hrp conjugated secondary antibody Santa Cruz Biotechnology Search Results


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  • 79
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology appropriate santa cruz hrp conjugated secondary antibodies
    Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase <t>(HRP)-conjugated</t> streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.
    Appropriate Santa Cruz Hrp Conjugated Secondary Antibodies, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 256 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology antimouse igg horseradish peroxidase conjugated secondary antibodies santa cruz
    Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase <t>(HRP)-conjugated</t> streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.
    Antimouse Igg Horseradish Peroxidase Conjugated Secondary Antibodies Santa Cruz, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 81/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology immunocruz hrp conjugated antibodies
    Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase <t>(HRP)-conjugated</t> streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.
    Immunocruz Hrp Conjugated Antibodies, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 77/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    GE Healthcare hrp conjugated secondary antibodies
    Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase <t>(HRP)-conjugated</t> streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.
    Hrp Conjugated Secondary Antibodies, supplied by GE Healthcare, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 98/100, based on 6343 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher hrp conjugated secondary antibodies
    Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase <t>(HRP)-conjugated</t> streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.
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    Cell Signaling Technology Inc hrp conjugated secondary antibodies
    Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase <t>(HRP)-conjugated</t> streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.
    Hrp Conjugated Secondary Antibodies, supplied by Cell Signaling Technology Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 98/100, based on 2402 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Jackson Immuno hrp conjugated secondary antibodies
    Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase <t>(HRP)-conjugated</t> streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.
    Hrp Conjugated Secondary Antibodies, supplied by Jackson Immuno, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 98/100, based on 3345 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    GE Healthcare hrp conjugated seconary antibodies
    Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase <t>(HRP)-conjugated</t> streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.
    Hrp Conjugated Seconary Antibodies, supplied by GE Healthcare, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 74/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology antirabbit hrp conjugated antibodies
    Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase <t>(HRP)-conjugated</t> streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.
    Antirabbit Hrp Conjugated Antibodies, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 78/100, based on 81 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology antigoat antibody conjugated to hrp
    Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase <t>(HRP)-conjugated</t> streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.
    Antigoat Antibody Conjugated To Hrp, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 79/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology streptavidin hrp conjugated antibody
    Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase <t>(HRP)-conjugated</t> streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.
    Streptavidin Hrp Conjugated Antibody, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 41 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology antihuman hrp conjugated secondary antibodies
    Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase <t>(HRP)-conjugated</t> streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.
    Antihuman Hrp Conjugated Secondary Antibodies, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 87/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology polyclonal hrp conjugated secondary antibodies
    Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase <t>(HRP)-conjugated</t> streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.
    Polyclonal Hrp Conjugated Secondary Antibodies, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 78/100, based on 15 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology rabbit hrp conjugated antibody
    Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase <t>(HRP)-conjugated</t> streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.
    Rabbit Hrp Conjugated Antibody, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology hrp alexa fluor conjugated secondary antibodies
    Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase <t>(HRP)-conjugated</t> streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.
    Hrp Alexa Fluor Conjugated Secondary Antibodies, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 80/100, based on 25 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology anti goat hrp conjugated antibodies
    Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase <t>(HRP)-conjugated</t> streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.
    Anti Goat Hrp Conjugated Antibodies, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 77/100, based on 17 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology peroxidase hrp conjugated secondary antibodies
    Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase <t>(HRP)-conjugated</t> streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.
    Peroxidase Hrp Conjugated Secondary Antibodies, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 93 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology species specific hrp conjugated secondary antibodies
    Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase <t>(HRP)-conjugated</t> streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.
    Species Specific Hrp Conjugated Secondary Antibodies, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 78 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    76
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology igg3 hrp conjugated secondary antibodies
    Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase <t>(HRP)-conjugated</t> streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.
    Igg3 Hrp Conjugated Secondary Antibodies, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 76/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology secondary mouse antibody conjugated to hrp
    Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase <t>(HRP)-conjugated</t> streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.
    Secondary Mouse Antibody Conjugated To Hrp, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 77/100, based on 74 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology horseradish peroxidase hrp conjugated antibody
    Monomeric gremlinC141A is devoid of pro-angiogenic activity A-C. serum-starved HUVECs were treated for 5 minutes with 100 ng/mL (or the indicated dose) of gremlin WT or gremlin C141A . Treated cells were then immunostained with anti-phospho-VEGFR2 (Y1175) antibody followed by Alexa Fluor 488 secondary antibody and nuclear counterstaining with DAPI (scale bar, 10 μm) (A) or by <t>HRP</t> secondary antibody (B). Uniform loading of the gels was confirmed by incubation of the membranes with anti-VEGFR2 antibodies. Alternatively, the capacity of gremlin WT (black bars) or gremlin C141A (open bars) to induce VEGFR2 phosphorylation was assessed by ELISA assay, using <t>anti-pVEGFR2</t> (Y951) antibody (C). Data are the mean ± SEM of 3 independent experiments. D. VEGFR2-overexpressing ECs were stimulated for 10 minutes with 20 ng/mL of gremlin WT (red line) or gremlin C141A (blue line) and assessed by FACS analysis for total tyrosine phosphorylation using an anti-phospho-Tyr antibody. E. FACS analysis of ROS production was carried out on HUVEC pre-loaded with 5 μM DCFH-DA and stimulated for 10 minutes with 10 ng/mL of gremlin WT (red line) or gremlin C141A (blue line). Representative mean fluorescence intensity histograms are shown. F. HUVEC spheroids, embedded in fibrin gel, were stimulated with increasing concentrations of gremlin WT (•) or gremlin C141A (▼). After 24 hours EC sprouts were counted. Data are the mean ± SEM of the number of sprouts/spheroid measured in 50 spheroids. G. alginate implants containing 60-120 ng of gremlin WT (black bars) or gremlin C141A (open bars) were grafted onto chicken embryo CAMs. After 72 hours, neovessels converging towards the implant were counted. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n=10). H-I. liquid Matrigel was mixed with 1.0 μg/mL gremlin WT or gremlin C141A and injected subcutaneously into the flank of C57BL/6 mice. Matrigel with PBS alone was used as negative control. One week after injection, plugs were harvested and CD31+ endothelial cells were examinated by immunofluorescence (H, scale bar, 10 μm) and cd31 mRNA expression levels were measured by RT-qPCR analysis (I). Data are the mean ± SEM (n=10-15) and are expressed as relative expression ratios (ΔΔCt– Fold increase) using one PBS plug as reference. *, p
