ethidium homodimer-1 Search Results


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  • 97
    Thermo Fisher ethidium homodimer 2
    Cytotoxicity tests performed in 2D monolayer culture. A ) Cell proliferation/cell number, B ) programmed cell death (apoptosis), and C ) number of dead cells were assessed by conventional assays, combined with high-content microscopy (Operetta). Cells were treated with the five most effective betulin derivatives, including paclitaxel control for 72h. Proliferation was measured as the total number of nuclei (= cells), apoptosis as ratio of caspase-3 positive versus all cells, and cell death as <t>ethidium</t> <t>homodimer-2</t> positive nuclei versus all cells.
    Ethidium Homodimer 2, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 258 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    96
    Millipore ethd 1
    Micrographs showing cell samples stained with Hoechst (Blue-all cells) and <t>Ethd-1</t> (Red-dead cells only). (a and b) – control samples without heating; (c and d) – samples heated at 50°C for 9 min; (e and f) – samples heated at 70°C for 1 min.
    Ethd 1, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 28 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Thermo Fisher ethidium homodimer 1
    Hypoxia induced permeability and cell death. ( A ) Zo-1 staining around the organoid showing complete BBB coverage around the organoids. Cell viability was assessed using calcein AM (green- live cells) and <t>ethidium</t> homodimer 1 (red- dead cells) ( B ). The number of cells per organoid under both normoxic and hypoxic condition was determined by pooling 24 organoids into an eppendorf tube. Cell suspensions were obtained by dissociating the organoids with dispase. The cells were subsequently counted, and the data is shown in ( C ). Protein levels for six groups containing 80 organoids each were obtained from six randomly chosen plates and total protein levels were determined by BCA assay in ( D ). In ( E ), 10 organoids were used in each group and 5 randomly chosen organoids were imaged. The results show increased permeability of labeled albumin (red) and FITC labeled IgG (green) into organoids post hypoxic culture conditions compared to no penetration of these proteins under normoxic conditions. Pre-hypoxia represents organoids from the same batch that were pooled and assessed for albumin and IgG permeability prior to culturing under hypoxic condition. Images shown are middle slices of the z-stack confocal image. Fluorescence of albumin was quantified in 4 organoids under normoxic condition and post hypoxia as illustrated in F. ( G ) Shows the individual slices across the organoid and ( H ) the quantification of fluorescent albumin density from ( E ) within the organoid of each slice. Student T-Test, two tailed hypotheses, *P
    Ethidium Homodimer 1, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 2869 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Carl Zeiss ethidium homodimer 1
    Representative confocal images of fluorescently stained LNCaP cells grown in HA/PolyRGD gels at day 1, 7, 14 and 28. Cells cultured in HA/PolyRDG gels were included as the controls. Live and dead cells were stained Calcein AM (green) and <t>ethidium</t> <t>homodimer-1</t>
    Ethidium Homodimer 1, supplied by Carl Zeiss, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 256 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Thermo Fisher live dead viability cytotoxicity kit
    Calcein-AM and EthD -1 (LIVE/DEAD) staining of hRPCs. (A–C) Representative fluorescence photos of cells (seeding density 2000 cells/μL) cultured within the Gtn-HPA gel for 1, 4, and 7 days. Very few nonviable cells (red, highlighted with white arrows) are seen. (D–F) Photos of cells cultured on fibronectin-coated surfaces for 1, 4, and 7 days. (G) Percentage viability of cells in Gtn-HPA versus on fibronectin. Two-factor ANOVA did not show significant effect of culture conditions on percentage viability (F(1, 12)=1.183, p=0.298). (H) Percentage viability of cells in Gtn-HPA when seeded with varying cell concentrations (N=2–3). Cells were  > 60% viable up until concentrations of 8000 cells/μL when cultured for 7 days without passage.
    Live Dead Viability Cytotoxicity Kit, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 7343 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Biotium ethidium homodimer 1
    Bnip3 splice variants oppose mitochondrial perturbations . a HCT-116 cells treated with 200 μM cobalt chloride ± 10 μM misoprostol or vehicle control for 20 h. Cells were stained with TMRM (red) and Hoechst (blue) and imaged by standard fluorescence microscopy. b Quantification of TMRM in a , red fluorescent signal was normalized to cell area and quantified in 10 random fields. c Quantification of H9c2 cells treated with 200 μM cobalt chloride ± 10 μM misoprostol or vehicle control for 20 h, and transfected with si-Bnip3ΔExon3 or a scrambled control. Cells were stained as in a and quantified as in b . d Quantification of H9c2 cells was transfected with Bnip3-FL, Bnip3ΔExon3, or an empty vector control. TMRM staining was quantified as in b . e H9c2 cells were transfected with Bnip3-FL, BNIP3ΔExon2, or empty vector control. Outlines indicate CMV-GFP positive cells, included to identify transfected cells. Cells were stained as in a . f Quantification of ( e ), red fluorescent signal was normalized to cell area and quantified in 10 random fields. g H9c2 cells were transfected with Bnip3-FL, Bnip3ΔExon3, or empty vector control. CMV-dsRed (red) was used to identify transfected cells. Cells were stained with calcein-AM and cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 , 5 μM) to assess permeability transition. h Quantification of g by calculating the percentage of cells with punctate calcein signal in 10 random fields. i Quantification of H9c2 cells transfected with Bnip3-FL, BNIP3ΔExon2, or empty vector control. CMV-dsRed was used to identify transfected cells. Cells were stained and quantified as indicated in h . j H9c2 cells transfected with Bnip3-FL, BNIP3ΔExon3, or empty vector control. Live cells were stained with calcein-AM (green), and necrotic cells were stained with <t>ethidium</t> <t>homodimer-1</t> (red), cells were imaged by standard fluorescence microscopy. k Fluorescent images in j were quantified by calculating the percent of necrotic cells (ethidium homodimer-1 positive) cells in 10 random fields. Data are represented as mean ± S.E.M. * P
    Ethidium Homodimer 1, supplied by Biotium, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 35 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Thermo Fisher calcein am ethidium homodimer 1 staining
    Influence of RA on follicle viability. (A) Fluorescent staining with <t>calcein-AM/ethidium</t> <t>homodimer-1</t> after culture in 5 μM retinoic acid for 7 d. Green fluorescence indicates viable follicles/cell. Bar = 100 μm. (B) Mean (± SEM) of follicle viability in freshly collected cat ovarian tissue and cortical pieces cultured for 7 d. Different letters indicate significant (P
    Calcein Am Ethidium Homodimer 1 Staining, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 82 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Olympus ethidium homodimer 1
    Influence of RA on follicle viability. (A) Fluorescent staining with <t>calcein-AM/ethidium</t> <t>homodimer-1</t> after culture in 5 μM retinoic acid for 7 d. Green fluorescence indicates viable follicles/cell. Bar = 100 μm. (B) Mean (± SEM) of follicle viability in freshly collected cat ovarian tissue and cortical pieces cultured for 7 d. Different letters indicate significant (P
    Ethidium Homodimer 1, supplied by Olympus, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 51 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    Biotium ethidium homodimer i
    Influence of RA on follicle viability. (A) Fluorescent staining with <t>calcein-AM/ethidium</t> <t>homodimer-1</t> after culture in 5 μM retinoic acid for 7 d. Green fluorescence indicates viable follicles/cell. Bar = 100 μm. (B) Mean (± SEM) of follicle viability in freshly collected cat ovarian tissue and cortical pieces cultured for 7 d. Different letters indicate significant (P
    Ethidium Homodimer I, supplied by Biotium, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 17 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Abcam ethidium homodimer
    Influence of RA on follicle viability. (A) Fluorescent staining with <t>calcein-AM/ethidium</t> <t>homodimer-1</t> after culture in 5 μM retinoic acid for 7 d. Green fluorescence indicates viable follicles/cell. Bar = 100 μm. (B) Mean (± SEM) of follicle viability in freshly collected cat ovarian tissue and cortical pieces cultured for 7 d. Different letters indicate significant (P
    Ethidium Homodimer, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Thermo Fisher hoechst 33342
    Live/dead assay of control and or PCI treated spheroids Two-photon fluorescence microscopy images of F98 spheroids stained with <t>Hoechst</t> 33342 (green: live) and Ethidium Homodimer (red: dead). Spheroids were stained 24 h after treatment: (a) Control,
    Hoechst 33342, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 54383 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Cytotoxicity tests performed in 2D monolayer culture. A ) Cell proliferation/cell number, B ) programmed cell death (apoptosis), and C ) number of dead cells were assessed by conventional assays, combined with high-content microscopy (Operetta). Cells were treated with the five most effective betulin derivatives, including paclitaxel control for 72h. Proliferation was measured as the total number of nuclei (= cells), apoptosis as ratio of caspase-3 positive versus all cells, and cell death as ethidium homodimer-2 positive nuclei versus all cells.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Optimization of Invasion-Specific Effects of Betulin Derivatives on Prostate Cancer Cells through Lead Development

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126111

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cytotoxicity tests performed in 2D monolayer culture. A ) Cell proliferation/cell number, B ) programmed cell death (apoptosis), and C ) number of dead cells were assessed by conventional assays, combined with high-content microscopy (Operetta). Cells were treated with the five most effective betulin derivatives, including paclitaxel control for 72h. Proliferation was measured as the total number of nuclei (= cells), apoptosis as ratio of caspase-3 positive versus all cells, and cell death as ethidium homodimer-2 positive nuclei versus all cells.

    Article Snippet: Image acquisition and pre-processing 3D cell cultures were double-stained with calcein AM fluorescent dye (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR, USA) and ethidium homodimer-2 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA).

    Techniques: Microscopy

    Micrographs showing cell samples stained with Hoechst (Blue-all cells) and Ethd-1 (Red-dead cells only). (a and b) – control samples without heating; (c and d) – samples heated at 50°C for 9 min; (e and f) – samples heated at 70°C for 1 min.

    Journal: Annals of Biomedical Engineering

    Article Title: Evaluation of Important Treatment Parameters in Supraphysiological Thermal Therapy of Human Liver Cancer HepG2 Cells

    doi: 10.1007/s10439-006-9185-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Micrographs showing cell samples stained with Hoechst (Blue-all cells) and Ethd-1 (Red-dead cells only). (a and b) – control samples without heating; (c and d) – samples heated at 50°C for 9 min; (e and f) – samples heated at 70°C for 1 min.

    Article Snippet: Cellular injury post heating for isothermal and non-isothermal studies was quantified using Ethd-1 (Sigma-Aldrich, MO) vital dye assay by counting the number of cells stained with Ethd-1 dye (dead only) and the total number of the cells stained with Hoechst (Sigma-Aldrich).

    Techniques: Staining, Ethidium Homodimer Assay

    Hypoxia induced permeability and cell death. ( A ) Zo-1 staining around the organoid showing complete BBB coverage around the organoids. Cell viability was assessed using calcein AM (green- live cells) and ethidium homodimer 1 (red- dead cells) ( B ). The number of cells per organoid under both normoxic and hypoxic condition was determined by pooling 24 organoids into an eppendorf tube. Cell suspensions were obtained by dissociating the organoids with dispase. The cells were subsequently counted, and the data is shown in ( C ). Protein levels for six groups containing 80 organoids each were obtained from six randomly chosen plates and total protein levels were determined by BCA assay in ( D ). In ( E ), 10 organoids were used in each group and 5 randomly chosen organoids were imaged. The results show increased permeability of labeled albumin (red) and FITC labeled IgG (green) into organoids post hypoxic culture conditions compared to no penetration of these proteins under normoxic conditions. Pre-hypoxia represents organoids from the same batch that were pooled and assessed for albumin and IgG permeability prior to culturing under hypoxic condition. Images shown are middle slices of the z-stack confocal image. Fluorescence of albumin was quantified in 4 organoids under normoxic condition and post hypoxia as illustrated in F. ( G ) Shows the individual slices across the organoid and ( H ) the quantification of fluorescent albumin density from ( E ) within the organoid of each slice. Student T-Test, two tailed hypotheses, *P

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Multicellular 3D Neurovascular Unit Model for Assessing Hypoxia and Neuroinflammation Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-66487-8

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Hypoxia induced permeability and cell death. ( A ) Zo-1 staining around the organoid showing complete BBB coverage around the organoids. Cell viability was assessed using calcein AM (green- live cells) and ethidium homodimer 1 (red- dead cells) ( B ). The number of cells per organoid under both normoxic and hypoxic condition was determined by pooling 24 organoids into an eppendorf tube. Cell suspensions were obtained by dissociating the organoids with dispase. The cells were subsequently counted, and the data is shown in ( C ). Protein levels for six groups containing 80 organoids each were obtained from six randomly chosen plates and total protein levels were determined by BCA assay in ( D ). In ( E ), 10 organoids were used in each group and 5 randomly chosen organoids were imaged. The results show increased permeability of labeled albumin (red) and FITC labeled IgG (green) into organoids post hypoxic culture conditions compared to no penetration of these proteins under normoxic conditions. Pre-hypoxia represents organoids from the same batch that were pooled and assessed for albumin and IgG permeability prior to culturing under hypoxic condition. Images shown are middle slices of the z-stack confocal image. Fluorescence of albumin was quantified in 4 organoids under normoxic condition and post hypoxia as illustrated in F. ( G ) Shows the individual slices across the organoid and ( H ) the quantification of fluorescent albumin density from ( E ) within the organoid of each slice. Student T-Test, two tailed hypotheses, *P

    Article Snippet: Organoids were incubated at room temperature for 10 minutes in DPBS containing 2 μM calcein AM (Invitrogen, green- live cells) and 4 μM ethidium homodimer-1 (Invitrogen, red - dead cells).

    Techniques: Permeability, Staining, BIA-KA, Labeling, Fluorescence, Two Tailed Test

    Viability of a 4‐day primary culture of isolated DRG neurons. The neurons were isolated from the DRGs of two rabbit spines. A,B, Representative images of DRG cells cultured at 2% and 20% oxygen for 4 days. Immunofluorescent staining with NF‐200 antibody was used to distinguish neurons from other cell types and ethidium homodimer‐1 was used to detect necrosis, which is shown by the arrows in the image. Scale bars equal 200 μm. C‐F, When combining Hoechst staining with immunofluorescence, neuronal apoptosis could be observed as indicated by arrow heads. Scale bars equal 100 μm. G, Under 2% oxygen a significantly higher proportion of necrotic cells in each field was observed than in cultures kept at 20% oxygen. H Significantly lower proportion of apoptotic cells per field was found at 2% oxygen. I, No significant difference was identified for the proportion of viable neurons at 2% and 20% oxygen ( P = .769). J, The necrosis/apoptosis ratio per field was significantly higher for 2% than for 20% oxygen (*** P

    Journal: JOR Spine

    Article Title: Hypoxic stress enhances extension and branching of dorsal root ganglion neuronal outgrowth, et al. Hypoxic stress enhances extension and branching of dorsal root ganglion neuronal outgrowth

    doi: 10.1002/jsp2.1090

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Viability of a 4‐day primary culture of isolated DRG neurons. The neurons were isolated from the DRGs of two rabbit spines. A,B, Representative images of DRG cells cultured at 2% and 20% oxygen for 4 days. Immunofluorescent staining with NF‐200 antibody was used to distinguish neurons from other cell types and ethidium homodimer‐1 was used to detect necrosis, which is shown by the arrows in the image. Scale bars equal 200 μm. C‐F, When combining Hoechst staining with immunofluorescence, neuronal apoptosis could be observed as indicated by arrow heads. Scale bars equal 100 μm. G, Under 2% oxygen a significantly higher proportion of necrotic cells in each field was observed than in cultures kept at 20% oxygen. H Significantly lower proportion of apoptotic cells per field was found at 2% oxygen. I, No significant difference was identified for the proportion of viable neurons at 2% and 20% oxygen ( P = .769). J, The necrosis/apoptosis ratio per field was significantly higher for 2% than for 20% oxygen (*** P

    Article Snippet: The methods for cell culture, immunofluorescent labelling, ethidium homodimer‐1, and Hoechst staining were identical to the ones used for the 4‐day primary neuron culture.

    Techniques: Isolation, Cell Culture, Staining, Immunofluorescence

    Cross-flow filtration efficiency. (a) Number of viable and (b) percent enucleate cells collected at fibre outlets counted by trypan blue and methylene blue dye exclusion at different time points of filtration. (c) Comparison of cell viability within the water (left) and DMSO (right) fibres after 24 hours of perfusion using confocal microscopy by detection of calcein AM (green), ethidium homodimer-1 (red), and laser reflectance (grey) (100 μ m scale). (d) Comparison of cells types remaining within fibres by detection of (top) nuclei (DAPI; blue), red blood cell marker CD235a (green), platelet marker CD61 (yellow), plasma membranes (CellMask; red), and laser reflectance (grey) and (below) single stains of hatched box regions (100 μ m scale).

    Journal: Stem Cells International

    Article Title: Ceramic Hollow Fibre Constructs for Continuous Perfusion and Cell Harvest from 3D Hematopoietic Organoids

    doi: 10.1155/2018/6230214

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cross-flow filtration efficiency. (a) Number of viable and (b) percent enucleate cells collected at fibre outlets counted by trypan blue and methylene blue dye exclusion at different time points of filtration. (c) Comparison of cell viability within the water (left) and DMSO (right) fibres after 24 hours of perfusion using confocal microscopy by detection of calcein AM (green), ethidium homodimer-1 (red), and laser reflectance (grey) (100 μ m scale). (d) Comparison of cells types remaining within fibres by detection of (top) nuclei (DAPI; blue), red blood cell marker CD235a (green), platelet marker CD61 (yellow), plasma membranes (CellMask; red), and laser reflectance (grey) and (below) single stains of hatched box regions (100 μ m scale).

    Article Snippet: Confocal Microscopy To assess viability, frozen fibre or reactor sections were immediately incubated at 37°C in 4 μ M ethidium homodimer-1 (Invitrogen) and 2 μ M calcein AM (Invitrogen) in culture medium for 1 hour followed by washes with PBS and imaging on a Leica SP5 upright confocal microscope with Leica LAS AF software (Leica, Milton Keynes, UK).

    Techniques: Flow Cytometry, Filtration, Confocal Microscopy, Marker

    Dead-end filtration efficiency. (a) Viable cell filtrate collection at 1, 2.5, 4, and 6 hours of filtration. (b) Filtrate cell types after 2.5 hours of perfusion for the (left) water and (center) DMSO fibres with (right) DMSO fibre isotype. (c) Comparison of cell viability within the water (left) and DMSO (right) fibre using confocal microscopy with calcein AM (green), ethidium homodimer-1 (red), and laser reflectance (grey) (100 μ m scale). (d) SEM of outer, abluminal surface of the DMSO fibre after 6 hours of dead-end filtration (20 μ m scale). (e) Comparison of cells remaining within fibres after 6 hours of perfusion within the water (left) and DMSO (right) fibre by confocal microscopy detection of nuclei (DAPI; blue), red blood cell marker CD235a (green), platelet marker CD61 (yellow), plasma membranes (CellMask; red), and laser reflectance (grey) and (below) single stains of hatched box regions (100 μ m scale). (f) Confocal images of a magnified traverse section of the DMSO fibre after 6 hours of filtration with (left) identical marker detection and (right) detecting only CD235a (green), CD61 (yellow), and laser reflection (grey) and (below) two stain images of nuclei and plasma membranes or CD235a and CD61 (100 μ m scale).

    Journal: Stem Cells International

    Article Title: Ceramic Hollow Fibre Constructs for Continuous Perfusion and Cell Harvest from 3D Hematopoietic Organoids

    doi: 10.1155/2018/6230214

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dead-end filtration efficiency. (a) Viable cell filtrate collection at 1, 2.5, 4, and 6 hours of filtration. (b) Filtrate cell types after 2.5 hours of perfusion for the (left) water and (center) DMSO fibres with (right) DMSO fibre isotype. (c) Comparison of cell viability within the water (left) and DMSO (right) fibre using confocal microscopy with calcein AM (green), ethidium homodimer-1 (red), and laser reflectance (grey) (100 μ m scale). (d) SEM of outer, abluminal surface of the DMSO fibre after 6 hours of dead-end filtration (20 μ m scale). (e) Comparison of cells remaining within fibres after 6 hours of perfusion within the water (left) and DMSO (right) fibre by confocal microscopy detection of nuclei (DAPI; blue), red blood cell marker CD235a (green), platelet marker CD61 (yellow), plasma membranes (CellMask; red), and laser reflectance (grey) and (below) single stains of hatched box regions (100 μ m scale). (f) Confocal images of a magnified traverse section of the DMSO fibre after 6 hours of filtration with (left) identical marker detection and (right) detecting only CD235a (green), CD61 (yellow), and laser reflection (grey) and (below) two stain images of nuclei and plasma membranes or CD235a and CD61 (100 μ m scale).

    Article Snippet: Confocal Microscopy To assess viability, frozen fibre or reactor sections were immediately incubated at 37°C in 4 μ M ethidium homodimer-1 (Invitrogen) and 2 μ M calcein AM (Invitrogen) in culture medium for 1 hour followed by washes with PBS and imaging on a Leica SP5 upright confocal microscope with Leica LAS AF software (Leica, Milton Keynes, UK).

    Techniques: Filtration, Confocal Microscopy, Marker, Staining

    Less apoptosis of epithelial cells surrouding PP areas in Nod2 −/− mice Nod2 −/− and Nod +/+ mice were orogastrically inoculated with 1×10 7 CFU of YPIII(pIB102) bacteria and sacrificed 5 days after inoculation. Their intestines were removed and analyzed.(a) Cell death measured by the proportion of Trypan blue or Ethidium homodimer-1 positive cells was lower in the PPs of Nod2 −/− mice (Student t-test). (b) Apoptosis measured by the number of caspase-3 stained epithelial cells in the 100 intestinal villi and crypts surrounding PPs was also lower in Nod2 −/− mice (Student t-test). Photos show representative caspase-3 staining of intestinal villi and crypts. Error bars indicate mean+/−SEM. *P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Nod2 Mediates Susceptibility to Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in Mice

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002769

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Less apoptosis of epithelial cells surrouding PP areas in Nod2 −/− mice Nod2 −/− and Nod +/+ mice were orogastrically inoculated with 1×10 7 CFU of YPIII(pIB102) bacteria and sacrificed 5 days after inoculation. Their intestines were removed and analyzed.(a) Cell death measured by the proportion of Trypan blue or Ethidium homodimer-1 positive cells was lower in the PPs of Nod2 −/− mice (Student t-test). (b) Apoptosis measured by the number of caspase-3 stained epithelial cells in the 100 intestinal villi and crypts surrounding PPs was also lower in Nod2 −/− mice (Student t-test). Photos show representative caspase-3 staining of intestinal villi and crypts. Error bars indicate mean+/−SEM. *P

    Article Snippet: Ethidium homodimer-1 staining was performed using a commercially available kit (Molecular Probes).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Staining

    GAH reduces PC12 cell death as analyzed using ethidium homodimer 1. PC12 cells were incubated with ethidium homodimer 1 after treatment with 5000 μM of hydrogen peroxide for 4 h. Images in the upper panel are ethidium homodimer 1 staining ( red ) and the lower panel DAPI stained nuclei ( blue ) of PC12 cells. The number of dead cells per 100 cells is shown. GAH more effectively prevented cell death relative to no peptides and carnosine. All data are shown as mean ± SE of three independent experiments ( p

    Journal: BMC Biochemistry

    Article Title: Glycyl-alanyl-histidine protects PC12 cells against hydrogen peroxide toxicity

    doi: 10.1186/s12858-017-0089-x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: GAH reduces PC12 cell death as analyzed using ethidium homodimer 1. PC12 cells were incubated with ethidium homodimer 1 after treatment with 5000 μM of hydrogen peroxide for 4 h. Images in the upper panel are ethidium homodimer 1 staining ( red ) and the lower panel DAPI stained nuclei ( blue ) of PC12 cells. The number of dead cells per 100 cells is shown. GAH more effectively prevented cell death relative to no peptides and carnosine. All data are shown as mean ± SE of three independent experiments ( p

    Article Snippet: We next examined the mechanism of cell protection by GAH using the ethidium bromide homodimer 1 from the LIVE⁄DEAD® Viability⁄Cytotoxicity Kit (Molecular Probes™) to stain dead cells.

    Techniques: Incubation, Staining

    Stimulation of cell death by RARγ agonists in osteochondroma explant cultures. The osteochondroma explants were treated with vehicle (0.1% ethanol) ( A and B ) or 300 nM NRX204647 ( C and D ) in DMEM containing 2% charcoal-treated FBS ( n = 2, 3 patients). The explants were subjected to Live/death assay 4 or 7 days after treatment. Note that a much larger number of cells incorporated red-fluorescent ethidium homodimer-1 in the RARγ agonist-treated culture on day 7. Bars are 600 μm for ( A – D ).

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Understanding the Action of RARγ Agonists on Human Osteochondroma Explants

    doi: 10.3390/ijms21082686

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Stimulation of cell death by RARγ agonists in osteochondroma explant cultures. The osteochondroma explants were treated with vehicle (0.1% ethanol) ( A and B ) or 300 nM NRX204647 ( C and D ) in DMEM containing 2% charcoal-treated FBS ( n = 2, 3 patients). The explants were subjected to Live/death assay 4 or 7 days after treatment. Note that a much larger number of cells incorporated red-fluorescent ethidium homodimer-1 in the RARγ agonist-treated culture on day 7. Bars are 600 μm for ( A – D ).

    Article Snippet: Live/Dead Assay Osteochondroma explants (n = 3/patients, 3 patients) were washed with PBS twice and incubated with 2 μM green-fluorescent calcein-AM (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) and 1 μM red-fluorescent ethidium homodimer-1 (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) for 5 min at room temperature.

    Techniques:

    Drug sensitivity is increased in COL1A1 knockdown HCC cell lines A . Collagen 1A1 mRNA expression in control (siCont) and COL1A1 knockdown HCC cell lines (siCOL1A1). Expression of mRNA was evaluated by real-time PCR, and the values were normalized to GAPDH. The values of siCOL1A1 were normalized to siCont. B . After transfection of HCC cell lines with siCont and siCOL1A1, the capacity of spheroid formation was evaluated for 5 days. C, D . After 3 days of spheroid formation, Huh7 spheroids were treated with sorafenib (C) or cisplatin (D) for another 4 days. On the final day of treatment (at 7days from cell seeding), spheroids were stained with ethidium homodimer-1 (EthD-1) to evaluate the extent of cell death. After image acquisition, EthD-1 intensity was measured using the same method. The values were normalized to control (0μM) of each group. Data represent the mean values ± SD from two independent experiments. *p

    Journal: Oncotarget

    Article Title: TGF-β–independent CTGF induction regulates cell adhesion mediated drug resistance by increasing collagen I in HCC

    doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.15521

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Drug sensitivity is increased in COL1A1 knockdown HCC cell lines A . Collagen 1A1 mRNA expression in control (siCont) and COL1A1 knockdown HCC cell lines (siCOL1A1). Expression of mRNA was evaluated by real-time PCR, and the values were normalized to GAPDH. The values of siCOL1A1 were normalized to siCont. B . After transfection of HCC cell lines with siCont and siCOL1A1, the capacity of spheroid formation was evaluated for 5 days. C, D . After 3 days of spheroid formation, Huh7 spheroids were treated with sorafenib (C) or cisplatin (D) for another 4 days. On the final day of treatment (at 7days from cell seeding), spheroids were stained with ethidium homodimer-1 (EthD-1) to evaluate the extent of cell death. After image acquisition, EthD-1 intensity was measured using the same method. The values were normalized to control (0μM) of each group. Data represent the mean values ± SD from two independent experiments. *p

    Article Snippet: Cell death detection in spheroids Dead cell was detected using the cell-impermeant viability indicator ethidium homodimer-1 (EthD-1; Invitrogen, Eugene, OR, USA).

    Techniques: Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Transfection, Staining, Ethidium Homodimer Assay

    Representative confocal images of fluorescently stained LNCaP cells grown in HA/PolyRGD gels at day 1, 7, 14 and 28. Cells cultured in HA/PolyRDG gels were included as the controls. Live and dead cells were stained Calcein AM (green) and ethidium homodimer-1

    Journal: Biomacromolecules

    Article Title: Biomimetic Hydrogels Incorporating Polymeric Cell-Adhesive Peptide to Promote the 3D Assembly of Tumoroids

    doi: 10.1021/acs.biomac.6b01266

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Representative confocal images of fluorescently stained LNCaP cells grown in HA/PolyRGD gels at day 1, 7, 14 and 28. Cells cultured in HA/PolyRDG gels were included as the controls. Live and dead cells were stained Calcein AM (green) and ethidium homodimer-1

    Article Snippet: On day 1, 7, 14, 28, the cell/gel constructs were carefully rinsed with PBS and incubated in PBS containing calcein-AM (1:1000, v:v) and ethidium homodimer-1 (1:500, v:v) for 20 min. After another PBS wash, constructs were examined under a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM, Zeiss LSM 710) and images were collected as maximum intensity projection of ~300 μm thick z-stacks.

    Techniques: Staining, Cell Culture

    Calcein-AM and EthD -1 (LIVE/DEAD) staining of hRPCs. (A–C) Representative fluorescence photos of cells (seeding density 2000 cells/μL) cultured within the Gtn-HPA gel for 1, 4, and 7 days. Very few nonviable cells (red, highlighted with white arrows) are seen. (D–F) Photos of cells cultured on fibronectin-coated surfaces for 1, 4, and 7 days. (G) Percentage viability of cells in Gtn-HPA versus on fibronectin. Two-factor ANOVA did not show significant effect of culture conditions on percentage viability (F(1, 12)=1.183, p=0.298). (H) Percentage viability of cells in Gtn-HPA when seeded with varying cell concentrations (N=2–3). Cells were  > 60% viable up until concentrations of 8000 cells/μL when cultured for 7 days without passage.

    Journal: Cell Transplantation

    Article Title: In Situ Cross-linking Hydrogel as a Vehicle for Retinal Progenitor Cell Transplantation

    doi: 10.1177/0963689719825614

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Calcein-AM and EthD -1 (LIVE/DEAD) staining of hRPCs. (A–C) Representative fluorescence photos of cells (seeding density 2000 cells/μL) cultured within the Gtn-HPA gel for 1, 4, and 7 days. Very few nonviable cells (red, highlighted with white arrows) are seen. (D–F) Photos of cells cultured on fibronectin-coated surfaces for 1, 4, and 7 days. (G) Percentage viability of cells in Gtn-HPA versus on fibronectin. Two-factor ANOVA did not show significant effect of culture conditions on percentage viability (F(1, 12)=1.183, p=0.298). (H) Percentage viability of cells in Gtn-HPA when seeded with varying cell concentrations (N=2–3). Cells were > 60% viable up until concentrations of 8000 cells/μL when cultured for 7 days without passage.

    Article Snippet: Then hRPC medium was replaced with a solution of 1 µL calcein-acetoxymethyl (Calcein-AM) and 2 µL ethidium homodier-1 (EthD-1) (Live/Dead Viability/Cytotoxicity kit; Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA) in 1 mL of hRPC medium for staining.

    Techniques: Ethidium Homodimer Assay, Staining, Fluorescence, Cell Culture

    Bnip3 splice variants oppose mitochondrial perturbations . a HCT-116 cells treated with 200 μM cobalt chloride ± 10 μM misoprostol or vehicle control for 20 h. Cells were stained with TMRM (red) and Hoechst (blue) and imaged by standard fluorescence microscopy. b Quantification of TMRM in a , red fluorescent signal was normalized to cell area and quantified in 10 random fields. c Quantification of H9c2 cells treated with 200 μM cobalt chloride ± 10 μM misoprostol or vehicle control for 20 h, and transfected with si-Bnip3ΔExon3 or a scrambled control. Cells were stained as in a and quantified as in b . d Quantification of H9c2 cells was transfected with Bnip3-FL, Bnip3ΔExon3, or an empty vector control. TMRM staining was quantified as in b . e H9c2 cells were transfected with Bnip3-FL, BNIP3ΔExon2, or empty vector control. Outlines indicate CMV-GFP positive cells, included to identify transfected cells. Cells were stained as in a . f Quantification of ( e ), red fluorescent signal was normalized to cell area and quantified in 10 random fields. g H9c2 cells were transfected with Bnip3-FL, Bnip3ΔExon3, or empty vector control. CMV-dsRed (red) was used to identify transfected cells. Cells were stained with calcein-AM and cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 , 5 μM) to assess permeability transition. h Quantification of g by calculating the percentage of cells with punctate calcein signal in 10 random fields. i Quantification of H9c2 cells transfected with Bnip3-FL, BNIP3ΔExon2, or empty vector control. CMV-dsRed was used to identify transfected cells. Cells were stained and quantified as indicated in h . j H9c2 cells transfected with Bnip3-FL, BNIP3ΔExon3, or empty vector control. Live cells were stained with calcein-AM (green), and necrotic cells were stained with ethidium homodimer-1 (red), cells were imaged by standard fluorescence microscopy. k Fluorescent images in j were quantified by calculating the percent of necrotic cells (ethidium homodimer-1 positive) cells in 10 random fields. Data are represented as mean ± S.E.M. * P

    Journal: Cell Death Discovery

    Article Title: Misoprostol regulates Bnip3 repression and alternative splicing to control cellular calcium homeostasis during hypoxic stress

    doi: 10.1038/s41420-018-0104-z

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bnip3 splice variants oppose mitochondrial perturbations . a HCT-116 cells treated with 200 μM cobalt chloride ± 10 μM misoprostol or vehicle control for 20 h. Cells were stained with TMRM (red) and Hoechst (blue) and imaged by standard fluorescence microscopy. b Quantification of TMRM in a , red fluorescent signal was normalized to cell area and quantified in 10 random fields. c Quantification of H9c2 cells treated with 200 μM cobalt chloride ± 10 μM misoprostol or vehicle control for 20 h, and transfected with si-Bnip3ΔExon3 or a scrambled control. Cells were stained as in a and quantified as in b . d Quantification of H9c2 cells was transfected with Bnip3-FL, Bnip3ΔExon3, or an empty vector control. TMRM staining was quantified as in b . e H9c2 cells were transfected with Bnip3-FL, BNIP3ΔExon2, or empty vector control. Outlines indicate CMV-GFP positive cells, included to identify transfected cells. Cells were stained as in a . f Quantification of ( e ), red fluorescent signal was normalized to cell area and quantified in 10 random fields. g H9c2 cells were transfected with Bnip3-FL, Bnip3ΔExon3, or empty vector control. CMV-dsRed (red) was used to identify transfected cells. Cells were stained with calcein-AM and cobalt chloride (CoCl 2 , 5 μM) to assess permeability transition. h Quantification of g by calculating the percentage of cells with punctate calcein signal in 10 random fields. i Quantification of H9c2 cells transfected with Bnip3-FL, BNIP3ΔExon2, or empty vector control. CMV-dsRed was used to identify transfected cells. Cells were stained and quantified as indicated in h . j H9c2 cells transfected with Bnip3-FL, BNIP3ΔExon3, or empty vector control. Live cells were stained with calcein-AM (green), and necrotic cells were stained with ethidium homodimer-1 (red), cells were imaged by standard fluorescence microscopy. k Fluorescent images in j were quantified by calculating the percent of necrotic cells (ethidium homodimer-1 positive) cells in 10 random fields. Data are represented as mean ± S.E.M. * P

    Article Snippet: Hoechst 33342, TMRM, calcein-AM, and Ethidium Homodimer-1 were all purchased from Biotium and applied using manufacturer’s protocol , .

    Techniques: Staining, Fluorescence, Microscopy, Transfection, Plasmid Preparation, Permeability

    Fig. 3. HIF1α and P65 drive expression of pro-survival BNIP3 splice variants. a HCT-116 cells were treated with 200 μM cobalt chloride ± 10 μM misoprostol or vehicle control for 20 h. RNA was isolated and RT-PCR was performed for BNIP3 isoforms. b HCT-116 cells were treated as in a . Protein extracts were immunoblotted, as indicated. c Immunoblot of protein extracts from HCT-116 cells treated with misoprostol and CoCl 2 in for 36 h. d HCT-116 cells were transfected with HIF1α ± P65. Protein extracts were immunoblotted, as indicated. e Quantification calcein-AM and ethidium homodimer-1 stained HCT-116 cells transfected with HIF1α and/or P65. f HCT-116 cells treated with 200 μM cobalt chloride ± 10 μM misoprostol or vehicle control for 20 h. Live cells were stained were stained with calcein-AM (green)and necrotic cells were stained with ethidium homodimer-1 (red), cells were imaged by standard fluorescence microscopy. g Fluorescent images were quantified by calculating the percent of necrotic cells (ethidium homodimer-1 positive) cells in 10 random fields. h Immunoblot of HCT-116 cells transfected with si-BNIP3-FL or scrambled control. Cells were treated with 200 μM cobalt chloride or vehicle control for 20 h. i HCT-116 cells treated as in h and cells were stained as in f , and quantified as indicated in g . j Quantification of HCT-116 cells transfected with Bnip3-FL, Bnip3ΔExon3 or empty vector control. Cells were stained, and quantified as indicated in f . k Quantification of HCT-116 cells transfected with Bnip3-FL, BNIP3ΔExon2 or an empty vector control. Cells were stained, and quantified as indicated in f . Data are represented as mean ± S.E.M. * P

    Journal: Cell Death Discovery

    Article Title: Misoprostol regulates Bnip3 repression and alternative splicing to control cellular calcium homeostasis during hypoxic stress

    doi: 10.1038/s41420-018-0104-z

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fig. 3. HIF1α and P65 drive expression of pro-survival BNIP3 splice variants. a HCT-116 cells were treated with 200 μM cobalt chloride ± 10 μM misoprostol or vehicle control for 20 h. RNA was isolated and RT-PCR was performed for BNIP3 isoforms. b HCT-116 cells were treated as in a . Protein extracts were immunoblotted, as indicated. c Immunoblot of protein extracts from HCT-116 cells treated with misoprostol and CoCl 2 in for 36 h. d HCT-116 cells were transfected with HIF1α ± P65. Protein extracts were immunoblotted, as indicated. e Quantification calcein-AM and ethidium homodimer-1 stained HCT-116 cells transfected with HIF1α and/or P65. f HCT-116 cells treated with 200 μM cobalt chloride ± 10 μM misoprostol or vehicle control for 20 h. Live cells were stained were stained with calcein-AM (green)and necrotic cells were stained with ethidium homodimer-1 (red), cells were imaged by standard fluorescence microscopy. g Fluorescent images were quantified by calculating the percent of necrotic cells (ethidium homodimer-1 positive) cells in 10 random fields. h Immunoblot of HCT-116 cells transfected with si-BNIP3-FL or scrambled control. Cells were treated with 200 μM cobalt chloride or vehicle control for 20 h. i HCT-116 cells treated as in h and cells were stained as in f , and quantified as indicated in g . j Quantification of HCT-116 cells transfected with Bnip3-FL, Bnip3ΔExon3 or empty vector control. Cells were stained, and quantified as indicated in f . k Quantification of HCT-116 cells transfected with Bnip3-FL, BNIP3ΔExon2 or an empty vector control. Cells were stained, and quantified as indicated in f . Data are represented as mean ± S.E.M. * P

    Article Snippet: Hoechst 33342, TMRM, calcein-AM, and Ethidium Homodimer-1 were all purchased from Biotium and applied using manufacturer’s protocol , .

    Techniques: Expressing, Isolation, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Transfection, Staining, Fluorescence, Microscopy, Plasmid Preparation

    Listeria invasion–induced phosphorylation of MLKL does not lead to necroptotic cell death. (A) FLAG-tagged RIPK3 stably expressing (RIPK3+) HeLa cells were either treated with 50 ng/ml TNF, 100 nM SMAC mimetic, 20 µM Q-VD-OPh (TSQ) for the indicated time periods, or infected with Listeria (MOI of 10 and 100) for 24 h. Phosphorylation (top panel) and oligomerization (bottom panel) of MLKL were analyzed by Western blotting. *, Nonspecific bands. (B and C) Control and RIPK3+ HeLa cells were either treated with TSQ for the indicated time periods, or infected with Listeria (MOI of 10 and 100) and cultured for 24 h. Phosphorylation level of MLKL (B, Western blotting), bright-field images of the cells (B, right panels), and cell viability measured by crystal violet staining (C) are shown. Bar, 200 µm. (D) Control and FLAG-RIPK3 stably expressing (RIPK3 + ) HeLa cells were either treated with TSQ or infected with Listeria (MOI of 100) and cultured for the indicated time periods. Floating dead cells were washed out after the culture. Membrane permeability of the remaining adherent cells was measured by incorporation of ethidium homodimer III (mean ± SEM; n = 3; ***, P

    Journal: The Journal of Cell Biology

    Article Title: Necroptosis mediators RIPK3 and MLKL suppress intracellular Listeria replication independently of host cell killing

    doi: 10.1083/jcb.201810014

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Listeria invasion–induced phosphorylation of MLKL does not lead to necroptotic cell death. (A) FLAG-tagged RIPK3 stably expressing (RIPK3+) HeLa cells were either treated with 50 ng/ml TNF, 100 nM SMAC mimetic, 20 µM Q-VD-OPh (TSQ) for the indicated time periods, or infected with Listeria (MOI of 10 and 100) for 24 h. Phosphorylation (top panel) and oligomerization (bottom panel) of MLKL were analyzed by Western blotting. *, Nonspecific bands. (B and C) Control and RIPK3+ HeLa cells were either treated with TSQ for the indicated time periods, or infected with Listeria (MOI of 10 and 100) and cultured for 24 h. Phosphorylation level of MLKL (B, Western blotting), bright-field images of the cells (B, right panels), and cell viability measured by crystal violet staining (C) are shown. Bar, 200 µm. (D) Control and FLAG-RIPK3 stably expressing (RIPK3 + ) HeLa cells were either treated with TSQ or infected with Listeria (MOI of 100) and cultured for the indicated time periods. Floating dead cells were washed out after the culture. Membrane permeability of the remaining adherent cells was measured by incorporation of ethidium homodimer III (mean ± SEM; n = 3; ***, P

    Article Snippet: Alexa Fluor 488 phalloidin (Thermo Fisher Scientific), DAPI (Calbiochem), GSK’872 (Sigma-Aldrich), NSA (Calbiochem), TNF (PeproTech), Q-VD-OPh (TONBO Biosciences), SMAC mimetic (Brinapant; LC Laboratories), ethidium homodimer III (Biotium), Hoechst 33342 (Thermo Fisher Scientific), DIM (AP20187, Clontech), and disuccinimidyl suberate (Thermo Fisher Scientific) were used.

    Techniques: Stable Transfection, Expressing, Infection, Western Blot, Cell Culture, Staining, Permeability

    Influence of RA on follicle viability. (A) Fluorescent staining with calcein-AM/ethidium homodimer-1 after culture in 5 μM retinoic acid for 7 d. Green fluorescence indicates viable follicles/cell. Bar = 100 μm. (B) Mean (± SEM) of follicle viability in freshly collected cat ovarian tissue and cortical pieces cultured for 7 d. Different letters indicate significant (P

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Retinoic acid promotes in vitro follicle activation in the cat ovary by regulating expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202759

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Influence of RA on follicle viability. (A) Fluorescent staining with calcein-AM/ethidium homodimer-1 after culture in 5 μM retinoic acid for 7 d. Green fluorescence indicates viable follicles/cell. Bar = 100 μm. (B) Mean (± SEM) of follicle viability in freshly collected cat ovarian tissue and cortical pieces cultured for 7 d. Different letters indicate significant (P

    Article Snippet: Follicle viability within the ovarian cortical tissues was evaluated at Day 0 (fresh control; day of tissue excision and initial incubation) or Day 7 of in vitro culture using calcein AM/ethidium homodimer-1 staining (Invitrogen) and observation under a fluorescent microscope (Olympus BX40; Olympus America Inc., Central Valley, PA).

    Techniques: Staining, Fluorescence, Cell Culture

    The viable chondrocytes within the cell-gel mixture on Calcein-AM/Ethidium homodimer-1 staining : a) A 0-hour and b) A 72-hour culture (×100). The white arrow in b) denotes the dead cells which appear as a reddish color.

    Journal: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders

    Article Title: Gel-type autologous chondrocyte (Chondron(TM)) implantation for treatment of articular cartilage defects of the knee

    doi: 10.1186/1471-2474-11-103

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The viable chondrocytes within the cell-gel mixture on Calcein-AM/Ethidium homodimer-1 staining : a) A 0-hour and b) A 72-hour culture (×100). The white arrow in b) denotes the dead cells which appear as a reddish color.

    Article Snippet: In addition, the viable status of chondrocytes within the cell-fibrin matrix was grossly examined using Calcein-AM/Ethidium homodimer-1 (Invitrogen, USA) staining.

    Techniques: Staining

    Characterization of embedded cell behavior in micropatterned GelMA. 3T3 fibroblasts embedded in GelMA micropatterns of various macromer concentration were stained with calcein-AM (green)/ethidium homodimer (red) LIVE/DEAD assay 8 h after encapsulation shown at low (scale bar = 250 μm) (A) and high (scale bar = 100 μm) magnification (B). Quantification of cell viability demonstrated excellent cell survival at all conditions (*p

    Journal: Biomaterials

    Article Title: Cell-laden microengineered gelatin methacrylate hydrogels

    doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2010.03.064

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Characterization of embedded cell behavior in micropatterned GelMA. 3T3 fibroblasts embedded in GelMA micropatterns of various macromer concentration were stained with calcein-AM (green)/ethidium homodimer (red) LIVE/DEAD assay 8 h after encapsulation shown at low (scale bar = 250 μm) (A) and high (scale bar = 100 μm) magnification (B). Quantification of cell viability demonstrated excellent cell survival at all conditions (*p

    Article Snippet: A calcein-AM/ethidium homodimer Live/Dead assay (Invitrogen) was used to quantify cell viability within the microgels according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Staining, Live Dead Assay

    Live/dead assay of control and or PCI treated spheroids Two-photon fluorescence microscopy images of F98 spheroids stained with Hoechst 33342 (green: live) and Ethidium Homodimer (red: dead). Spheroids were stained 24 h after treatment: (a) Control,

    Journal: Biomedical Optics Express

    Article Title: Synergistic chemotherapy by combined moderate hyperthermia and photochemical internalization

    doi: 10.1364/BOE.7.001240

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Live/dead assay of control and or PCI treated spheroids Two-photon fluorescence microscopy images of F98 spheroids stained with Hoechst 33342 (green: live) and Ethidium Homodimer (red: dead). Spheroids were stained 24 h after treatment: (a) Control,

    Article Snippet: Forty-eight hours after light treatment, 2-3 spheroids were transferred to glass bottomed imaging dishes, stained using a combination of Hoechst 33342 and Ethidium Homodimer 1 (Life Technologies H1399, Carlsbad, CA) for 1 h, washed and visualized using a two photon inverted Zeiss laser-scanning fluorescent microscope (LSM 410, Carl Zeiss, Jena, Germany).

    Techniques: Live Dead Assay, Fluorescence, Microscopy, Staining