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  • 94
    ATCC fluconazole resistant candida albicans
    Chemical structure of <t>fluconazole</t> [ 23 ].
    Fluconazole Resistant Candida Albicans, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 18 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore fluconazole
    Violin plot representing the distribution of the CT values obtained for 10 candidate reference genes form 60 samples (30 <t>fluconazole</t> treated and 30 untreated control). Violin plot representing minimum value to maximum value with probability density of the data.
    Fluconazole, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1267 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Pfizer Inc fluconazole
    SEM images of 48-h C. albicans HK1Sa. (A) Control C. albicans HK1Sa; (B) C. albicans HK1Sa biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml amphotericin B for 4 h; (C) C. albicans HK1Sa biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml <t>fluconazole</t> for 4 h. Note the wrinkled,
    Fluconazole, supplied by Pfizer Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1253 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute fluconazole
    Killing of G. mellonella by C. albicans exposed to antimicrobial PDT. In the aPDT group, the larvae received the PS injection 90 min after the infection with C. albicans . In order to allow a good dispersion of the PS into the insect body, we waited at least 30 additional min after the PS injection prior to the light irradiation. A control group received PS without light exposure. Larvae were maintained at 37°C. a) C. albicans Can14 wild-type strain SC5314, b) C. albicans Can37 clinical isolate from oropharyngeal candidiasis and <t>fluconazole</t> resistant.
    Fluconazole, supplied by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 376 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    HiMedia Laboratories fluconazole
    Antifungal Susceptibility Testing (AFST) of vaginal Candida isolates against <t>fluconazole.</t>
    Fluconazole, supplied by HiMedia Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 219 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Pfizer Inc fluconazole flc
    Efficacies of <t>fluconazole</t> <t>(FLC)</t> and voriconazole (VRC) for Galleria mellonella infected with different strains of Candida tropicalis . Ten larvae per group were infected with 2 × 10 6 cells of C. tropicalis ATCC 750, CL-6835, or TP-13650. For C.
    Fluconazole Flc, supplied by Pfizer Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 71 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Esri inc zonal statistics
    Efficacies of <t>fluconazole</t> <t>(FLC)</t> and voriconazole (VRC) for Galleria mellonella infected with different strains of Candida tropicalis . Ten larvae per group were infected with 2 × 10 6 cells of C. tropicalis ATCC 750, CL-6835, or TP-13650. For C.
    Zonal Statistics, supplied by Esri inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 49 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Sequoia Research fluconazole
    Beauvericin inhibits Hsp90 function ( a ) Beauvericin (BEA) reduces <t>fluconazole-induced</t> calcineurin activation. S. cerevisiae harboring 4xCDRE- lacZ reporter construct ± fluconazole (FLC, 64 μg/ml), ± geldanamycin (GdA, 5.6 μg/ml), FK506 (1.0 μg/ml), or beauvericin (20 μg/ml). Data are mean ± s.d. from technical triplicates and representative of biological replicates. * P
    Fluconazole, supplied by Sequoia Research, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 58 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Becton Dickinson fluconazole
    Zones of inhibition around 25-μg <t>fluconazole</t> disks on MBE agar plotted against the MICs determined at 48 h by the reference BMD method for 235 C. glabrata isolates. The method of least squares was used to calculate a regression line ( y = 71.1 − 3.6 x ; R = 0.7). The horizontal lines indicate the S (≥19 mm) and R (≤14 mm) zone diameter breakpoints for the fluconazole disk test. The vertical lines indicate the S (≤8 μg/ml) and R (≥64 μg/ml) MIC breakpoints for fluconazole. The numbers inside the graph indicate numbers of isolates.
    Fluconazole, supplied by Becton Dickinson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 69 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    LKT Laboratories fluconazole
    Structures of the triazoles voriconazole, <t>fluconazole</t> and itraconazole and the BR biosynthesis inhibitor Brz2001.
    Fluconazole, supplied by LKT Laboratories, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 31 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Thermo Fisher fluconazole
    Diploid and Tetraploid C.albicans are sensitive to antifungals. A) Diploid colony forming units (CFUs) following 24-hr exposure to 1μg/mL or 10μg/mL <t>fluconazole</t> (‘FLU’, light and dark purple bars) and 0.25μg/mL or 2.5μg/mL caspofungin (‘CAS’, light and dark green bars) treatments. Bars represent the mean of 3 independent experiments (black symbols), and the error bars indicate +/− SEM. The dashed line and shaded box represent the mean and +/− SEM of the no-drug treatment. Asterisks indicate drug treatments that differ significantly from the no-drug treatment (* P
    Fluconazole, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 126 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Pfizer Inc fluconazole powder
    Relationship between 24-h dose and log 10 CFU per kidney for <t>fluconazole</t> administered at different dosing intervals in a neutropenic murine model of disseminated candidiasis. Each symbol represents data for two mice. The solid diamond symbol represents organism counts for untreated animals at 24 h. q 24 h, q 12 h, and q 6 h, dosing every 24, 12, and 6 h, respectively.
    Fluconazole Powder, supplied by Pfizer Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 16 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Pfizer Inc diflucan partnership program
    Cost savings of CrAg screening with different treatment regimens for those with cryptococcal meningitis. Left: CrAg screening and preemptive treatment where cryptococcal meningitis is treated with <t>fluconazole</t> alone. Right: Cryptococcal meningitis is treated with amphotericin + flucytosine. For analyses where meningitis was treated with fluconazole alone (which is highly ineffective), CrAg screening is cost-effective, but not cost-saving, because the treatment for meningitis is inexpensive. However, full implementation of CrAg screening resulted in a 44% reduction in mortality, given the poor efficacy of fluconazole in the treatment of meningitis. Conversely, if meningitis is treated with amphotericin + flucytosine, CrAg screening is cost-saving because treatment for meningitis is expensive, and reduces mortality. Mortality reductions are less dramatic with meningitis regimens that are more effective. In all scenarios, CrAg screening reduced mortality and was cost-effective.
    Diflucan Partnership Program, supplied by Pfizer Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 13 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Cassini zonal winds
    Cost savings of CrAg screening with different treatment regimens for those with cryptococcal meningitis. Left: CrAg screening and preemptive treatment where cryptococcal meningitis is treated with <t>fluconazole</t> alone. Right: Cryptococcal meningitis is treated with amphotericin + flucytosine. For analyses where meningitis was treated with fluconazole alone (which is highly ineffective), CrAg screening is cost-effective, but not cost-saving, because the treatment for meningitis is inexpensive. However, full implementation of CrAg screening resulted in a 44% reduction in mortality, given the poor efficacy of fluconazole in the treatment of meningitis. Conversely, if meningitis is treated with amphotericin + flucytosine, CrAg screening is cost-saving because treatment for meningitis is expensive, and reduces mortality. Mortality reductions are less dramatic with meningitis regimens that are more effective. In all scenarios, CrAg screening reduced mortality and was cost-effective.
    Zonal Winds, supplied by Cassini, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 16 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Hospira fluconazole
    Nanoscale mixed-species biofilm of S. aureus and C. albicans on chip. (A) Fluorescence micrographs of a section of the spot containing mixed-species nanobiofilms stained with FUN-1 and concanavalin A. Staining with FUN-1 demonstrated all viable fungal and bacterial populations (in orange-yellow), and concanavalin A stained only fungal cell walls (in blue). (B to D) Profile of susceptibility of mixed-species biofilms of S. aureus and C. albicans to antibiotics (B), antifungals (C), and combination treatment (D). The data represent dose-response profiles of mixed-species biofilms with respect to ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, tobramycin, and methicillin (B) and to amphotericin B and <t>fluconazole</t> (C) at 50, 5, 0.5, 0.05, and 0.005 μg/ml. (D) Profile of susceptibility to combinations of 25 μg/ml of vancomycin (VANC) with 25, 2.5, 0.25, 0.025, and 0.0025 μg/ml of amphotericin B (AMB) and fluconazole (FLU).
    Fluconazole, supplied by Hospira, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 25 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Valiant fluconazole
    JJJ1 influences <t>fluconazole</t> susceptibility in a CDR1 -dependent manner. (A) The effects of JJJ1 deletion on expression of the genes encoding the ABC transporters Cdr1, Snq2, and Pdh1 was measured by qRT-PCR. Expression was normalized to 18S rRNA expression in the parent isolate SM1. Changes were compared using a Student’s t test. Gene expression values marked with an asterisk are statistically significant ( P
    Fluconazole, supplied by Valiant, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 17 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Pfizer Inc fluconazole flu
    JJJ1 influences <t>fluconazole</t> susceptibility in a CDR1 -dependent manner. (A) The effects of JJJ1 deletion on expression of the genes encoding the ABC transporters Cdr1, Snq2, and Pdh1 was measured by qRT-PCR. Expression was normalized to 18S rRNA expression in the parent isolate SM1. Changes were compared using a Student’s t test. Gene expression values marked with an asterisk are statistically significant ( P
    Fluconazole Flu, supplied by Pfizer Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Fresenius Kabi fluconazole
    Treatment efficacy over 96 h of various doses of <t>fluconazole</t> on C. tropicalis infection with trailing and nontrailing isolates in an immunocompetent mouse model. Horizontal lines indicate the median values. (A) CFU counts on day 4 after inoculation and daily treatment (starting at t = 2 h) with one dose of either vehicle control or fluconazole 35 mg/kg. (B) For isolate CT-TR-R, no reduction in CFU counts was found. For the remaining four isolates, lower dosages of fluconazole 1, 5, and 15 mg/kg were also subsequently tested.
    Fluconazole, supplied by Fresenius Kabi, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 21 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Liofilchem fluconazole
    ABDD antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes showing resistance to <t>Fluconazole</t> and Griseofulvin.
    Fluconazole, supplied by Liofilchem, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 20 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Moravek Biochemicals fluconazole
    Quantitative assessment of intravenously administrated <t>fluconazole</t> with ultrasonic sampling method and its comparison with tape stripping technique was performed. Ten mg/kg of fluconazole (amounting to 250 μCi/kg of radioactivity) was intravenously administrated in rats. Fluconazole cocncentration (ng/cm 2 ) in the ultrasonic, tape stripping and swab samples was determined by measuring the total radioactivity (μCi) of the samples and normalizing them by skin sampling area (1.33 cm 2 ). Blood levels of fluconazole (closed squares) rapidly decreased within 24 h; however, ultrasonic sampling (closed circles) revealed prolonged retention of fluconazole in the skin. Fluconazole was detected in the skin by ultrasound for over 7 days, which was also confirmed by tape stripping technique (open circles); however, ultrasound sampled significantly higher amounts of fluconazole than by tape stripping (indicated by (*): p
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    Image Search Results