    Horseradish Peroxidase Hrp Conjugated Antibody, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 281 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Santa Cruz Biotechnology anti sheep hrp conjugated antibody
    Monomeric gremlinC141A is devoid of pro-angiogenic activity A-C. serum-starved HUVECs were treated for 5 minutes with 100 ng/mL (or the indicated dose) of gremlin WT or gremlin C141A . Treated cells were then immunostained with anti-phospho-VEGFR2 (Y1175) antibody followed by Alexa Fluor 488 secondary antibody and nuclear counterstaining with DAPI (scale bar, 10 μm) (A) or by <t>HRP</t> secondary antibody (B). Uniform loading of the gels was confirmed by incubation of the membranes with anti-VEGFR2 antibodies. Alternatively, the capacity of gremlin WT (black bars) or gremlin C141A (open bars) to induce VEGFR2 phosphorylation was assessed by ELISA assay, using <t>anti-pVEGFR2</t> (Y951) antibody (C). Data are the mean ± SEM of 3 independent experiments. D. VEGFR2-overexpressing ECs were stimulated for 10 minutes with 20 ng/mL of gremlin WT (red line) or gremlin C141A (blue line) and assessed by FACS analysis for total tyrosine phosphorylation using an anti-phospho-Tyr antibody. E. FACS analysis of ROS production was carried out on HUVEC pre-loaded with 5 μM DCFH-DA and stimulated for 10 minutes with 10 ng/mL of gremlin WT (red line) or gremlin C141A (blue line). Representative mean fluorescence intensity histograms are shown. F. HUVEC spheroids, embedded in fibrin gel, were stimulated with increasing concentrations of gremlin WT (•) or gremlin C141A (▼). After 24 hours EC sprouts were counted. Data are the mean ± SEM of the number of sprouts/spheroid measured in 50 spheroids. G. alginate implants containing 60-120 ng of gremlin WT (black bars) or gremlin C141A (open bars) were grafted onto chicken embryo CAMs. After 72 hours, neovessels converging towards the implant were counted. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n=10). H-I. liquid Matrigel was mixed with 1.0 μg/mL gremlin WT or gremlin C141A and injected subcutaneously into the flank of C57BL/6 mice. Matrigel with PBS alone was used as negative control. One week after injection, plugs were harvested and CD31+ endothelial cells were examinated by immunofluorescence (H, scale bar, 10 μm) and cd31 mRNA expression levels were measured by RT-qPCR analysis (I). Data are the mean ± SEM (n=10-15) and are expressed as relative expression ratios (ΔΔCt– Fold increase) using one PBS plug as reference. *, p
    Anti Sheep Hrp Conjugated Antibody, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 78/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    78
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology hrp conjugated secondary antibodies sc 2005
    Monomeric gremlinC141A is devoid of pro-angiogenic activity A-C. serum-starved HUVECs were treated for 5 minutes with 100 ng/mL (or the indicated dose) of gremlin WT or gremlin C141A . Treated cells were then immunostained with anti-phospho-VEGFR2 (Y1175) antibody followed by Alexa Fluor 488 secondary antibody and nuclear counterstaining with DAPI (scale bar, 10 μm) (A) or by <t>HRP</t> secondary antibody (B). Uniform loading of the gels was confirmed by incubation of the membranes with anti-VEGFR2 antibodies. Alternatively, the capacity of gremlin WT (black bars) or gremlin C141A (open bars) to induce VEGFR2 phosphorylation was assessed by ELISA assay, using <t>anti-pVEGFR2</t> (Y951) antibody (C). Data are the mean ± SEM of 3 independent experiments. D. VEGFR2-overexpressing ECs were stimulated for 10 minutes with 20 ng/mL of gremlin WT (red line) or gremlin C141A (blue line) and assessed by FACS analysis for total tyrosine phosphorylation using an anti-phospho-Tyr antibody. E. FACS analysis of ROS production was carried out on HUVEC pre-loaded with 5 μM DCFH-DA and stimulated for 10 minutes with 10 ng/mL of gremlin WT (red line) or gremlin C141A (blue line). Representative mean fluorescence intensity histograms are shown. F. HUVEC spheroids, embedded in fibrin gel, were stimulated with increasing concentrations of gremlin WT (•) or gremlin C141A (▼). After 24 hours EC sprouts were counted. Data are the mean ± SEM of the number of sprouts/spheroid measured in 50 spheroids. G. alginate implants containing 60-120 ng of gremlin WT (black bars) or gremlin C141A (open bars) were grafted onto chicken embryo CAMs. After 72 hours, neovessels converging towards the implant were counted. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n=10). H-I. liquid Matrigel was mixed with 1.0 μg/mL gremlin WT or gremlin C141A and injected subcutaneously into the flank of C57BL/6 mice. Matrigel with PBS alone was used as negative control. One week after injection, plugs were harvested and CD31+ endothelial cells were examinated by immunofluorescence (H, scale bar, 10 μm) and cd31 mRNA expression levels were measured by RT-qPCR analysis (I). Data are the mean ± SEM (n=10-15) and are expressed as relative expression ratios (ΔΔCt– Fold increase) using one PBS plug as reference. *, p
    Hrp Conjugated Secondary Antibodies Sc 2005, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 78/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/hrp conjugated secondary antibodies sc 2005/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
    Average 78 stars, based on 4 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    hrp conjugated secondary antibodies sc 2005 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-02
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    78
    Santa Cruz Biotechnology hrp conjugated chicken antigoat antibody
    Monomeric gremlinC141A is devoid of pro-angiogenic activity A-C. serum-starved HUVECs were treated for 5 minutes with 100 ng/mL (or the indicated dose) of gremlin WT or gremlin C141A . Treated cells were then immunostained with anti-phospho-VEGFR2 (Y1175) antibody followed by Alexa Fluor 488 secondary antibody and nuclear counterstaining with DAPI (scale bar, 10 μm) (A) or by <t>HRP</t> secondary antibody (B). Uniform loading of the gels was confirmed by incubation of the membranes with anti-VEGFR2 antibodies. Alternatively, the capacity of gremlin WT (black bars) or gremlin C141A (open bars) to induce VEGFR2 phosphorylation was assessed by ELISA assay, using <t>anti-pVEGFR2</t> (Y951) antibody (C). Data are the mean ± SEM of 3 independent experiments. D. VEGFR2-overexpressing ECs were stimulated for 10 minutes with 20 ng/mL of gremlin WT (red line) or gremlin C141A (blue line) and assessed by FACS analysis for total tyrosine phosphorylation using an anti-phospho-Tyr antibody. E. FACS analysis of ROS production was carried out on HUVEC pre-loaded with 5 μM DCFH-DA and stimulated for 10 minutes with 10 ng/mL of gremlin WT (red line) or gremlin C141A (blue line). Representative mean fluorescence intensity histograms are shown. F. HUVEC spheroids, embedded in fibrin gel, were stimulated with increasing concentrations of gremlin WT (•) or gremlin C141A (▼). After 24 hours EC sprouts were counted. Data are the mean ± SEM of the number of sprouts/spheroid measured in 50 spheroids. G. alginate implants containing 60-120 ng of gremlin WT (black bars) or gremlin C141A (open bars) were grafted onto chicken embryo CAMs. After 72 hours, neovessels converging towards the implant were counted. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n=10). H-I. liquid Matrigel was mixed with 1.0 μg/mL gremlin WT or gremlin C141A and injected subcutaneously into the flank of C57BL/6 mice. Matrigel with PBS alone was used as negative control. One week after injection, plugs were harvested and CD31+ endothelial cells were examinated by immunofluorescence (H, scale bar, 10 μm) and cd31 mRNA expression levels were measured by RT-qPCR analysis (I). Data are the mean ± SEM (n=10-15) and are expressed as relative expression ratios (ΔΔCt– Fold increase) using one PBS plug as reference. *, p
    Hrp Conjugated Chicken Antigoat Antibody, supplied by Santa Cruz Biotechnology, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 78/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/hrp conjugated chicken antigoat antibody/product/Santa Cruz Biotechnology
    Average 78 stars, based on 4 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    hrp conjugated chicken antigoat antibody - by Bioz Stars, 2020-02
    78/100 stars
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    Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.

    Journal: Oncotarget

    Article Title: Indolin-2-one compounds targeting thioredoxin reductase as potential anticancer drug leads

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.9579

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Investigation of the interaction of lead indolin-2-one compounds with the Sec residue in the C-terminal active center of TrxR Recombinant rat TrxR (0.9 μM) was incubated with 20 μM of the lead compounds and 200 μM NADPH. At indicated timepoints, an aliquot of enzyme mixture was drawn for TrxR activity measurement by DTNB reduction assay and BIAM labelling at pH 6.5. Top panel: time course of TrxR enzyme activity; bottom panel: horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated streptavidin detection of BIAM labeling of free selenol at pH 6.5 at various incubation times. Results presented are representative of three independent experiments.

    Article Snippet: Antibodies against Nrf2, full-length and cleaved caspase 3, full-length and cleaved poly (ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP), JNK, phospho-JNK (Thr183/Tyr185), p38 and phospho-p38 (Thr180/Tyr182) were from Cell Signaling Technology, while those specific for human TrxR1, ASK1 and β-actin and HRP-conjugated secondary antibodies were from Santa Cruz Biotechnology.

    Techniques: Size-exclusion Chromatography, Recombinant, Incubation, Activity Assay, Labeling

    Treatment with SXR activators increases expression of p53 and p53 target genes . Total RNA was isolated from A) MCF-7 cells or B) ZR75-1 cells grown in the presence of 10 μM SXR activators rifampicin, anandamide, or clotrimazole (RIF, ANA or CLO) for 72 hours and 24 hours respectively. RNA was reverse transcribed and analyzed by QRT-PCR using primers for human p53, p21, BAX and PUMA. Data are depicted as average fold induction relative to solvent control in triplicates ± S.E.M. These results were replicated in at least three independent experiments. *represents P ≤ .05, **represents P ≤ .01 and # represents P ≤ .001 (by one-way ANOVA analysis). C) SXR activation causes p53 accumulation. Cell lysates made from C) MCF-7 and D) ZR-75-1 cells treated with SXR agonists (10 μM) or solvent controls for 72 and 24 hours respectively were subjected to Western blot analysis using p53 antibody (FL-393 HRP, Santa Cruz Inc.). Equal loading was confirmed by stripping and re-probing the same blot with an anti-GAPDH antibody. Camptothecin (CAMP) 24 hour treatment was used as a positive control for p53 induction. The chemiluminescent bands were acquired by Alpha Innotech Fluorchem SP imager (Alpha Innotech Inc., CA, USA) and analyzed by spot densitometry analysis using FluorChem AlphaEase FC software (Alpha Innotech). The experiment was done in duplicates and the numbers represent the average from two independent runs. Note that the gap in ANA lane of ZR-75-1 is because of gel tearing at the time of transferring.

    Journal: BMC Cancer

    Article Title: Activation of the steroid and xenobiotic receptor, SXR, induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells

    doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-9-3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Treatment with SXR activators increases expression of p53 and p53 target genes . Total RNA was isolated from A) MCF-7 cells or B) ZR75-1 cells grown in the presence of 10 μM SXR activators rifampicin, anandamide, or clotrimazole (RIF, ANA or CLO) for 72 hours and 24 hours respectively. RNA was reverse transcribed and analyzed by QRT-PCR using primers for human p53, p21, BAX and PUMA. Data are depicted as average fold induction relative to solvent control in triplicates ± S.E.M. These results were replicated in at least three independent experiments. *represents P ≤ .05, **represents P ≤ .01 and # represents P ≤ .001 (by one-way ANOVA analysis). C) SXR activation causes p53 accumulation. Cell lysates made from C) MCF-7 and D) ZR-75-1 cells treated with SXR agonists (10 μM) or solvent controls for 72 and 24 hours respectively were subjected to Western blot analysis using p53 antibody (FL-393 HRP, Santa Cruz Inc.). Equal loading was confirmed by stripping and re-probing the same blot with an anti-GAPDH antibody. Camptothecin (CAMP) 24 hour treatment was used as a positive control for p53 induction. The chemiluminescent bands were acquired by Alpha Innotech Fluorchem SP imager (Alpha Innotech Inc., CA, USA) and analyzed by spot densitometry analysis using FluorChem AlphaEase FC software (Alpha Innotech). The experiment was done in duplicates and the numbers represent the average from two independent runs. Note that the gap in ANA lane of ZR-75-1 is because of gel tearing at the time of transferring.

    Article Snippet: The primary antibody incubation was followed by 1 hr incubation at room temperature with HRP-conjugated secondary antibody (1:10,000; Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc., USA).

    Techniques: Expressing, Isolation, Quantitative RT-PCR, Activation Assay, Western Blot, Stripping Membranes, Positive Control, Software, Transferring

