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    New England Biolabs e coli exonuclease iii
    <t>DNA</t> repair pathways implicated in 5-FU-mediated cell killing. The model is supported by the following observations: (i) a massive amount of uracil is incorporated into DNA, but the ung1 yeast are much less sensitive to 5-FU than the wild-type strain indicating that uracilated DNA is not the mediator of 5-FU toxicity; (ii) the apn1apn2ntg1ntg2 strain that is entirely defective in processing abasic sites by a BER mechanism is more sensitive to 5-FU, indicating that intact abasic sites (or repair products derived from abasic sites) have inherent toxicity; and <t>(iii)</t> the rad27 and apn1rad27 yeast strains show protection against 5-FU toxicity, suggesting the presence of a toxic repair intermediate downstream of the Rad27 flap endonuclease reaction. Several backup pathways for repair of abasic sites and 5′dRp groups are indicated. The lower path involving Apn2 and other BER enzymes is important in the absence of Apn1 and accounts for the efficient removal of abasic sites in the apn1 strain. NER and HR pathways are likely to be important with the apn1apn2ntg1ntg2 and rad27 knockout strains. Consistent with this, yeast deficient in both BER and NER are not viable.
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    DNA repair pathways implicated in 5-FU-mediated cell killing. The model is supported by the following observations: (i) a massive amount of uracil is incorporated into DNA, but the ung1 yeast are much less sensitive to 5-FU than the wild-type strain indicating that uracilated DNA is not the mediator of 5-FU toxicity; (ii) the apn1apn2ntg1ntg2 strain that is entirely defective in processing abasic sites by a BER mechanism is more sensitive to 5-FU, indicating that intact abasic sites (or repair products derived from abasic sites) have inherent toxicity; and (iii) the rad27 and apn1rad27 yeast strains show protection against 5-FU toxicity, suggesting the presence of a toxic repair intermediate downstream of the Rad27 flap endonuclease reaction. Several backup pathways for repair of abasic sites and 5′dRp groups are indicated. The lower path involving Apn2 and other BER enzymes is important in the absence of Apn1 and accounts for the efficient removal of abasic sites in the apn1 strain. NER and HR pathways are likely to be important with the apn1apn2ntg1ntg2 and rad27 knockout strains. Consistent with this, yeast deficient in both BER and NER are not viable.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Linking uracil base excision repair and 5-fluorouracil toxicity in yeast

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkj430

    Figure Lengend Snippet: DNA repair pathways implicated in 5-FU-mediated cell killing. The model is supported by the following observations: (i) a massive amount of uracil is incorporated into DNA, but the ung1 yeast are much less sensitive to 5-FU than the wild-type strain indicating that uracilated DNA is not the mediator of 5-FU toxicity; (ii) the apn1apn2ntg1ntg2 strain that is entirely defective in processing abasic sites by a BER mechanism is more sensitive to 5-FU, indicating that intact abasic sites (or repair products derived from abasic sites) have inherent toxicity; and (iii) the rad27 and apn1rad27 yeast strains show protection against 5-FU toxicity, suggesting the presence of a toxic repair intermediate downstream of the Rad27 flap endonuclease reaction. Several backup pathways for repair of abasic sites and 5′dRp groups are indicated. The lower path involving Apn2 and other BER enzymes is important in the absence of Apn1 and accounts for the efficient removal of abasic sites in the apn1 strain. NER and HR pathways are likely to be important with the apn1apn2ntg1ntg2 and rad27 knockout strains. Consistent with this, yeast deficient in both BER and NER are not viable.

    Article Snippet: Briefly, 4 µg of each DNA sample was digested with E.coli exonuclease III (145 U; New England Biolabs) for 1 min at 37°C, 100 mM putrescine at 37°C for 30 min (Acros Organics), both exonuclease III and putrescine, or left undigested.

    Techniques: Derivative Assay, Knock-Out

    Performance of o2n-seq for detecting mutations with 1% and 0.1% allele frequency. ( a , b ) Sensitivity and FPR of mutation detection of o2n-seq (three experimental replicates, orange), Cir-seq (three experimental replicates, blue) and o2n-seq after filtering with frequency (o2n-seq-f, green) under different CSs criteria for the 1:100 mixture of E. coli (means±s.d.). Two-tailed Student's t -test was used for statistical analysis. ( c ) Mutation frequency distribution of FP and TP variants detected by o2n-seq under different CSs (1 × and 2 × ) for the 1:100 mixture of E. coli . 3 × -5 × CSs were showed in Supplementary Fig. 5 . ( d ) MAFs of TP mutations detected by o2n-seq for the 1:100 mixture of E. coli . The MAFs of three experimental replicates was plotted. The dashed horizontal line indicates the theoretical MAF (0.99%). ( e , f ) Sensitivity and FPR of mutation detection of o2n-seq by different CSs criteria (3 × −9 × ) under different total CSs coverage (5,000–25,000 × ) for the 1:1,000 mix of phix174 . The results of the other experimental replicate were shown in Supplementary Fig. 6 . Dash lines were used to display the overlapped results better.

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Ultrasensitive and high-efficiency screen of de novo low-frequency mutations by o2n-seq

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms15335

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Performance of o2n-seq for detecting mutations with 1% and 0.1% allele frequency. ( a , b ) Sensitivity and FPR of mutation detection of o2n-seq (three experimental replicates, orange), Cir-seq (three experimental replicates, blue) and o2n-seq after filtering with frequency (o2n-seq-f, green) under different CSs criteria for the 1:100 mixture of E. coli (means±s.d.). Two-tailed Student's t -test was used for statistical analysis. ( c ) Mutation frequency distribution of FP and TP variants detected by o2n-seq under different CSs (1 × and 2 × ) for the 1:100 mixture of E. coli . 3 × -5 × CSs were showed in Supplementary Fig. 5 . ( d ) MAFs of TP mutations detected by o2n-seq for the 1:100 mixture of E. coli . The MAFs of three experimental replicates was plotted. The dashed horizontal line indicates the theoretical MAF (0.99%). ( e , f ) Sensitivity and FPR of mutation detection of o2n-seq by different CSs criteria (3 × −9 × ) under different total CSs coverage (5,000–25,000 × ) for the 1:1,000 mix of phix174 . The results of the other experimental replicate were shown in Supplementary Fig. 6 . Dash lines were used to display the overlapped results better.

    Article Snippet: Subsequently, 1 μl Exonuclease I (NEB, M0293S), 1 μl Exonuclease III (NEB, M0206S) and 1 μl Fpg (formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase, NEB, M0240S) were added into the reaction and jointly incubated at 37 °C for 1 h. Then the mixture was purified with MinElute Reaction Cleanup Kit (3 × ERC) (QIAGEN) and its final concentration was calibrated using Qubit ssDNA Assay Kit.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Two Tailed Test

    Probing of the EC translocation conformations. ( A ) Exo III footprints of EC14 and EC15. Tth EC14 (lanes 1 and 2) was assembled as described in Materials and Methods. EC15 (lanes 3 and 4) was obtained by incubation of EC14 with substrate ATP for 2 min at 60°C. Exo III (0.02 U/μl) was added for 5 (lanes 1 and 3) or 10 (lanes 2 and 4) min at 37°C. ( B ) Schematics of RNAP front edge oscillations in EC14 and EC15. ( C ) Photo cross-linking patterns of Tth EC14 and EC15, EC14 and EC15 containing 5′ 32 P-labeled RNA primers were prepared as illustrated (left). The photo cross-linking analog 4-thio UTP (50 μM) was incorporated into the transcript for 2 min at 60°C followed UV light irradiation for 5 min at RT. The cross-linked species were separated using gel electrophoresis (right).

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Elongation complexes of Thermus thermophilus RNA polymerase that possess distinct translocation conformations

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkl559

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Probing of the EC translocation conformations. ( A ) Exo III footprints of EC14 and EC15. Tth EC14 (lanes 1 and 2) was assembled as described in Materials and Methods. EC15 (lanes 3 and 4) was obtained by incubation of EC14 with substrate ATP for 2 min at 60°C. Exo III (0.02 U/μl) was added for 5 (lanes 1 and 3) or 10 (lanes 2 and 4) min at 37°C. ( B ) Schematics of RNAP front edge oscillations in EC14 and EC15. ( C ) Photo cross-linking patterns of Tth EC14 and EC15, EC14 and EC15 containing 5′ 32 P-labeled RNA primers were prepared as illustrated (left). The photo cross-linking analog 4-thio UTP (50 μM) was incorporated into the transcript for 2 min at 60°C followed UV light irradiation for 5 min at RT. The cross-linked species were separated using gel electrophoresis (right).

    Article Snippet: Exonuclease III (Exo III) (NEB, 0.1 U/μl) was added for 5–10 min at 37°C.

    Techniques: Translocation Assay, Incubation, Labeling, Irradiation, Nucleic Acid Electrophoresis

    Structural characterization of AQ-157TG rNCPs. ( A ) Exonuclease III footprinting of AQ-157TG rNCPs (lane 1) and free AQ-157TG (lane 2). The restriction of ExoIII activity to the ∼10 bp proximal to AQ in the AQ-157TG rNCPs is evident. ( B ) Autoradiogram of hydroxyl radical footprinting on AQ-157TG rNCPs (lanes 1 and 2) and free AQ-157TG (lane 3). ( C ) Partial scan of the footprint in B of both free AQ-157TG (bottom) and AQ-157TG rNCPs (top). The 10 bp periodic cutting in the rNCPs is apparent.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Attenuation of DNA charge transport by compaction into a nucleosome core particle

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkl030

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Structural characterization of AQ-157TG rNCPs. ( A ) Exonuclease III footprinting of AQ-157TG rNCPs (lane 1) and free AQ-157TG (lane 2). The restriction of ExoIII activity to the ∼10 bp proximal to AQ in the AQ-157TG rNCPs is evident. ( B ) Autoradiogram of hydroxyl radical footprinting on AQ-157TG rNCPs (lanes 1 and 2) and free AQ-157TG (lane 3). ( C ) Partial scan of the footprint in B of both free AQ-157TG (bottom) and AQ-157TG rNCPs (top). The 10 bp periodic cutting in the rNCPs is apparent.

    Article Snippet: T4 Polynucleotide Kinase (PNK), T4 DNA Ligase (T4 Lig) and Exonuclease III (ExoIII) were purchased from New England Biolabs.

    Techniques: Footprinting, Activity Assay

    The extended G-overhang is not due to the collapse of replication fork. ( A ) No 5′ C-rich overhang was detected during the cell cycle. Genomic DNA isolated from synchronized HeLa cells were hybridized to an 18-mer G-rich probe for detecting C-rich overhangs and hybridized to an 18-mer C-rich probe for detecting G-overhangs under native conditions. To determine the hybridization signals contributed by G- or C-rich overhangs, DNA was digested with 3′ → 5′ exonuclease ExoI, which specifically removes 3′ G-overhangs, or the 5′ → 3′ exonuclease RecJ f ) before hybridization. The same gels were then denatured to determine the total telomere signal. Asyn, asynchronized HeLa cells. ( B ) Quantitation of relative amount of G-overhangs from ( A ). ( C ) Hybridization of G-rich probe to (C 3 TA 2 ) 4 oligo. The ss (C 3 TA 2 ) 4 oligo was hybridized to G-rich probe under the native condition identical to ( A ) and separated in 20% native 0.5 × TBE polyacrylamide gel.

    Journal: The EMBO Journal

    Article Title: Molecular steps of G-overhang generation at human telomeres and its function in chromosome end protection

    doi: 10.1038/emboj.2010.156

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The extended G-overhang is not due to the collapse of replication fork. ( A ) No 5′ C-rich overhang was detected during the cell cycle. Genomic DNA isolated from synchronized HeLa cells were hybridized to an 18-mer G-rich probe for detecting C-rich overhangs and hybridized to an 18-mer C-rich probe for detecting G-overhangs under native conditions. To determine the hybridization signals contributed by G- or C-rich overhangs, DNA was digested with 3′ → 5′ exonuclease ExoI, which specifically removes 3′ G-overhangs, or the 5′ → 3′ exonuclease RecJ f ) before hybridization. The same gels were then denatured to determine the total telomere signal. Asyn, asynchronized HeLa cells. ( B ) Quantitation of relative amount of G-overhangs from ( A ). ( C ) Hybridization of G-rich probe to (C 3 TA 2 ) 4 oligo. The ss (C 3 TA 2 ) 4 oligo was hybridized to G-rich probe under the native condition identical to ( A ) and separated in 20% native 0.5 × TBE polyacrylamide gel.

    Article Snippet: To remove the 3′ G-rich overhang, total DNA was treated with the 3′ → 5′ exonuclease Escherichia coli ExoI (0.3 U/μg DNA, NEB) in 15 μl buffer (10 mM HEPES pH 7.5, 100 mM LiCl, 2.5 mM MgCl2 , 5 mM CaCl2 , 20 mM β-mercaptoethanol, 0.067 μg/μl DNase-free RNaseA) at 37°C for 1 h to overnight.

    Techniques: Isolation, Hybridization, Quantitation Assay

    Extension of a human telomeric primer using C-rich DNA nanocircles. A radioactive primer composed of three repeats of the G-rich human telomeric sequence (GGGTTA) 3 was incubated with ( A ) Klenow Fragment of E.coli DNA polymerase I, lacking 3′–5′-exonuclease activity; ( B ) calf thymus polymerase alpha; ( C ) human polymerase beta; and ( D ) HeLa nuclear cell extracts. Reactions further contained 100 nM DNA nanocircle, traces of 5′- 32 P-labeled primer (GGGTTA) 3 , and 1 mM dNTPs, and were incubated at 37°C for 1 h. Lane 1, control reaction lacking DNA nanocircle; lane 2, 36 nt circle; lane 3, 42 nt circle; lane 4, 48 nt circle; lane 5, 54 nt circle; lane 6, 60 nt circle; and M, size marker.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Small circular DNAs for synthesis of the human telomere repeat: varied sizes, structures and telomere-encoding activities

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gnh149

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Extension of a human telomeric primer using C-rich DNA nanocircles. A radioactive primer composed of three repeats of the G-rich human telomeric sequence (GGGTTA) 3 was incubated with ( A ) Klenow Fragment of E.coli DNA polymerase I, lacking 3′–5′-exonuclease activity; ( B ) calf thymus polymerase alpha; ( C ) human polymerase beta; and ( D ) HeLa nuclear cell extracts. Reactions further contained 100 nM DNA nanocircle, traces of 5′- 32 P-labeled primer (GGGTTA) 3 , and 1 mM dNTPs, and were incubated at 37°C for 1 h. Lane 1, control reaction lacking DNA nanocircle; lane 2, 36 nt circle; lane 3, 42 nt circle; lane 4, 48 nt circle; lane 5, 54 nt circle; lane 6, 60 nt circle; and M, size marker.

    Article Snippet: A total of 8 U of Klenow Fragment lacking 3′-5′-exonuclease activity (New England Biolabs) were used in 50 mM Tris buffer, pH 7.5, 5 mM MgCl2 and 7.5 mM DTT.

    Techniques: Sequencing, Incubation, Activity Assay, Labeling, Marker