fda : Search Results


  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 99
    ATCC e coli atcc 25922
    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. Plant-mediated method ( A ) after dissolving  C. longa  powder in ddH 2 O, the solution was filtered to remove the majorities of vegetal debris; finally, silver nitrate was added and the change in colour was monitored. Bacterial supernatant method ( B ). After growing  E. coli  ATCC ®  25922 in Mueller-Hinton broth, the supernatant was collected, and silver nitrate was added to induce nanoparticle synthesis.
    E Coli Atcc 25922, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 11347 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/e coli atcc 25922/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 11347 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    e coli atcc 25922 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Millipore fluorescein diacetate fda
    <t>FDA/DAPI</t> double staining of cryogel sections after 12 days in culture. Fig. 7A shows the bright field image of AVP cryogel with FDA/DAPI double stained NIH3T3 fibroblasts at day 12. Fig. 7B shows FDA stained viable cells (greenish fluorescence) and Fig. 7C shows DAPI stained viable and non-viable cells (bluish fluorescence) in AVP cryogel. Fig. 7D is a merged RGB image of Figs. 7A-C, respectively where cyan color indicates cell viability while non-viable cells show blue fluorescence alone. Figs. 7E, F are merged RGB images of double stained AADP and NVP cryogels, respectively (day 12). The merged images (Figs. 7D-F) of all the three cryogels are rich in cyan colored portions indicating their ability to support cell adhesion and viability.
    Fluorescein Diacetate Fda, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 580 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/fluorescein diacetate fda/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 580 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    fluorescein diacetate fda - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Thermo Fisher carboxyfluorescein diacetate
    Requirement of Kv1.3 for effector memory (EM) CD8 + T cell proliferation and interleukin (IL)-2 production. (A) Freshly sorted IL-7Rα high EM CD8 + T cells were labeled with <t>carboxyfluorescein</t> diacetate (CFSE) and stimulated for 6 days with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies (Abs) in the presence or absence of potassium channel inhibitors such as TRAM-34 (KCa3.1 inhibitor, 5 µM) and margatoxin (Kv1.3 inhibitor, 5 nM), and their proliferation was measured by flow cytometry. Representative histograms and a quantification graph showing proliferating cells are shown. (B) Quantification of cytokines in culture supernatants from IL-7Rα high EM CD8 + T cells that were stimulated for 24 h with anti-CD3/CD28 Abs in the presence or absence of potassium channel inhibitors using a multiplex cytokine assay. Bars indicate the mean. The results are representative data from two or three independent experiments. Bars represent the mean, and p -values were obtained using the paired two-tailed Student’s t -test.
    Carboxyfluorescein Diacetate, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1280 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/carboxyfluorescein diacetate/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 99 stars, based on 1280 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    carboxyfluorescein diacetate - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    95
    Millipore fda
    TE viability visualized by simultaneous <t>calcofluor</t> and <t>FDA</t> staining. Cells were cultured for 72 (A–C) and 78 h (D–F) and visualized under bright-field conditions (A and D), UV light (B and E), and blue light (C and F). TEs are characterized
    Fda, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 770 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/fda/product/Millipore
    Average 95 stars, based on 770 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    fda - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    95/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    91
    CellSearch fda approved cellsearch system
    Figure 1. Bar graphs showing different metastatic spread patterns in 90 stage IV CRC patients, as determined by biopsy results and imaging. CTCs were determined in 7.5 ml of blood by EpCAM-based and <t>FDA-approved</t> <t>CellSearch</t> ® analysis. ( A ) Patients with diffuse metastases had significantly higher CTC numbers than patients with metastases limited to the lung or liver. ( B ) Represents subclassification of the metastatic patterns in patients with diffuse metastases. Analysis revealed that patients with lung and liver metastases, and patients with lung and liver and additional extrapulmonary/-hepatic disease had the highest CTC numbers, in contrast to patients with isolated lung or liver, or absence of lung or liver metastases. Patient numbers are provided in brackets. Shown are mean values with standard error of the mean (SEM). P values were calculated by nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis test.
    Fda Approved Cellsearch System, supplied by CellSearch, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 412 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/fda approved cellsearch system/product/CellSearch
    Average 91 stars, based on 412 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    fda approved cellsearch system - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    91/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC s aureus
    Minimum inhibitory concentration of IP6 (□) and CA (■) against indicator strains ( L .  monocytogenes  ATCC 19117,  S .  aureus  ATCC 6538,  S . Typhimurium ATCC 14028,  P .  aeruginosa  ATCC 49189 and  E .  coli  ATCC 8739.). Values represent the means of triplicate experiments with comparable results.
    S Aureus, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 6664 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/s aureus/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 6664 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    s aureus - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    94
    Pfizer Inc fda
    Minimum inhibitory concentration of IP6 (□) and CA (■) against indicator strains ( L .  monocytogenes  ATCC 19117,  S .  aureus  ATCC 6538,  S . Typhimurium ATCC 14028,  P .  aeruginosa  ATCC 49189 and  E .  coli  ATCC 8739.). Values represent the means of triplicate experiments with comparable results.
    Fda, supplied by Pfizer Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 263 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/fda/product/Pfizer Inc
    Average 94 stars, based on 263 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    fda - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    94/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Selleck Chemicals fda approved drugs
    Identification of micafungin as an <t>anti-EV71</t> inhibitor from a screen of the <t>FDA-approved</t> drug library. a Schematic diagram of DNA encoding the EV71 replicon. b Vero cells were transfected with in vitro-transcribed EV71-replicon RNAs, immediately treated with 968 FDA-approved drugs (10 μM) for 8 h, and then assayed for firefly luciferase activity. Rupintrivir (10 μM) was used as a positive control. The luciferase activities from cells treated with 21 primary hits including micafungin were presented in graph. The luciferase activity from DMSO-treated cells was considered to be 100 %. c The antiviral activities of the primary hits were further evaluated in EV71-infected LLC-MK2 Derivative cells. The LLC-MK2 Derivative cells were infected with EV71 (100 CCID 50 ), simultaneously treated with the 21 primary hits (2 and 10 μM) for 96 h, and then cell viabilities were analyzed by using MTT assay. Rupintrivir (2 and 10 μM) was used as a positive control. The viability of DMSO-treated cells was considered to be 0 %, and that of uninfected cells was considered to be 100 %. d The chemical structure of micafungin
    Fda Approved Drugs, supplied by Selleck Chemicals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 75 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/fda approved drugs/product/Selleck Chemicals
    Average 99 stars, based on 75 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    fda approved drugs - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    fda  (23andMe)
    92
    23andMe fda