    Activated T cells possess active full-length caspase-8, active cleaved caspase-3, full-length FLIP L , p43FLIP, and RIP1 complexed with active caspases. Freshly isolated polyclonal T cells ( lanes 1 and 3 ) or day 4 effectors ( lanes 2 , 4 , and 5 ) were incubated with control peptide z-FA-fmk ( lanes 1 - 4 ) or 100 μ M nonbiotinylated z-VAD ( lane 5 ) at 37°C for 15 min. All cells were then incubated with 10 μ M biotin-VAD-fmk for an additional 15 min at 37°C. Subsequently, cells were lysed in buffer containing 20 μ M biotin-VAD ( lanes 1 - 5 ). A portion of lysates were then incubated with avidin-Sepharose beads to precipitate active caspases. Immunoblot analysis was performed on precipitates for caspase-8 ( top panel ), caspase-3 ( middle panel ), or RIP1 ( bottom panel ) to reveal active caspases and RIP1 cleavage products. As a positive control for the presence and size of caspase-8, caspase-3, and RIP1, a portion of nonprecipitated whole cell lysates (WCLs) was included in the analysis from fresh ( lane 1 ) or day 4 effectors ( lane 2 ). B , Active caspases were precipitated from day 4 effector lysates and analyzed by immunoblot for the indicated molecules. WCLs were included as a reference comparison. A longer exposure of the caspase-8 immunoblot is included to illustrate precipitation of p43/41 caspase-8. C , Day 4 effectors were treated with FasL for 1 or 2 h, followed by biotin-VAD for 15 min. Active caspases were then precipitated and immunoblot analysis was performed for caspase-8. A portion of the fraction not binding to avidin-Sepharose (Flow Through) as well as WCLs were included in analysis. Bands were revealed using anti-caspase-8 Ab ( top panel ) or HRP-conjugated Strepavidin ( middle and bottom panels ). Bands at 55 and 43/41 kDa were identified, which corresponds with the bands revealed in the caspase-8 immunoblots ( top and middle panels ). In addition, a band of 17 kDa was observed that corresponds with cleaved p17 caspase-3 ( bottom panel ).

    Journal: Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)

    Article Title: Effector CD4+ T Cells Generate Intermediate Caspase Activity and Cleavage of Caspase-8 Substrates

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Activated T cells possess active full-length caspase-8, active cleaved caspase-3, full-length FLIP L , p43FLIP, and RIP1 complexed with active caspases. Freshly isolated polyclonal T cells ( lanes 1 and 3 ) or day 4 effectors ( lanes 2 , 4 , and 5 ) were incubated with control peptide z-FA-fmk ( lanes 1 - 4 ) or 100 μ M nonbiotinylated z-VAD ( lane 5 ) at 37°C for 15 min. All cells were then incubated with 10 μ M biotin-VAD-fmk for an additional 15 min at 37°C. Subsequently, cells were lysed in buffer containing 20 μ M biotin-VAD ( lanes 1 - 5 ). A portion of lysates were then incubated with avidin-Sepharose beads to precipitate active caspases. Immunoblot analysis was performed on precipitates for caspase-8 ( top panel ), caspase-3 ( middle panel ), or RIP1 ( bottom panel ) to reveal active caspases and RIP1 cleavage products. As a positive control for the presence and size of caspase-8, caspase-3, and RIP1, a portion of nonprecipitated whole cell lysates (WCLs) was included in the analysis from fresh ( lane 1 ) or day 4 effectors ( lane 2 ). B , Active caspases were precipitated from day 4 effector lysates and analyzed by immunoblot for the indicated molecules. WCLs were included as a reference comparison. A longer exposure of the caspase-8 immunoblot is included to illustrate precipitation of p43/41 caspase-8. C , Day 4 effectors were treated with FasL for 1 or 2 h, followed by biotin-VAD for 15 min. Active caspases were then precipitated and immunoblot analysis was performed for caspase-8. A portion of the fraction not binding to avidin-Sepharose (Flow Through) as well as WCLs were included in analysis. Bands were revealed using anti-caspase-8 Ab ( top panel ) or HRP-conjugated Strepavidin ( middle and bottom panels ). Bands at 55 and 43/41 kDa were identified, which corresponds with the bands revealed in the caspase-8 immunoblots ( top and middle panels ). In addition, a band of 17 kDa was observed that corresponds with cleaved p17 caspase-3 ( bottom panel ).

    Article Snippet: Blots were washed three times for 15 min each and incubated for 90 min with 0.5 μ g/ml (caspase blots) or 1 μ g/ml (all others) of appropriate secondary Ab conjugated to HRP (Santa Cruz Biotechnology).

    Techniques: Isolation, Incubation, Avidin-Biotin Assay, Positive Control, Binding Assay, Flow Cytometry, Western Blot

    Effect of acute ethanol exposure on myocardial gene expression. Quantitative real-time PCR from myocardium RNA extracts revealed that mRNA levels for (A) superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, (B) glutathione peroxydase (GPx)-4, (C) cytochrome-c oxidase were significantly increased after 24 h and (D) matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 following 6 h and 24 h compared with the control group. However, mRNA-levels of (E) L-Type calcium-channel (Ca v 1.2), (F) sarco(endo)plasmic Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA)-2 and (G) sodium-potassium Adenosine Triphosphatase (Na + /K + -ATPase) remained unchanged following ethanol administration compared to the control group. Eth indicates ethanol. *p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Acute Ethanol Exposure Increases the Susceptibility of the Donor Hearts to Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury after Transplantation in Rats

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049237

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of acute ethanol exposure on myocardial gene expression. Quantitative real-time PCR from myocardium RNA extracts revealed that mRNA levels for (A) superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, (B) glutathione peroxydase (GPx)-4, (C) cytochrome-c oxidase were significantly increased after 24 h and (D) matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 following 6 h and 24 h compared with the control group. However, mRNA-levels of (E) L-Type calcium-channel (Ca v 1.2), (F) sarco(endo)plasmic Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA)-2 and (G) sodium-potassium Adenosine Triphosphatase (Na + /K + -ATPase) remained unchanged following ethanol administration compared to the control group. Eth indicates ethanol. *p

    Article Snippet: After washing blots to remove excessive primary antibody binding, blots were incubated for 1 h with horseradish peroxydase conjugated secondary antibody (1∶5000, Santa Cruz Biothechnology, Heidelberg, Germany).

    Techniques: Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Effect of acute ethanol exposure on myocardial protein expression 24 h after transplantation. Twenty-four hours after transplantation, densitometric analysis of bands for (A) superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 showed a significant increase at 6 h and 24 h following ethanol administration, at 6 h for (C) cytochrome-c oxidase (cyto-c oxi), and at 24 h for (D) matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 compared with the control group. Moreover, 24 h after transplantation, there was a significant increase in protein expression for (B) glutathione peroxydase (GPx)-4 in the group receiving ethanol 24 h prior to explantation when compared with the control- and 6 h ethanol+24 I/R groups. I/R indicates ischemia/reperfusion, Eth ethanol, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). *p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Acute Ethanol Exposure Increases the Susceptibility of the Donor Hearts to Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury after Transplantation in Rats

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049237

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of acute ethanol exposure on myocardial protein expression 24 h after transplantation. Twenty-four hours after transplantation, densitometric analysis of bands for (A) superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 showed a significant increase at 6 h and 24 h following ethanol administration, at 6 h for (C) cytochrome-c oxidase (cyto-c oxi), and at 24 h for (D) matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 compared with the control group. Moreover, 24 h after transplantation, there was a significant increase in protein expression for (B) glutathione peroxydase (GPx)-4 in the group receiving ethanol 24 h prior to explantation when compared with the control- and 6 h ethanol+24 I/R groups. I/R indicates ischemia/reperfusion, Eth ethanol, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). *p

    Article Snippet: After washing blots to remove excessive primary antibody binding, blots were incubated for 1 h with horseradish peroxydase conjugated secondary antibody (1∶5000, Santa Cruz Biothechnology, Heidelberg, Germany).

    Techniques: Expressing, Transplantation Assay

    Monomeric gremlinC141A is devoid of pro-angiogenic activity A-C. serum-starved HUVECs were treated for 5 minutes with 100 ng/mL (or the indicated dose) of gremlin WT or gremlin C141A . Treated cells were then immunostained with anti-phospho-VEGFR2 (Y1175) antibody followed by Alexa Fluor 488 secondary antibody and nuclear counterstaining with DAPI (scale bar, 10 μm) (A) or by HRP secondary antibody (B). Uniform loading of the gels was confirmed by incubation of the membranes with anti-VEGFR2 antibodies. Alternatively, the capacity of gremlin WT (black bars) or gremlin C141A (open bars) to induce VEGFR2 phosphorylation was assessed by ELISA assay, using anti-pVEGFR2 (Y951) antibody (C). Data are the mean ± SEM of 3 independent experiments. D. VEGFR2-overexpressing ECs were stimulated for 10 minutes with 20 ng/mL of gremlin WT (red line) or gremlin C141A (blue line) and assessed by FACS analysis for total tyrosine phosphorylation using an anti-phospho-Tyr antibody. E. FACS analysis of ROS production was carried out on HUVEC pre-loaded with 5 μM DCFH-DA and stimulated for 10 minutes with 10 ng/mL of gremlin WT (red line) or gremlin C141A (blue line). Representative mean fluorescence intensity histograms are shown. F. HUVEC spheroids, embedded in fibrin gel, were stimulated with increasing concentrations of gremlin WT (•) or gremlin C141A (▼). After 24 hours EC sprouts were counted. Data are the mean ± SEM of the number of sprouts/spheroid measured in 50 spheroids. G. alginate implants containing 60-120 ng of gremlin WT (black bars) or gremlin C141A (open bars) were grafted onto chicken embryo CAMs. After 72 hours, neovessels converging towards the implant were counted. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n=10). H-I. liquid Matrigel was mixed with 1.0 μg/mL gremlin WT or gremlin C141A and injected subcutaneously into the flank of C57BL/6 mice. Matrigel with PBS alone was used as negative control. One week after injection, plugs were harvested and CD31+ endothelial cells were examinated by immunofluorescence (H, scale bar, 10 μm) and cd31 mRNA expression levels were measured by RT-qPCR analysis (I). Data are the mean ± SEM (n=10-15) and are expressed as relative expression ratios (ΔΔCt– Fold increase) using one PBS plug as reference. *, p

    Journal: Oncotarget

    Article Title: Monomeric gremlin is a novel vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 antagonist

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.9286

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Monomeric gremlinC141A is devoid of pro-angiogenic activity A-C. serum-starved HUVECs were treated for 5 minutes with 100 ng/mL (or the indicated dose) of gremlin WT or gremlin C141A . Treated cells were then immunostained with anti-phospho-VEGFR2 (Y1175) antibody followed by Alexa Fluor 488 secondary antibody and nuclear counterstaining with DAPI (scale bar, 10 μm) (A) or by HRP secondary antibody (B). Uniform loading of the gels was confirmed by incubation of the membranes with anti-VEGFR2 antibodies. Alternatively, the capacity of gremlin WT (black bars) or gremlin C141A (open bars) to induce VEGFR2 phosphorylation was assessed by ELISA assay, using anti-pVEGFR2 (Y951) antibody (C). Data are the mean ± SEM of 3 independent experiments. D. VEGFR2-overexpressing ECs were stimulated for 10 minutes with 20 ng/mL of gremlin WT (red line) or gremlin C141A (blue line) and assessed by FACS analysis for total tyrosine phosphorylation using an anti-phospho-Tyr antibody. E. FACS analysis of ROS production was carried out on HUVEC pre-loaded with 5 μM DCFH-DA and stimulated for 10 minutes with 10 ng/mL of gremlin WT (red line) or gremlin C141A (blue line). Representative mean fluorescence intensity histograms are shown. F. HUVEC spheroids, embedded in fibrin gel, were stimulated with increasing concentrations of gremlin WT (•) or gremlin C141A (▼). After 24 hours EC sprouts were counted. Data are the mean ± SEM of the number of sprouts/spheroid measured in 50 spheroids. G. alginate implants containing 60-120 ng of gremlin WT (black bars) or gremlin C141A (open bars) were grafted onto chicken embryo CAMs. After 72 hours, neovessels converging towards the implant were counted. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM (n=10). H-I. liquid Matrigel was mixed with 1.0 μg/mL gremlin WT or gremlin C141A and injected subcutaneously into the flank of C57BL/6 mice. Matrigel with PBS alone was used as negative control. One week after injection, plugs were harvested and CD31+ endothelial cells were examinated by immunofluorescence (H, scale bar, 10 μm) and cd31 mRNA expression levels were measured by RT-qPCR analysis (I). Data are the mean ± SEM (n=10-15) and are expressed as relative expression ratios (ΔΔCt– Fold increase) using one PBS plug as reference. *, p

    Article Snippet: Bound gremlin or pVEGFR2 were detected by incubation with goat anti-gremlin (R & D) or anti-pVEGFR2 (Y951; Santa Cruz Biotechnology) antibody followed by secondary horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated antibody (Santa Cruz).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Incubation, Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay, FACS, Fluorescence, Injection, Mouse Assay, Negative Control, Immunofluorescence, Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR