exonuclease iii e coli Search Results


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  • 98
    New England Biolabs e coli exonuclease iii
    <t>DNA</t> repair pathways implicated in 5-FU-mediated cell killing. The model is supported by the following observations: (i) a massive amount of uracil is incorporated into DNA, but the ung1 yeast are much less sensitive to 5-FU than the wild-type strain indicating that uracilated DNA is not the mediator of 5-FU toxicity; (ii) the apn1apn2ntg1ntg2 strain that is entirely defective in processing abasic sites by a BER mechanism is more sensitive to 5-FU, indicating that intact abasic sites (or repair products derived from abasic sites) have inherent toxicity; and <t>(iii)</t> the rad27 and apn1rad27 yeast strains show protection against 5-FU toxicity, suggesting the presence of a toxic repair intermediate downstream of the Rad27 flap endonuclease reaction. Several backup pathways for repair of abasic sites and 5′dRp groups are indicated. The lower path involving Apn2 and other BER enzymes is important in the absence of Apn1 and accounts for the efficient removal of abasic sites in the apn1 strain. NER and HR pathways are likely to be important with the apn1apn2ntg1ntg2 and rad27 knockout strains. Consistent with this, yeast deficient in both BER and NER are not viable.
    E Coli Exonuclease Iii, supplied by New England Biolabs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 98/100, based on 146 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Thermo Fisher e coli exonuclease iii
    Southern blot of pQC110 and pQC26-derived DNAs isolated from ZX7 transformants. ( A ) from transformants receiving Dra I-cleaved pQC110 <t>DNA.</t> DNAs were electrophoresed for 13 hr at 40 v in 0.5% agarose gel and probed with 32 P-labled pQC110 DNA (lanes 4 – 17 ). Molecular lengths were calculated relative to Hin dIII-treated bacteriophage λ DNA (lane 1 ), a 1-kb DNA-size ladder (Life Technologies, Inc.) (lane 2 ), or covalently closed circular pQC110 DNA isolated from E. coli (lane 3 ). ( B ) Surviving replicons are linear plasmids. Lanes 4 – 7 (NT) show DNA isolated from 4 randomly selected transformants by proteinase K/SDS treatment. Aliquots of the same DNAs were treated with 100 units exonuclease <t>III</t> (lanes 8 – 11 ) or 10 units λ exonuclease (lanes 12 – 15 ) at 37°C for 4 hr and electrophoresed for 18 hr at 38 v in 0.5 % agarose gel. λ Hin dIII-treated DNA (lane 1 ), 1-kb DNA ladder (lane 2 ), and pQC110 DNA (from E. coli , lane 3 ) are molecular size markers. ( C ) Electrophoresis of pQC110-derived DNAs shown in A after treatment with NaOH and renaturation. Lane designations are as in A . ( D ) Bam HI digestion of pQC110-derived DNAs from A . Lane 1 contains a 1-kb ladder. Lanes 2 – 15 correspond to DNAs in lanes 4 – 17 of A . The 8.5-kb and 5-kb DNA bands discussed in the text are indicated. ( E ) Bam HI digestion of pQC110-derived DNAs following denaturation and renaturation. Lanes 2 – 16 correspond to DNAs in lanes 3 – 17 of A . ( F ) Effect of denaturation on migration of Bam HI fragments containing putative palindrome apices of linear plasmids. Agarose gel analysis of inserts recovered from agarose gel following Bam HI digestion of pQC143–pQC146. The banding position of DNAs dissolved in TE (lanes 2 – 5 ) or analyzed following treatment with NaOH and neutralization is shown in lanes 6 – 9 . ( G ) Endonuclease analysis of Bam HI fragments containing putative palindrome apices. DNAs were digested by the enzymes indicated and electrophoresed for 3 hr at 80 v on 1% agarose gel. Lanes 2, 4, 6, 8 , and lanes 10, 12, 14, 16 correspond to lanes 2 – 5 from F . Lanes 3, 5, 7, 9 , and lanes 11, 13, 15, 17 correspond to lanes 6 – 9 from F . ( H ) Effect of denaturation on migration of Sac I-cleaved pQC26 DNA isolated from four transformants by adding proteinase K/SDS (lanes 3 – 7 ) or NaOH/SDS (lanes 8 – 12 ), and electrophoresed for 20 hr at 36 v in 0.5% agarose gel. Lane 1 (1-kb ladder) and 2 (pQC26, from E. coli ) are markers.
    E Coli Exonuclease Iii, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 20 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    88
    Roche e coli exonuclease iii