    deCODE Genetics : Founded in 1996, in 1998 developed the Act on Health Sector Database (AHSD), in 2006 DeCODE recognized as non-profit with over 530 million USD deficit, in 2009 went bankrupt, in 2010 acquired by Saga Investments, in 2012 acquired by Amgen, in 2013 website genetic service discontinued. Illumina : Founded in 1998, in 2001 began the SNP genotyping service, in 2009 launched Personal full genome sequencing (PGS), costing 48 K in 2009, 19.5 K in 2010, 4 K in <t>2011,</t> and 1 K in 2014. Navigenics : Founded in 2006, in 2012 acquired by Life Technologies Inc., in 2014 becomes part of Thermo Fischer Scientific, Inc which acquired Life Technologies Inc. Knome : Founded in 2007, in 2009 launched the kGAP (cloud based engine), in 2010 partnered with University of British Columbia for studies on Parkinson’s Disease, in 2012 partnered with John Hopkins for asthma studies, in 2014 launched a human genome interpretation platform (the knoSYS™ 25). 23andMe : Founded in 2006, in 2007 DTC GTs offered for 999 USD, in 2012 DTC GTs offered for 99 USD, in 2013 DTC offers limited in the US to providing raw genetic data and ancestry-related identification, in 2012 23andMe patent obtained on Parkinson’s Disease, in 2013 partnered with Genentech for studies on metastatic breast cancer, in 2014 partnered with Pfizer Inc. for research on Inflammatory Bowel Disease, in 2014 submitted <t>FDA</t> application for Bloom syndrome. In orange : 2010 date of the warning letter sent to the five companies. In red : 2013 date of FDA ban for medically-oriented DTC tests in the USA
    Fda, supplied by 23andMe, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 156 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/fda/product/23andMe
    Average 92 stars, based on 156 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    fda - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    92/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    89
    Selleck Chemicals fda approved drug library
    HTS Prosecution. See also Figures and and Tables and . A. Results from screening an <t>FDA</t> approved drug collection, an in-house <t>curated</t> NP repository, and a bioactive compound set. The dotted line represents the 3 x SD cut-off. The blue dots represent spiked-in positive controls (50 nM CR-1–31-B) and red dots represent hits. Z factor = 0.78. B. Strategy used to generate JJN-3/d2GFP cells which were used in counter-screens. C. A comparison of the response of D11 and JJN-3/d2GFP to the indicated compounds. The proportion of GFP high cells was determined by flow cytometry and is indicated in the top right quadrant. D. . Compounds in red text show no selectivity between D11 and JJN-3/d2GFP, those in blue are known inhibitors of translation, and green text indicates cardiac glycosides.
    Fda Approved Drug Library, supplied by Selleck Chemicals, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 49 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/fda approved drug library/product/Selleck Chemicals
    Average 89 stars, based on 49 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    fda approved drug library - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    89/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC s aureus atcc 13565
    Differences in the intracellular pH (pHin) of S. aureus <t>ATCC</t> 13565 after treatment with ATCE at 0, 1, and 2 MIC. Values denote the means of triplicate measurements. Error bars represent standard deviation ( n = 3). Different lowercase letters (a, b) represent significant differences ( p
    S Aureus Atcc 13565, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 102 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/s aureus atcc 13565/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 102 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    s aureus atcc 13565 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    91
    Enzo Biochem fda approved drug library
    Screening of <t>FDA-approved</t> drugs for Mdr1a and b expression modifying potential. (A) Mdr1a and b promoter activities upon 24 or 48 h of incubation with respective substances. N2A cells were transiently cotransfected with Mdr1a- and Mdr1b promoter reporter and after end of transfection period (7 h) drugs of the FDA-approved compound library were added in fresh culture medium. After 24 or 48 h of treatment, cell supernatant aliquots were collected and subjected to dual luciferase reporter gene assay. RLU were normalized to values of <t>DMSO-treated</t> control cells. TSA (15 nmol/L) served as an internal positive control (data not shown). All substances were tested in three independent experiments; drugs that resulted in experimental data with a standard deviation of > 30% were retested in two additional experiments. Values are given as means, standard deviations are not included in the graph for reasons of clarity (red: gemcitabine; green: trichlormethiazide; gray: oltipraz). (B) Outcome of screening. Drugs were defined as hits (inhibitors or activators of the respective promoter activity) when RLU were obtained > 130% or
    Fda Approved Drug Library, supplied by Enzo Biochem, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 122 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/fda approved drug library/product/Enzo Biochem
    Average 91 stars, based on 122 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    fda approved drug library - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    91/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    92
    MedPage Today fda
    Screening of <t>FDA-approved</t> drugs for Mdr1a and b expression modifying potential. (A) Mdr1a and b promoter activities upon 24 or 48 h of incubation with respective substances. N2A cells were transiently cotransfected with Mdr1a- and Mdr1b promoter reporter and after end of transfection period (7 h) drugs of the FDA-approved compound library were added in fresh culture medium. After 24 or 48 h of treatment, cell supernatant aliquots were collected and subjected to dual luciferase reporter gene assay. RLU were normalized to values of <t>DMSO-treated</t> control cells. TSA (15 nmol/L) served as an internal positive control (data not shown). All substances were tested in three independent experiments; drugs that resulted in experimental data with a standard deviation of > 30% were retested in two additional experiments. Values are given as means, standard deviations are not included in the graph for reasons of clarity (red: gemcitabine; green: trichlormethiazide; gray: oltipraz). (B) Outcome of screening. Drugs were defined as hits (inhibitors or activators of the respective promoter activity) when RLU were obtained > 130% or
    Fda, supplied by MedPage Today, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 34 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/fda/product/MedPage Today
    Average 92 stars, based on 34 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    fda - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    92/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    ATCC staphylococcus epidermidis fda strain pci 1200
    Screening of <t>FDA-approved</t> drugs for Mdr1a and b expression modifying potential. (A) Mdr1a and b promoter activities upon 24 or 48 h of incubation with respective substances. N2A cells were transiently cotransfected with Mdr1a- and Mdr1b promoter reporter and after end of transfection period (7 h) drugs of the FDA-approved compound library were added in fresh culture medium. After 24 or 48 h of treatment, cell supernatant aliquots were collected and subjected to dual luciferase reporter gene assay. RLU were normalized to values of <t>DMSO-treated</t> control cells. TSA (15 nmol/L) served as an internal positive control (data not shown). All substances were tested in three independent experiments; drugs that resulted in experimental data with a standard deviation of > 30% were retested in two additional experiments. Values are given as means, standard deviations are not included in the graph for reasons of clarity (red: gemcitabine; green: trichlormethiazide; gray: oltipraz). (B) Outcome of screening. Drugs were defined as hits (inhibitors or activators of the respective promoter activity) when RLU were obtained > 130% or
    Staphylococcus Epidermidis Fda Strain Pci 1200, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/staphylococcus epidermidis fda strain pci 1200/product/ATCC
    Average 99 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    staphylococcus epidermidis fda strain pci 1200 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-09
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. Plant-mediated method ( A ) after dissolving  C. longa  powder in ddH 2 O, the solution was filtered to remove the majorities of vegetal debris; finally, silver nitrate was added and the change in colour was monitored. Bacterial supernatant method ( B ). After growing  E. coli  ATCC ®  25922 in Mueller-Hinton broth, the supernatant was collected, and silver nitrate was added to induce nanoparticle synthesis.

    Journal: Veterinary Sciences

    Article Title: In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Biological-Derived Silver Nanoparticles: Preliminary Data

    doi: 10.3390/vetsci7010012

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. Plant-mediated method ( A ) after dissolving C. longa powder in ddH 2 O, the solution was filtered to remove the majorities of vegetal debris; finally, silver nitrate was added and the change in colour was monitored. Bacterial supernatant method ( B ). After growing E. coli ATCC ® 25922 in Mueller-Hinton broth, the supernatant was collected, and silver nitrate was added to induce nanoparticle synthesis.

    Article Snippet: Briefly, E. coli ATCC® 25922 was cultured in Mueller-Hinton broth (Oxoid, Italy) and incubated aerobically at 37 °C until reaching the logarithmic phase of growth (assessed by spectrophotometric reading at 550 nm).

    Techniques:

    Microbiota host interactions in the small intestine. The relative abundance of Lactobacillus was dramatically lower in the small intestine of amoxicillin administered rats, while multiple different genera were more abundant. Among these were a consortium including Escherichia/Shigella , Klebsiella (Gammaproteobacteria), and Bifidobacterium , which strongly correlated with the relative abundance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the small intestine. We speculate that bacterial derived signals such as hexa-acylated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gammaproteobacteria, could directly promote the expansion of the intestinal Tregs, which in turn stimulate mucosal IgA production by local plasma cells and possibly goblet cell activation and mucus secretion. The figure is created with BioRender.com .

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Short-Term Amoxicillin-Induced Perturbation of the Gut Microbiota Promotes Acute Intestinal Immune Regulation in Brown Norway Rats

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00496

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Microbiota host interactions in the small intestine. The relative abundance of Lactobacillus was dramatically lower in the small intestine of amoxicillin administered rats, while multiple different genera were more abundant. Among these were a consortium including Escherichia/Shigella , Klebsiella (Gammaproteobacteria), and Bifidobacterium , which strongly correlated with the relative abundance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the small intestine. We speculate that bacterial derived signals such as hexa-acylated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gammaproteobacteria, could directly promote the expansion of the intestinal Tregs, which in turn stimulate mucosal IgA production by local plasma cells and possibly goblet cell activation and mucus secretion. The figure is created with BioRender.com .

    Article Snippet: Tenfold dilutions of a linearized (Sph I-digested) plasmid standard, construction by cloning the 199bp V3-region of the 16S rRNA gene of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) into the pCR14Blunt-TOPO vector (Invitrogen), was used for quantification of 16S rRNA genes.

    Techniques: Derivative Assay, Activation Assay

    FDA/DAPI double staining of cryogel sections after 12 days in culture. Fig. 7A shows the bright field image of AVP cryogel with FDA/DAPI double stained NIH3T3 fibroblasts at day 12. Fig. 7B shows FDA stained viable cells (greenish fluorescence) and Fig. 7C shows DAPI stained viable and non-viable cells (bluish fluorescence) in AVP cryogel. Fig. 7D is a merged RGB image of Figs. 7A-C, respectively where cyan color indicates cell viability while non-viable cells show blue fluorescence alone. Figs. 7E, F are merged RGB images of double stained AADP and NVP cryogels, respectively (day 12). The merged images (Figs. 7D-F) of all the three cryogels are rich in cyan colored portions indicating their ability to support cell adhesion and viability.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Monosaccharide-Responsive Phenylboronate-Polyol Cell Scaffolds for Cell Sheet and Tissue Engineering Applications

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077861

    Figure Lengend Snippet: FDA/DAPI double staining of cryogel sections after 12 days in culture. Fig. 7A shows the bright field image of AVP cryogel with FDA/DAPI double stained NIH3T3 fibroblasts at day 12. Fig. 7B shows FDA stained viable cells (greenish fluorescence) and Fig. 7C shows DAPI stained viable and non-viable cells (bluish fluorescence) in AVP cryogel. Fig. 7D is a merged RGB image of Figs. 7A-C, respectively where cyan color indicates cell viability while non-viable cells show blue fluorescence alone. Figs. 7E, F are merged RGB images of double stained AADP and NVP cryogels, respectively (day 12). The merged images (Figs. 7D-F) of all the three cryogels are rich in cyan colored portions indicating their ability to support cell adhesion and viability.

    Article Snippet: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM), penicillin - streptomycin solution, trypsin, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), fluorescein diacetate (FDA), 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and trypan blue were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, USA).

    Techniques: Double Staining, Staining, Fluorescence

    Requirement of Kv1.3 for effector memory (EM) CD8 + T cell proliferation and interleukin (IL)-2 production. (A) Freshly sorted IL-7Rα high EM CD8 + T cells were labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFSE) and stimulated for 6 days with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies (Abs) in the presence or absence of potassium channel inhibitors such as TRAM-34 (KCa3.1 inhibitor, 5 µM) and margatoxin (Kv1.3 inhibitor, 5 nM), and their proliferation was measured by flow cytometry. Representative histograms and a quantification graph showing proliferating cells are shown. (B) Quantification of cytokines in culture supernatants from IL-7Rα high EM CD8 + T cells that were stimulated for 24 h with anti-CD3/CD28 Abs in the presence or absence of potassium channel inhibitors using a multiplex cytokine assay. Bars indicate the mean. The results are representative data from two or three independent experiments. Bars represent the mean, and p -values were obtained using the paired two-tailed Student’s t -test.

    Journal: Frontiers in Immunology

    Article Title: Differentially Expressed Potassium Channels Are Associated with Function of Human Effector Memory CD8+ T Cells

    doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00859

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Requirement of Kv1.3 for effector memory (EM) CD8 + T cell proliferation and interleukin (IL)-2 production. (A) Freshly sorted IL-7Rα high EM CD8 + T cells were labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFSE) and stimulated for 6 days with anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies (Abs) in the presence or absence of potassium channel inhibitors such as TRAM-34 (KCa3.1 inhibitor, 5 µM) and margatoxin (Kv1.3 inhibitor, 5 nM), and their proliferation was measured by flow cytometry. Representative histograms and a quantification graph showing proliferating cells are shown. (B) Quantification of cytokines in culture supernatants from IL-7Rα high EM CD8 + T cells that were stimulated for 24 h with anti-CD3/CD28 Abs in the presence or absence of potassium channel inhibitors using a multiplex cytokine assay. Bars indicate the mean. The results are representative data from two or three independent experiments. Bars represent the mean, and p -values were obtained using the paired two-tailed Student’s t -test.

    Article Snippet: For measuring cell proliferation, sorted CD8+ T cell subsets were labeled with 0.5 µg/mL carboxyfluorescein diacetate (CFSE, Life Technologies) and incubated for 6 days with anti-CD3/CD28 Abs.

    Techniques: Labeling, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Multiplex Assay, Cytokine Assay, Two Tailed Test

    Analysis of ROS levels. Equal numbers of the indicated MEF subclones were cultured at 20 or 1% O 2 for 48 h and stained with 1 μ m dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, and oxidative metabolism to dichlorofluorescein ( DCF ) was determined by flow

    Journal:

    Article Title: Mitochondrial Autophagy Is an HIF-1-dependent Adaptive Metabolic Response to Hypoxia *Mitochondrial Autophagy Is an HIF-1-dependent Adaptive Metabolic Response to Hypoxia * S⃞

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M800102200

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Analysis of ROS levels. Equal numbers of the indicated MEF subclones were cultured at 20 or 1% O 2 for 48 h and stained with 1 μ m dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, and oxidative metabolism to dichlorofluorescein ( DCF ) was determined by flow

    Article Snippet: Flow Cytometry —Mitochondrial mass, intracellular ROS levels, and endoplasmic reticulum mass were measured by staining cells with 10 n m nonyl acridine orange (NAO), 1 μ m dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, or 1 μ m ER-tracker green dye (BODIPY® FL glibenclamide) (Molecular Probes), respectively, at 37 °C for 15 min in 5% fetal bovine serum, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution, followed by washing with PBS.

    Techniques: Cell Culture, Staining, Flow Cytometry

    Effect of heat stress and LPS on ROS production in IEC-6 cells. (A) Cells were incubated with LPS (1–10 µg/ml) for 30 min. (B) Cells incubated with LPS (1 µg/ml) for the indicated times. (C) Cells incubated with LPS (1 µg/ml) and subsequently exposed to heat stress (42°C) for 60 min or not. ROS levels were assessed by dichlorofluorescein diacetate staining. Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation of three independent experiments, *P

    Journal: Molecular Medicine Reports

    Article Title: Oxidative stress regulates mitogen-activated protein kinases and c-Jun activation involved in heat stress and lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis

    doi: 10.3892/mmr.2017.6859

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of heat stress and LPS on ROS production in IEC-6 cells. (A) Cells were incubated with LPS (1–10 µg/ml) for 30 min. (B) Cells incubated with LPS (1 µg/ml) for the indicated times. (C) Cells incubated with LPS (1 µg/ml) and subsequently exposed to heat stress (42°C) for 60 min or not. ROS levels were assessed by dichlorofluorescein diacetate staining. Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation of three independent experiments, *P

    Article Snippet: Dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA; Molecular Probes; Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.) enters the cells and reacts with ROS, producing the fluorophore DCF.

    Techniques: Incubation, Staining, Standard Deviation

    Quantitation of the decrease in viability of schistosomula caused by GSK343 treatment at different concentrations and incubation times. (A) Schistosomula treated with the indicated concentrations of GSK343 or with vehicle (0.1% DMSO) for 24, 48 and 72 h were visualized by staining with propidium iodide (marker of dead cells; 572 nm emission filter microscope) and with fluorescein diacetate (marker of living cells; 492 nm emission filter microscope). The bottom row shows a positive control, namely exposure to 70% ethanol, which kills all parasites. For each time point (indicated at the top), the left panel shows a light microscopy image and the right panel shows the image of the same field with differential fluorescence detection of PI-positive dead and FDA-positive live schistosomula by superimposition of 536nm and 494nm epifluorescence spectra. (B) Quantitation of viability of treated schistosomula. Percentage of viable schistosomula (non-stained with propidium iodide) over three days of treatment. For each condition tested, about 3600 schistosomula were used, divided into four biological replicates and three time points analyzed. Mean ± SD from four replicate experiments. (C) ATP quantitation using a luminescent assay to assess schistosomula survival under GSK343 exposure. Schistosomula (100-120/well) were incubated with the indicated concentrations of GSK343 or with vehicle (0.1% DMSO) for up to 5 days. The viability was expressed as % the luminescence values relative to the control (DMSO). Mean ± SD from three replicate experiments. *p

    Journal: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

    Article Title: Inhibition of histone methyltransferase EZH2 in Schistosoma mansoni in vitro by GSK343 reduces egg laying and decreases the expression of genes implicated in DNA replication and noncoding RNA metabolism

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006873

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Quantitation of the decrease in viability of schistosomula caused by GSK343 treatment at different concentrations and incubation times. (A) Schistosomula treated with the indicated concentrations of GSK343 or with vehicle (0.1% DMSO) for 24, 48 and 72 h were visualized by staining with propidium iodide (marker of dead cells; 572 nm emission filter microscope) and with fluorescein diacetate (marker of living cells; 492 nm emission filter microscope). The bottom row shows a positive control, namely exposure to 70% ethanol, which kills all parasites. For each time point (indicated at the top), the left panel shows a light microscopy image and the right panel shows the image of the same field with differential fluorescence detection of PI-positive dead and FDA-positive live schistosomula by superimposition of 536nm and 494nm epifluorescence spectra. (B) Quantitation of viability of treated schistosomula. Percentage of viable schistosomula (non-stained with propidium iodide) over three days of treatment. For each condition tested, about 3600 schistosomula were used, divided into four biological replicates and three time points analyzed. Mean ± SD from four replicate experiments. (C) ATP quantitation using a luminescent assay to assess schistosomula survival under GSK343 exposure. Schistosomula (100-120/well) were incubated with the indicated concentrations of GSK343 or with vehicle (0.1% DMSO) for up to 5 days. The viability was expressed as % the luminescence values relative to the control (DMSO). Mean ± SD from three replicate experiments. *p

    Article Snippet: Schistosomula were equally distributed in 96-well microtiter plates, incubated with the concentration of GSK343 indicated in the figure or the corresponding DMSO vehicle (control), and 2 μg/mL propidium iodide (PI) (Sigma-Aldrich) plus 0.5 μg/mL fluorescein diacetate (FDA) (Life Technologies) were added at the time points indicated in the legend to the figure.

    Techniques: Quantitation Assay, Incubation, Staining, Marker, Microscopy, Positive Control, Light Microscopy, Fluorescence, Luminescence Assay

    Autophagy is induced in apoptotic Ba/F3 cells by IL-3 depletion. Ba/F3 cells were kept without IL-3 for 6 h (dying AU). ( A ) Both living and dying autophagic Ba/F3 cells were stained with anti-LC3 antibody or acridine orange stain to demonstrate increased autophagosome formation. Arrows represent the increased autophagy with IL-3 depletion. Scale bars are 10 µm. ( B ) Proteins in western blots of samples from dying autophagic cells were detected with anti-LC3 antibody. Chloroquine (CQ) was used as lysosomal inhibitor. The right panel presents the quantification of the western blot. Data represent the mean ± SEM of 13, 19, 5 and 6 independent experiments for IL-3+, IL-3-, IL-3+CQ+ and IL-3-CQ+, respectively. ( C ) Cell death was quantified by flow cytometric analysis of dying autophagic cells by using Annexin-V-FITC/PI staining. Data represent the mean ± SEM of 7, 10, 3 and 9 independent experiments for IL-3+, IL-3−, IL-3+CQ+, IL-3−CQ+, respectively. PS: Phosphatidylserine, PI: Propidium iodide ( D ) Proteins obtained from dying autophagic cells were detected with caspase-3 antibody. Anti-actin poyclonal antibody was used to show that equal amounts of proteins were loaded in western blots. For simplicity, parts from the same western blots are shown separately in parts B and D. (*p

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: ATP Release from Dying Autophagic Cells and Their Phagocytosis Are Crucial for Inflammasome Activation in Macrophages

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040069

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Autophagy is induced in apoptotic Ba/F3 cells by IL-3 depletion. Ba/F3 cells were kept without IL-3 for 6 h (dying AU). ( A ) Both living and dying autophagic Ba/F3 cells were stained with anti-LC3 antibody or acridine orange stain to demonstrate increased autophagosome formation. Arrows represent the increased autophagy with IL-3 depletion. Scale bars are 10 µm. ( B ) Proteins in western blots of samples from dying autophagic cells were detected with anti-LC3 antibody. Chloroquine (CQ) was used as lysosomal inhibitor. The right panel presents the quantification of the western blot. Data represent the mean ± SEM of 13, 19, 5 and 6 independent experiments for IL-3+, IL-3-, IL-3+CQ+ and IL-3-CQ+, respectively. ( C ) Cell death was quantified by flow cytometric analysis of dying autophagic cells by using Annexin-V-FITC/PI staining. Data represent the mean ± SEM of 7, 10, 3 and 9 independent experiments for IL-3+, IL-3−, IL-3+CQ+, IL-3−CQ+, respectively. PS: Phosphatidylserine, PI: Propidium iodide ( D ) Proteins obtained from dying autophagic cells were detected with caspase-3 antibody. Anti-actin poyclonal antibody was used to show that equal amounts of proteins were loaded in western blots. For simplicity, parts from the same western blots are shown separately in parts B and D. (*p

    Article Snippet: Macrophages were labeled with 5-(and-6)-(((4- chloromethyl)benzoyl)amino)tetramethylrhodamine (CMTMR) (Invitrogen) (7.5 µM, 4 h) and dying cells were stained with 5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate, succinimidyl ester (CFDA) (Invitrogen) (17.5 µM, 6 h).

    Techniques: Staining, Western Blot, Flow Cytometry

    TE viability visualized by simultaneous calcofluor and FDA staining. Cells were cultured for 72 (A–C) and 78 h (D–F) and visualized under bright-field conditions (A and D), UV light (B and E), and blue light (C and F). TEs are characterized

    Journal:

    Article Title: Novel Markers of Xylogenesis in Zinnia Are Differentially Regulated by Auxin and Cytokinin 1Novel Markers of Xylogenesis in Zinnia Are Differentially Regulated by Auxin and Cytokinin 1 [W]

    doi: 10.1104/pp.105.064337

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TE viability visualized by simultaneous calcofluor and FDA staining. Cells were cultured for 72 (A–C) and 78 h (D–F) and visualized under bright-field conditions (A and D), UV light (B and E), and blue light (C and F). TEs are characterized

    Article Snippet: For viability staining, 100 μ L of cell culture was stained with 10 μ L of 0.01% solution of calcofluor and then with 2 μ L of 0.5% FDA (Sigma-Aldrich) solubilized in acetone.

    Techniques: Staining, Cell Culture

    Figure 1. Bar graphs showing different metastatic spread patterns in 90 stage IV CRC patients, as determined by biopsy results and imaging. CTCs were determined in 7.5 ml of blood by EpCAM-based and FDA-approved CellSearch ® analysis. ( A ) Patients with diffuse metastases had significantly higher CTC numbers than patients with metastases limited to the lung or liver. ( B ) Represents subclassification of the metastatic patterns in patients with diffuse metastases. Analysis revealed that patients with lung and liver metastases, and patients with lung and liver and additional extrapulmonary/-hepatic disease had the highest CTC numbers, in contrast to patients with isolated lung or liver, or absence of lung or liver metastases. Patient numbers are provided in brackets. Shown are mean values with standard error of the mean (SEM). P values were calculated by nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis test.

    Journal: Cancer Biology & Therapy

    Article Title: Circulating tumor cells are associated with diffuse spread in stage IV colorectal cancer patients

    doi: 10.4161/cbt.26884

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Figure 1. Bar graphs showing different metastatic spread patterns in 90 stage IV CRC patients, as determined by biopsy results and imaging. CTCs were determined in 7.5 ml of blood by EpCAM-based and FDA-approved CellSearch ® analysis. ( A ) Patients with diffuse metastases had significantly higher CTC numbers than patients with metastases limited to the lung or liver. ( B ) Represents subclassification of the metastatic patterns in patients with diffuse metastases. Analysis revealed that patients with lung and liver metastases, and patients with lung and liver and additional extrapulmonary/-hepatic disease had the highest CTC numbers, in contrast to patients with isolated lung or liver, or absence of lung or liver metastases. Patient numbers are provided in brackets. Shown are mean values with standard error of the mean (SEM). P values were calculated by nonparametric Kruskal–Wallis test.

    Article Snippet: EpCAM+ CTCs were analyzed with the FDA-approved CellSearch® system.

    Techniques: Imaging, Isolation

    Minimum inhibitory concentration of IP6 (□) and CA (■) against indicator strains ( L .  monocytogenes  ATCC 19117,  S .  aureus  ATCC 6538,  S . Typhimurium ATCC 14028,  P .  aeruginosa  ATCC 49189 and  E .  coli  ATCC 8739.). Values represent the means of triplicate experiments with comparable results.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Towards understanding the antagonistic activity of phytic acid against common foodborne bacterial pathogens using a general linear model

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0231397

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Minimum inhibitory concentration of IP6 (□) and CA (■) against indicator strains ( L . monocytogenes ATCC 19117, S . aureus ATCC 6538, S . Typhimurium ATCC 14028, P . aeruginosa ATCC 49189 and E . coli ATCC 8739.). Values represent the means of triplicate experiments with comparable results.

    Article Snippet: They included Gram-positive bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538; and Gram-negative bacteria: Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 49189 and Escherichia coli ATCC 8739.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay

    Diameter inhibition zone of IP6 against L . monocytogenes ATCC 19117(□), S . aureus ATCC 6538 (■) and S . Typhimurium ATCC 14028(↘). Values represent the means of triplicate experiments with comparable results.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Towards understanding the antagonistic activity of phytic acid against common foodborne bacterial pathogens using a general linear model

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0231397

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Diameter inhibition zone of IP6 against L . monocytogenes ATCC 19117(□), S . aureus ATCC 6538 (■) and S . Typhimurium ATCC 14028(↘). Values represent the means of triplicate experiments with comparable results.

    Article Snippet: They included Gram-positive bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19117 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538; and Gram-negative bacteria: Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 49189 and Escherichia coli ATCC 8739.

    Techniques: Inhibition

    Identification of micafungin as an anti-EV71 inhibitor from a screen of the FDA-approved drug library. a Schematic diagram of DNA encoding the EV71 replicon. b Vero cells were transfected with in vitro-transcribed EV71-replicon RNAs, immediately treated with 968 FDA-approved drugs (10 μM) for 8 h, and then assayed for firefly luciferase activity. Rupintrivir (10 μM) was used as a positive control. The luciferase activities from cells treated with 21 primary hits including micafungin were presented in graph. The luciferase activity from DMSO-treated cells was considered to be 100 %. c The antiviral activities of the primary hits were further evaluated in EV71-infected LLC-MK2 Derivative cells. The LLC-MK2 Derivative cells were infected with EV71 (100 CCID 50 ), simultaneously treated with the 21 primary hits (2 and 10 μM) for 96 h, and then cell viabilities were analyzed by using MTT assay. Rupintrivir (2 and 10 μM) was used as a positive control. The viability of DMSO-treated cells was considered to be 0 %, and that of uninfected cells was considered to be 100 %. d The chemical structure of micafungin

    Journal: Virology Journal

    Article Title: Antiviral activity of micafungin against enterovirus 71

    doi: 10.1186/s12985-016-0557-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Identification of micafungin as an anti-EV71 inhibitor from a screen of the FDA-approved drug library. a Schematic diagram of DNA encoding the EV71 replicon. b Vero cells were transfected with in vitro-transcribed EV71-replicon RNAs, immediately treated with 968 FDA-approved drugs (10 μM) for 8 h, and then assayed for firefly luciferase activity. Rupintrivir (10 μM) was used as a positive control. The luciferase activities from cells treated with 21 primary hits including micafungin were presented in graph. The luciferase activity from DMSO-treated cells was considered to be 100 %. c The antiviral activities of the primary hits were further evaluated in EV71-infected LLC-MK2 Derivative cells. The LLC-MK2 Derivative cells were infected with EV71 (100 CCID 50 ), simultaneously treated with the 21 primary hits (2 and 10 μM) for 96 h, and then cell viabilities were analyzed by using MTT assay. Rupintrivir (2 and 10 μM) was used as a positive control. The viability of DMSO-treated cells was considered to be 0 %, and that of uninfected cells was considered to be 100 %. d The chemical structure of micafungin

    Article Snippet: To efficiently achieve this goal, we searched for new antiviral compounds against EV71 from the FDA-approved drugs, which would facilitate the clinical application of drug candidate for EV71-associated diseases.

    Techniques: Transfection, In Vitro, Luciferase, Activity Assay, Positive Control, Infection, MTT Assay

    deCODE Genetics : Founded in 1996, in 1998 developed the Act on Health Sector Database (AHSD), in 2006 DeCODE recognized as non-profit with over 530 million USD deficit, in 2009 went bankrupt, in 2010 acquired by Saga Investments, in 2012 acquired by Amgen, in 2013 website genetic service discontinued. Illumina : Founded in 1998, in 2001 began the SNP genotyping service, in 2009 launched Personal full genome sequencing (PGS), costing 48 K in 2009, 19.5 K in 2010, 4 K in 2011, and 1 K in 2014. Navigenics : Founded in 2006, in 2012 acquired by Life Technologies Inc., in 2014 becomes part of Thermo Fischer Scientific, Inc which acquired Life Technologies Inc. Knome : Founded in 2007, in 2009 launched the kGAP (cloud based engine), in 2010 partnered with University of British Columbia for studies on Parkinson’s Disease, in 2012 partnered with John Hopkins for asthma studies, in 2014 launched a human genome interpretation platform (the knoSYS™ 25). 23andMe : Founded in 2006, in 2007 DTC GTs offered for 999 USD, in 2012 DTC GTs offered for 99 USD, in 2013 DTC offers limited in the US to providing raw genetic data and ancestry-related identification, in 2012 23andMe patent obtained on Parkinson’s Disease, in 2013 partnered with Genentech for studies on metastatic breast cancer, in 2014 partnered with Pfizer Inc. for research on Inflammatory Bowel Disease, in 2014 submitted FDA application for Bloom syndrome. In orange : 2010 date of the warning letter sent to the five companies. In red : 2013 date of FDA ban for medically-oriented DTC tests in the USA

    Journal: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling

    Article Title: Communication is the key.

    doi: 10.1007/s12079-014-0258-2

    Figure Lengend Snippet: deCODE Genetics : Founded in 1996, in 1998 developed the Act on Health Sector Database (AHSD), in 2006 DeCODE recognized as non-profit with over 530 million USD deficit, in 2009 went bankrupt, in 2010 acquired by Saga Investments, in 2012 acquired by Amgen, in 2013 website genetic service discontinued. Illumina : Founded in 1998, in 2001 began the SNP genotyping service, in 2009 launched Personal full genome sequencing (PGS), costing 48 K in 2009, 19.5 K in 2010, 4 K in 2011, and 1 K in 2014. Navigenics : Founded in 2006, in 2012 acquired by Life Technologies Inc., in 2014 becomes part of Thermo Fischer Scientific, Inc which acquired Life Technologies Inc. Knome : Founded in 2007, in 2009 launched the kGAP (cloud based engine), in 2010 partnered with University of British Columbia for studies on Parkinson’s Disease, in 2012 partnered with John Hopkins for asthma studies, in 2014 launched a human genome interpretation platform (the knoSYS™ 25). 23andMe : Founded in 2006, in 2007 DTC GTs offered for 999 USD, in 2012 DTC GTs offered for 99 USD, in 2013 DTC offers limited in the US to providing raw genetic data and ancestry-related identification, in 2012 23andMe patent obtained on Parkinson’s Disease, in 2013 partnered with Genentech for studies on metastatic breast cancer, in 2014 partnered with Pfizer Inc. for research on Inflammatory Bowel Disease, in 2014 submitted FDA application for Bloom syndrome. In orange : 2010 date of the warning letter sent to the five companies. In red : 2013 date of FDA ban for medically-oriented DTC tests in the USA

    Article Snippet: After the recommendations expressed by the FDA in 2011, 23andMe pursued its quest to provide customers with medical risk evaluations drawn from DNA analysis based on chip-based assays for known SNPs, rare mutations and variants covered by the plaftform that had been set up by the company (see above).

    Techniques: Activated Clotting Time Assay, Sequencing

    HTS Prosecution. See also Figures and and Tables and . A. Results from screening an FDA approved drug collection, an in-house curated NP repository, and a bioactive compound set. The dotted line represents the 3 x SD cut-off. The blue dots represent spiked-in positive controls (50 nM CR-1–31-B) and red dots represent hits. Z factor = 0.78. B. Strategy used to generate JJN-3/d2GFP cells which were used in counter-screens. C. A comparison of the response of D11 and JJN-3/d2GFP to the indicated compounds. The proportion of GFP high cells was determined by flow cytometry and is indicated in the top right quadrant. D. . Compounds in red text show no selectivity between D11 and JJN-3/d2GFP, those in blue are known inhibitors of translation, and green text indicates cardiac glycosides.

    Journal: Cell chemical biology

    Article Title: Tracing MYC Expression for Small Molecule Discovery

    doi: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2019.02.007

    Figure Lengend Snippet: HTS Prosecution. See also Figures and and Tables and . A. Results from screening an FDA approved drug collection, an in-house curated NP repository, and a bioactive compound set. The dotted line represents the 3 x SD cut-off. The blue dots represent spiked-in positive controls (50 nM CR-1–31-B) and red dots represent hits. Z factor = 0.78. B. Strategy used to generate JJN-3/d2GFP cells which were used in counter-screens. C. A comparison of the response of D11 and JJN-3/d2GFP to the indicated compounds. The proportion of GFP high cells was determined by flow cytometry and is indicated in the top right quadrant. D. . Compounds in red text show no selectivity between D11 and JJN-3/d2GFP, those in blue are known inhibitors of translation, and green text indicates cardiac glycosides.

    Article Snippet: The Selleckchem (Houston, Tx) FDA approved drug library (1018 compounds), an in-house curated natural product (NP) library, and a bioactive compound collection were used for assay prosecution.

    Techniques: Flow Cytometry

    Differences in the intracellular pH (pHin) of S. aureus ATCC 13565 after treatment with ATCE at 0, 1, and 2 MIC. Values denote the means of triplicate measurements. Error bars represent standard deviation ( n = 3). Different lowercase letters (a, b) represent significant differences ( p

    Journal: Foods

    Article Title: Antimicrobial Activity and Mechanism of Action of the Amaranthus tricolor Crude Extract against Staphylococcus aureus and Potential Application in Cooked Meat

    doi: 10.3390/foods9030359

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Differences in the intracellular pH (pHin) of S. aureus ATCC 13565 after treatment with ATCE at 0, 1, and 2 MIC. Values denote the means of triplicate measurements. Error bars represent standard deviation ( n = 3). Different lowercase letters (a, b) represent significant differences ( p

    Article Snippet: Growth Curve of S. aureus ATCC 13565 The growth curves of S. aureus ATCC 13565 were tested according to the method described by Shi et al. [ ].

    Techniques: Standard Deviation

    TEM images of S. aureus ATCC 13565 strains (40,000 ×) ( A ) untreated for 4 h, ( B ) treated with 1 MIC of ATCE for 4 h, and ( C ) treated with 2 MIC of ATCE for 4 h.

    Journal: Foods

    Article Title: Antimicrobial Activity and Mechanism of Action of the Amaranthus tricolor Crude Extract against Staphylococcus aureus and Potential Application in Cooked Meat

    doi: 10.3390/foods9030359

    Figure Lengend Snippet: TEM images of S. aureus ATCC 13565 strains (40,000 ×) ( A ) untreated for 4 h, ( B ) treated with 1 MIC of ATCE for 4 h, and ( C ) treated with 2 MIC of ATCE for 4 h.

    Article Snippet: Growth Curve of S. aureus ATCC 13565 The growth curves of S. aureus ATCC 13565 were tested according to the method described by Shi et al. [ ].

    Techniques: Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Differences in membrane potentials of S. aureus ATCC 13565 after treatment with ATCE at 0, 1, and 2 MIC. Values denote the means of triplicate measurements. Error bars represent standard deviation ( n = 3). Different lowercase letters (a,b) represent significant differences ( p

    Journal: Foods

    Article Title: Antimicrobial Activity and Mechanism of Action of the Amaranthus tricolor Crude Extract against Staphylococcus aureus and Potential Application in Cooked Meat

    doi: 10.3390/foods9030359

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Differences in membrane potentials of S. aureus ATCC 13565 after treatment with ATCE at 0, 1, and 2 MIC. Values denote the means of triplicate measurements. Error bars represent standard deviation ( n = 3). Different lowercase letters (a,b) represent significant differences ( p

    Article Snippet: Growth Curve of S. aureus ATCC 13565 The growth curves of S. aureus ATCC 13565 were tested according to the method described by Shi et al. [ ].

    Techniques: Standard Deviation

    Antibacterial effect of ATCE on S. aureus ATCC 13565 inoculated into sterile lean cooked pork during storage. Values denote the means of triplicate measurements. Error bars represent standard deviation ( n = 3). Different letters represent significant differences ( p

    Journal: Foods

    Article Title: Antimicrobial Activity and Mechanism of Action of the Amaranthus tricolor Crude Extract against Staphylococcus aureus and Potential Application in Cooked Meat

    doi: 10.3390/foods9030359

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antibacterial effect of ATCE on S. aureus ATCC 13565 inoculated into sterile lean cooked pork during storage. Values denote the means of triplicate measurements. Error bars represent standard deviation ( n = 3). Different letters represent significant differences ( p

    Article Snippet: Growth Curve of S. aureus ATCC 13565 The growth curves of S. aureus ATCC 13565 were tested according to the method described by Shi et al. [ ].

    Techniques: Standard Deviation

    DNA cleavage activity of S. aureus ATCC 13565 strains after treating with ATCE at 1 MIC and 2 MIC. Lane M: marker. Lane 1: control group. Lanes 2, 3, and 4: treated with 1 MIC of ATCE for 2, 4, and 10 h, respectively. Lanes 5, 6, and 7: treated with 2 MIC of ATCE for 2, 4, and 10 h, respectively.

    Journal: Foods

    Article Title: Antimicrobial Activity and Mechanism of Action of the Amaranthus tricolor Crude Extract against Staphylococcus aureus and Potential Application in Cooked Meat

    doi: 10.3390/foods9030359

    Figure Lengend Snippet: DNA cleavage activity of S. aureus ATCC 13565 strains after treating with ATCE at 1 MIC and 2 MIC. Lane M: marker. Lane 1: control group. Lanes 2, 3, and 4: treated with 1 MIC of ATCE for 2, 4, and 10 h, respectively. Lanes 5, 6, and 7: treated with 2 MIC of ATCE for 2, 4, and 10 h, respectively.

    Article Snippet: Growth Curve of S. aureus ATCC 13565 The growth curves of S. aureus ATCC 13565 were tested according to the method described by Shi et al. [ ].

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Marker

    SDS-PAGE analysis of S. aureus ATCC 13565 proteins after treatment with ATCE at ( A ) 1 MIC and ( B ) 2 MIC. Lane M: marker. Lanes 1: control; Lanes 2, 3, 4, and 5: samples treated for 3, 6, 9, and 12 h, respectively.

    Journal: Foods

    Article Title: Antimicrobial Activity and Mechanism of Action of the Amaranthus tricolor Crude Extract against Staphylococcus aureus and Potential Application in Cooked Meat

    doi: 10.3390/foods9030359

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SDS-PAGE analysis of S. aureus ATCC 13565 proteins after treatment with ATCE at ( A ) 1 MIC and ( B ) 2 MIC. Lane M: marker. Lanes 1: control; Lanes 2, 3, 4, and 5: samples treated for 3, 6, 9, and 12 h, respectively.

    Article Snippet: Growth Curve of S. aureus ATCC 13565 The growth curves of S. aureus ATCC 13565 were tested according to the method described by Shi et al. [ ].

    Techniques: SDS Page, Marker

    Growth curves of S. aureus ATCC 13565 cultured in Luria-Bertani (LB containing with 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 MIC of ATCE. Error bars denote standard deviation ( n = 3).

    Journal: Foods

    Article Title: Antimicrobial Activity and Mechanism of Action of the Amaranthus tricolor Crude Extract against Staphylococcus aureus and Potential Application in Cooked Meat

    doi: 10.3390/foods9030359

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Growth curves of S. aureus ATCC 13565 cultured in Luria-Bertani (LB containing with 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 MIC of ATCE. Error bars denote standard deviation ( n = 3).

    Article Snippet: Growth Curve of S. aureus ATCC 13565 The growth curves of S. aureus ATCC 13565 were tested according to the method described by Shi et al. [ ].

    Techniques: Cell Culture, Standard Deviation

    Screening of FDA-approved drugs for Mdr1a and b expression modifying potential. (A) Mdr1a and b promoter activities upon 24 or 48 h of incubation with respective substances. N2A cells were transiently cotransfected with Mdr1a- and Mdr1b promoter reporter and after end of transfection period (7 h) drugs of the FDA-approved compound library were added in fresh culture medium. After 24 or 48 h of treatment, cell supernatant aliquots were collected and subjected to dual luciferase reporter gene assay. RLU were normalized to values of DMSO-treated control cells. TSA (15 nmol/L) served as an internal positive control (data not shown). All substances were tested in three independent experiments; drugs that resulted in experimental data with a standard deviation of > 30% were retested in two additional experiments. Values are given as means, standard deviations are not included in the graph for reasons of clarity (red: gemcitabine; green: trichlormethiazide; gray: oltipraz). (B) Outcome of screening. Drugs were defined as hits (inhibitors or activators of the respective promoter activity) when RLU were obtained > 130% or

    Journal: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives

    Article Title: Identification of trichlormethiazide as a Mdr1a/b gene expression enhancer via a dual secretion-based promoter assay

    doi: 10.1002/prp2.109

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Screening of FDA-approved drugs for Mdr1a and b expression modifying potential. (A) Mdr1a and b promoter activities upon 24 or 48 h of incubation with respective substances. N2A cells were transiently cotransfected with Mdr1a- and Mdr1b promoter reporter and after end of transfection period (7 h) drugs of the FDA-approved compound library were added in fresh culture medium. After 24 or 48 h of treatment, cell supernatant aliquots were collected and subjected to dual luciferase reporter gene assay. RLU were normalized to values of DMSO-treated control cells. TSA (15 nmol/L) served as an internal positive control (data not shown). All substances were tested in three independent experiments; drugs that resulted in experimental data with a standard deviation of > 30% were retested in two additional experiments. Values are given as means, standard deviations are not included in the graph for reasons of clarity (red: gemcitabine; green: trichlormethiazide; gray: oltipraz). (B) Outcome of screening. Drugs were defined as hits (inhibitors or activators of the respective promoter activity) when RLU were obtained > 130% or

    Article Snippet: Cells were seeded at a density of 30,000 cells per well on the lipofection mixture (white 96-well plates with glass bottom, Greiner [Frickenhausen, Germany], precoated with poly-l -lysin, Sigma [St. Louis, MA]) and incubated for 7 h. In case of the screening approach, cells were treated with one of the 627 substances derived from a FDA-approved drug library (Enzo LifeSciences) or DMSO as solvent control (0.1% v/v) upon finished transfection period.

    Techniques: Expressing, Incubation, Transfection, Luciferase, Reporter Gene Assay, Positive Control, Standard Deviation, Activity Assay