    Chemical structure of fluconazole [ 23 ].

    Journal: BioMed Research International

    Article Title: The Influence of Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca alternifolia) on Fluconazole Activity against Fluconazole-Resistant Candida albicans Strains

    doi: 10.1155/2015/590470

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Chemical structure of fluconazole [ 23 ].

    Article Snippet: The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of fluconazole against 32 clinical strains of fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans , and C. albicans ATCC 10231 reference strain, after their exposure to sublethal concentrations of tea tree oil (TTO) or its main bioactive component terpinen-4-ol.

    Techniques:

    Violin plot representing the distribution of the CT values obtained for 10 candidate reference genes form 60 samples (30 fluconazole treated and 30 untreated control). Violin plot representing minimum value to maximum value with probability density of the data.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Selection and evaluation of appropriate reference genes for RT-qPCR based expression analysis in Candida tropicalis following azole treatment

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-58744-7

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Violin plot representing the distribution of the CT values obtained for 10 candidate reference genes form 60 samples (30 fluconazole treated and 30 untreated control). Violin plot representing minimum value to maximum value with probability density of the data.

    Article Snippet: YPD broth in the presence (sub-inhibitory concentrations) and absence of fluconazole (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany) were supplemented with the freshly grown cells of C. tropicalis at a concentration of 1 × 106 cells/mL and incubated up to 7 hours for RNA extraction .

    Techniques:

    Variations of MIC values of FCZ, MCZ and KCZ for the C . albicans strain SC5314 grown in medium containing twice their most recently measured MIC of FCZ. The result showed that the increase in fluconazole MIC was accompanied by a corresponding increase in resistance to miconazole and ketoconazole.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Metabolomic profiling for the identification of potential biomarkers involved in a laboratory azole resistance in Candida albicans

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192328

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Variations of MIC values of FCZ, MCZ and KCZ for the C . albicans strain SC5314 grown in medium containing twice their most recently measured MIC of FCZ. The result showed that the increase in fluconazole MIC was accompanied by a corresponding increase in resistance to miconazole and ketoconazole.

    Article Snippet: Fluconazole (FCZ), miconazole (MCZ), ketoconazole (KCZ) and the derivatizing reagent trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS), methoxyamine hydrochloride, pyridine and N-methyl-N-[trimethylsilyl]-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) were from Sigma Aldrich (St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques:

    Analysis of cells growing at supra-MIC concentrations. All tested strains, except for T101 (MIC = 64 µg/ml), had FLC MIC values below 10 µg/ml. a FoG correlates with the proportion of colonies that grow on 10 µg/ml FLC relative to growth on plates without drug. Black dots are additional strains from Fig. 1c. b . c , d Growth rate analysis of cells growing at supra-MIC FLC (10 µg/ml) during 0–5 h ( c ) and 10–15 h ( d ). e that measures time of colony appearance (ToA), colony growth rate, and colony size using desktop scanners. f ToA on medium without drug (blue) or with 10 µg/ml FLC (red) for resistant isolate T101, and isolates with different FoG levels. Graphs show the number of colonies ( y -axis) at each time point ( x . g Correlation between FoG 20 and the difference (Δ) in the ToA of colonies in the presence vs. absence of FLC (ΔToA = ToA with FLC – ToA without FLC). Black dots are additional strains from Fig. 1c. h Cells that grow within the zone of inhibition are viable, as seen by replica plating of disk diffusion assays grown on casitone without FLC and incubated at 30 °C for 48 h. For all panels, n ≥ 2; *** P

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Antifungal tolerance is a subpopulation effect distinct from resistance and is associated with persistent candidemia

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-04926-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Analysis of cells growing at supra-MIC concentrations. All tested strains, except for T101 (MIC = 64 µg/ml), had FLC MIC values below 10 µg/ml. a FoG correlates with the proportion of colonies that grow on 10 µg/ml FLC relative to growth on plates without drug. Black dots are additional strains from Fig. 1c. b . c , d Growth rate analysis of cells growing at supra-MIC FLC (10 µg/ml) during 0–5 h ( c ) and 10–15 h ( d ). e that measures time of colony appearance (ToA), colony growth rate, and colony size using desktop scanners. f ToA on medium without drug (blue) or with 10 µg/ml FLC (red) for resistant isolate T101, and isolates with different FoG levels. Graphs show the number of colonies ( y -axis) at each time point ( x . g Correlation between FoG 20 and the difference (Δ) in the ToA of colonies in the presence vs. absence of FLC (ΔToA = ToA with FLC – ToA without FLC). Black dots are additional strains from Fig. 1c. h Cells that grow within the zone of inhibition are viable, as seen by replica plating of disk diffusion assays grown on casitone without FLC and incubated at 30 °C for 48 h. For all panels, n ≥ 2; *** P

    Article Snippet: Colonies were suspended in 1 ml PBS, diluted to 104 cell/ml, and ~ 500 were spread onto casitone plates with or without 10 µg/ml FLC (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Inhibition, Diffusion-based Assay, Incubation

    Adjuvant drugs significantly reduce FLC tolerance but not resistance and render FLC cidal. a Disk diffusion assays performed with 25 µg FLC on casitone plates supplemented with adjuvant drugs 20 µg/ml fluoxetine, 5 ng/ml aureobasidin A, 0.5 ng/ml rapamycin, 10 µg/ml fluphenazine, 12.5 ng/ml staurosporine, 0.25 µg/ml tunicamycin, Hsp90 inhibitors (0.5 µg/ml geldanamycin and 0.5 µg/ml radicicol), and calcineurin inhibitors (0.5 µg/ml FK506 and 0.4 µg/ml cyclosporine A) shown for strain SC5314. b RAD and FoG levels performed on disk diffusion assays with FLC and adjuvants. c Effect of drug adjuvants and pathways inhibitors on the viability of cells growing inside the zone of inhibition. FLC disk diffusion assays of SC5314 without or with adjuvant were replica plated (after removal of the drug disk) onto casitone plates (without FLC or adjuvants) and incubated at 30 °C for 48 h. d , e FLC disk diffusion assays performed using a series of mutants carrying deletions in genes encoding the calcineurin subunit Cnb1, the calcineurin-responsive transcription factor Crz1, calcineurin regulators Rcn1 and Rcn2, MAP kinase Mkc1, vacuolar trafficking protein Vps21 ( d ), ergosterol biosynthesis regulator Upc2, and efflux pump regulators Tac1 and Mrr1 ( e ). These mutants as well as the rcn1 crz1 double mutant were analyzed by diskImageR , and RAD and FoG levels are shown relative to the isogenic parental strains (WT). All pictures in this figure are representative of two biological replicates, asterisks denote significant differences relative to corresponding parental strains. For all panels, n ≥ 2; *** P

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Antifungal tolerance is a subpopulation effect distinct from resistance and is associated with persistent candidemia

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-04926-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Adjuvant drugs significantly reduce FLC tolerance but not resistance and render FLC cidal. a Disk diffusion assays performed with 25 µg FLC on casitone plates supplemented with adjuvant drugs 20 µg/ml fluoxetine, 5 ng/ml aureobasidin A, 0.5 ng/ml rapamycin, 10 µg/ml fluphenazine, 12.5 ng/ml staurosporine, 0.25 µg/ml tunicamycin, Hsp90 inhibitors (0.5 µg/ml geldanamycin and 0.5 µg/ml radicicol), and calcineurin inhibitors (0.5 µg/ml FK506 and 0.4 µg/ml cyclosporine A) shown for strain SC5314. b RAD and FoG levels performed on disk diffusion assays with FLC and adjuvants. c Effect of drug adjuvants and pathways inhibitors on the viability of cells growing inside the zone of inhibition. FLC disk diffusion assays of SC5314 without or with adjuvant were replica plated (after removal of the drug disk) onto casitone plates (without FLC or adjuvants) and incubated at 30 °C for 48 h. d , e FLC disk diffusion assays performed using a series of mutants carrying deletions in genes encoding the calcineurin subunit Cnb1, the calcineurin-responsive transcription factor Crz1, calcineurin regulators Rcn1 and Rcn2, MAP kinase Mkc1, vacuolar trafficking protein Vps21 ( d ), ergosterol biosynthesis regulator Upc2, and efflux pump regulators Tac1 and Mrr1 ( e ). These mutants as well as the rcn1 crz1 double mutant were analyzed by diskImageR , and RAD and FoG levels are shown relative to the isogenic parental strains (WT). All pictures in this figure are representative of two biological replicates, asterisks denote significant differences relative to corresponding parental strains. For all panels, n ≥ 2; *** P

    Article Snippet: Colonies were suspended in 1 ml PBS, diluted to 104 cell/ml, and ~ 500 were spread onto casitone plates with or without 10 µg/ml FLC (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA).

    Techniques: Diffusion-based Assay, Inhibition, Incubation, Mutagenesis

    Sequential therapy time-kill curve for C . albicans (a) and C . guillermondii (b) in the presence of amphotericin B or fluconazole (concentration = 0.25 x MIC) after 12 h pre exposure to C32 (concentration = 0.25 x MIC). Color coding is provided in the Figure. Standard deviations are omitted for clarity. Normally, these were between 0.1 to 0.5 Log CFU ml -1 units.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Antibiotic saving effect of combination therapy through synergistic interactions between well-characterized chito-oligosaccharides and commercial antifungals against medically relevant yeasts

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0227098

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sequential therapy time-kill curve for C . albicans (a) and C . guillermondii (b) in the presence of amphotericin B or fluconazole (concentration = 0.25 x MIC) after 12 h pre exposure to C32 (concentration = 0.25 x MIC). Color coding is provided in the Figure. Standard deviations are omitted for clarity. Normally, these were between 0.1 to 0.5 Log CFU ml -1 units.

    Article Snippet: Antifungals Commercial antifungals (CA), fluconazole (Flu), amphotericin B (Amp), voriconazole (Vor), flucytosine (Fcs), and miconazole (Mcz), were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Cell viability curve and IC 50 of the P. salutare essential oil (A, C and E) and the oil in combined with fluconazole (B, D and F) against different Candida spp. strains, at different collection periods. Concentration of fluconazole: 2,048 µg/mL. OEFPs, Essential oil of the leaves of Psidium salutare , 1, 2 and 3 collections; CA, C. albicans ; CT, C. tropicalis ; CK, C. krusei ; INCQS, National Institute of Quality Control in Health. (A) Cell viability curve and IC 50 of Psidium salutare essential oil against Candida albicans . (B) Cell viability curve and IC 50 of Psidium salutare essential oil combined with fluconazole against Candida albicans . (C) Cell viability curve and IC 50 of Psidium salutare essential oil against Candida tropicalis . (D) Cell viability curve and IC 50 of Psidium salutare essential oil combined with fluconazole against Candida tropicalis . (E) Cell viability curve and IC 50 of Psidium salutare essential oil against Candida krusei . (F) Cell viability curve and IC 50 of Psidium salutare essential oil combined with fluconazole against Candida krusei .

    Journal: PeerJ

    Article Title: Effect of seasonality on chemical profile and antifungal activity of essential oil isolated from leaves Psidium salutare (Kunth) O. Berg

    doi: 10.7717/peerj.5476

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cell viability curve and IC 50 of the P. salutare essential oil (A, C and E) and the oil in combined with fluconazole (B, D and F) against different Candida spp. strains, at different collection periods. Concentration of fluconazole: 2,048 µg/mL. OEFPs, Essential oil of the leaves of Psidium salutare , 1, 2 and 3 collections; CA, C. albicans ; CT, C. tropicalis ; CK, C. krusei ; INCQS, National Institute of Quality Control in Health. (A) Cell viability curve and IC 50 of Psidium salutare essential oil against Candida albicans . (B) Cell viability curve and IC 50 of Psidium salutare essential oil combined with fluconazole against Candida albicans . (C) Cell viability curve and IC 50 of Psidium salutare essential oil against Candida tropicalis . (D) Cell viability curve and IC 50 of Psidium salutare essential oil combined with fluconazole against Candida tropicalis . (E) Cell viability curve and IC 50 of Psidium salutare essential oil against Candida krusei . (F) Cell viability curve and IC 50 of Psidium salutare essential oil combined with fluconazole against Candida krusei .

    Article Snippet: Both the essential oil and antifungal fluconazole (F8929 ≥ 98% (HPLC), powder; Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) was previously diluted in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; Dynamic, Indaiatuba, Brazil) and its final concentration was adjusted with addition of distilled water to obtain the desired concentration for (16,384 µg / ml).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Effect of the Psidium salutare essential oil on Candida albicans yeast micromorphological aspects. Culture performed in depleted potato dextrose agar medium, with 40×objective visualization. (A) Growth control, (B) fluconazole antifungal effect at 2,048 µg/mL, (C) P. salutare essential oil effect at 8,192 μg/mL, (D) P. salutare essential oil effect at 2,048 µg/mL and (E) (C) P. salutare essential oil effect at 512 µg/mL; CA, C. albicans ; INCQS, National Institute of Quality Control in Health.

    Journal: PeerJ

    Article Title: Effect of seasonality on chemical profile and antifungal activity of essential oil isolated from leaves Psidium salutare (Kunth) O. Berg

    doi: 10.7717/peerj.5476

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of the Psidium salutare essential oil on Candida albicans yeast micromorphological aspects. Culture performed in depleted potato dextrose agar medium, with 40×objective visualization. (A) Growth control, (B) fluconazole antifungal effect at 2,048 µg/mL, (C) P. salutare essential oil effect at 8,192 μg/mL, (D) P. salutare essential oil effect at 2,048 µg/mL and (E) (C) P. salutare essential oil effect at 512 µg/mL; CA, C. albicans ; INCQS, National Institute of Quality Control in Health.

    Article Snippet: Both the essential oil and antifungal fluconazole (F8929 ≥ 98% (HPLC), powder; Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) was previously diluted in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; Dynamic, Indaiatuba, Brazil) and its final concentration was adjusted with addition of distilled water to obtain the desired concentration for (16,384 µg / ml).

    Techniques:

    SEM images of 48-h C. albicans HK1Sa. (A) Control C. albicans HK1Sa; (B) C. albicans HK1Sa biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml amphotericin B for 4 h; (C) C. albicans HK1Sa biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml fluconazole for 4 h. Note the wrinkled,

    Journal:

    Article Title: In Vitro Method To Study Antifungal Perfusion in Candida Biofilms

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.43.2.818-825.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SEM images of 48-h C. albicans HK1Sa. (A) Control C. albicans HK1Sa; (B) C. albicans HK1Sa biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml amphotericin B for 4 h; (C) C. albicans HK1Sa biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml fluconazole for 4 h. Note the wrinkled,

    Article Snippet: Three antifungals commonly used to treat oropharyngeal and systemic candidiasis were selected for the study, viz., amphotericin B (Sigma), fluconazole (Pfizer), and flucytosine (Sigma).

    Techniques:

    Standard curves for the three antifungal agents, showing the relationship between drug concentration and the radius of growth inhibition of a lawn of C. parapsilosis on RPMI agar. 5FC, flucytosine; FL, fluconazole; AmB, amphotericin B.

    Journal:

    Article Title: In Vitro Method To Study Antifungal Perfusion in Candida Biofilms

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.43.2.818-825.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Standard curves for the three antifungal agents, showing the relationship between drug concentration and the radius of growth inhibition of a lawn of C. parapsilosis on RPMI agar. 5FC, flucytosine; FL, fluconazole; AmB, amphotericin B.

    Article Snippet: Three antifungals commonly used to treat oropharyngeal and systemic candidiasis were selected for the study, viz., amphotericin B (Sigma), fluconazole (Pfizer), and flucytosine (Sigma).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Inhibition

    Penetration of various concentrations (i.e., 150, 300, and 600 μg/ml) of the three antifungals, amphotericin B (a), fluconazole (b), and flucytosine (c), through 48-h-old C. albicans , C. parapsilosis , and C. krusei biofilms shown in terms of the

    Journal:

    Article Title: In Vitro Method To Study Antifungal Perfusion in Candida Biofilms

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.43.2.818-825.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Penetration of various concentrations (i.e., 150, 300, and 600 μg/ml) of the three antifungals, amphotericin B (a), fluconazole (b), and flucytosine (c), through 48-h-old C. albicans , C. parapsilosis , and C. krusei biofilms shown in terms of the

    Article Snippet: Three antifungals commonly used to treat oropharyngeal and systemic candidiasis were selected for the study, viz., amphotericin B (Sigma), fluconazole (Pfizer), and flucytosine (Sigma).

    Techniques:

    SEM images of 48-h C. krusei ATCC 6258. (A) Control C. krusei ATCC 6258; (B) C. krusei ATCC 6258 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml amphotericin B for 4 h; (C) C. krusei ATCC 6258 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml fluconazole for 4 h.

    Journal:

    Article Title: In Vitro Method To Study Antifungal Perfusion in Candida Biofilms

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.43.2.818-825.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SEM images of 48-h C. krusei ATCC 6258. (A) Control C. krusei ATCC 6258; (B) C. krusei ATCC 6258 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml amphotericin B for 4 h; (C) C. krusei ATCC 6258 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml fluconazole for 4 h.

    Article Snippet: Three antifungals commonly used to treat oropharyngeal and systemic candidiasis were selected for the study, viz., amphotericin B (Sigma), fluconazole (Pfizer), and flucytosine (Sigma).

    Techniques:

    SEM images of 48-h C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019. (A) Control; (B) C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml amphotericin B for 4 h; (C) C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml fluconazole for 4 h. Note the ruptured

    Journal:

    Article Title: In Vitro Method To Study Antifungal Perfusion in Candida Biofilms

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.43.2.818-825.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SEM images of 48-h C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019. (A) Control; (B) C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml amphotericin B for 4 h; (C) C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019 biofilm exposed to 600-μg/ml fluconazole for 4 h. Note the ruptured

    Article Snippet: Three antifungals commonly used to treat oropharyngeal and systemic candidiasis were selected for the study, viz., amphotericin B (Sigma), fluconazole (Pfizer), and flucytosine (Sigma).

    Techniques:

    Killing of G. mellonella by C. albicans exposed to antimicrobial PDT. In the aPDT group, the larvae received the PS injection 90 min after the infection with C. albicans . In order to allow a good dispersion of the PS into the insect body, we waited at least 30 additional min after the PS injection prior to the light irradiation. A control group received PS without light exposure. Larvae were maintained at 37°C. a) C. albicans Can14 wild-type strain SC5314, b) C. albicans Can37 clinical isolate from oropharyngeal candidiasis and fluconazole resistant.

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Selective photoinactivation of Candida albicans in the non-vertebrate host infection model Galleria mellonella

    doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-13-217

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Killing of G. mellonella by C. albicans exposed to antimicrobial PDT. In the aPDT group, the larvae received the PS injection 90 min after the infection with C. albicans . In order to allow a good dispersion of the PS into the insect body, we waited at least 30 additional min after the PS injection prior to the light irradiation. A control group received PS without light exposure. Larvae were maintained at 37°C. a) C. albicans Can14 wild-type strain SC5314, b) C. albicans Can37 clinical isolate from oropharyngeal candidiasis and fluconazole resistant.

    Article Snippet: Susceptibility pattern to fluconazole was determined by the broth microdilution assay according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).

    Techniques: Injection, Infection, Irradiation

    Killing of G. mellonella larvae after infection by C. albicans Can37 fluconazole resistant. The larvae received an injection of 1.4x10 6 CFU/larva and were maintained at 37°C. a) administration of fluconazole (14 mg/kg) or PBS (Control), b) antimicrobial PDT or only MB (Control), c) administration of fluconazole followed by aPDT in a combined therapy or PBS (Control), d) administration of aPDT followed by fluconazole in a combined therapy or PBS (Control), e) administration of aPDT or fluconazole + PDT, f) administration of aPDT or fluconazole + PDT. There was no significant difference on larvae survival when treatment was done only by injecting of fluconazole ( P = 0.584) or aPDT alone ( P = 0.102). The combined treatment by application of aPDT followed or before fluconazole injection resulted in significantly lower death rates when compared to a control groups ( P = 0.0010 to aPDT followed by fluconazole, and P = 0.0018 when aPDT was applied after fluconazole injection). A significant difference in survival was observed for combined treatment compared to aPDT alone ( P = 0.0062 for aPDT followed by fluconazole, and P = 0.0068 when aPDT was applied after fluconazole injection).

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Selective photoinactivation of Candida albicans in the non-vertebrate host infection model Galleria mellonella

    doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-13-217

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Killing of G. mellonella larvae after infection by C. albicans Can37 fluconazole resistant. The larvae received an injection of 1.4x10 6 CFU/larva and were maintained at 37°C. a) administration of fluconazole (14 mg/kg) or PBS (Control), b) antimicrobial PDT or only MB (Control), c) administration of fluconazole followed by aPDT in a combined therapy or PBS (Control), d) administration of aPDT followed by fluconazole in a combined therapy or PBS (Control), e) administration of aPDT or fluconazole + PDT, f) administration of aPDT or fluconazole + PDT. There was no significant difference on larvae survival when treatment was done only by injecting of fluconazole ( P = 0.584) or aPDT alone ( P = 0.102). The combined treatment by application of aPDT followed or before fluconazole injection resulted in significantly lower death rates when compared to a control groups ( P = 0.0010 to aPDT followed by fluconazole, and P = 0.0018 when aPDT was applied after fluconazole injection). A significant difference in survival was observed for combined treatment compared to aPDT alone ( P = 0.0062 for aPDT followed by fluconazole, and P = 0.0068 when aPDT was applied after fluconazole injection).

    Article Snippet: Susceptibility pattern to fluconazole was determined by the broth microdilution assay according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).

    Techniques: Infection, Injection

    Antifungal Susceptibility Testing (AFST) of vaginal Candida isolates against fluconazole.

    Journal: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research : JCDR

    Article Title: Fungal Profile of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2017/23578.9475

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antifungal Susceptibility Testing (AFST) of vaginal Candida isolates against fluconazole.

    Article Snippet: Antifungal susceptibility tests were performed by the disc diffusion method using fluconazole (25 μg) and voriconazole (1 μg) (Hi-Media, Mumbai, India), on Muller Hinton Agar (MHA) (Hi-Media, Mumbai, India) supplemented with 2% Glucose and Methylene Blue dye 0.5 μg/ml (GMB) as per the CLSI-M44-A2 guidelines [ ].

    Techniques:

    Efficacies of fluconazole (FLC) and voriconazole (VRC) for Galleria mellonella infected with different strains of Candida tropicalis . Ten larvae per group were infected with 2 × 10 6 cells of C. tropicalis ATCC 750, CL-6835, or TP-13650. For C.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Candida tropicalis Antifungal Cross-Resistance Is Related to Different Azole Target (Erg11p) Modifications

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00477-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Efficacies of fluconazole (FLC) and voriconazole (VRC) for Galleria mellonella infected with different strains of Candida tropicalis . Ten larvae per group were infected with 2 × 10 6 cells of C. tropicalis ATCC 750, CL-6835, or TP-13650. For C.

    Article Snippet: The MIC values of fluconazole (FLC), voriconazole (VRC), amphotericin B (AMB), and anidulafungin (ANF) are shown in .

    Techniques: Infection

    Beauvericin inhibits Hsp90 function ( a ) Beauvericin (BEA) reduces fluconazole-induced calcineurin activation. S. cerevisiae harboring 4xCDRE- lacZ reporter construct ± fluconazole (FLC, 64 μg/ml), ± geldanamycin (GdA, 5.6 μg/ml), FK506 (1.0 μg/ml), or beauvericin (20 μg/ml). Data are mean ± s.d. from technical triplicates and representative of biological replicates. * P

    Journal: Nature chemical biology

    Article Title: Dual Action Antifungal Small Molecule Modulates Multidrug Efflux and TOR Signaling

    doi: 10.1038/nchembio.2165

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Beauvericin inhibits Hsp90 function ( a ) Beauvericin (BEA) reduces fluconazole-induced calcineurin activation. S. cerevisiae harboring 4xCDRE- lacZ reporter construct ± fluconazole (FLC, 64 μg/ml), ± geldanamycin (GdA, 5.6 μg/ml), FK506 (1.0 μg/ml), or beauvericin (20 μg/ml). Data are mean ± s.d. from technical triplicates and representative of biological replicates. * P

    Article Snippet: Fluconazole (Sequoia Research Products) was dissolved in sterile ddH2 O, beauvericin in 100% methanol, cycloheximide (AG Scientific Inc.) in sterile ddH2 O, rhodamine-6G (Sigma-Aldrich) in sterile ddH2 O, geldanamycin (Invitrogen) in DMSO, and cyclosporin A (CalBiochem) in DMSO.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Construct

    Beauvericin inhibits Pdr5, thereby increasing fluconazole intracellular accumulation, and can be effluxed by Pdr5 following substitutions that alter substrate-specificity ( a ) S. cerevisiae lacking Yor1 is sensitive to beauvericin, but acquires resistance via Pdr5 substitutions. 1×10 8 cells plated on YEPD containing beauvericin (100 μg/ml); resistant mutants recovered after 3–4 days at 30°C. Resistance was assessed in YEPD with two-fold serial dilutions of beauvericin, as in Figure 1 . Mutations identified by genome sequencing indicated as amino acid changes; those in Pdr5 shown in red. ( b ) Functional validation of PDR5 mutations. Amino acid 538 is altered in three of five mutants; expression of PDR5 G538R in yor1 Δ pdr5 Δ confers beauvericin resistance. Resistance was assessed in SD medium at 30°C for 72 hours. (a–b) Performed in biological triplicates with technical duplicates. ( c ) Beauvericin-resistant mutants exhibit altered substrate specificity, and beauvericin enhances azole accumulation. Deletion of PDR5 increased intracellular accumulation of radiolabelled fluconazole, as with beauvericin-resistant mutants yor1 ΔR1 and R5. Error bars represent standard deviation (s.d.), * P

    Journal: Nature chemical biology

    Article Title: Dual Action Antifungal Small Molecule Modulates Multidrug Efflux and TOR Signaling

    doi: 10.1038/nchembio.2165

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Beauvericin inhibits Pdr5, thereby increasing fluconazole intracellular accumulation, and can be effluxed by Pdr5 following substitutions that alter substrate-specificity ( a ) S. cerevisiae lacking Yor1 is sensitive to beauvericin, but acquires resistance via Pdr5 substitutions. 1×10 8 cells plated on YEPD containing beauvericin (100 μg/ml); resistant mutants recovered after 3–4 days at 30°C. Resistance was assessed in YEPD with two-fold serial dilutions of beauvericin, as in Figure 1 . Mutations identified by genome sequencing indicated as amino acid changes; those in Pdr5 shown in red. ( b ) Functional validation of PDR5 mutations. Amino acid 538 is altered in three of five mutants; expression of PDR5 G538R in yor1 Δ pdr5 Δ confers beauvericin resistance. Resistance was assessed in SD medium at 30°C for 72 hours. (a–b) Performed in biological triplicates with technical duplicates. ( c ) Beauvericin-resistant mutants exhibit altered substrate specificity, and beauvericin enhances azole accumulation. Deletion of PDR5 increased intracellular accumulation of radiolabelled fluconazole, as with beauvericin-resistant mutants yor1 ΔR1 and R5. Error bars represent standard deviation (s.d.), * P

    Article Snippet: Fluconazole (Sequoia Research Products) was dissolved in sterile ddH2 O, beauvericin in 100% methanol, cycloheximide (AG Scientific Inc.) in sterile ddH2 O, rhodamine-6G (Sigma-Aldrich) in sterile ddH2 O, geldanamycin (Invitrogen) in DMSO, and cyclosporin A (CalBiochem) in DMSO.

    Techniques: Sequencing, Functional Assay, Expressing, Standard Deviation

    The combination of beauvericin and fluconazole provides a powerful therapeutic strategy ( a ) Beauvericin enhances fluconazole efficacy in a mouse model of C. albicans disseminated infection. Mice were infected with C. albicans (SC5314) and treated with vehicle, beauvericin, fluconazole, or the combination. Even with a high C. albicans inoculum, the combination of beauvericin and fluconazole significantly enhanced survival relative to either treatment alone. Each group consisted of 10 female BALB/c mice. Log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test: vehicle vs. beauvericin: P =0.3173, vehicle vs. fluconazole: P

    Journal: Nature chemical biology

    Article Title: Dual Action Antifungal Small Molecule Modulates Multidrug Efflux and TOR Signaling

    doi: 10.1038/nchembio.2165

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The combination of beauvericin and fluconazole provides a powerful therapeutic strategy ( a ) Beauvericin enhances fluconazole efficacy in a mouse model of C. albicans disseminated infection. Mice were infected with C. albicans (SC5314) and treated with vehicle, beauvericin, fluconazole, or the combination. Even with a high C. albicans inoculum, the combination of beauvericin and fluconazole significantly enhanced survival relative to either treatment alone. Each group consisted of 10 female BALB/c mice. Log-rank (Mantel-Cox) test: vehicle vs. beauvericin: P =0.3173, vehicle vs. fluconazole: P

    Article Snippet: Fluconazole (Sequoia Research Products) was dissolved in sterile ddH2 O, beauvericin in 100% methanol, cycloheximide (AG Scientific Inc.) in sterile ddH2 O, rhodamine-6G (Sigma-Aldrich) in sterile ddH2 O, geldanamycin (Invitrogen) in DMSO, and cyclosporin A (CalBiochem) in DMSO.

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay

    Beauvericin enhances fluconazole efficacy against diverse fungi and blocks the emergence of resistance ( a ) Beauvericin (BEA) reduces fluconazole resistance of reference strains of S. cerevisiae (BY4741), C. albicans (SN95), and C. neoformans (H99a), and A. fumigatus clinical isolate on rich medium (YEPD). Fluconazole (FLC) strips generate a gradient from 0.016 to 256 μg/ml, with the highest concentration at the top. Where indicated, plates contain 20 μg/ml of BEA. Experiment performed in biological triplicates. ( b ) BEA and FLC are synergistic and cidal against C. albicans (SN95). SN95 was subjected to two-fold serial dilutions of BEA and FLC in YEPD at 30°C for 48 hours. Optical densities were standardized to drug-free controls (see color bar) and FICI was calculated based on concentrations causing 60–70% growth inhibition. The drug combination is cidal, based on transferring cells to drug-free YEPD medium for 24 hours. ( c ) BEA reduced FLC resistance of C. albicans clinical isolates (CaCi) similar to geldanamycin (GdA) and cyclosporin A (CsA). CaCi are sequentially ordered with isolates recovered early at the top. MIC assays were performed in YEPD (−) with GdA (5 μM), CsA (20 μM), or BEA (25 μM), with a two-fold serial dilution of FLC. (b–c) Experiments performed in biological triplicates with technical duplicates. ( d ) BEA blocks the emergence of FLC resistance in C. albicans (SN95). 1×10 5 cells were plated on YEPD containing no inhibitor (−), 20 μg/ml BEA, 32 μg/ml FLC, or the combination. Plates were photographed after three days at 30°C. Experiment performed in biological triplicates.

    Journal: Nature chemical biology

    Article Title: Dual Action Antifungal Small Molecule Modulates Multidrug Efflux and TOR Signaling

    doi: 10.1038/nchembio.2165

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Beauvericin enhances fluconazole efficacy against diverse fungi and blocks the emergence of resistance ( a ) Beauvericin (BEA) reduces fluconazole resistance of reference strains of S. cerevisiae (BY4741), C. albicans (SN95), and C. neoformans (H99a), and A. fumigatus clinical isolate on rich medium (YEPD). Fluconazole (FLC) strips generate a gradient from 0.016 to 256 μg/ml, with the highest concentration at the top. Where indicated, plates contain 20 μg/ml of BEA. Experiment performed in biological triplicates. ( b ) BEA and FLC are synergistic and cidal against C. albicans (SN95). SN95 was subjected to two-fold serial dilutions of BEA and FLC in YEPD at 30°C for 48 hours. Optical densities were standardized to drug-free controls (see color bar) and FICI was calculated based on concentrations causing 60–70% growth inhibition. The drug combination is cidal, based on transferring cells to drug-free YEPD medium for 24 hours. ( c ) BEA reduced FLC resistance of C. albicans clinical isolates (CaCi) similar to geldanamycin (GdA) and cyclosporin A (CsA). CaCi are sequentially ordered with isolates recovered early at the top. MIC assays were performed in YEPD (−) with GdA (5 μM), CsA (20 μM), or BEA (25 μM), with a two-fold serial dilution of FLC. (b–c) Experiments performed in biological triplicates with technical duplicates. ( d ) BEA blocks the emergence of FLC resistance in C. albicans (SN95). 1×10 5 cells were plated on YEPD containing no inhibitor (−), 20 μg/ml BEA, 32 μg/ml FLC, or the combination. Plates were photographed after three days at 30°C. Experiment performed in biological triplicates.

    Article Snippet: Fluconazole (Sequoia Research Products) was dissolved in sterile ddH2 O, beauvericin in 100% methanol, cycloheximide (AG Scientific Inc.) in sterile ddH2 O, rhodamine-6G (Sigma-Aldrich) in sterile ddH2 O, geldanamycin (Invitrogen) in DMSO, and cyclosporin A (CalBiochem) in DMSO.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Inhibition, Transferring, Serial Dilution

    Zones of inhibition around 25-μg fluconazole disks on MBE agar plotted against the MICs determined at 48 h by the reference BMD method for 235 C. glabrata isolates. The method of least squares was used to calculate a regression line ( y = 71.1 − 3.6 x ; R = 0.7). The horizontal lines indicate the S (≥19 mm) and R (≤14 mm) zone diameter breakpoints for the fluconazole disk test. The vertical lines indicate the S (≤8 μg/ml) and R (≥64 μg/ml) MIC breakpoints for fluconazole. The numbers inside the graph indicate numbers of isolates.

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    Article Title: Evaluation of the Etest and Disk Diffusion Methods for Determining Susceptibilities of 235 Bloodstream Isolates of Candida glabrata to Fluconazole and Voriconazole

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.41.5.1875-1880.2003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Zones of inhibition around 25-μg fluconazole disks on MBE agar plotted against the MICs determined at 48 h by the reference BMD method for 235 C. glabrata isolates. The method of least squares was used to calculate a regression line ( y = 71.1 − 3.6 x ; R = 0.7). The horizontal lines indicate the S (≥19 mm) and R (≤14 mm) zone diameter breakpoints for the fluconazole disk test. The vertical lines indicate the S (≤8 μg/ml) and R (≥64 μg/ml) MIC breakpoints for fluconazole. The numbers inside the graph indicate numbers of isolates.

    Article Snippet: Fluconazole (25-μg) and voriconazole (1-μg) disks were obtained from Becton Dickinson (Sparks, Md.).

    Techniques: Inhibition

    Structures of the triazoles voriconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole and the BR biosynthesis inhibitor Brz2001.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Genetic Variation in Plant CYP51s Confers Resistance against Voriconazole, a Novel Inhibitor of Brassinosteroid-Dependent Sterol Biosynthesis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053650

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Structures of the triazoles voriconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole and the BR biosynthesis inhibitor Brz2001.

    Article Snippet: Chemicals Bifonazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, thiabendazole and uniconazole were purchased from LKT Laboratories (St. Paul, MN, USA).

    Techniques:

    Voriconazole, itraconazole and fluconazole induce phenotypes indicative of BR deficiency in arabidopsis and cress. ( A ) Arabidopsis plants grown on plates containing 5 µM of the indicated compounds under long-day conditions for 7 days. ( B ) Hypocotyl length of cress seedlings grown for 3 days on plates containing different concentrations of the indicated compounds. Data are the mean ± SD of 30 seedlings measured.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Genetic Variation in Plant CYP51s Confers Resistance against Voriconazole, a Novel Inhibitor of Brassinosteroid-Dependent Sterol Biosynthesis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0053650

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Voriconazole, itraconazole and fluconazole induce phenotypes indicative of BR deficiency in arabidopsis and cress. ( A ) Arabidopsis plants grown on plates containing 5 µM of the indicated compounds under long-day conditions for 7 days. ( B ) Hypocotyl length of cress seedlings grown for 3 days on plates containing different concentrations of the indicated compounds. Data are the mean ± SD of 30 seedlings measured.

    Article Snippet: Chemicals Bifonazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, thiabendazole and uniconazole were purchased from LKT Laboratories (St. Paul, MN, USA).

    Techniques:

    Diploid and Tetraploid C.albicans are sensitive to antifungals. A) Diploid colony forming units (CFUs) following 24-hr exposure to 1μg/mL or 10μg/mL fluconazole (‘FLU’, light and dark purple bars) and 0.25μg/mL or 2.5μg/mL caspofungin (‘CAS’, light and dark green bars) treatments. Bars represent the mean of 3 independent experiments (black symbols), and the error bars indicate +/− SEM. The dashed line and shaded box represent the mean and +/− SEM of the no-drug treatment. Asterisks indicate drug treatments that differ significantly from the no-drug treatment (* P

    Journal: G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics

    Article Title: The Magnitude of Candida albicans Stress-Induced Genome Instability Results from an Interaction Between Ploidy and Antifungal Drugs

    doi: 10.1534/g3.119.400752

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Diploid and Tetraploid C.albicans are sensitive to antifungals. A) Diploid colony forming units (CFUs) following 24-hr exposure to 1μg/mL or 10μg/mL fluconazole (‘FLU’, light and dark purple bars) and 0.25μg/mL or 2.5μg/mL caspofungin (‘CAS’, light and dark green bars) treatments. Bars represent the mean of 3 independent experiments (black symbols), and the error bars indicate +/− SEM. The dashed line and shaded box represent the mean and +/− SEM of the no-drug treatment. Asterisks indicate drug treatments that differ significantly from the no-drug treatment (* P

    Article Snippet: Antifungal drug treatments were made from the following stock solutions: 1 mg fluconazole (ACROS Organics CAS#86386-73-4) was diluted into 1 mL DMSO, 1 mg caspofungin (Sigma-Aldrich CAS#179463-17-3) was diluted into 1 mL ddH2 0, and 10 mg calcofluor white (Sigma-Aldrich CAS#4404-43-7) was diluted into 1 mL ddH2 0.

    Techniques:

    Ploidy and antifungal drug-specific impacts on LOH in C. albicans . A) Diploid GAL1 LOH rates following 24-hr exposure to 1μg/mL or 10μg/mL fluconazole (‘FLU’, light and dark purple bars); 0.25μg/mL or 2.5μg/mL caspofungin (‘CAS’, light and dark green bars); and 100 μg/mL calcofluor white (’CW’, gray bar) treatments. Bars represent the mean of 3 independent experiments (black symbols), and the error bars indicate +/− SEM. The dashed line and shaded box represent the mean and +/− SEM of the no-drug treatment. Asterisks indicate drug treatments that differ significantly from the no-drug treatment (* P

    Journal: G3: Genes|Genomes|Genetics

    Article Title: The Magnitude of Candida albicans Stress-Induced Genome Instability Results from an Interaction Between Ploidy and Antifungal Drugs

    doi: 10.1534/g3.119.400752

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Ploidy and antifungal drug-specific impacts on LOH in C. albicans . A) Diploid GAL1 LOH rates following 24-hr exposure to 1μg/mL or 10μg/mL fluconazole (‘FLU’, light and dark purple bars); 0.25μg/mL or 2.5μg/mL caspofungin (‘CAS’, light and dark green bars); and 100 μg/mL calcofluor white (’CW’, gray bar) treatments. Bars represent the mean of 3 independent experiments (black symbols), and the error bars indicate +/− SEM. The dashed line and shaded box represent the mean and +/− SEM of the no-drug treatment. Asterisks indicate drug treatments that differ significantly from the no-drug treatment (* P

    Article Snippet: Antifungal drug treatments were made from the following stock solutions: 1 mg fluconazole (ACROS Organics CAS#86386-73-4) was diluted into 1 mL DMSO, 1 mg caspofungin (Sigma-Aldrich CAS#179463-17-3) was diluted into 1 mL ddH2 0, and 10 mg calcofluor white (Sigma-Aldrich CAS#4404-43-7) was diluted into 1 mL ddH2 0.

    Techniques:

    Relationship between 24-h dose and log 10 CFU per kidney for fluconazole administered at different dosing intervals in a neutropenic murine model of disseminated candidiasis. Each symbol represents data for two mice. The solid diamond symbol represents organism counts for untreated animals at 24 h. q 24 h, q 12 h, and q 6 h, dosing every 24, 12, and 6 h, respectively.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Characterization and Quantitation of the Pharmacodynamics of Fluconazole in a Neutropenic Murine Disseminated Candidiasis Infection Model

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Relationship between 24-h dose and log 10 CFU per kidney for fluconazole administered at different dosing intervals in a neutropenic murine model of disseminated candidiasis. Each symbol represents data for two mice. The solid diamond symbol represents organism counts for untreated animals at 24 h. q 24 h, q 12 h, and q 6 h, dosing every 24, 12, and 6 h, respectively.

    Article Snippet: Fluconazole powder was provided by Pfizer Inc. (New York, N.Y.).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    In vivo PAE of fluconazole after administration of doses of 12.5 and 3.13 mg/kg against C. albicans K-1 in neutropenic mice. Each symbol represents the mean ± standard deviation for two mice. The widths of the bars reflect the duration of time that the serum fluconazole levels exceeded the MIC.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Characterization and Quantitation of the Pharmacodynamics of Fluconazole in a Neutropenic Murine Disseminated Candidiasis Infection Model

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vivo PAE of fluconazole after administration of doses of 12.5 and 3.13 mg/kg against C. albicans K-1 in neutropenic mice. Each symbol represents the mean ± standard deviation for two mice. The widths of the bars reflect the duration of time that the serum fluconazole levels exceeded the MIC.

    Article Snippet: Fluconazole powder was provided by Pfizer Inc. (New York, N.Y.).

    Techniques: In Vivo, Mouse Assay, Standard Deviation

    Serum fluconazole concentrations after administration of doses of 100, 25, and 6.25 mg/kg in neutropenic infected mice. Each symbol represents the geometric mean ± standard deviation of the levels in the sera of three mice.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Characterization and Quantitation of the Pharmacodynamics of Fluconazole in a Neutropenic Murine Disseminated Candidiasis Infection Model

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Serum fluconazole concentrations after administration of doses of 100, 25, and 6.25 mg/kg in neutropenic infected mice. Each symbol represents the geometric mean ± standard deviation of the levels in the sera of three mice.

    Article Snippet: Fluconazole powder was provided by Pfizer Inc. (New York, N.Y.).

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay, Standard Deviation

    Cost savings of CrAg screening with different treatment regimens for those with cryptococcal meningitis. Left: CrAg screening and preemptive treatment where cryptococcal meningitis is treated with fluconazole alone. Right: Cryptococcal meningitis is treated with amphotericin + flucytosine. For analyses where meningitis was treated with fluconazole alone (which is highly ineffective), CrAg screening is cost-effective, but not cost-saving, because the treatment for meningitis is inexpensive. However, full implementation of CrAg screening resulted in a 44% reduction in mortality, given the poor efficacy of fluconazole in the treatment of meningitis. Conversely, if meningitis is treated with amphotericin + flucytosine, CrAg screening is cost-saving because treatment for meningitis is expensive, and reduces mortality. Mortality reductions are less dramatic with meningitis regimens that are more effective. In all scenarios, CrAg screening reduced mortality and was cost-effective.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Evaluation of a national cryptococcal antigen screening program for HIV-infected patients in Uganda: A cost-effectiveness modeling analysis

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0210105

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cost savings of CrAg screening with different treatment regimens for those with cryptococcal meningitis. Left: CrAg screening and preemptive treatment where cryptococcal meningitis is treated with fluconazole alone. Right: Cryptococcal meningitis is treated with amphotericin + flucytosine. For analyses where meningitis was treated with fluconazole alone (which is highly ineffective), CrAg screening is cost-effective, but not cost-saving, because the treatment for meningitis is inexpensive. However, full implementation of CrAg screening resulted in a 44% reduction in mortality, given the poor efficacy of fluconazole in the treatment of meningitis. Conversely, if meningitis is treated with amphotericin + flucytosine, CrAg screening is cost-saving because treatment for meningitis is expensive, and reduces mortality. Mortality reductions are less dramatic with meningitis regimens that are more effective. In all scenarios, CrAg screening reduced mortality and was cost-effective.

    Article Snippet: In Uganda we note dependence on the Pfizer Diflucan Partnership Program, but this arrangement has not resulted in the availability of fluconazole in many parts of the country.

    Techniques:

    Nanoscale mixed-species biofilm of S. aureus and C. albicans on chip. (A) Fluorescence micrographs of a section of the spot containing mixed-species nanobiofilms stained with FUN-1 and concanavalin A. Staining with FUN-1 demonstrated all viable fungal and bacterial populations (in orange-yellow), and concanavalin A stained only fungal cell walls (in blue). (B to D) Profile of susceptibility of mixed-species biofilms of S. aureus and C. albicans to antibiotics (B), antifungals (C), and combination treatment (D). The data represent dose-response profiles of mixed-species biofilms with respect to ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, tobramycin, and methicillin (B) and to amphotericin B and fluconazole (C) at 50, 5, 0.5, 0.05, and 0.005 μg/ml. (D) Profile of susceptibility to combinations of 25 μg/ml of vancomycin (VANC) with 25, 2.5, 0.25, 0.025, and 0.0025 μg/ml of amphotericin B (AMB) and fluconazole (FLU).

    Journal: mSphere

    Article Title: nBioChip, a Lab-on-a-Chip Platform of Mono- and Polymicrobial Biofilms for High-Throughput Downstream Applications

    doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00247-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Nanoscale mixed-species biofilm of S. aureus and C. albicans on chip. (A) Fluorescence micrographs of a section of the spot containing mixed-species nanobiofilms stained with FUN-1 and concanavalin A. Staining with FUN-1 demonstrated all viable fungal and bacterial populations (in orange-yellow), and concanavalin A stained only fungal cell walls (in blue). (B to D) Profile of susceptibility of mixed-species biofilms of S. aureus and C. albicans to antibiotics (B), antifungals (C), and combination treatment (D). The data represent dose-response profiles of mixed-species biofilms with respect to ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, tobramycin, and methicillin (B) and to amphotericin B and fluconazole (C) at 50, 5, 0.5, 0.05, and 0.005 μg/ml. (D) Profile of susceptibility to combinations of 25 μg/ml of vancomycin (VANC) with 25, 2.5, 0.25, 0.025, and 0.0025 μg/ml of amphotericin B (AMB) and fluconazole (FLU).

    Article Snippet: Another iteration of printing was carried out to deposit 50 nl of amphotericin B (Sigma, MO) and fluconazole (Hospira, IL) at dilutions of 50, 5, 0.5, 0.05, and 0.005 μg/ml.

    Techniques: Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Fluorescence, Staining

    JJJ1 influences fluconazole susceptibility in a CDR1 -dependent manner. (A) The effects of JJJ1 deletion on expression of the genes encoding the ABC transporters Cdr1, Snq2, and Pdh1 was measured by qRT-PCR. Expression was normalized to 18S rRNA expression in the parent isolate SM1. Changes were compared using a Student’s t test. Gene expression values marked with an asterisk are statistically significant ( P

    Journal: mSphere

    Article Title: Jjj1 Is a Negative Regulator of Pdr1-Mediated Fluconazole Resistance in Candida glabrata

    doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00466-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: JJJ1 influences fluconazole susceptibility in a CDR1 -dependent manner. (A) The effects of JJJ1 deletion on expression of the genes encoding the ABC transporters Cdr1, Snq2, and Pdh1 was measured by qRT-PCR. Expression was normalized to 18S rRNA expression in the parent isolate SM1. Changes were compared using a Student’s t test. Gene expression values marked with an asterisk are statistically significant ( P

    Article Snippet: Fluconazole (MP Biomedicals, Salon, OH) stock solution was prepared by reconstitution in water to 5 mg/ml.

    Techniques: Expressing, Quantitative RT-PCR

    Deletion of JJJ1 in the susceptible-dose dependent clinical isolate SM1 results in decreased fluconazole susceptibility. Reintegration of JJJ1 into its original locus restored the susceptible-dose dependent phenotype. Strains were grown in 96-well plates according to standard CLSI methods with minor modifications, and optical density at 600 nm was measured after 48 h.

    Journal: mSphere

    Article Title: Jjj1 Is a Negative Regulator of Pdr1-Mediated Fluconazole Resistance in Candida glabrata

    doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00466-17

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Deletion of JJJ1 in the susceptible-dose dependent clinical isolate SM1 results in decreased fluconazole susceptibility. Reintegration of JJJ1 into its original locus restored the susceptible-dose dependent phenotype. Strains were grown in 96-well plates according to standard CLSI methods with minor modifications, and optical density at 600 nm was measured after 48 h.

    Article Snippet: Fluconazole (MP Biomedicals, Salon, OH) stock solution was prepared by reconstitution in water to 5 mg/ml.

    Techniques:

    Treatment efficacy over 96 h of various doses of fluconazole on C. tropicalis infection with trailing and nontrailing isolates in an immunocompetent mouse model. Horizontal lines indicate the median values. (A) CFU counts on day 4 after inoculation and daily treatment (starting at t = 2 h) with one dose of either vehicle control or fluconazole 35 mg/kg. (B) For isolate CT-TR-R, no reduction in CFU counts was found. For the remaining four isolates, lower dosages of fluconazole 1, 5, and 15 mg/kg were also subsequently tested.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Implications of the EUCAST Trailing Phenomenon in Candida tropicalis for the In Vivo Susceptibility in Invertebrate and Murine Models

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.01624-18

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Treatment efficacy over 96 h of various doses of fluconazole on C. tropicalis infection with trailing and nontrailing isolates in an immunocompetent mouse model. Horizontal lines indicate the median values. (A) CFU counts on day 4 after inoculation and daily treatment (starting at t = 2 h) with one dose of either vehicle control or fluconazole 35 mg/kg. (B) For isolate CT-TR-R, no reduction in CFU counts was found. For the remaining four isolates, lower dosages of fluconazole 1, 5, and 15 mg/kg were also subsequently tested.

    Article Snippet: Treatment was administered intraperitoneally once daily (starting 2 h postinoculation) for four doses of 0.5 ml vehicle (NaCl) or fluconazole 35 mg/kg (2 mg/liter diluted in sterile saline; Fresenius Kabi).

    Techniques: Infection

    Treatment efficacy over 24 h of various doses of fluconazole on C. tropicalis infection with trailing and nontrailing isolates in a neutropenic mouse model. Horizontal lines indicate the median values. One pair of kidneys was lost during transport between facilities prior to CFU determination (CT-WT2, FLC 15 mg/kg) and thus was not available for analysis.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Implications of the EUCAST Trailing Phenomenon in Candida tropicalis for the In Vivo Susceptibility in Invertebrate and Murine Models

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.01624-18

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Treatment efficacy over 24 h of various doses of fluconazole on C. tropicalis infection with trailing and nontrailing isolates in a neutropenic mouse model. Horizontal lines indicate the median values. One pair of kidneys was lost during transport between facilities prior to CFU determination (CT-WT2, FLC 15 mg/kg) and thus was not available for analysis.

    Article Snippet: Treatment was administered intraperitoneally once daily (starting 2 h postinoculation) for four doses of 0.5 ml vehicle (NaCl) or fluconazole 35 mg/kg (2 mg/liter diluted in sterile saline; Fresenius Kabi).

    Techniques: Infection

    ABDD antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes showing resistance to Fluconazole and Griseofulvin.

    Journal: Electronic Physician

    Article Title: Isolation, Identification, and In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Dermatophytes from Clinical Samples at Sohag University Hospital in Egypt

    doi: 10.19082/2557

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ABDD antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes showing resistance to Fluconazole and Griseofulvin.

    Article Snippet: Antifungal susceptibility testing ABDD antifungal susceptibility testing was performed using four antifungal agents: Clotrimazole (50 μg), Miconazole (10 μg), Fluconazole (25μg), and Griseofulvin (10 μg) (Liofilchem diagnostic, Italy).

    Techniques:

    Quantitative assessment of intravenously administrated fluconazole with ultrasonic sampling method and its comparison with tape stripping technique was performed. Ten mg/kg of fluconazole (amounting to 250 μCi/kg of radioactivity) was intravenously administrated in rats. Fluconazole cocncentration (ng/cm 2 ) in the ultrasonic, tape stripping and swab samples was determined by measuring the total radioactivity (μCi) of the samples and normalizing them by skin sampling area (1.33 cm 2 ). Blood levels of fluconazole (closed squares) rapidly decreased within 24 h; however, ultrasonic sampling (closed circles) revealed prolonged retention of fluconazole in the skin. Fluconazole was detected in the skin by ultrasound for over 7 days, which was also confirmed by tape stripping technique (open circles); however, ultrasound sampled significantly higher amounts of fluconazole than by tape stripping (indicated by (*): p

    Journal: Pharmaceutical Research

    Article Title: Rapid Sampling of Molecules via Skin for Diagnostic and Forensic Applications

    doi: 10.1007/s11095-010-0081-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Quantitative assessment of intravenously administrated fluconazole with ultrasonic sampling method and its comparison with tape stripping technique was performed. Ten mg/kg of fluconazole (amounting to 250 μCi/kg of radioactivity) was intravenously administrated in rats. Fluconazole cocncentration (ng/cm 2 ) in the ultrasonic, tape stripping and swab samples was determined by measuring the total radioactivity (μCi) of the samples and normalizing them by skin sampling area (1.33 cm 2 ). Blood levels of fluconazole (closed squares) rapidly decreased within 24 h; however, ultrasonic sampling (closed circles) revealed prolonged retention of fluconazole in the skin. Fluconazole was detected in the skin by ultrasound for over 7 days, which was also confirmed by tape stripping technique (open circles); however, ultrasound sampled significantly higher amounts of fluconazole than by tape stripping (indicated by (*): p

    Article Snippet: Rats were intravenously administered with 10 mg/kg fluconazole along with 250 μCi/kg of radiolabeled fluconazole (log P : 0.4, Molecular weight: 306.27 Da; MT 1752, Moravek Radiochemicals, Brea, CA) or 5 mg/kg cocaine along with 175 μCi/kg of radiolabeled cocaine (log P : 2.3, Molecular weight: 303.35 Da; ART 0651, American Radiolabeled Chemicals, St. Louis, MO) by tail vein injections in two separate experiments.

    Techniques: Sampling, Stripping Membranes, Radioactivity