    Southern blot of pQC110 and pQC26-derived DNAs isolated from ZX7 transformants. ( A ) from transformants receiving Dra I-cleaved pQC110 <t>DNA.</t> DNAs were electrophoresed for 13 hr at 40 v in 0.5% agarose gel and probed with 32 P-labled pQC110 DNA (lanes 4 – 17 ). Molecular lengths were calculated relative to Hin dIII-treated bacteriophage λ DNA (lane 1 ), a 1-kb DNA-size ladder (Life Technologies, Inc.) (lane 2 ), or covalently closed circular pQC110 DNA isolated from E. coli (lane 3 ). ( B ) Surviving replicons are linear plasmids. Lanes 4 – 7 (NT) show DNA isolated from 4 randomly selected transformants by proteinase K/SDS treatment. Aliquots of the same DNAs were treated with 100 units exonuclease <t>III</t> (lanes 8 – 11 ) or 10 units λ exonuclease (lanes 12 – 15 ) at 37°C for 4 hr and electrophoresed for 18 hr at 38 v in 0.5 % agarose gel. λ Hin dIII-treated DNA (lane 1 ), 1-kb DNA ladder (lane 2 ), and pQC110 DNA (from E. coli , lane 3 ) are molecular size markers. ( C ) Electrophoresis of pQC110-derived DNAs shown in A after treatment with NaOH and renaturation. Lane designations are as in A . ( D ) Bam HI digestion of pQC110-derived DNAs from A . Lane 1 contains a 1-kb ladder. Lanes 2 – 15 correspond to DNAs in lanes 4 – 17 of A . The 8.5-kb and 5-kb DNA bands discussed in the text are indicated. ( E ) Bam HI digestion of pQC110-derived DNAs following denaturation and renaturation. Lanes 2 – 16 correspond to DNAs in lanes 3 – 17 of A . ( F ) Effect of denaturation on migration of Bam HI fragments containing putative palindrome apices of linear plasmids. Agarose gel analysis of inserts recovered from agarose gel following Bam HI digestion of pQC143–pQC146. The banding position of DNAs dissolved in TE (lanes 2 – 5 ) or analyzed following treatment with NaOH and neutralization is shown in lanes 6 – 9 . ( G ) Endonuclease analysis of Bam HI fragments containing putative palindrome apices. DNAs were digested by the enzymes indicated and electrophoresed for 3 hr at 80 v on 1% agarose gel. Lanes 2, 4, 6, 8 , and lanes 10, 12, 14, 16 correspond to lanes 2 – 5 from F . Lanes 3, 5, 7, 9 , and lanes 11, 13, 15, 17 correspond to lanes 6 – 9 from F . ( H ) Effect of denaturation on migration of Sac I-cleaved pQC26 DNA isolated from four transformants by adding proteinase K/SDS (lanes 3 – 7 ) or NaOH/SDS (lanes 8 – 12 ), and electrophoresed for 20 hr at 36 v in 0.5% agarose gel. Lane 1 (1-kb ladder) and 2 (pQC26, from E. coli ) are markers.
    E Coli Exonuclease Iii, supplied by Roche, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Millipore escherichia coli exonuclease iii
    Southern blot of pQC110 and pQC26-derived DNAs isolated from ZX7 transformants. ( A ) from transformants receiving Dra I-cleaved pQC110 <t>DNA.</t> DNAs were electrophoresed for 13 hr at 40 v in 0.5% agarose gel and probed with 32 P-labled pQC110 DNA (lanes 4 – 17 ). Molecular lengths were calculated relative to Hin dIII-treated bacteriophage λ DNA (lane 1 ), a 1-kb DNA-size ladder (Life Technologies, Inc.) (lane 2 ), or covalently closed circular pQC110 DNA isolated from E. coli (lane 3 ). ( B ) Surviving replicons are linear plasmids. Lanes 4 – 7 (NT) show DNA isolated from 4 randomly selected transformants by proteinase K/SDS treatment. Aliquots of the same DNAs were treated with 100 units exonuclease <t>III</t> (lanes 8 – 11 ) or 10 units λ exonuclease (lanes 12 – 15 ) at 37°C for 4 hr and electrophoresed for 18 hr at 38 v in 0.5 % agarose gel. λ Hin dIII-treated DNA (lane 1 ), 1-kb DNA ladder (lane 2 ), and pQC110 DNA (from E. coli , lane 3 ) are molecular size markers. ( C ) Electrophoresis of pQC110-derived DNAs shown in A after treatment with NaOH and renaturation. Lane designations are as in A . ( D ) Bam HI digestion of pQC110-derived DNAs from A . Lane 1 contains a 1-kb ladder. Lanes 2 – 15 correspond to DNAs in lanes 4 – 17 of A . The 8.5-kb and 5-kb DNA bands discussed in the text are indicated. ( E ) Bam HI digestion of pQC110-derived DNAs following denaturation and renaturation. Lanes 2 – 16 correspond to DNAs in lanes 3 – 17 of A . ( F ) Effect of denaturation on migration of Bam HI fragments containing putative palindrome apices of linear plasmids. Agarose gel analysis of inserts recovered from agarose gel following Bam HI digestion of pQC143–pQC146. The banding position of DNAs dissolved in TE (lanes 2 – 5 ) or analyzed following treatment with NaOH and neutralization is shown in lanes 6 – 9 . ( G ) Endonuclease analysis of Bam HI fragments containing putative palindrome apices. DNAs were digested by the enzymes indicated and electrophoresed for 3 hr at 80 v on 1% agarose gel. Lanes 2, 4, 6, 8 , and lanes 10, 12, 14, 16 correspond to lanes 2 – 5 from F . Lanes 3, 5, 7, 9 , and lanes 11, 13, 15, 17 correspond to lanes 6 – 9 from F . ( H ) Effect of denaturation on migration of Sac I-cleaved pQC26 DNA isolated from four transformants by adding proteinase K/SDS (lanes 3 – 7 ) or NaOH/SDS (lanes 8 – 12 ), and electrophoresed for 20 hr at 36 v in 0.5% agarose gel. Lane 1 (1-kb ladder) and 2 (pQC26, from E. coli ) are markers.
    Escherichia Coli Exonuclease Iii, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Millipore exonuclease iii
    Southern blot of pQC110 and pQC26-derived DNAs isolated from ZX7 transformants. ( A ) from transformants receiving Dra I-cleaved pQC110 <t>DNA.</t> DNAs were electrophoresed for 13 hr at 40 v in 0.5% agarose gel and probed with 32 P-labled pQC110 DNA (lanes 4 – 17 ). Molecular lengths were calculated relative to Hin dIII-treated bacteriophage λ DNA (lane 1 ), a 1-kb DNA-size ladder (Life Technologies, Inc.) (lane 2 ), or covalently closed circular pQC110 DNA isolated from E. coli (lane 3 ). ( B ) Surviving replicons are linear plasmids. Lanes 4 – 7 (NT) show DNA isolated from 4 randomly selected transformants by proteinase K/SDS treatment. Aliquots of the same DNAs were treated with 100 units exonuclease <t>III</t> (lanes 8 – 11 ) or 10 units λ exonuclease (lanes 12 – 15 ) at 37°C for 4 hr and electrophoresed for 18 hr at 38 v in 0.5 % agarose gel. λ Hin dIII-treated DNA (lane 1 ), 1-kb DNA ladder (lane 2 ), and pQC110 DNA (from E. coli , lane 3 ) are molecular size markers. ( C ) Electrophoresis of pQC110-derived DNAs shown in A after treatment with NaOH and renaturation. Lane designations are as in A . ( D ) Bam HI digestion of pQC110-derived DNAs from A . Lane 1 contains a 1-kb ladder. Lanes 2 – 15 correspond to DNAs in lanes 4 – 17 of A . The 8.5-kb and 5-kb DNA bands discussed in the text are indicated. ( E ) Bam HI digestion of pQC110-derived DNAs following denaturation and renaturation. Lanes 2 – 16 correspond to DNAs in lanes 3 – 17 of A . ( F ) Effect of denaturation on migration of Bam HI fragments containing putative palindrome apices of linear plasmids. Agarose gel analysis of inserts recovered from agarose gel following Bam HI digestion of pQC143–pQC146. The banding position of DNAs dissolved in TE (lanes 2 – 5 ) or analyzed following treatment with NaOH and neutralization is shown in lanes 6 – 9 . ( G ) Endonuclease analysis of Bam HI fragments containing putative palindrome apices. DNAs were digested by the enzymes indicated and electrophoresed for 3 hr at 80 v on 1% agarose gel. Lanes 2, 4, 6, 8 , and lanes 10, 12, 14, 16 correspond to lanes 2 – 5 from F . Lanes 3, 5, 7, 9 , and lanes 11, 13, 15, 17 correspond to lanes 6 – 9 from F . ( H ) Effect of denaturation on migration of Sac I-cleaved pQC26 DNA isolated from four transformants by adding proteinase K/SDS (lanes 3 – 7 ) or NaOH/SDS (lanes 8 – 12 ), and electrophoresed for 20 hr at 36 v in 0.5% agarose gel. Lane 1 (1-kb ladder) and 2 (pQC26, from E. coli ) are markers.
    Exonuclease Iii, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    96
    TaKaRa escherichia coli exonuclease iii
    Exonuclease <t>III</t> digestion patterns of wt and tailless nucleosomes. Nucleosomes were digested for 0 (lanes 2, 6, 10, 14, and 18), 2 (lanes 3, 7, 11, 15, and 19), 4 (lanes 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20), or 8 (lanes 5, 9, 13, 17, and 21) min at 37 °C by <t>Escherichia</t> coli exonuclease III. The reaction was stopped by the addition of proteinase K, and the DNA was extracted with phenol/chloroform, precipitated with ethanol, and dissolved in Hi–Di Formamide. The purified DNA samples were analyzed by 10% denaturing PAGE.
    Escherichia Coli Exonuclease Iii, supplied by TaKaRa, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 10 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    DNA repair pathways implicated in 5-FU-mediated cell killing. The model is supported by the following observations: (i) a massive amount of uracil is incorporated into DNA, but the ung1 yeast are much less sensitive to 5-FU than the wild-type strain indicating that uracilated DNA is not the mediator of 5-FU toxicity; (ii) the apn1apn2ntg1ntg2 strain that is entirely defective in processing abasic sites by a BER mechanism is more sensitive to 5-FU, indicating that intact abasic sites (or repair products derived from abasic sites) have inherent toxicity; and (iii) the rad27 and apn1rad27 yeast strains show protection against 5-FU toxicity, suggesting the presence of a toxic repair intermediate downstream of the Rad27 flap endonuclease reaction. Several backup pathways for repair of abasic sites and 5′dRp groups are indicated. The lower path involving Apn2 and other BER enzymes is important in the absence of Apn1 and accounts for the efficient removal of abasic sites in the apn1 strain. NER and HR pathways are likely to be important with the apn1apn2ntg1ntg2 and rad27 knockout strains. Consistent with this, yeast deficient in both BER and NER are not viable.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Linking uracil base excision repair and 5-fluorouracil toxicity in yeast

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkj430

    Figure Lengend Snippet: DNA repair pathways implicated in 5-FU-mediated cell killing. The model is supported by the following observations: (i) a massive amount of uracil is incorporated into DNA, but the ung1 yeast are much less sensitive to 5-FU than the wild-type strain indicating that uracilated DNA is not the mediator of 5-FU toxicity; (ii) the apn1apn2ntg1ntg2 strain that is entirely defective in processing abasic sites by a BER mechanism is more sensitive to 5-FU, indicating that intact abasic sites (or repair products derived from abasic sites) have inherent toxicity; and (iii) the rad27 and apn1rad27 yeast strains show protection against 5-FU toxicity, suggesting the presence of a toxic repair intermediate downstream of the Rad27 flap endonuclease reaction. Several backup pathways for repair of abasic sites and 5′dRp groups are indicated. The lower path involving Apn2 and other BER enzymes is important in the absence of Apn1 and accounts for the efficient removal of abasic sites in the apn1 strain. NER and HR pathways are likely to be important with the apn1apn2ntg1ntg2 and rad27 knockout strains. Consistent with this, yeast deficient in both BER and NER are not viable.

    Article Snippet: Briefly, 4 µg of each DNA sample was digested with E.coli exonuclease III (145 U; New England Biolabs) for 1 min at 37°C, 100 mM putrescine at 37°C for 30 min (Acros Organics), both exonuclease III and putrescine, or left undigested.

    Techniques: Derivative Assay, Knock-Out

    Performance of o2n-seq for detecting mutations with 1% and 0.1% allele frequency. ( a , b ) Sensitivity and FPR of mutation detection of o2n-seq (three experimental replicates, orange), Cir-seq (three experimental replicates, blue) and o2n-seq after filtering with frequency (o2n-seq-f, green) under different CSs criteria for the 1:100 mixture of E. coli (means±s.d.). Two-tailed Student's t -test was used for statistical analysis. ( c ) Mutation frequency distribution of FP and TP variants detected by o2n-seq under different CSs (1 × and 2 × ) for the 1:100 mixture of E. coli . 3 × -5 × CSs were showed in Supplementary Fig. 5 . ( d ) MAFs of TP mutations detected by o2n-seq for the 1:100 mixture of E. coli . The MAFs of three experimental replicates was plotted. The dashed horizontal line indicates the theoretical MAF (0.99%). ( e , f ) Sensitivity and FPR of mutation detection of o2n-seq by different CSs criteria (3 × −9 × ) under different total CSs coverage (5,000–25,000 × ) for the 1:1,000 mix of phix174 . The results of the other experimental replicate were shown in Supplementary Fig. 6 . Dash lines were used to display the overlapped results better.

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: Ultrasensitive and high-efficiency screen of de novo low-frequency mutations by o2n-seq

    doi: 10.1038/ncomms15335

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Performance of o2n-seq for detecting mutations with 1% and 0.1% allele frequency. ( a , b ) Sensitivity and FPR of mutation detection of o2n-seq (three experimental replicates, orange), Cir-seq (three experimental replicates, blue) and o2n-seq after filtering with frequency (o2n-seq-f, green) under different CSs criteria for the 1:100 mixture of E. coli (means±s.d.). Two-tailed Student's t -test was used for statistical analysis. ( c ) Mutation frequency distribution of FP and TP variants detected by o2n-seq under different CSs (1 × and 2 × ) for the 1:100 mixture of E. coli . 3 × -5 × CSs were showed in Supplementary Fig. 5 . ( d ) MAFs of TP mutations detected by o2n-seq for the 1:100 mixture of E. coli . The MAFs of three experimental replicates was plotted. The dashed horizontal line indicates the theoretical MAF (0.99%). ( e , f ) Sensitivity and FPR of mutation detection of o2n-seq by different CSs criteria (3 × −9 × ) under different total CSs coverage (5,000–25,000 × ) for the 1:1,000 mix of phix174 . The results of the other experimental replicate were shown in Supplementary Fig. 6 . Dash lines were used to display the overlapped results better.

    Article Snippet: Subsequently, 1 μl Exonuclease I (NEB, M0293S), 1 μl Exonuclease III (NEB, M0206S) and 1 μl Fpg (formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase, NEB, M0240S) were added into the reaction and jointly incubated at 37 °C for 1 h. Then the mixture was purified with MinElute Reaction Cleanup Kit (3 × ERC) (QIAGEN) and its final concentration was calibrated using Qubit ssDNA Assay Kit.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Two Tailed Test

    Proliferation-inducing capacity of pPCR102-2 and derivatives in HUVECs. HUVECs were transiently transfected with either pPCR102-2 ( A ), pND-A8 ( B ), pND-A2 ( C ) or pPI1-His ( D ) in order to assess their proliferation-inducing potential. Forty-eight hours post transfection, the cell populations were transduced with a GFP-encoding oncoretroviral vector, which exclusively targets proliferating cells. Forty-eight hours post-transduction, GFP-mediated fluorescence was quantified by FACS. Fluorescence values were calculated by multiplying the number of GFP-expressing cells by the average intensity of GFP expression. The relative fluorescence units were obtained by comparison with GFP-mediated fluorescence control populations (cntrl) transfected with isogenic pcDNA3.1/V5-His-TOPO. Corresponding FACS histograms are also shown. All values are representative of at least three independent experiments. FS, forward scatter; FL, fluoresence.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Identification of a novel proliferation-inducing determinant using lentiviral expression cloning

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gng115

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Proliferation-inducing capacity of pPCR102-2 and derivatives in HUVECs. HUVECs were transiently transfected with either pPCR102-2 ( A ), pND-A8 ( B ), pND-A2 ( C ) or pPI1-His ( D ) in order to assess their proliferation-inducing potential. Forty-eight hours post transfection, the cell populations were transduced with a GFP-encoding oncoretroviral vector, which exclusively targets proliferating cells. Forty-eight hours post-transduction, GFP-mediated fluorescence was quantified by FACS. Fluorescence values were calculated by multiplying the number of GFP-expressing cells by the average intensity of GFP expression. The relative fluorescence units were obtained by comparison with GFP-mediated fluorescence control populations (cntrl) transfected with isogenic pcDNA3.1/V5-His-TOPO. Corresponding FACS histograms are also shown. All values are representative of at least three independent experiments. FS, forward scatter; FL, fluoresence.

    Article Snippet: All PCR reactions were conducted using DyNAzyme.EXT polymerase (Finnzymes, Oulu, Finland). pND-A2 and pND-A8 represent nested deletions of pPCR102-2 which were performed by restricting pPCR102-2 with KpnI and BamHI followed by Exonuclease III (NEB, Beverly, MA) mediated digestion at 37°C for 1, 2 and 3 min, respectively.

    Techniques: Transfection, Transduction, Plasmid Preparation, Fluorescence, FACS, Expressing

    Structural characterization of AQ-157TG rNCPs. ( A ) Exonuclease III footprinting of AQ-157TG rNCPs (lane 1) and free AQ-157TG (lane 2). The restriction of ExoIII activity to the ∼10 bp proximal to AQ in the AQ-157TG rNCPs is evident. ( B ) Autoradiogram of hydroxyl radical footprinting on AQ-157TG rNCPs (lanes 1 and 2) and free AQ-157TG (lane 3). ( C ) Partial scan of the footprint in B of both free AQ-157TG (bottom) and AQ-157TG rNCPs (top). The 10 bp periodic cutting in the rNCPs is apparent.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Attenuation of DNA charge transport by compaction into a nucleosome core particle

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gkl030

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Structural characterization of AQ-157TG rNCPs. ( A ) Exonuclease III footprinting of AQ-157TG rNCPs (lane 1) and free AQ-157TG (lane 2). The restriction of ExoIII activity to the ∼10 bp proximal to AQ in the AQ-157TG rNCPs is evident. ( B ) Autoradiogram of hydroxyl radical footprinting on AQ-157TG rNCPs (lanes 1 and 2) and free AQ-157TG (lane 3). ( C ) Partial scan of the footprint in B of both free AQ-157TG (bottom) and AQ-157TG rNCPs (top). The 10 bp periodic cutting in the rNCPs is apparent.

    Article Snippet: T4 Polynucleotide Kinase (PNK), T4 DNA Ligase (T4 Lig) and Exonuclease III (ExoIII) were purchased from New England Biolabs.

    Techniques: Footprinting, Activity Assay

    The extended G-overhang is not due to the collapse of replication fork. ( A ) No 5′ C-rich overhang was detected during the cell cycle. Genomic DNA isolated from synchronized HeLa cells were hybridized to an 18-mer G-rich probe for detecting C-rich overhangs and hybridized to an 18-mer C-rich probe for detecting G-overhangs under native conditions. To determine the hybridization signals contributed by G- or C-rich overhangs, DNA was digested with 3′ → 5′ exonuclease ExoI, which specifically removes 3′ G-overhangs, or the 5′ → 3′ exonuclease RecJ f ) before hybridization. The same gels were then denatured to determine the total telomere signal. Asyn, asynchronized HeLa cells. ( B ) Quantitation of relative amount of G-overhangs from ( A ). ( C ) Hybridization of G-rich probe to (C 3 TA 2 ) 4 oligo. The ss (C 3 TA 2 ) 4 oligo was hybridized to G-rich probe under the native condition identical to ( A ) and separated in 20% native 0.5 × TBE polyacrylamide gel.

    Journal: The EMBO Journal

    Article Title: Molecular steps of G-overhang generation at human telomeres and its function in chromosome end protection

    doi: 10.1038/emboj.2010.156

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The extended G-overhang is not due to the collapse of replication fork. ( A ) No 5′ C-rich overhang was detected during the cell cycle. Genomic DNA isolated from synchronized HeLa cells were hybridized to an 18-mer G-rich probe for detecting C-rich overhangs and hybridized to an 18-mer C-rich probe for detecting G-overhangs under native conditions. To determine the hybridization signals contributed by G- or C-rich overhangs, DNA was digested with 3′ → 5′ exonuclease ExoI, which specifically removes 3′ G-overhangs, or the 5′ → 3′ exonuclease RecJ f ) before hybridization. The same gels were then denatured to determine the total telomere signal. Asyn, asynchronized HeLa cells. ( B ) Quantitation of relative amount of G-overhangs from ( A ). ( C ) Hybridization of G-rich probe to (C 3 TA 2 ) 4 oligo. The ss (C 3 TA 2 ) 4 oligo was hybridized to G-rich probe under the native condition identical to ( A ) and separated in 20% native 0.5 × TBE polyacrylamide gel.

    Article Snippet: To remove the 3′ G-rich overhang, total DNA was treated with the 3′ → 5′ exonuclease Escherichia coli ExoI (0.3 U/μg DNA, NEB) in 15 μl buffer (10 mM HEPES pH 7.5, 100 mM LiCl, 2.5 mM MgCl2 , 5 mM CaCl2 , 20 mM β-mercaptoethanol, 0.067 μg/μl DNase-free RNaseA) at 37°C for 1 h to overnight.

    Techniques: Isolation, Hybridization, Quantitation Assay

    Southern blot of pQC110 and pQC26-derived DNAs isolated from ZX7 transformants. ( A ) from transformants receiving Dra I-cleaved pQC110 DNA. DNAs were electrophoresed for 13 hr at 40 v in 0.5% agarose gel and probed with 32 P-labled pQC110 DNA (lanes 4 – 17 ). Molecular lengths were calculated relative to Hin dIII-treated bacteriophage λ DNA (lane 1 ), a 1-kb DNA-size ladder (Life Technologies, Inc.) (lane 2 ), or covalently closed circular pQC110 DNA isolated from E. coli (lane 3 ). ( B ) Surviving replicons are linear plasmids. Lanes 4 – 7 (NT) show DNA isolated from 4 randomly selected transformants by proteinase K/SDS treatment. Aliquots of the same DNAs were treated with 100 units exonuclease III (lanes 8 – 11 ) or 10 units λ exonuclease (lanes 12 – 15 ) at 37°C for 4 hr and electrophoresed for 18 hr at 38 v in 0.5 % agarose gel. λ Hin dIII-treated DNA (lane 1 ), 1-kb DNA ladder (lane 2 ), and pQC110 DNA (from E. coli , lane 3 ) are molecular size markers. ( C ) Electrophoresis of pQC110-derived DNAs shown in A after treatment with NaOH and renaturation. Lane designations are as in A . ( D ) Bam HI digestion of pQC110-derived DNAs from A . Lane 1 contains a 1-kb ladder. Lanes 2 – 15 correspond to DNAs in lanes 4 – 17 of A . The 8.5-kb and 5-kb DNA bands discussed in the text are indicated. ( E ) Bam HI digestion of pQC110-derived DNAs following denaturation and renaturation. Lanes 2 – 16 correspond to DNAs in lanes 3 – 17 of A . ( F ) Effect of denaturation on migration of Bam HI fragments containing putative palindrome apices of linear plasmids. Agarose gel analysis of inserts recovered from agarose gel following Bam HI digestion of pQC143–pQC146. The banding position of DNAs dissolved in TE (lanes 2 – 5 ) or analyzed following treatment with NaOH and neutralization is shown in lanes 6 – 9 . ( G ) Endonuclease analysis of Bam HI fragments containing putative palindrome apices. DNAs were digested by the enzymes indicated and electrophoresed for 3 hr at 80 v on 1% agarose gel. Lanes 2, 4, 6, 8 , and lanes 10, 12, 14, 16 correspond to lanes 2 – 5 from F . Lanes 3, 5, 7, 9 , and lanes 11, 13, 15, 17 correspond to lanes 6 – 9 from F . ( H ) Effect of denaturation on migration of Sac I-cleaved pQC26 DNA isolated from four transformants by adding proteinase K/SDS (lanes 3 – 7 ) or NaOH/SDS (lanes 8 – 12 ), and electrophoresed for 20 hr at 36 v in 0.5% agarose gel. Lane 1 (1-kb ladder) and 2 (pQC26, from E. coli ) are markers.

    Journal: Genes & Development

    Article Title: Long palindromes formed in Streptomyces by nonrecombinational intra-strand annealing

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Southern blot of pQC110 and pQC26-derived DNAs isolated from ZX7 transformants. ( A ) from transformants receiving Dra I-cleaved pQC110 DNA. DNAs were electrophoresed for 13 hr at 40 v in 0.5% agarose gel and probed with 32 P-labled pQC110 DNA (lanes 4 – 17 ). Molecular lengths were calculated relative to Hin dIII-treated bacteriophage λ DNA (lane 1 ), a 1-kb DNA-size ladder (Life Technologies, Inc.) (lane 2 ), or covalently closed circular pQC110 DNA isolated from E. coli (lane 3 ). ( B ) Surviving replicons are linear plasmids. Lanes 4 – 7 (NT) show DNA isolated from 4 randomly selected transformants by proteinase K/SDS treatment. Aliquots of the same DNAs were treated with 100 units exonuclease III (lanes 8 – 11 ) or 10 units λ exonuclease (lanes 12 – 15 ) at 37°C for 4 hr and electrophoresed for 18 hr at 38 v in 0.5 % agarose gel. λ Hin dIII-treated DNA (lane 1 ), 1-kb DNA ladder (lane 2 ), and pQC110 DNA (from E. coli , lane 3 ) are molecular size markers. ( C ) Electrophoresis of pQC110-derived DNAs shown in A after treatment with NaOH and renaturation. Lane designations are as in A . ( D ) Bam HI digestion of pQC110-derived DNAs from A . Lane 1 contains a 1-kb ladder. Lanes 2 – 15 correspond to DNAs in lanes 4 – 17 of A . The 8.5-kb and 5-kb DNA bands discussed in the text are indicated. ( E ) Bam HI digestion of pQC110-derived DNAs following denaturation and renaturation. Lanes 2 – 16 correspond to DNAs in lanes 3 – 17 of A . ( F ) Effect of denaturation on migration of Bam HI fragments containing putative palindrome apices of linear plasmids. Agarose gel analysis of inserts recovered from agarose gel following Bam HI digestion of pQC143–pQC146. The banding position of DNAs dissolved in TE (lanes 2 – 5 ) or analyzed following treatment with NaOH and neutralization is shown in lanes 6 – 9 . ( G ) Endonuclease analysis of Bam HI fragments containing putative palindrome apices. DNAs were digested by the enzymes indicated and electrophoresed for 3 hr at 80 v on 1% agarose gel. Lanes 2, 4, 6, 8 , and lanes 10, 12, 14, 16 correspond to lanes 2 – 5 from F . Lanes 3, 5, 7, 9 , and lanes 11, 13, 15, 17 correspond to lanes 6 – 9 from F . ( H ) Effect of denaturation on migration of Sac I-cleaved pQC26 DNA isolated from four transformants by adding proteinase K/SDS (lanes 3 – 7 ) or NaOH/SDS (lanes 8 – 12 ), and electrophoresed for 20 hr at 36 v in 0.5% agarose gel. Lane 1 (1-kb ladder) and 2 (pQC26, from E. coli ) are markers.

    Article Snippet: Aliquots of DNA were incubated with 100 units of E. coli exonuclease III or 10 units of bacteriophage λ exonuclease (either purchased from Life Technologies, Inc. or a gift of Drs. Deb Chatterjee and Per Harbury) at 37°C for 1 hr and the completeness of their digestion was confirmed by gel electrophoresis.

    Techniques: Southern Blot, Derivative Assay, Isolation, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Electrophoresis, Migration, Neutralization

    Exonuclease III digestion patterns of wt and tailless nucleosomes. Nucleosomes were digested for 0 (lanes 2, 6, 10, 14, and 18), 2 (lanes 3, 7, 11, 15, and 19), 4 (lanes 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20), or 8 (lanes 5, 9, 13, 17, and 21) min at 37 °C by Escherichia coli exonuclease III. The reaction was stopped by the addition of proteinase K, and the DNA was extracted with phenol/chloroform, precipitated with ethanol, and dissolved in Hi–Di Formamide. The purified DNA samples were analyzed by 10% denaturing PAGE.

    Journal: FEBS Open Bio

    Article Title: Contribution of histone N-terminal tails to the structure and stability of nucleosomes

    doi: 10.1016/j.fob.2013.08.007

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Exonuclease III digestion patterns of wt and tailless nucleosomes. Nucleosomes were digested for 0 (lanes 2, 6, 10, 14, and 18), 2 (lanes 3, 7, 11, 15, and 19), 4 (lanes 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20), or 8 (lanes 5, 9, 13, 17, and 21) min at 37 °C by Escherichia coli exonuclease III. The reaction was stopped by the addition of proteinase K, and the DNA was extracted with phenol/chloroform, precipitated with ethanol, and dissolved in Hi–Di Formamide. The purified DNA samples were analyzed by 10% denaturing PAGE.

    Article Snippet: Briefly, each reconstituted nucleosome, containing tlH2A, tlH2B, tlH3, or tlH4, was treated with 5 units of Escherichia coli exonuclease III (Takara), in 10 μl of 50 mM Tris–HCl (pH 8.0), 5 mM MgCl2 , and 1 mM DTT.

    Techniques: Purification, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis