PTS Human breast epithelial MCF10A cell line was purchased from American Type Culture Collection (CRL-10317, USA).

    Techniques: Microarray, Methylation, Binding Assay, Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Synergistic antiviral effect of ALS-8112 and AZ-27 on RSV replication. ( A ) Isobologram analysis of ALS-8112 and AZ-27 interaction in HEp-2 cells against RSV replication. AZ-27 and ALS-8112 concentrations were on the x- and y- axis respectively. The three lines intersecting both axes represent additivity for EC 50 (red), EC 75 (green) and EC 90 (blue). The calculated CI for EC 50 , EC 75 , and EC 90 all fall below their respective additivity lines, indicating a synergy (0.3–0.7). ( B ) Prichard’s model for 3-D drug interaction dose-responses. The synergy volume was above the 0% plane and falls within 50–100 range, indicating a significant synergy (n = 5).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Biochemical Effect of Resistance Mutations against Synergistic Inhibitors of RSV RNA Polymerase

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154097

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Synergistic antiviral effect of ALS-8112 and AZ-27 on RSV replication. ( A ) Isobologram analysis of ALS-8112 and AZ-27 interaction in HEp-2 cells against RSV replication. AZ-27 and ALS-8112 concentrations were on the x- and y- axis respectively. The three lines intersecting both axes represent additivity for EC 50 (red), EC 75 (green) and EC 90 (blue). The calculated CI for EC 50 , EC 75 , and EC 90 all fall below their respective additivity lines, indicating a synergy (0.3–0.7). ( B ) Prichard’s model for 3-D drug interaction dose-responses. The synergy volume was above the 0% plane and falls within 50–100 range, indicating a significant synergy (n = 5).

    Article Snippet: Cell line and recombinant RSV HEp-2 cells were purchased from American Tissue Culture Collection and maintained in minimum essential medium (Corning) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (Mediatech) and 1% penicillin/streptomycin (Mediatech).

    Techniques:

    Effect of the QUAD mutations on the discrimination of 2'F-CTP analogs. ( A ) Measurement of resistance level of QUAD RSV L-P against a series of 2'F-CTP analogs with the following substitution at the 4'position: chloromethyl (ClCH 2 ), fluoromethyl (FCH 2 ), bromomethyl (BrCH 2 ), 1-fluoroethyl (FCH 3 CH 2 ), azido (N 3 -), cyclopropyl (CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 ), and methyl-thio-methyl (CH 3 SCH 2 ). For each CTP analog, the level of resistance was calculated as described for Fig 1 (n = 2). ( B ) In vitro inhibition potency of 2'F-4'N 3 -cytidine against the RSV minigenome luciferase-based reporter assay. HEp-2 cells were co-transfected to transiently express the RSV N, P, M2-1 and L proteins containing either the WT or the QUAD mutated L sequence (n = 4). ( C ) Inhibition of luciferase-based WT and QUAD RSV minigenome activity by 2'F-4'BrCH 2 -cytidine (n = 4).

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Biochemical Effect of Resistance Mutations against Synergistic Inhibitors of RSV RNA Polymerase

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154097

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of the QUAD mutations on the discrimination of 2'F-CTP analogs. ( A ) Measurement of resistance level of QUAD RSV L-P against a series of 2'F-CTP analogs with the following substitution at the 4'position: chloromethyl (ClCH 2 ), fluoromethyl (FCH 2 ), bromomethyl (BrCH 2 ), 1-fluoroethyl (FCH 3 CH 2 ), azido (N 3 -), cyclopropyl (CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 ), and methyl-thio-methyl (CH 3 SCH 2 ). For each CTP analog, the level of resistance was calculated as described for Fig 1 (n = 2). ( B ) In vitro inhibition potency of 2'F-4'N 3 -cytidine against the RSV minigenome luciferase-based reporter assay. HEp-2 cells were co-transfected to transiently express the RSV N, P, M2-1 and L proteins containing either the WT or the QUAD mutated L sequence (n = 4). ( C ) Inhibition of luciferase-based WT and QUAD RSV minigenome activity by 2'F-4'BrCH 2 -cytidine (n = 4).

    Article Snippet: Cell line and recombinant RSV HEp-2 cells were purchased from American Tissue Culture Collection and maintained in minimum essential medium (Corning) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (Mediatech) and 1% penicillin/streptomycin (Mediatech).

    Techniques: In Vitro, Inhibition, Luciferase, Reporter Assay, Transfection, Sequencing, Activity Assay

    Viral titers in FLNA knockdown cells. HEp-2 cells were transduced with a lentivirus encoding an shRNA directed against the indicated protein. After selection, cell lysates were harvest and immunoblotted for the presence of filamin A, GAPDH, or actin (A). The same cells then were infected with RSV stain A2 at an MOI = 0.05 for 72 hours. Both cell-associated (B) and supernatant virus (C) yields were quantified by a plaque assay.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Respiratory Syncytial Virus Assembles into Structured Filamentous Virion Particles Independently of Host Cytoskeleton and Related Proteins

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040826

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Viral titers in FLNA knockdown cells. HEp-2 cells were transduced with a lentivirus encoding an shRNA directed against the indicated protein. After selection, cell lysates were harvest and immunoblotted for the presence of filamin A, GAPDH, or actin (A). The same cells then were infected with RSV stain A2 at an MOI = 0.05 for 72 hours. Both cell-associated (B) and supernatant virus (C) yields were quantified by a plaque assay.

    Article Snippet: Cell Culture and wt RSV Virus Preparations HEp-2 cells (ATCC CCL-23) were maintained in OPTI-MEM I medium (Invitrogen) containing 2% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS), 1% (v/v) L-glutamine, 2.5 µg/mL amphotericin B, and 1% (v/v) penicillin-streptomycin.

    Techniques: Transduction, shRNA, Selection, Infection, Staining, Plaque Assay

    Effect of cytoskeletal inhibitors on viral assembly. HEp-2 cells were inoculated with RSV wt strain A2 at an MOI = 1.0 and incubated for 24 hours with medium containing either vehicle of the indicated inhibitor. At 24 hours cells were fixed, and RSV F, actin, and tubulin were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. Column 1 (panels A, E, I, and M) shows mock-infected cells in the presence of vehicle. Column 2 (panels B, F, J, and N) shows mock-infected cells in the presence of the indicated inhibitor. Column 3 (panels C, G, K, and O) shows RSV infected cells in the presence of vehicle. Column 4 (panels D, H, L, and P) shows RSV infected cells in the presence of the indicated inhibitor. Panel Q: HEp-2 cells were infected with RSV at an MOI = 0.1 for 72 hours. Supernatant and cell-associated fractions were collected in duplicate and quantified using a viral plaque assay. Viral yields are presented in log 10 scale. Panel R: total surface expression of RSV F was determined by flow cytometric analysis in mock-infected or RSV-infected cells (MOI = 3.0) treated with vehicle or the indicated inhibitor for 24 hours. Data are plotted as mean, and error bars represent standard deviation. Weighted mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) is MFI multiplied by the frequency of positive cells.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Respiratory Syncytial Virus Assembles into Structured Filamentous Virion Particles Independently of Host Cytoskeleton and Related Proteins

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040826

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of cytoskeletal inhibitors on viral assembly. HEp-2 cells were inoculated with RSV wt strain A2 at an MOI = 1.0 and incubated for 24 hours with medium containing either vehicle of the indicated inhibitor. At 24 hours cells were fixed, and RSV F, actin, and tubulin were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. Column 1 (panels A, E, I, and M) shows mock-infected cells in the presence of vehicle. Column 2 (panels B, F, J, and N) shows mock-infected cells in the presence of the indicated inhibitor. Column 3 (panels C, G, K, and O) shows RSV infected cells in the presence of vehicle. Column 4 (panels D, H, L, and P) shows RSV infected cells in the presence of the indicated inhibitor. Panel Q: HEp-2 cells were infected with RSV at an MOI = 0.1 for 72 hours. Supernatant and cell-associated fractions were collected in duplicate and quantified using a viral plaque assay. Viral yields are presented in log 10 scale. Panel R: total surface expression of RSV F was determined by flow cytometric analysis in mock-infected or RSV-infected cells (MOI = 3.0) treated with vehicle or the indicated inhibitor for 24 hours. Data are plotted as mean, and error bars represent standard deviation. Weighted mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) is MFI multiplied by the frequency of positive cells.

    Article Snippet: Cell Culture and wt RSV Virus Preparations HEp-2 cells (ATCC CCL-23) were maintained in OPTI-MEM I medium (Invitrogen) containing 2% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS), 1% (v/v) L-glutamine, 2.5 µg/mL amphotericin B, and 1% (v/v) penicillin-streptomycin.

    Techniques: Incubation, Immunofluorescence, Infection, Viral Plaque Assay, Expressing, Flow Cytometry, Standard Deviation, Fluorescence

    Cellular localization of candidate proteins from an FCT Y2H screen. HEp-2 cells were inoculated with RSV strain A2 at than MOI = 1.0 and incubated for 24 hours. RSV F and the indicated cellular proteins were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. Column 1 (panels A, E, I, and M) shows mock-infected cells, and columns 2–4 show RSV infected cells. Column 2 (panels B, F, J, and N) shows the indicated RSV protein; column 3 (panels C, G, K, and O) shows the indicated cellular proteins; and column 4 (panels D, H, L, and P) shows the overlay with the RSV protein in green and the cellular protein in red.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Respiratory Syncytial Virus Assembles into Structured Filamentous Virion Particles Independently of Host Cytoskeleton and Related Proteins

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040826

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cellular localization of candidate proteins from an FCT Y2H screen. HEp-2 cells were inoculated with RSV strain A2 at than MOI = 1.0 and incubated for 24 hours. RSV F and the indicated cellular proteins were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. Column 1 (panels A, E, I, and M) shows mock-infected cells, and columns 2–4 show RSV infected cells. Column 2 (panels B, F, J, and N) shows the indicated RSV protein; column 3 (panels C, G, K, and O) shows the indicated cellular proteins; and column 4 (panels D, H, L, and P) shows the overlay with the RSV protein in green and the cellular protein in red.

    Article Snippet: Cell Culture and wt RSV Virus Preparations HEp-2 cells (ATCC CCL-23) were maintained in OPTI-MEM I medium (Invitrogen) containing 2% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS), 1% (v/v) L-glutamine, 2.5 µg/mL amphotericin B, and 1% (v/v) penicillin-streptomycin.

    Techniques: Incubation, Immunofluorescence, Infection

    Cellular localization of cytoskeletal proteins found in MIRE vesicles. HEp-2 cells were inoculated with RSV stain A2 at an MOI = 1.0 and incubated for 24 hours. RSV F and the indicated cellular proteins were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. Columns 1 and 3 (panels A, C, E, G, I, and K) show mock-infected cells, while columns 2 and 4 (panels B, D, F, H, J, and L) show RSV infected cells. RSV F is shown in green and the indicated cellular protein is shown in red.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Respiratory Syncytial Virus Assembles into Structured Filamentous Virion Particles Independently of Host Cytoskeleton and Related Proteins

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040826

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cellular localization of cytoskeletal proteins found in MIRE vesicles. HEp-2 cells were inoculated with RSV stain A2 at an MOI = 1.0 and incubated for 24 hours. RSV F and the indicated cellular proteins were detected by indirect immunofluorescence. Columns 1 and 3 (panels A, C, E, G, I, and K) show mock-infected cells, while columns 2 and 4 (panels B, D, F, H, J, and L) show RSV infected cells. RSV F is shown in green and the indicated cellular protein is shown in red.

    Article Snippet: Cell Culture and wt RSV Virus Preparations HEp-2 cells (ATCC CCL-23) were maintained in OPTI-MEM I medium (Invitrogen) containing 2% (v/v) fetal bovine serum (FBS), 1% (v/v) L-glutamine, 2.5 µg/mL amphotericin B, and 1% (v/v) penicillin-streptomycin.

    Techniques: Staining, Incubation, Immunofluorescence, Infection