escherichia coli Search Results


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  • 99
    ATCC e coli e coli k 12
    E Coli E Coli K 12, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore escherichia coli e coli enumeration
    Escherichia Coli E Coli Enumeration, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 17 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Avanti Polar escherichia coli
    Escherichia Coli, supplied by Avanti Polar, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Pasteur Institute escherichia coli e coli
    Escherichia Coli E Coli, supplied by Pasteur Institute, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli k1
    ( a ) The quinazolinone derivatives and their silver nanoparticles did not exhibit cytotoxicity against Human keratinocyte cells at 5 µM. These nanoparticles and the respective controls were incubated with HaCaT cells monolayer for 24 h at 37 °C in a 5% CO 2 incubator. Following this incubation, cell-free supernatant was collected, and cytotoxicity was determined using Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay kit (Roche). The negative control values for cytotoxicity assays were obtained by incubating HaCaT cells with RPMI-1640 alone, and positive control values were obtained by 100% cell death using 0.1% Triton X-100. ( b , c ) Pretreatment of 2.5 and 5 µM of QNZ 4-AgNPs and QNZ 6-AgNPs abolished E. <t>coli</t> K1 and S. pyogenes -mediated host cells cytotoxicity, E. coli K1 caused 70% cytotoxicity to HaCaT cells. Upon pretreatment with 5 µM QNZ 6-AgNPs, the host cells cytotoxicity was reduced to 4%. ( d ) Pretreatment of 1 and 2 µM of QNZ 4-AgNPs and QNZ 6-AgNPs abolished K. pneumonia -mediated host cells cytotoxicity. The results are presented as the mean ± standard error of various experiments performed in duplicate. * indicates p
    E Coli K1, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 61 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli mv1184
    ( a ) The quinazolinone derivatives and their silver nanoparticles did not exhibit cytotoxicity against Human keratinocyte cells at 5 µM. These nanoparticles and the respective controls were incubated with HaCaT cells monolayer for 24 h at 37 °C in a 5% CO 2 incubator. Following this incubation, cell-free supernatant was collected, and cytotoxicity was determined using Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay kit (Roche). The negative control values for cytotoxicity assays were obtained by incubating HaCaT cells with RPMI-1640 alone, and positive control values were obtained by 100% cell death using 0.1% Triton X-100. ( b , c ) Pretreatment of 2.5 and 5 µM of QNZ 4-AgNPs and QNZ 6-AgNPs abolished E. <t>coli</t> K1 and S. pyogenes -mediated host cells cytotoxicity, E. coli K1 caused 70% cytotoxicity to HaCaT cells. Upon pretreatment with 5 µM QNZ 6-AgNPs, the host cells cytotoxicity was reduced to 4%. ( d ) Pretreatment of 1 and 2 µM of QNZ 4-AgNPs and QNZ 6-AgNPs abolished K. pneumonia -mediated host cells cytotoxicity. The results are presented as the mean ± standard error of various experiments performed in duplicate. * indicates p
    E Coli Mv1184, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli dh5α
    ( a ) The PCA results of E. coli <t>DH5α</t> incubated under different GO concentrations. 1 represents the control group and 2–6 principal components are from the samples incubated with different GO concentrations at 5, 20, 40, 80 and 120 μg/mL for 2 h. ( d ) The PCA results of time experiment. 1 represents the control group. 2–6 represent principal components obtained from the data incubated with GO (80 μg/mL) at different time: 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. ( b , e ) show the relationship between GO concentration or incubation time and the parameter D as well as the cell viability rate of E. coli DH5α. ( c , f ) present the bivariate analysis results, and a significant negative correlation between the parameter D and cell viability rate were obtained in concentration experiment (Person’s correlation coefficient: −0.99, p
    E Coli Dh5α, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 279 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli w3110
    Analysis of IscU expression and purification. ( A ) SDS/PAGE of overproduction and purification. Lane 1, molecular weight standards; lane 2, BL-21 cells harboring pTrcIscU (25 μg of protein); lane 3, BL-21 cells harboring pTrcIscU plasmid grown for ≈16 h after IPTG induction (25 μg of protein); lanes 4–6, purified IscU. ( B ) Immunoblot analysis of constitutive IscU expression in <t>W3110,</t> DH5α, and BL-21 cells grown to stationary phase in Terrific Broth. Lanes 1–3, purified IscU; lanes 4–6, E. coli whole cells (15 μg of protein each).
    E Coli W3110, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 81 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC escherichia coli
    Antimicrobial activities of magnolol (a) and honokiol (b) against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, ATCC 33591), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), and <t>Escherichia</t> coli (ATCC 8739). All strains were cultured at 34°C for 24 h with tryptic soy medium (Difco) under aerobic conditions before the assay. For antibacterial activity test, Mueller-Hinton medium (Difco, Detroit, MI) was used.
    Escherichia Coli, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 6267 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli ab1157
    Antimicrobial activities of magnolol (a) and honokiol (b) against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, ATCC 33591), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), and <t>Escherichia</t> coli (ATCC 8739). All strains were cultured at 34°C for 24 h with tryptic soy medium (Difco) under aerobic conditions before the assay. For antibacterial activity test, Mueller-Hinton medium (Difco, Detroit, MI) was used.
    E Coli Ab1157, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 12 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli mc4100
    Survival of stationary-phase E. coli O157:H7 rpoS mutant strain FRIK 816-3 in PBS autoclaved with (□) or without (■) 0.25% glucose and stationary-phase E. coli <t>MC4100</t> (●) or E. coli RH90 ( rpoS mutant of MC4100) (○) in 0.25% glucose autoclaved in PBS. All points represent the mean from triplicate independent trials. Error bars represent the standard error.
    E Coli Mc4100, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 16 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli mg1655
    AI-2 removal profile for bacteria producing AI-2. Shown is extracellular AI-2 activity in cell-free culture fluids from LuxS + strains E. coli <t>MG1655</t> (triangles) and UPEC UTI89 (circles) (A) and B. cereus (diamonds) and B. anthracis (squares) (B)
    E Coli Mg1655, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 208 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli bw25113δsbma
    AI-2 removal profile for bacteria producing AI-2. Shown is extracellular AI-2 activity in cell-free culture fluids from LuxS + strains E. coli <t>MG1655</t> (triangles) and UPEC UTI89 (circles) (A) and B. cereus (diamonds) and B. anthracis (squares) (B)
    E Coli Bw25113δsbma, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli c1a
    Adhesion capacities of bacterial strains on bean seeds. X. citri pv. phaseoli var. fuscans strains CFBP4834-R, 4834HRCR, 4834HRPG, and 4834YAPH2; X. campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913; and E. coli <t>C600</t> suspensions at 1 × 10 5 CFU ml −1
    E Coli C1a, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    ATCC e coli cft073
    MGE/DGE–Amp selectively kill uropathogenic E. coli in the presence of non-pathogenic E. coli K-12 and the probiotic L. rhamnosus GG. (a and b) Bacterial growth monitored by (a) OD 600 and (b) CFU mL –1 for cultures of E. coli K-12 only, <t>CFT073</t> only, and 1 : 1 K-12/CFT073 mixtures treated with 100 nM Amp or 100 nM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 in the presence of 200 μM DP. (c and d) Bacterial growth monitored by (c) OD 600 and (d) CFU mL –1 for cultures of E. coli K-12 only, UTI89 only, and 1 : 1 K-12/UTI89 mixtures treated with 100 nM Amp or 100 nM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 in the presence of 200 μM DP. (e and f) Bacterial growth monitored by (e) OD 600 and (f) CFU mL –1 for cultures of L. rhamnosus GG only, E. coli CFT073 only, and 1 : 1 L. rhamnosus GG/ E. coli CFT073 mixtures treated with 1 μM Amp or 1 μM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 in the presence of 200 μM DP. All mixed- E. coli antimicrobial assays were performed in 50% MHB medium and all mixed-species antimicrobial assays were conducted in 1 : 1 MRS/MHB medium ( t = 19 h, T = 30 °C) (mean ± standard deviation, n = 3). An asterisk indicates OD 600
    E Coli Cft073, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 65 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli jm109
    EC 50 of SeNPs and TeNPs for planktonic and biofilm cultures of E. coli <t>JM109</t> (A), P. aeruginosa PAO1 (B), and S. aureus ATCC 25923 (C) after 4 h of exposure and 24 h of growth + 24 h of exposure .
    E Coli Jm109, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 59 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli m15
    EC 50 of SeNPs and TeNPs for planktonic and biofilm cultures of E. coli <t>JM109</t> (A), P. aeruginosa PAO1 (B), and S. aureus ATCC 25923 (C) after 4 h of exposure and 24 h of growth + 24 h of exposure .
    E Coli M15, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli s1039
    EC 50 of SeNPs and TeNPs for planktonic and biofilm cultures of E. coli <t>JM109</t> (A), P. aeruginosa PAO1 (B), and S. aureus ATCC 25923 (C) after 4 h of exposure and 24 h of growth + 24 h of exposure .
    E Coli S1039, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli o86
    EC 50 of SeNPs and TeNPs for planktonic and biofilm cultures of E. coli <t>JM109</t> (A), P. aeruginosa PAO1 (B), and S. aureus ATCC 25923 (C) after 4 h of exposure and 24 h of growth + 24 h of exposure .
    E Coli O86, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli hf4714
    Raman spectra of E. coli <t>HF4714</t> and xylitol. (a) Averaged Raman spectrum from xylitol-exposed E. coli HF4714. (b) Difference in the xylitol-exposed spectra and the control E. coli HF4714 (black) and difference in the postexposure spectra and the control E. coli HF4714 (gray). Deviations from zero denote changes from the control bacteria and are observed consistently in the spectral regions located between the dashed lines in the xylitol-exposed minus control spectrum and also in the chase minus control spectrum. (c) Raman spectrum from dried, powdered, and compacted xylitol.
    E Coli Hf4714, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli hms174
    Raman spectra of E. coli <t>HF4714</t> and xylitol. (a) Averaged Raman spectrum from xylitol-exposed E. coli HF4714. (b) Difference in the xylitol-exposed spectra and the control E. coli HF4714 (black) and difference in the postexposure spectra and the control E. coli HF4714 (gray). Deviations from zero denote changes from the control bacteria and are observed consistently in the spectral regions located between the dashed lines in the xylitol-exposed minus control spectrum and also in the chase minus control spectrum. (c) Raman spectrum from dried, powdered, and compacted xylitol.
    E Coli Hms174, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli hue1
    Raman spectra of E. coli <t>HF4714</t> and xylitol. (a) Averaged Raman spectrum from xylitol-exposed E. coli HF4714. (b) Difference in the xylitol-exposed spectra and the control E. coli HF4714 (black) and difference in the postexposure spectra and the control E. coli HF4714 (gray). Deviations from zero denote changes from the control bacteria and are observed consistently in the spectral regions located between the dashed lines in the xylitol-exposed minus control spectrum and also in the chase minus control spectrum. (c) Raman spectrum from dried, powdered, and compacted xylitol.
    E Coli Hue1, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    96
    ATCC e coli f41
    Raman spectra of E. coli <t>HF4714</t> and xylitol. (a) Averaged Raman spectrum from xylitol-exposed E. coli HF4714. (b) Difference in the xylitol-exposed spectra and the control E. coli HF4714 (black) and difference in the postexposure spectra and the control E. coli HF4714 (gray). Deviations from zero denote changes from the control bacteria and are observed consistently in the spectral regions located between the dashed lines in the xylitol-exposed minus control spectrum and also in the chase minus control spectrum. (c) Raman spectrum from dried, powdered, and compacted xylitol.
    E Coli F41, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 96/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli mre600
    Raman spectra of E. coli <t>HF4714</t> and xylitol. (a) Averaged Raman spectrum from xylitol-exposed E. coli HF4714. (b) Difference in the xylitol-exposed spectra and the control E. coli HF4714 (black) and difference in the postexposure spectra and the control E. coli HF4714 (gray). Deviations from zero denote changes from the control bacteria and are observed consistently in the spectral regions located between the dashed lines in the xylitol-exposed minus control spectrum and also in the chase minus control spectrum. (c) Raman spectrum from dried, powdered, and compacted xylitol.
    E Coli Mre600, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    ATCC e coli jr1
    Slide agglutination assay of AP1 red blood cells and monovalent, free oligosaccharides. The top two panels show the agglutination of human red blood cells that express the P antigen (contained in the glycolipid globoside) in the presence of uropathogenic E. coli , as described in Materials and Methods. The lower panels show that the agglutination of red blood cells and uropathogenic E. coli <t>JR1</t> could be prevented or reversed only by globotriose.
    E Coli Jr1, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli jm110
    Slide agglutination assay of AP1 red blood cells and monovalent, free oligosaccharides. The top two panels show the agglutination of human red blood cells that express the P antigen (contained in the glycolipid globoside) in the presence of uropathogenic E. coli , as described in Materials and Methods. The lower panels show that the agglutination of red blood cells and uropathogenic E. coli <t>JR1</t> could be prevented or reversed only by globotriose.
    E Coli Jm110, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli bl21
    SDS–PAGE analysis of glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tagged recombinant Apl_avian β-defensin (Apl_AvBD) proteins expressed in E. coli <t>BL21</t> (DE3) cells. (A) total protein from BL21 containing Apl_AvBD1, 3, 5, 6, 16, and GST with IPTG induction, respectively; (B) inclusion bodies with Apl_AvBD1, 3, 5, 6, 16, and GST respectively; (C) purified proteins of Apl_AvBD1, 3, 5, 6, 16, and GST with IPTG induction, respectively. IPTG, isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside.
    E Coli Bl21, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 89 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli aaec185
    Quantification of the height and relative surface area of fluid domes. (A) A high-magnification micrograph ( x-z optical section) showing a fluid dome observed by DIC CLMS in a cell monolayer infected with E. coli <t>AAEC185</t> (3 h). Arrows, measures of height
    E Coli Aaec185, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli edl933
    Genomic Xba I restriction patterns of subtracter strain NV110 (lane 2), subtracter strain NV183 (lane 3), target strain CH014 (lane 4), and reference strain <t>EDL933</t> of serotype O157:H7 (lane 5) obtained by PFGE (A) and Southern hybridization (B) with S-14, S-21, and stx 2 as DNA probes. Lambda Ladder (Bio-Rad) was used as a DNA size marker (lane 1 in panel A).
    E Coli Edl933, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 9 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e coli wg5
    Occurrence of phages in clinical samples. Lysis plaques obtained from the suspension of antibiogram plates of urine cultures. 2.1 : Spot tests of suspensions of samples A-D in E. coli <t>WG5</t> and E in P. aeruginosa . PBS control. 2.2 : Lysis plaques observed by the double agar layer method in E. coli WG5 in 10 −7 and 10 −8 dilutions of the suspension of plate A. 2.3 : Electron micrographs of phages from plates ( A–E ). Bar 100 nm.
    E Coli Wg5, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 14 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ( a ) The quinazolinone derivatives and their silver nanoparticles did not exhibit cytotoxicity against Human keratinocyte cells at 5 µM. These nanoparticles and the respective controls were incubated with HaCaT cells monolayer for 24 h at 37 °C in a 5% CO 2 incubator. Following this incubation, cell-free supernatant was collected, and cytotoxicity was determined using Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay kit (Roche). The negative control values for cytotoxicity assays were obtained by incubating HaCaT cells with RPMI-1640 alone, and positive control values were obtained by 100% cell death using 0.1% Triton X-100. ( b , c ) Pretreatment of 2.5 and 5 µM of QNZ 4-AgNPs and QNZ 6-AgNPs abolished E. coli K1 and S. pyogenes -mediated host cells cytotoxicity, E. coli K1 caused 70% cytotoxicity to HaCaT cells. Upon pretreatment with 5 µM QNZ 6-AgNPs, the host cells cytotoxicity was reduced to 4%. ( d ) Pretreatment of 1 and 2 µM of QNZ 4-AgNPs and QNZ 6-AgNPs abolished K. pneumonia -mediated host cells cytotoxicity. The results are presented as the mean ± standard error of various experiments performed in duplicate. * indicates p

    Journal: Antibiotics

    Article Title: Antibacterial Effects of Quinazolin-4(3H)-One Functionalized-Conjugated Silver Nanoparticles

    doi: 10.3390/antibiotics8040179

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( a ) The quinazolinone derivatives and their silver nanoparticles did not exhibit cytotoxicity against Human keratinocyte cells at 5 µM. These nanoparticles and the respective controls were incubated with HaCaT cells monolayer for 24 h at 37 °C in a 5% CO 2 incubator. Following this incubation, cell-free supernatant was collected, and cytotoxicity was determined using Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay kit (Roche). The negative control values for cytotoxicity assays were obtained by incubating HaCaT cells with RPMI-1640 alone, and positive control values were obtained by 100% cell death using 0.1% Triton X-100. ( b , c ) Pretreatment of 2.5 and 5 µM of QNZ 4-AgNPs and QNZ 6-AgNPs abolished E. coli K1 and S. pyogenes -mediated host cells cytotoxicity, E. coli K1 caused 70% cytotoxicity to HaCaT cells. Upon pretreatment with 5 µM QNZ 6-AgNPs, the host cells cytotoxicity was reduced to 4%. ( d ) Pretreatment of 1 and 2 µM of QNZ 4-AgNPs and QNZ 6-AgNPs abolished K. pneumonia -mediated host cells cytotoxicity. The results are presented as the mean ± standard error of various experiments performed in duplicate. * indicates p

    Article Snippet: Bacterial Cultures Cultures of three Gram negative bacteria were utilized, comprising: E. coli K1 which is a neuropathogenic, and was derived from a cerebrospinal fluid of meningitis patient, strain E44; O18:K1:H7, Malaysian Type Culture Collection (MTCC) 710859, K. pneumoniae ; American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 13883), and P. aeruginosa (ATCC 10145).

    Techniques: Incubation, Lactate Dehydrogenase Assay, Negative Control, Positive Control

    Bactericidal assay against E. coli K1( a – c ). The viability of bacteria was determined after assay as described in the materials and methods section. Briefly, 10 6 colony forming units (C.F.U.) were incubated with AgNPs alone, QNZ alone, and QNZ-AgNPs and negative and positive controls at 2.5 and 5 µM at 37 °C for 2 h. The next day, the cells were counted. Note all nanoconjugates showed bactericidal effects comparing with E. coli K1 alone but QNZ 4-AgNPs and QNZ 6-AgNPs had lower percentage of availability compared with AgNPs. The results are presented as the mean ± standard error of various experiments performed in duplicate. * indicates p

    Journal: Antibiotics

    Article Title: Antibacterial Effects of Quinazolin-4(3H)-One Functionalized-Conjugated Silver Nanoparticles

    doi: 10.3390/antibiotics8040179

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bactericidal assay against E. coli K1( a – c ). The viability of bacteria was determined after assay as described in the materials and methods section. Briefly, 10 6 colony forming units (C.F.U.) were incubated with AgNPs alone, QNZ alone, and QNZ-AgNPs and negative and positive controls at 2.5 and 5 µM at 37 °C for 2 h. The next day, the cells were counted. Note all nanoconjugates showed bactericidal effects comparing with E. coli K1 alone but QNZ 4-AgNPs and QNZ 6-AgNPs had lower percentage of availability compared with AgNPs. The results are presented as the mean ± standard error of various experiments performed in duplicate. * indicates p

    Article Snippet: Bacterial Cultures Cultures of three Gram negative bacteria were utilized, comprising: E. coli K1 which is a neuropathogenic, and was derived from a cerebrospinal fluid of meningitis patient, strain E44; O18:K1:H7, Malaysian Type Culture Collection (MTCC) 710859, K. pneumoniae ; American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 13883), and P. aeruginosa (ATCC 10145).

    Techniques: Serum Bactericidal Assay, Incubation

    Measurement of FAD and FMN standards and role of FAD supplementation on ELT-2 expression. ( A ) HPLC-UV detection peak of FAD and FMN standards, controls for Figure 5B . ( B ) Fluorescence images and bar graph showing that FAD supplementation increases the expression of an ELT-2::GFP reporter in worms fed HK-OP50. Data are represented as mean ±SD. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26243.020

    Journal: eLife

    Article Title: A vitamin-B2-sensing mechanism that regulates gut protease activity to impact animal’s food behavior and growth

    doi: 10.7554/eLife.26243

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Measurement of FAD and FMN standards and role of FAD supplementation on ELT-2 expression. ( A ) HPLC-UV detection peak of FAD and FMN standards, controls for Figure 5B . ( B ) Fluorescence images and bar graph showing that FAD supplementation increases the expression of an ELT-2::GFP reporter in worms fed HK-OP50. Data are represented as mean ±SD. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26243.020

    Article Snippet: E. coli OP50 and S. saprophyticus (ATCC 15305) were diluted to the same OD600 and 0.1 µl of the live bacteria was added onto the center of a lawn of HK-OP50 on NGM plates.

    Techniques: Expressing, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Fluorescence

    Impact of vitamin B2 supplementation on the ability of C. elegans to consume heat-killed bacteria. ( A ) Cartoon drawing and quantitative data of the food dwelling assay showing the impact of VB2 supplementation on this behavior. Yellow and red filled circles in the cartoon indicate the spots of HK-OP50 (HK) +/− VB2 supplement, respectively. L1 worms were placed on the food spot and scored for the percent that stayed within the spot after 24 hr. n=number of worms scored. Data are represented as mean ±SD. ( B ) Chromatograph from HPLC-UV analysis of the VB2 standard for the analysis shown in Figure 2C . ( C ) HPLC-UV analysis of VB2 extracted from live and heat-killed OP50. Arrow and dotted line indicate the peak of VB2. ( D ) BODIPY-labeled protease activity in the intestinal tract of worms fed live OP50 at four different larval stages. Fluorescence intensity was measured by ImageJ software. Data are represented as mean ±SEM. ( E ) Effects of VB2 supplementation and treatment of protease inhibitor on in vivo protease activity in worms fed HK-OP50. Data are represented as mean ±SEM. p Values were calculated by T-test. and p

    Journal: eLife

    Article Title: A vitamin-B2-sensing mechanism that regulates gut protease activity to impact animal’s food behavior and growth

    doi: 10.7554/eLife.26243

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Impact of vitamin B2 supplementation on the ability of C. elegans to consume heat-killed bacteria. ( A ) Cartoon drawing and quantitative data of the food dwelling assay showing the impact of VB2 supplementation on this behavior. Yellow and red filled circles in the cartoon indicate the spots of HK-OP50 (HK) +/− VB2 supplement, respectively. L1 worms were placed on the food spot and scored for the percent that stayed within the spot after 24 hr. n=number of worms scored. Data are represented as mean ±SD. ( B ) Chromatograph from HPLC-UV analysis of the VB2 standard for the analysis shown in Figure 2C . ( C ) HPLC-UV analysis of VB2 extracted from live and heat-killed OP50. Arrow and dotted line indicate the peak of VB2. ( D ) BODIPY-labeled protease activity in the intestinal tract of worms fed live OP50 at four different larval stages. Fluorescence intensity was measured by ImageJ software. Data are represented as mean ±SEM. ( E ) Effects of VB2 supplementation and treatment of protease inhibitor on in vivo protease activity in worms fed HK-OP50. Data are represented as mean ±SEM. p Values were calculated by T-test. and p

    Article Snippet: E. coli OP50 and S. saprophyticus (ATCC 15305) were diluted to the same OD600 and 0.1 µl of the live bacteria was added onto the center of a lawn of HK-OP50 on NGM plates.

    Techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Labeling, Activity Assay, Fluorescence, Software, Protease Inhibitor, In Vivo

    Impact of interaction with live bacteria on the ability of C. elegans to consume heat-killed bacteria. ( A ) Worms on heat-killed OP50 (growth for 30 days) can be recovered once they eat live OP50. Once live-OP50 (yellow arrow and dotted line) was added to worms (red arrow) grown on HK-OP50 plate for 30 days, they recovered to adults with viable progeny. This result suggests that nutrient deficiency in HK-OP50 induced a protective response from the worms similar to starvation response. ( B ) Representative images of animals in the assay described in Figure 1D . Only under the HK-OP50+ live SS condition, worms were able to consume all heat-killed bacteria and grow. ( C ) Cartoon illustrations, microscopic images and quantitative data showing that live bacteria do not influence the usability of heat-killed bacteria through odorants. In the middle cartoon, two petri dishes are stacked with top (opening) facing each other so that the worms/food on the agar pads are exposed to common air space, > 100 worms were scored for each testing condition. S.S. = Staphylococcus saprophyticus. . DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26243.005

    Journal: eLife

    Article Title: A vitamin-B2-sensing mechanism that regulates gut protease activity to impact animal’s food behavior and growth

    doi: 10.7554/eLife.26243

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Impact of interaction with live bacteria on the ability of C. elegans to consume heat-killed bacteria. ( A ) Worms on heat-killed OP50 (growth for 30 days) can be recovered once they eat live OP50. Once live-OP50 (yellow arrow and dotted line) was added to worms (red arrow) grown on HK-OP50 plate for 30 days, they recovered to adults with viable progeny. This result suggests that nutrient deficiency in HK-OP50 induced a protective response from the worms similar to starvation response. ( B ) Representative images of animals in the assay described in Figure 1D . Only under the HK-OP50+ live SS condition, worms were able to consume all heat-killed bacteria and grow. ( C ) Cartoon illustrations, microscopic images and quantitative data showing that live bacteria do not influence the usability of heat-killed bacteria through odorants. In the middle cartoon, two petri dishes are stacked with top (opening) facing each other so that the worms/food on the agar pads are exposed to common air space, > 100 worms were scored for each testing condition. S.S. = Staphylococcus saprophyticus. . DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26243.005

    Article Snippet: E. coli OP50 and S. saprophyticus (ATCC 15305) were diluted to the same OD600 and 0.1 µl of the live bacteria was added onto the center of a lawn of HK-OP50 on NGM plates.

    Techniques:

    Gonad length of worms under different conditions. Under heat-killed bacteria feeding conditions, animals were very unhealthy so that stage progression may not correlate with growth well. Larval growth in this paper as indicated by increase in gonad length. ( A ) Microscopic images of larvae fed HK-OP50 with various vitamin supplements. Gonad length of each worm was measured using ImageJ at Day 7, to evaluate progression of larval growth, which reflects the consumption of the food. The statistical data are shown in the scatter plot in Figure 2A . ( B ) Gonad length (dotted line) of wild-type worms fed live OP50 in different developmental stages, and the vulval morphology (green arrow) of L4 worms. ( C ) Gonad length of wild-type worms fed HK-OP50 or HK+VB2 food. If purely based on gonad length (dotted line), worms fed HK food would be at about late L1 to early L2, worms fed HK+VB2 food would be at about late L2 to late L3 stages, comparing to well-fed worms in ( B ). However, the vulval morphology (yellow arrow) of some worms fed HK+VB2 food appeared to reach L4 stage. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26243.008

    Journal: eLife

    Article Title: A vitamin-B2-sensing mechanism that regulates gut protease activity to impact animal’s food behavior and growth

    doi: 10.7554/eLife.26243

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Gonad length of worms under different conditions. Under heat-killed bacteria feeding conditions, animals were very unhealthy so that stage progression may not correlate with growth well. Larval growth in this paper as indicated by increase in gonad length. ( A ) Microscopic images of larvae fed HK-OP50 with various vitamin supplements. Gonad length of each worm was measured using ImageJ at Day 7, to evaluate progression of larval growth, which reflects the consumption of the food. The statistical data are shown in the scatter plot in Figure 2A . ( B ) Gonad length (dotted line) of wild-type worms fed live OP50 in different developmental stages, and the vulval morphology (green arrow) of L4 worms. ( C ) Gonad length of wild-type worms fed HK-OP50 or HK+VB2 food. If purely based on gonad length (dotted line), worms fed HK food would be at about late L1 to early L2, worms fed HK+VB2 food would be at about late L2 to late L3 stages, comparing to well-fed worms in ( B ). However, the vulval morphology (yellow arrow) of some worms fed HK+VB2 food appeared to reach L4 stage. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26243.008

    Article Snippet: E. coli OP50 and S. saprophyticus (ATCC 15305) were diluted to the same OD600 and 0.1 µl of the live bacteria was added onto the center of a lawn of HK-OP50 on NGM plates.

    Techniques:

    Roles of protease ASP-13 and ASP-14, and GATA factor ELT-2 in VB2-induced food uptake and growth of worms fed heat-killed bacteria. ( A ) Representative images and quantitative data from the protease assay on worms treated with RNAi of indicated genes in a screen for transcription factors required for intestinal protease activity. Synchronized L1s were transferred onto plates seeded with individual RNAi bacterial clones. The protease activity in the intestinal tract of L1-L2 worms of the next generation was measured. elt-2 (RNAi) displayed the most dramatic decrease (also see Figure 2D ). Fluorescence intensity was measured by ImageJ software. Data are represented as mean ±SEM. ( B ) qRT-PCR data showing that mRNA of asp-13 and asp-14 are increased in elt-2 overexpression ( elt-2 OE ) worms fed HK-OP50. Data are represented as mean ±SD. ( C ) Results of a food choice assay showing that over expression of elt-2 ( elt-2 OE ) eliminated the discrimination of worms against HK-OP50 over HK-OP50+VB2. Data are represented as mean ±SEM. ( D ) ChIP-qPCR data showing enrichment of ELT-2 binding to asp-13 and asp-14 promoters. Samples from a strain expressing an ELT-2::GFP fusion transgene were subject to immunoprecipitation using either control IgG or anti-GFP antibody. Data are represented as mean ±SD. This result is consistent with the data from a recent ChIP-seq analysis suggested that asp-13 and asp-14 are likely direct targets of ELT-2 ( Mann et al., 2016 ). ( E ) Microscopic images and bar graph showing that overexpression of asp-13 and asp-14 significantly suppressed the larval arrest phenotype of elt-2 (RNAi). Arrowheads point to two representative animals to indicate the size difference under the two conditions. Data are represented as mean ±SD. Since over-expressing asp-13 and asp-14 behind the rpl-28 promoter is expected to elude regulation by ELT-2, this result supports that down-regulating asp-13 and asp-14 by a low ELT-2 level critically contributes to the poor food usage in worms fed HK-OP50. All data are representative of at least three independent experiments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26243.013

    Journal: eLife

    Article Title: A vitamin-B2-sensing mechanism that regulates gut protease activity to impact animal’s food behavior and growth

    doi: 10.7554/eLife.26243

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Roles of protease ASP-13 and ASP-14, and GATA factor ELT-2 in VB2-induced food uptake and growth of worms fed heat-killed bacteria. ( A ) Representative images and quantitative data from the protease assay on worms treated with RNAi of indicated genes in a screen for transcription factors required for intestinal protease activity. Synchronized L1s were transferred onto plates seeded with individual RNAi bacterial clones. The protease activity in the intestinal tract of L1-L2 worms of the next generation was measured. elt-2 (RNAi) displayed the most dramatic decrease (also see Figure 2D ). Fluorescence intensity was measured by ImageJ software. Data are represented as mean ±SEM. ( B ) qRT-PCR data showing that mRNA of asp-13 and asp-14 are increased in elt-2 overexpression ( elt-2 OE ) worms fed HK-OP50. Data are represented as mean ±SD. ( C ) Results of a food choice assay showing that over expression of elt-2 ( elt-2 OE ) eliminated the discrimination of worms against HK-OP50 over HK-OP50+VB2. Data are represented as mean ±SEM. ( D ) ChIP-qPCR data showing enrichment of ELT-2 binding to asp-13 and asp-14 promoters. Samples from a strain expressing an ELT-2::GFP fusion transgene were subject to immunoprecipitation using either control IgG or anti-GFP antibody. Data are represented as mean ±SD. This result is consistent with the data from a recent ChIP-seq analysis suggested that asp-13 and asp-14 are likely direct targets of ELT-2 ( Mann et al., 2016 ). ( E ) Microscopic images and bar graph showing that overexpression of asp-13 and asp-14 significantly suppressed the larval arrest phenotype of elt-2 (RNAi). Arrowheads point to two representative animals to indicate the size difference under the two conditions. Data are represented as mean ±SD. Since over-expressing asp-13 and asp-14 behind the rpl-28 promoter is expected to elude regulation by ELT-2, this result supports that down-regulating asp-13 and asp-14 by a low ELT-2 level critically contributes to the poor food usage in worms fed HK-OP50. All data are representative of at least three independent experiments. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26243.013

    Article Snippet: E. coli OP50 and S. saprophyticus (ATCC 15305) were diluted to the same OD600 and 0.1 µl of the live bacteria was added onto the center of a lawn of HK-OP50 on NGM plates.

    Techniques: Protease Assay, Activity Assay, Clone Assay, Fluorescence, Software, Quantitative RT-PCR, Over Expression, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Binding Assay, Expressing, Immunoprecipitation

    LGG-1::GFP as a marker for activity downstream of TORC1 and the impact of food source on apical membrane polarity and VHA-6 localization in the intestine of C. elegans. ( A ) Bar graph showing that the high level of autophagy activity (measured by the number of LGG-1::GFP puncta in seam cells) in worms fed HK-OP50 (see Figure 4B ) is suppressed by an nprl-3(lf) mutation that hyperactivates TORC1 ( Zhu et al., 2013 ). Data are represented as mean ±SEM. ( B ) RNAi knockdown of daf-15 , which reduces TORC1 activity, caused a drastic increase in autophagy activity in young wild type larvae. Data are represented as mean ±SEM. ( C ) Fluorescence images showing that apical localization of ERM-1::GFP, a marker for the integrity of apical membrane polarity ( Zhang et al., 2011 ; Zhu et al., 2015 ), in the intestine is not altered in worms fed heat-killed bacteria. The results suggest that the apical membrane polarity of the intestine is not defective under the poor feeding condition. ( D ) Fluorescence images and quantitative data showing that localization of a VHA-6::mCherry fusion protein is disorganized at the apical membrane of the intestine of worms fed heat-killed bacteria (HK). The defect is significantly suppressed by VB2 supplementation. VHA-6 is a subunit of the vacuolar type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) that has been indicated to function in TORC1 activation in mammalian cell culture studies ( Zoncu et al., 2011 ). VHA-6 and its localization at the apical membrane have been linked to TORC1 activity in response to defects in a lipid biosynthesis pathway in C. elegans ( Zhu et al., 2015 ). These data are consistent with the proposed reduction of TORC1 activity in worms fed heat-killed bacteria and recovery of TORC1 activity by VB2 supplementation. ( E ) HPLC-UV analysis of VB2 extracted from wild-type worm fed live OP50, or wild-type, nprl-3(lf) and asp-13/14 OE worms fed HK-OP50. Arrow indicates the peak of VB2. ( F ) Reducing TORC1 activity ( daf-15 RNAi) led to defects in food choice. Data are represented as mean ±SEM. ( G ) Fluorescence images (integrated translational ELT-2::GFP reporter strain) and Western blot (wild-type) showing that daf-15(RNAi) caused a decrease in ELT-2 expression in worms fed live OP50. Data are represented as mean ±SEM. p-Values were calculated by T-test. For bar graphs, the number of worms scored is indicated within each bar. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26243.017

    Journal: eLife

    Article Title: A vitamin-B2-sensing mechanism that regulates gut protease activity to impact animal’s food behavior and growth

    doi: 10.7554/eLife.26243

    Figure Lengend Snippet: LGG-1::GFP as a marker for activity downstream of TORC1 and the impact of food source on apical membrane polarity and VHA-6 localization in the intestine of C. elegans. ( A ) Bar graph showing that the high level of autophagy activity (measured by the number of LGG-1::GFP puncta in seam cells) in worms fed HK-OP50 (see Figure 4B ) is suppressed by an nprl-3(lf) mutation that hyperactivates TORC1 ( Zhu et al., 2013 ). Data are represented as mean ±SEM. ( B ) RNAi knockdown of daf-15 , which reduces TORC1 activity, caused a drastic increase in autophagy activity in young wild type larvae. Data are represented as mean ±SEM. ( C ) Fluorescence images showing that apical localization of ERM-1::GFP, a marker for the integrity of apical membrane polarity ( Zhang et al., 2011 ; Zhu et al., 2015 ), in the intestine is not altered in worms fed heat-killed bacteria. The results suggest that the apical membrane polarity of the intestine is not defective under the poor feeding condition. ( D ) Fluorescence images and quantitative data showing that localization of a VHA-6::mCherry fusion protein is disorganized at the apical membrane of the intestine of worms fed heat-killed bacteria (HK). The defect is significantly suppressed by VB2 supplementation. VHA-6 is a subunit of the vacuolar type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) that has been indicated to function in TORC1 activation in mammalian cell culture studies ( Zoncu et al., 2011 ). VHA-6 and its localization at the apical membrane have been linked to TORC1 activity in response to defects in a lipid biosynthesis pathway in C. elegans ( Zhu et al., 2015 ). These data are consistent with the proposed reduction of TORC1 activity in worms fed heat-killed bacteria and recovery of TORC1 activity by VB2 supplementation. ( E ) HPLC-UV analysis of VB2 extracted from wild-type worm fed live OP50, or wild-type, nprl-3(lf) and asp-13/14 OE worms fed HK-OP50. Arrow indicates the peak of VB2. ( F ) Reducing TORC1 activity ( daf-15 RNAi) led to defects in food choice. Data are represented as mean ±SEM. ( G ) Fluorescence images (integrated translational ELT-2::GFP reporter strain) and Western blot (wild-type) showing that daf-15(RNAi) caused a decrease in ELT-2 expression in worms fed live OP50. Data are represented as mean ±SEM. p-Values were calculated by T-test. For bar graphs, the number of worms scored is indicated within each bar. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.26243.017

    Article Snippet: E. coli OP50 and S. saprophyticus (ATCC 15305) were diluted to the same OD600 and 0.1 µl of the live bacteria was added onto the center of a lawn of HK-OP50 on NGM plates.

    Techniques: Marker, Activity Assay, Mutagenesis, Fluorescence, Activation Assay, Cell Culture, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Western Blot, Expressing

    5-Iodoindole does not induce E. coli and S. aureus persister cell formation. Exponential-phase cultures of E. coli K-12 BW25113 ( a ) or S. aureus (MSSA) 6538 ( b ) were exposed to indole (2 mM), rifampicin (100 μg mL −1 ), ampicillin (100 μg mL −1 ), or 5-iodoindole (2 mM) at 37 °C, 250 rpm. Cell viabilities were then determined. The experiment was performed in triplicate

    Journal: AMB Express

    Article Title: Halogenated indoles eradicate bacterial persister cells and biofilms

    doi: 10.1186/s13568-016-0297-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 5-Iodoindole does not induce E. coli and S. aureus persister cell formation. Exponential-phase cultures of E. coli K-12 BW25113 ( a ) or S. aureus (MSSA) 6538 ( b ) were exposed to indole (2 mM), rifampicin (100 μg mL −1 ), ampicillin (100 μg mL −1 ), or 5-iodoindole (2 mM) at 37 °C, 250 rpm. Cell viabilities were then determined. The experiment was performed in triplicate

    Article Snippet: Briefly, E. coli BW25113 was inoculated into 25 mL of LB medium in 250 mL shake flasks at a starting turbidity of 0.005 at 600 nm and grown to a turbidity of 0.8.

    Techniques:

    5-Iodoindole does not affect cell morphology. Exponential-phase cultures of E. coli K-12 BW25113 ( a ) or S. aureus (MSSA) 6538 ( b ) were exposure to rifampicin (100 μg mL −1 ) for 30 min and then incubated with 5-iodoindole (2 mM) or DMSO for 1 h then visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The scale bars represent 500 nm

    Journal: AMB Express

    Article Title: Halogenated indoles eradicate bacterial persister cells and biofilms

    doi: 10.1186/s13568-016-0297-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 5-Iodoindole does not affect cell morphology. Exponential-phase cultures of E. coli K-12 BW25113 ( a ) or S. aureus (MSSA) 6538 ( b ) were exposure to rifampicin (100 μg mL −1 ) for 30 min and then incubated with 5-iodoindole (2 mM) or DMSO for 1 h then visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The scale bars represent 500 nm

    Article Snippet: Briefly, E. coli BW25113 was inoculated into 25 mL of LB medium in 250 mL shake flasks at a starting turbidity of 0.005 at 600 nm and grown to a turbidity of 0.8.

    Techniques: Incubation, Transmission Assay, Electron Microscopy

    Indole derivatives kill E. coli persister cells. Escherichia coli K-12 BW25113 cells were exposed to rifampicin (100 μg mL −1 ) to induce persister cells. Indole or indole derivatives at 2 mM were then administered for 3 h at 37 °C and 250 rpm, and cell viabilities were determined. All indole compounds were dissolved in DMSO, and DMSO was used as the control (none). For the most active compounds, 5-iodoindole and 4-fluoroindole, two concentrations (1 and 2 mM) were tested. The experiment was performed in duplicate

    Journal: AMB Express

    Article Title: Halogenated indoles eradicate bacterial persister cells and biofilms

    doi: 10.1186/s13568-016-0297-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Indole derivatives kill E. coli persister cells. Escherichia coli K-12 BW25113 cells were exposed to rifampicin (100 μg mL −1 ) to induce persister cells. Indole or indole derivatives at 2 mM were then administered for 3 h at 37 °C and 250 rpm, and cell viabilities were determined. All indole compounds were dissolved in DMSO, and DMSO was used as the control (none). For the most active compounds, 5-iodoindole and 4-fluoroindole, two concentrations (1 and 2 mM) were tested. The experiment was performed in duplicate

    Article Snippet: Briefly, E. coli BW25113 was inoculated into 25 mL of LB medium in 250 mL shake flasks at a starting turbidity of 0.005 at 600 nm and grown to a turbidity of 0.8.

    Techniques:

    5-Iodoindole eradicates E. coli persister cells. Escherichia coli K-12 BW25113 cells in the exponential growth stage ( a ) or stationary growth stage ( b ) were exposed to rifampicin (100 μg mL −1 ) to induce persister cells, which were then treated with 5-iodoindole for 3 h at 37 °C and 250 rpm. Cell viabilities were determined. Ampicillin at 100 μg mL −1 ( c ) or ciprofloxacin at 0.5 μg mL −1 ( d ) were used to induce persister cells and then 5-iodoindole was treated. The experiment was performed in duplicate. N/D represents eradication below the limit of detection

    Journal: AMB Express

    Article Title: Halogenated indoles eradicate bacterial persister cells and biofilms

    doi: 10.1186/s13568-016-0297-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 5-Iodoindole eradicates E. coli persister cells. Escherichia coli K-12 BW25113 cells in the exponential growth stage ( a ) or stationary growth stage ( b ) were exposed to rifampicin (100 μg mL −1 ) to induce persister cells, which were then treated with 5-iodoindole for 3 h at 37 °C and 250 rpm. Cell viabilities were determined. Ampicillin at 100 μg mL −1 ( c ) or ciprofloxacin at 0.5 μg mL −1 ( d ) were used to induce persister cells and then 5-iodoindole was treated. The experiment was performed in duplicate. N/D represents eradication below the limit of detection

    Article Snippet: Briefly, E. coli BW25113 was inoculated into 25 mL of LB medium in 250 mL shake flasks at a starting turbidity of 0.005 at 600 nm and grown to a turbidity of 0.8.

    Techniques:

    Substituted indoles reduce the biofilm formation of E. coli and S. aureus. Escherichia coli K-12 BW25113 ( a ), S. aureus (MSSA) 6538 ( b ), and P. aeruginosa ( c ) biofilm formation was quantified after culturing with indoles for 24 h in 96-well plates. Error bars indicate SDs. For confocal laser microscope analysis, biofilm formation by E. coli K-12 BW25113 ( d ) and S. aureus (MSSA) 6538 ( e ) was observed in 96-well plates in the presence and absence of 5-iodoindole. The scale bars represent 100 μm. The experiment was performed in triplicate

    Journal: AMB Express

    Article Title: Halogenated indoles eradicate bacterial persister cells and biofilms

    doi: 10.1186/s13568-016-0297-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Substituted indoles reduce the biofilm formation of E. coli and S. aureus. Escherichia coli K-12 BW25113 ( a ), S. aureus (MSSA) 6538 ( b ), and P. aeruginosa ( c ) biofilm formation was quantified after culturing with indoles for 24 h in 96-well plates. Error bars indicate SDs. For confocal laser microscope analysis, biofilm formation by E. coli K-12 BW25113 ( d ) and S. aureus (MSSA) 6538 ( e ) was observed in 96-well plates in the presence and absence of 5-iodoindole. The scale bars represent 100 μm. The experiment was performed in triplicate

    Article Snippet: Briefly, E. coli BW25113 was inoculated into 25 mL of LB medium in 250 mL shake flasks at a starting turbidity of 0.005 at 600 nm and grown to a turbidity of 0.8.

    Techniques: Microscopy

    (A) Plasmid map of p16S lux with relevant restriction sites and arrangement of the E. coli DH10B 16S sequence (blue), the P help promoter region (green arrow), and luxABCDE (red arrows). (B) Gram-negative strains tagged by chromosomal integration of p16S

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Construction of p16Slux, a Novel Vector for Improved Bioluminescent Labeling of Gram-Negative Bacteria ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.01394-07

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Plasmid map of p16S lux with relevant restriction sites and arrangement of the E. coli DH10B 16S sequence (blue), the P help promoter region (green arrow), and luxABCDE (red arrows). (B) Gram-negative strains tagged by chromosomal integration of p16S

    Article Snippet: By using this protocol, the following organisms were rendered bioluminescent: E. coli DH10B, C. rodentium ICC169, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium UK-1, P. aeruginosa PAO1, Enterobacter sakazakii DPC6440, Shigella flexneri 2a ATCC 700930, and Y. enterocolitica NCTC13174 (Fig. ).

    Techniques: Plasmid Preparation, Sequencing

    Laurdan emission spectra in three E. coli strains – E. coli ATCC 25922 and two multidrug-resistant isolates, E. coli EC2 and E. coli EC3 – at 24, 48, 72 and 144 h after bacterial growth at 37 °C. The excitation wavelength was 350 nm. Data presented are from a single experiment. Intensities at 440 and 490 nm were used to calculate excitation generalized polarization values ( GP exc ).

    Journal: Data in Brief

    Article Title: Data on Laurdan spectroscopic analyses to compare membrane fluidity between susceptible and multidrug-resistant bacteria

    doi: 10.1016/j.dib.2018.09.106

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Laurdan emission spectra in three E. coli strains – E. coli ATCC 25922 and two multidrug-resistant isolates, E. coli EC2 and E. coli EC3 – at 24, 48, 72 and 144 h after bacterial growth at 37 °C. The excitation wavelength was 350 nm. Data presented are from a single experiment. Intensities at 440 and 490 nm were used to calculate excitation generalized polarization values ( GP exc ).

    Article Snippet: Data refers to three E. coli strains – E. coli ATCC 25922 and two multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, E. coli EC2 and E. coli EC3 ( ) – and to three S. aureus strains – S. aureus ATCC 25923 and two methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates, S. aureus Sa1 and S. aureus Sa3 ( ).

    Techniques:

    Determination of MPC. Estimated values are indicated by italicized text. Symbols: ○, E. coli ATCC 25922; □, E. coli 4300; ▽, E. coli 4454; △, E. coli GM2995.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Bacterial Resistance Studies Using In Vitro Dynamic Models: the Predictive Power of the Mutant Prevention and Minimum Inhibitory Antibiotic Concentrations

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00578-13

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Determination of MPC. Estimated values are indicated by italicized text. Symbols: ○, E. coli ATCC 25922; □, E. coli 4300; ▽, E. coli 4454; △, E. coli GM2995.

    Article Snippet: At the minimal AUC24 /MIC ratios (9 to 15 h) E. coli mutants resistant to 4× the MIC of ciprofloxacin were enriched on the second ( E. coli GM2995), third ( E. coli 4454), or fourth day after the start of simulated treatment ( E. coli 4300 and ATCC 25922), although the maximal numbers of mutants were 2 to 6 orders lower than those of susceptible cells (third row of ).

    Techniques:

    (A) Growth curves of E. coli OC2530 treated with DQ1. DQ1 was added to mid-logarithmic-phase cultures at 0.5× MIC (diamonds), 1× MIC (circles), 2× MIC (triangles), or 4× MIC (solid squares); and the OD was monitored. The growth curves of a control (to which DMSO was added; solid line) and a cycloserine-treated culture (2× MIC; open squares) are also shown. Aliquots of the cultures were removed for quantitation of CFU at 30 min (B) and 3 h (C).

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: MurF Inhibitors with Antibacterial Activity: Effect on Muropeptide Levels ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00166-09

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A) Growth curves of E. coli OC2530 treated with DQ1. DQ1 was added to mid-logarithmic-phase cultures at 0.5× MIC (diamonds), 1× MIC (circles), 2× MIC (triangles), or 4× MIC (solid squares); and the OD was monitored. The growth curves of a control (to which DMSO was added; solid line) and a cycloserine-treated culture (2× MIC; open squares) are also shown. Aliquots of the cultures were removed for quantitation of CFU at 30 min (B) and 3 h (C).

    Article Snippet: In contrast to the control culture of E. coli OC2530, in which UDP-MurNAc-tripeptide was detectable (albeit only at 1% of the level of abundance of UDP-MurNAc-pentapeptide; Table ), the amount of UDP-MurNAc-tripeptide present was below the limit of detection (12 milli-absorbance units [mAU], or ∼2 μM UDP-MurNAc [ ]) in the control culture of S. aureus ATCC 29213.

    Techniques: Quantitation Assay

    Multiplex capture and sequencing of an E. coli ORFeome library (a) Post capture PCR of circles obtained from the capture of 3,164 ORFs of E. coli K12 performed by using the LASSO probe library assembled with a 242 bp adapter. The inset is a histogram denoting the size distribution of the targeted ORFs split into bin size of 40 bp. Targeted ORFs will have an increase in 140 bp of residual LASSO sequences once captured and run on a gel. (b) Average depth of sequencing per kilobase for each targeted ORF, non-targeted ORF > 400bp, and intergenic region > 400bp. All sequences with depth

    Journal: Nature biomedical engineering

    Article Title: Long-adapter single-strand oligonucleotide probes for the massively multiplexed cloning of kilobase genome regions

    doi: 10.1038/s41551-017-0092

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Multiplex capture and sequencing of an E. coli ORFeome library (a) Post capture PCR of circles obtained from the capture of 3,164 ORFs of E. coli K12 performed by using the LASSO probe library assembled with a 242 bp adapter. The inset is a histogram denoting the size distribution of the targeted ORFs split into bin size of 40 bp. Targeted ORFs will have an increase in 140 bp of residual LASSO sequences once captured and run on a gel. (b) Average depth of sequencing per kilobase for each targeted ORF, non-targeted ORF > 400bp, and intergenic region > 400bp. All sequences with depth

    Article Snippet: For capture experiments of E.coli ORFeome by MIP or LASSO probes, total genomic DNA of the E.coli strain K12 substrain W3110, (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers (ATCC 27325) was extracted from 500 μl of LB broth (Sigma Aldrich) overnight culture using Charge Switch gDNA Mini Bacteria Kit (Life Technology).

    Techniques: Multiplex Assay, Sequencing, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Comparison of ORFeome capture using LASSO or MIP probe libraries (a) Schematic of workflow of ORFeome capture using LASSO or MIP probe libraries. A genomic database was used to guide the design of the probe library, which was synthesized as pre-LASSO or pre-MIP DNA oligonucleotides on a programmable array. The pre-probe pools were converted into the mature probe pools in pooled format. The libraries of probes were hybridized on target DNA. Closed DNA circles containing captured ORFs were selected by exonuclease digestion, and then PCR amplified using universal primers. (b) Median RPKM enrichment ratios of targeted ORFs versus non-targeted genetic elements for LASSO-242bp, LASSO-442bp and MIP captures. When comparing the enrichment ratios of LASSO probes to those of MIP probes, 100 bases on either end of the ORFs were omitted for computational purposes as described further in Methods. (c) Quantification of unique ORFs cloned and sequenced from MIP and LASSO-242bp capture transformations. (d) Positions of captured reads mapped across the length-normalized target ORFs for LASSO-242bp and MIP captures. All ORFs having size > than 1kb were included in the graphs.

    Journal: Nature biomedical engineering

    Article Title: Long-adapter single-strand oligonucleotide probes for the massively multiplexed cloning of kilobase genome regions

    doi: 10.1038/s41551-017-0092

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of ORFeome capture using LASSO or MIP probe libraries (a) Schematic of workflow of ORFeome capture using LASSO or MIP probe libraries. A genomic database was used to guide the design of the probe library, which was synthesized as pre-LASSO or pre-MIP DNA oligonucleotides on a programmable array. The pre-probe pools were converted into the mature probe pools in pooled format. The libraries of probes were hybridized on target DNA. Closed DNA circles containing captured ORFs were selected by exonuclease digestion, and then PCR amplified using universal primers. (b) Median RPKM enrichment ratios of targeted ORFs versus non-targeted genetic elements for LASSO-242bp, LASSO-442bp and MIP captures. When comparing the enrichment ratios of LASSO probes to those of MIP probes, 100 bases on either end of the ORFs were omitted for computational purposes as described further in Methods. (c) Quantification of unique ORFs cloned and sequenced from MIP and LASSO-242bp capture transformations. (d) Positions of captured reads mapped across the length-normalized target ORFs for LASSO-242bp and MIP captures. All ORFs having size > than 1kb were included in the graphs.

    Article Snippet: For capture experiments of E.coli ORFeome by MIP or LASSO probes, total genomic DNA of the E.coli strain K12 substrain W3110, (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers (ATCC 27325) was extracted from 500 μl of LB broth (Sigma Aldrich) overnight culture using Charge Switch gDNA Mini Bacteria Kit (Life Technology).

    Techniques: Synthesized, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Clone Assay

    The intron insertion in c phy3367 of AT02 is both accurate and specific. A. PCR of the cphy3367 locus in wild-type and AT02-1 strains. The c phy3367 gene in AT02-1 contains a 900 bp insertion relative to wild type (lanes 1 and 2). Primers to amplify the genome–intron junctions yield PCR products in AT02-1, but not wild type, for both the 5′ junction (lanes 3 and 4) and the 3′ junction (lanes 5 and 6). B. PCR of the erm R gene from pQint3367 shows acquisition of the plasmid in AT02-1 following conjugation (lanes 1 and 2) and its loss by plasmid curing (lane 3). C. Southern blot probed with a 32 P-labelled intron probe reveals no band in wild type (lane 1) and a single intron insertion in two independent transconjugants, AT02-1 and AT02-2 (lanes 2 and 3). The single band shown in the AT02 lanes was the only one visible on the blot (100 bp to 10 kb).

    Journal: Molecular Microbiology

    Article Title: Targeted gene inactivation in Clostridium phytofermentans shows that cellulose degradation requires the family 9 hydrolase Cphy3367

    doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2009.06890.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The intron insertion in c phy3367 of AT02 is both accurate and specific. A. PCR of the cphy3367 locus in wild-type and AT02-1 strains. The c phy3367 gene in AT02-1 contains a 900 bp insertion relative to wild type (lanes 1 and 2). Primers to amplify the genome–intron junctions yield PCR products in AT02-1, but not wild type, for both the 5′ junction (lanes 3 and 4) and the 3′ junction (lanes 5 and 6). B. PCR of the erm R gene from pQint3367 shows acquisition of the plasmid in AT02-1 following conjugation (lanes 1 and 2) and its loss by plasmid curing (lane 3). C. Southern blot probed with a 32 P-labelled intron probe reveals no band in wild type (lane 1) and a single intron insertion in two independent transconjugants, AT02-1 and AT02-2 (lanes 2 and 3). The single band shown in the AT02 lanes was the only one visible on the blot (100 bp to 10 kb).

    Article Snippet: DNA is efficiently transferred to C. phytofermentans by conjugation with E. coli pQint3367 was introduced into C. phytofermentans ISDg (ATCC 700394) by conjugal transfer from E. coli .

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Plasmid Preparation, Conjugation Assay, Southern Blot

    Construction of a plasmid for inactivation of cphy3367 with a group II intron. A. The C. phytofermentans pyruvate ferrodoxin oxidoreductase promoter (Pferr) was inserted into pAT19 to make pQexp. B. The intron cassette from pNL9164 was inserted downstream of Pferr in pQexp to make pQint. C. The intron cassette was retargeted to cphy3367 by two-step, cross-over PCR. D. The retargeted intron was inserted into pQint to make pQint3367. Plasmid diagrams show restriction sites used in cloning.

    Journal: Molecular Microbiology

    Article Title: Targeted gene inactivation in Clostridium phytofermentans shows that cellulose degradation requires the family 9 hydrolase Cphy3367

    doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2009.06890.x

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Construction of a plasmid for inactivation of cphy3367 with a group II intron. A. The C. phytofermentans pyruvate ferrodoxin oxidoreductase promoter (Pferr) was inserted into pAT19 to make pQexp. B. The intron cassette from pNL9164 was inserted downstream of Pferr in pQexp to make pQint. C. The intron cassette was retargeted to cphy3367 by two-step, cross-over PCR. D. The retargeted intron was inserted into pQint to make pQint3367. Plasmid diagrams show restriction sites used in cloning.

    Article Snippet: DNA is efficiently transferred to C. phytofermentans by conjugation with E. coli pQint3367 was introduced into C. phytofermentans ISDg (ATCC 700394) by conjugal transfer from E. coli .

    Techniques: Plasmid Preparation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Clone Assay

    Amino acid alignment of FosA proteins in E. coli YD472, K. georgiana YDC799 and K. georgiana ATCC 51603. FosA KG-ATCC 51603 , FosA from K. georgiana ATCC 51603; FosA KG-YDC799 , FosA from K. georgiana YDC799.

    Journal: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Origin of the plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance gene fosA3

    doi: 10.1093/jac/dkx389

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Amino acid alignment of FosA proteins in E. coli YD472, K. georgiana YDC799 and K. georgiana ATCC 51603. FosA KG-ATCC 51603 , FosA from K. georgiana ATCC 51603; FosA KG-YDC799 , FosA from K. georgiana YDC799.

    Article Snippet: The following strains were used in this study: E. coli YD472, which carries fosA3 ; K. georgiana YDC799, which was identified in an autopsy culture at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in 2017; and K. georgiana ATCC 51603, which was purchased from ATCC.

    Techniques:

    Genetic environment of FosA and the neighbouring regions in K. georgiana ATCC 51603 (a), K. georgiana YDC799 (b), E. coli YD472 (c), E. coli 5CRE51 (d) and E. coli 21TF (e).

    Journal: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Origin of the plasmid-mediated fosfomycin resistance gene fosA3

    doi: 10.1093/jac/dkx389

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Genetic environment of FosA and the neighbouring regions in K. georgiana ATCC 51603 (a), K. georgiana YDC799 (b), E. coli YD472 (c), E. coli 5CRE51 (d) and E. coli 21TF (e).

    Article Snippet: The following strains were used in this study: E. coli YD472, which carries fosA3 ; K. georgiana YDC799, which was identified in an autopsy culture at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in 2017; and K. georgiana ATCC 51603, which was purchased from ATCC.

    Techniques:

    Intracellular concentrations of A. baumannii ATCC 17978 DNA damage-inducible proteins increase upon UV irradiation. At 160 J m −2 , there was 40-fold more RecA protein, 2.5-fold more UvrA, and 3-fold more DinB than for the untreated samples, while RpoB remained constant. A. baumannii cultures were grown to exponential phase, as indicated in Materials and Methods, and irradiated with increasing amounts of UV (J m −2 ). Equal amounts of whole-cell lysates per treatment were probed with polyclonal anti-RecA, polyclonal anti-UvrA, polyclonal anti-DinB, and monoclonal anti-RpoB antibodies (refer to Materials and Methods). Antibodies used were raised against the E. coli proteins. A comparative experiment using the isogenic recA ::Km strain could not be performed due to its extreme sensitivity to UV irradiation.

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: Antibiotic Resistance Acquired through a DNA Damage-Inducible Response in Acinetobacter baumannii

    doi: 10.1128/JB.02176-12

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Intracellular concentrations of A. baumannii ATCC 17978 DNA damage-inducible proteins increase upon UV irradiation. At 160 J m −2 , there was 40-fold more RecA protein, 2.5-fold more UvrA, and 3-fold more DinB than for the untreated samples, while RpoB remained constant. A. baumannii cultures were grown to exponential phase, as indicated in Materials and Methods, and irradiated with increasing amounts of UV (J m −2 ). Equal amounts of whole-cell lysates per treatment were probed with polyclonal anti-RecA, polyclonal anti-UvrA, polyclonal anti-DinB, and monoclonal anti-RpoB antibodies (refer to Materials and Methods). Antibodies used were raised against the E. coli proteins. A comparative experiment using the isogenic recA ::Km strain could not be performed due to its extreme sensitivity to UV irradiation.

    Article Snippet: These results suggest that A. baumannii DinB has lesion bypass activities different from those of E. coli DinB and also provide more support for our hypothesis that mutagenesis and TLS are dominated by the DNA Pol V enzymes in A. baumannii ATCC 17978, especially considering that there is no DNA Pol II in the A. baumannii sequences analyzed ( ).

    Techniques: Irradiation

    ( a ) The PCA results of E. coli DH5α incubated under different GO concentrations. 1 represents the control group and 2–6 principal components are from the samples incubated with different GO concentrations at 5, 20, 40, 80 and 120 μg/mL for 2 h. ( d ) The PCA results of time experiment. 1 represents the control group. 2–6 represent principal components obtained from the data incubated with GO (80 μg/mL) at different time: 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. ( b , e ) show the relationship between GO concentration or incubation time and the parameter D as well as the cell viability rate of E. coli DH5α. ( c , f ) present the bivariate analysis results, and a significant negative correlation between the parameter D and cell viability rate were obtained in concentration experiment (Person’s correlation coefficient: −0.99, p

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Rapidly Probing Antibacterial Activity of Graphene Oxide by Mass Spectrometry-based Metabolite Fingerprinting

    doi: 10.1038/srep28045

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( a ) The PCA results of E. coli DH5α incubated under different GO concentrations. 1 represents the control group and 2–6 principal components are from the samples incubated with different GO concentrations at 5, 20, 40, 80 and 120 μg/mL for 2 h. ( d ) The PCA results of time experiment. 1 represents the control group. 2–6 represent principal components obtained from the data incubated with GO (80 μg/mL) at different time: 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. ( b , e ) show the relationship between GO concentration or incubation time and the parameter D as well as the cell viability rate of E. coli DH5α. ( c , f ) present the bivariate analysis results, and a significant negative correlation between the parameter D and cell viability rate were obtained in concentration experiment (Person’s correlation coefficient: −0.99, p

    Article Snippet: Principal component analysis of metabolite fingerprinting of E. coli DH5α and ATCC 25922 after incubation with GO at different conditions shows metabolic disturbance of these bacteria ( a,d and a,b).

    Techniques: Incubation, Concentration Assay

    ( a ) The three principal components in PCA scores plot represent the E coli. DH5α control group (◾), GO group (▴) and AgNPs (▾) group (5 μg/mL, 2 h). ( b ) The three principal components in PCA scores plot represent the E coli. DH5α control group (◾), GO group (▴) and hydroxylated fullerene group (⦁) (80 μg/mL 2 h). ( c ) The three principal components in PCA scores plot represent the control group (▾), and the GO groups (▴) and hexagonal boron nitride (♦) group (80 μg/mL, 2 h). ( d–f ) The three principal components in PCA scores plot of ATCC 25922 represent the control group (◾), the GO group (▴) and AgNPs (▾) group (5 μg/mL, 2 h), hydroxylated fullerene group (⦁) (80 μg/mL 2 h) and hexagonal boron nitride (♦) incubation (80 μg/mL, 2 h), respectively.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Rapidly Probing Antibacterial Activity of Graphene Oxide by Mass Spectrometry-based Metabolite Fingerprinting

    doi: 10.1038/srep28045

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ( a ) The three principal components in PCA scores plot represent the E coli. DH5α control group (◾), GO group (▴) and AgNPs (▾) group (5 μg/mL, 2 h). ( b ) The three principal components in PCA scores plot represent the E coli. DH5α control group (◾), GO group (▴) and hydroxylated fullerene group (⦁) (80 μg/mL 2 h). ( c ) The three principal components in PCA scores plot represent the control group (▾), and the GO groups (▴) and hexagonal boron nitride (♦) group (80 μg/mL, 2 h). ( d–f ) The three principal components in PCA scores plot of ATCC 25922 represent the control group (◾), the GO group (▴) and AgNPs (▾) group (5 μg/mL, 2 h), hydroxylated fullerene group (⦁) (80 μg/mL 2 h) and hexagonal boron nitride (♦) incubation (80 μg/mL, 2 h), respectively.

    Article Snippet: Principal component analysis of metabolite fingerprinting of E. coli DH5α and ATCC 25922 after incubation with GO at different conditions shows metabolic disturbance of these bacteria ( a,d and a,b).

    Techniques: Incubation

    Analysis of IscU expression and purification. ( A ) SDS/PAGE of overproduction and purification. Lane 1, molecular weight standards; lane 2, BL-21 cells harboring pTrcIscU (25 μg of protein); lane 3, BL-21 cells harboring pTrcIscU plasmid grown for ≈16 h after IPTG induction (25 μg of protein); lanes 4–6, purified IscU. ( B ) Immunoblot analysis of constitutive IscU expression in W3110, DH5α, and BL-21 cells grown to stationary phase in Terrific Broth. Lanes 1–3, purified IscU; lanes 4–6, E. coli whole cells (15 μg of protein each).

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Interaction of the iron-sulfur cluster assembly protein IscU with the Hsc66/Hsc20 molecular chaperone system of Escherichiacoli

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Analysis of IscU expression and purification. ( A ) SDS/PAGE of overproduction and purification. Lane 1, molecular weight standards; lane 2, BL-21 cells harboring pTrcIscU (25 μg of protein); lane 3, BL-21 cells harboring pTrcIscU plasmid grown for ≈16 h after IPTG induction (25 μg of protein); lanes 4–6, purified IscU. ( B ) Immunoblot analysis of constitutive IscU expression in W3110, DH5α, and BL-21 cells grown to stationary phase in Terrific Broth. Lanes 1–3, purified IscU; lanes 4–6, E. coli whole cells (15 μg of protein each).

    Article Snippet: E. coli W3110 was from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC no. 27325); DH5αF′IQ cells were from GIBCO/BRL; and BL-21 (DE3)pLysS cells were from Novagen.

    Techniques: Expressing, Purification, SDS Page, Molecular Weight, Plasmid Preparation

    Antimicrobial activities of magnolol (a) and honokiol (b) against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, ATCC 33591), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739). All strains were cultured at 34°C for 24 h with tryptic soy medium (Difco) under aerobic conditions before the assay. For antibacterial activity test, Mueller-Hinton medium (Difco, Detroit, MI) was used.

    Journal: BioMed Research International

    Article Title: Antimicrobial Effects and Resistant Regulation of Magnolol and Honokiol on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    doi: 10.1155/2015/283630

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antimicrobial activities of magnolol (a) and honokiol (b) against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, ATCC 33591), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739). All strains were cultured at 34°C for 24 h with tryptic soy medium (Difco) under aerobic conditions before the assay. For antibacterial activity test, Mueller-Hinton medium (Difco, Detroit, MI) was used.

    Article Snippet: Bacteria The bacteria used in this study were Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739), Propionibacterium acnes (ATCC 6919), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), standard methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, ATCC 25923), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, ATCC 33591), and clinical MRSA isolates used in [ , ].

    Techniques: Cell Culture, Activity Assay

    Survival of stationary-phase E. coli O157:H7 rpoS mutant strain FRIK 816-3 in PBS autoclaved with (□) or without (■) 0.25% glucose and stationary-phase E. coli MC4100 (●) or E. coli RH90 ( rpoS mutant of MC4100) (○) in 0.25% glucose autoclaved in PBS. All points represent the mean from triplicate independent trials. Error bars represent the standard error.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Lethality of a Heat- and Phosphate-Catalyzed Glucose By-Product to Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Partial Protection Conferred by the rpoS Regulon

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Survival of stationary-phase E. coli O157:H7 rpoS mutant strain FRIK 816-3 in PBS autoclaved with (□) or without (■) 0.25% glucose and stationary-phase E. coli MC4100 (●) or E. coli RH90 ( rpoS mutant of MC4100) (○) in 0.25% glucose autoclaved in PBS. All points represent the mean from triplicate independent trials. Error bars represent the standard error.

    Article Snippet: E. coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 43895; E. coli O157:H7 ΔpO157 (strain ATCC 43895 with the 97-kb plasmid removed); an E. coli O157:H7 rpoS mutant ( rpoS ::pRR10) , strain FRIK 816-3 (from C. W. Kaspar, Food Research Institute); E. coli O127:H6 strain FRIK 345; E. coli MC4100 ( ); E. coli RH90 (MC4100 rpoS mutant) ( ); Klebsiella sp. strain FRIK 915; Salmonella typhimurium FRIK 49; and Shigella dysenteriae ATCC 29026 were stored in liquid nitrogen in nutrient broth containing 12% glycerol.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis

    AI-2 removal profile for bacteria producing AI-2. Shown is extracellular AI-2 activity in cell-free culture fluids from LuxS + strains E. coli MG1655 (triangles) and UPEC UTI89 (circles) (A) and B. cereus (diamonds) and B. anthracis (squares) (B)

    Journal: Journal of Bacteriology

    Article Title: Identification of Functional LsrB-Like Autoinducer-2 Receptors ▿Identification of Functional LsrB-Like Autoinducer-2 Receptors ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/JB.00976-09

    Figure Lengend Snippet: AI-2 removal profile for bacteria producing AI-2. Shown is extracellular AI-2 activity in cell-free culture fluids from LuxS + strains E. coli MG1655 (triangles) and UPEC UTI89 (circles) (A) and B. cereus (diamonds) and B. anthracis (squares) (B)

    Article Snippet: Like E. coli MG1655, two Bacillus strains, B. cereus (ATCC 1087) and B. anthracis (vaccine strain Sterne 34F2), have orthologs classified as belonging to group I. Putative AI-2 receptors were identified in these species previously ( , ) but not confirmed experimentally.

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Adhesion capacities of bacterial strains on bean seeds. X. citri pv. phaseoli var. fuscans strains CFBP4834-R, 4834HRCR, 4834HRPG, and 4834YAPH2; X. campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913; and E. coli C600 suspensions at 1 × 10 5 CFU ml −1

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Transmission of Plant-Pathogenic Bacteria by Nonhost Seeds without Induction of an Associated Defense Reaction at Emergence ▿Transmission of Plant-Pathogenic Bacteria by Nonhost Seeds without Induction of an Associated Defense Reaction at Emergence ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.01098-10

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Adhesion capacities of bacterial strains on bean seeds. X. citri pv. phaseoli var. fuscans strains CFBP4834-R, 4834HRCR, 4834HRPG, and 4834YAPH2; X. campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913; and E. coli C600 suspensions at 1 × 10 5 CFU ml −1

    Article Snippet: Adhesion capacities tested in seed columns were not significantly different ( P > 0.05) among a set of strains composed of E. coli C600, X. campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913, and 4834YAPH2, an adhesin mutant of X. citri pv. phaseoli var. fuscans in the yapH2 gene (Fig. ).

    Techniques:

    Colonization of bean seedlings by X. citri pv. phaseoli var. fuscans wild-type strain CFBP4834-R and mutant strains 4834HRCR and 4834HRPG, X. campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913, and E. coli C600. Bacterial population sizes were quantified on bean seeds

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Transmission of Plant-Pathogenic Bacteria by Nonhost Seeds without Induction of an Associated Defense Reaction at Emergence ▿Transmission of Plant-Pathogenic Bacteria by Nonhost Seeds without Induction of an Associated Defense Reaction at Emergence ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.01098-10

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Colonization of bean seedlings by X. citri pv. phaseoli var. fuscans wild-type strain CFBP4834-R and mutant strains 4834HRCR and 4834HRPG, X. campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913, and E. coli C600. Bacterial population sizes were quantified on bean seeds

    Article Snippet: Adhesion capacities tested in seed columns were not significantly different ( P > 0.05) among a set of strains composed of E. coli C600, X. campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913, and 4834YAPH2, an adhesin mutant of X. citri pv. phaseoli var. fuscans in the yapH2 gene (Fig. ).

    Techniques: Mutagenesis

    Kinetics of the adhesion capacities of bacterial strains on a polypropylene surface. X. citri pv. phaseoli var. fuscans strains CFBP4834, 4834HRCR, 4834HRPG, and 4834YAPH2; X. campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913; and E. coli C600 were cultured during

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Transmission of Plant-Pathogenic Bacteria by Nonhost Seeds without Induction of an Associated Defense Reaction at Emergence ▿Transmission of Plant-Pathogenic Bacteria by Nonhost Seeds without Induction of an Associated Defense Reaction at Emergence ▿ †

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.01098-10

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Kinetics of the adhesion capacities of bacterial strains on a polypropylene surface. X. citri pv. phaseoli var. fuscans strains CFBP4834, 4834HRCR, 4834HRPG, and 4834YAPH2; X. campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913; and E. coli C600 were cultured during

    Article Snippet: Adhesion capacities tested in seed columns were not significantly different ( P > 0.05) among a set of strains composed of E. coli C600, X. campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913, and 4834YAPH2, an adhesin mutant of X. citri pv. phaseoli var. fuscans in the yapH2 gene (Fig. ).

    Techniques: Cell Culture

    MGE/DGE–Amp selectively kill uropathogenic E. coli in the presence of non-pathogenic E. coli K-12 and the probiotic L. rhamnosus GG. (a and b) Bacterial growth monitored by (a) OD 600 and (b) CFU mL –1 for cultures of E. coli K-12 only, CFT073 only, and 1 : 1 K-12/CFT073 mixtures treated with 100 nM Amp or 100 nM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 in the presence of 200 μM DP. (c and d) Bacterial growth monitored by (c) OD 600 and (d) CFU mL –1 for cultures of E. coli K-12 only, UTI89 only, and 1 : 1 K-12/UTI89 mixtures treated with 100 nM Amp or 100 nM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 in the presence of 200 μM DP. (e and f) Bacterial growth monitored by (e) OD 600 and (f) CFU mL –1 for cultures of L. rhamnosus GG only, E. coli CFT073 only, and 1 : 1 L. rhamnosus GG/ E. coli CFT073 mixtures treated with 1 μM Amp or 1 μM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 in the presence of 200 μM DP. All mixed- E. coli antimicrobial assays were performed in 50% MHB medium and all mixed-species antimicrobial assays were conducted in 1 : 1 MRS/MHB medium ( t = 19 h, T = 30 °C) (mean ± standard deviation, n = 3). An asterisk indicates OD 600

    Journal: Chemical Science

    Article Title: Targeting virulence: salmochelin modification tunes the antibacterial activity spectrum of β-lactams for pathogen-selective killing of Escherichia coli †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Tables of bacterial strains employed in this study, iron content of the antimicrobial activity medium, characterization of GlcEnt–Amp/Amx 7–10, GlcEnt-PEG3-N312–13, and BLAST search for iroN sequence. Figures of HPLC traces of MceC- and IroB-catalyzed glucosylation of Ent-PEG3-N311, optical absorption spectra of GlcEnt–Amp/Amx 7–10, additional antimicrobial activity assays, time-kill kinetics, competition assays for FepA and IroN recognition, mixed-species antimicrobial activity assays, Lcn2 effect on antibacterial activity of GlcEnt–Amp/Amx 7–10, and cytotoxicity assays against T84 cells. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00962fClick here for additional data file.

    doi: 10.1039/c5sc00962f

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MGE/DGE–Amp selectively kill uropathogenic E. coli in the presence of non-pathogenic E. coli K-12 and the probiotic L. rhamnosus GG. (a and b) Bacterial growth monitored by (a) OD 600 and (b) CFU mL –1 for cultures of E. coli K-12 only, CFT073 only, and 1 : 1 K-12/CFT073 mixtures treated with 100 nM Amp or 100 nM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 in the presence of 200 μM DP. (c and d) Bacterial growth monitored by (c) OD 600 and (d) CFU mL –1 for cultures of E. coli K-12 only, UTI89 only, and 1 : 1 K-12/UTI89 mixtures treated with 100 nM Amp or 100 nM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 in the presence of 200 μM DP. (e and f) Bacterial growth monitored by (e) OD 600 and (f) CFU mL –1 for cultures of L. rhamnosus GG only, E. coli CFT073 only, and 1 : 1 L. rhamnosus GG/ E. coli CFT073 mixtures treated with 1 μM Amp or 1 μM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 in the presence of 200 μM DP. All mixed- E. coli antimicrobial assays were performed in 50% MHB medium and all mixed-species antimicrobial assays were conducted in 1 : 1 MRS/MHB medium ( t = 19 h, T = 30 °C) (mean ± standard deviation, n = 3). An asterisk indicates OD 600

    Article Snippet: Mixed-species assays These assays were performed following the mixed-E. coli assay procedure except that E. coli CFT073 and L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 were used.

    Techniques: Gas Chromatography, Standard Deviation

    Antibacterial activity of (Glc)Ent–Amp/Amx against E. coli CFT073 in the presence of Lcn2 or bovine serum albumin (BSA). E. coli CFT073 was treated with (a) 100 nM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 or (b) 100 nM (Glc)Ent–Amx 6 / 8 / 10 in the absence (control) and presence of 1 μM Lcn2 or 1 μM BSA. The assays were conducted in modified M9 medium ( t = 24 h, T = 37 °C) (mean ± standard deviation, n = 3). An asterisk indicates OD 600

    Journal: Chemical Science

    Article Title: Targeting virulence: salmochelin modification tunes the antibacterial activity spectrum of β-lactams for pathogen-selective killing of Escherichia coli †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Tables of bacterial strains employed in this study, iron content of the antimicrobial activity medium, characterization of GlcEnt–Amp/Amx 7–10, GlcEnt-PEG3-N312–13, and BLAST search for iroN sequence. Figures of HPLC traces of MceC- and IroB-catalyzed glucosylation of Ent-PEG3-N311, optical absorption spectra of GlcEnt–Amp/Amx 7–10, additional antimicrobial activity assays, time-kill kinetics, competition assays for FepA and IroN recognition, mixed-species antimicrobial activity assays, Lcn2 effect on antibacterial activity of GlcEnt–Amp/Amx 7–10, and cytotoxicity assays against T84 cells. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00962fClick here for additional data file.

    doi: 10.1039/c5sc00962f

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antibacterial activity of (Glc)Ent–Amp/Amx against E. coli CFT073 in the presence of Lcn2 or bovine serum albumin (BSA). E. coli CFT073 was treated with (a) 100 nM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 or (b) 100 nM (Glc)Ent–Amx 6 / 8 / 10 in the absence (control) and presence of 1 μM Lcn2 or 1 μM BSA. The assays were conducted in modified M9 medium ( t = 24 h, T = 37 °C) (mean ± standard deviation, n = 3). An asterisk indicates OD 600

    Article Snippet: Mixed-species assays These assays were performed following the mixed-E. coli assay procedure except that E. coli CFT073 and L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 were used.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Gas Chromatography, Modification, Standard Deviation

    Antibacterial activity of (Glc)Ent–Amp against five E. coli strains. (a)–(e) Antibacterial activity of (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 against (a) uropathogenic E. coli CFT073, (b) uropathogenic E. coli UTI89, (c) non-pathogenic clinical isolate E. coli H9049, (d) laboratory strain E. coli K-12, (e) laboratory strain E. coli B. All assays were performed in 50% MHB medium supplemented with 200 μM DP ( t = 19 h, T = 30 °C) (mean ± standard deviation, n ≥ 3). The data for (Glc)Ent–Amx 6 / 8 / 10 and for the assays performed in the absence of DP are presented in Fig. S5–S9. †

    Journal: Chemical Science

    Article Title: Targeting virulence: salmochelin modification tunes the antibacterial activity spectrum of β-lactams for pathogen-selective killing of Escherichia coli †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Tables of bacterial strains employed in this study, iron content of the antimicrobial activity medium, characterization of GlcEnt–Amp/Amx 7–10, GlcEnt-PEG3-N312–13, and BLAST search for iroN sequence. Figures of HPLC traces of MceC- and IroB-catalyzed glucosylation of Ent-PEG3-N311, optical absorption spectra of GlcEnt–Amp/Amx 7–10, additional antimicrobial activity assays, time-kill kinetics, competition assays for FepA and IroN recognition, mixed-species antimicrobial activity assays, Lcn2 effect on antibacterial activity of GlcEnt–Amp/Amx 7–10, and cytotoxicity assays against T84 cells. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00962fClick here for additional data file.

    doi: 10.1039/c5sc00962f

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antibacterial activity of (Glc)Ent–Amp against five E. coli strains. (a)–(e) Antibacterial activity of (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 against (a) uropathogenic E. coli CFT073, (b) uropathogenic E. coli UTI89, (c) non-pathogenic clinical isolate E. coli H9049, (d) laboratory strain E. coli K-12, (e) laboratory strain E. coli B. All assays were performed in 50% MHB medium supplemented with 200 μM DP ( t = 19 h, T = 30 °C) (mean ± standard deviation, n ≥ 3). The data for (Glc)Ent–Amx 6 / 8 / 10 and for the assays performed in the absence of DP are presented in Fig. S5–S9. †

    Article Snippet: Mixed-species assays These assays were performed following the mixed-E. coli assay procedure except that E. coli CFT073 and L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 were used.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Gas Chromatography, Standard Deviation

    Exogenous (Glc)Ent compete with (Glc)Ent–Amp conjugates for FepA and IroN recognition. (a)–(c) Growth of E. coli CFT073 in the presence of 100 nM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 and mixtures of 100 nM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 and 1, 5, 20, or 100 equiv of exogenous (a) Ent 1 , (b) MGE 2 , or (c) DGE 3 in the presence of 200 μM DP. (d)–(f) Growth of E. coli UTI89 in the presence of 100 nM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 and mixtures of 100 nM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 and 1, 5, 20, or 100 equiv of exogenous (d) Ent 1 , (e) MGE 2 , or (f) DGE 3 in the presence of 200 μM DP. All assays were performed in 50% MHB medium ( t = 19 h, T = 30 °C) (mean ± standard deviation, n = 3). An asterisk indicates OD 600

    Journal: Chemical Science

    Article Title: Targeting virulence: salmochelin modification tunes the antibacterial activity spectrum of β-lactams for pathogen-selective killing of Escherichia coli †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Tables of bacterial strains employed in this study, iron content of the antimicrobial activity medium, characterization of GlcEnt–Amp/Amx 7–10, GlcEnt-PEG3-N312–13, and BLAST search for iroN sequence. Figures of HPLC traces of MceC- and IroB-catalyzed glucosylation of Ent-PEG3-N311, optical absorption spectra of GlcEnt–Amp/Amx 7–10, additional antimicrobial activity assays, time-kill kinetics, competition assays for FepA and IroN recognition, mixed-species antimicrobial activity assays, Lcn2 effect on antibacterial activity of GlcEnt–Amp/Amx 7–10, and cytotoxicity assays against T84 cells. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00962fClick here for additional data file.

    doi: 10.1039/c5sc00962f

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Exogenous (Glc)Ent compete with (Glc)Ent–Amp conjugates for FepA and IroN recognition. (a)–(c) Growth of E. coli CFT073 in the presence of 100 nM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 and mixtures of 100 nM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 and 1, 5, 20, or 100 equiv of exogenous (a) Ent 1 , (b) MGE 2 , or (c) DGE 3 in the presence of 200 μM DP. (d)–(f) Growth of E. coli UTI89 in the presence of 100 nM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 and mixtures of 100 nM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 and 1, 5, 20, or 100 equiv of exogenous (d) Ent 1 , (e) MGE 2 , or (f) DGE 3 in the presence of 200 μM DP. All assays were performed in 50% MHB medium ( t = 19 h, T = 30 °C) (mean ± standard deviation, n = 3). An asterisk indicates OD 600

    Article Snippet: Mixed-species assays These assays were performed following the mixed-E. coli assay procedure except that E. coli CFT073 and L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 were used.

    Techniques: Gas Chromatography, Standard Deviation

    Time-kill kinetics of (Glc)Ent–Amp against E. coli CFT073 and UTI89. (a and b) Time-kill kinetics of (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 against (a) uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 (≈10 8 CFU mL –1 ) treated with 50 μM Amp or 5 μM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 and (b) uropathogenic E. coli UIT89 (≈10 8 CFU mL –1 ) treated with 50 μM Amp or 50 μM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 . All assays were performed in 50% MHB medium supplemented with 200 μM DP ( T = 37 °C) (mean ± standard deviation, n ≥ 3). The data for (Glc)Ent–Amx 6 / 8 / 10 and for the assays performed in the absence of DP are presented in Fig. S13–S14. †

    Journal: Chemical Science

    Article Title: Targeting virulence: salmochelin modification tunes the antibacterial activity spectrum of β-lactams for pathogen-selective killing of Escherichia coli †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Tables of bacterial strains employed in this study, iron content of the antimicrobial activity medium, characterization of GlcEnt–Amp/Amx 7–10, GlcEnt-PEG3-N312–13, and BLAST search for iroN sequence. Figures of HPLC traces of MceC- and IroB-catalyzed glucosylation of Ent-PEG3-N311, optical absorption spectra of GlcEnt–Amp/Amx 7–10, additional antimicrobial activity assays, time-kill kinetics, competition assays for FepA and IroN recognition, mixed-species antimicrobial activity assays, Lcn2 effect on antibacterial activity of GlcEnt–Amp/Amx 7–10, and cytotoxicity assays against T84 cells. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sc00962fClick here for additional data file.

    doi: 10.1039/c5sc00962f

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Time-kill kinetics of (Glc)Ent–Amp against E. coli CFT073 and UTI89. (a and b) Time-kill kinetics of (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 against (a) uropathogenic E. coli CFT073 (≈10 8 CFU mL –1 ) treated with 50 μM Amp or 5 μM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 and (b) uropathogenic E. coli UIT89 (≈10 8 CFU mL –1 ) treated with 50 μM Amp or 50 μM (Glc)Ent–Amp 5 / 7 / 9 . All assays were performed in 50% MHB medium supplemented with 200 μM DP ( T = 37 °C) (mean ± standard deviation, n ≥ 3). The data for (Glc)Ent–Amx 6 / 8 / 10 and for the assays performed in the absence of DP are presented in Fig. S13–S14. †

    Article Snippet: Mixed-species assays These assays were performed following the mixed-E. coli assay procedure except that E. coli CFT073 and L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 were used.

    Techniques: Gas Chromatography, Standard Deviation

    EC 50 of SeNPs and TeNPs for planktonic and biofilm cultures of E. coli JM109 (A), P. aeruginosa PAO1 (B), and S. aureus ATCC 25923 (C) after 4 h of exposure and 24 h of growth + 24 h of exposure .

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Biogenic selenium and tellurium nanoparticles synthesized by environmental microbial isolates efficaciously inhibit bacterial planktonic cultures and biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00584

    Figure Lengend Snippet: EC 50 of SeNPs and TeNPs for planktonic and biofilm cultures of E. coli JM109 (A), P. aeruginosa PAO1 (B), and S. aureus ATCC 25923 (C) after 4 h of exposure and 24 h of growth + 24 h of exposure .

    Article Snippet: Evaluation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of nanoparticles The susceptibility of E. coli JM109, P. aeruginosa PAO1 and S. aureus ATCC 25923 biofilm and planktonic population to the different biogenic NPs was evaluated.

    Techniques:

    MBEC assays performed on the planktonic and biofilm population of E. coli JM109 (A), P. aeruginosa PAO1 (B), and S. aureus ATCC 25923 (C) exposed to increasing concentrations of SeNPs ( n = 3) .

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Biogenic selenium and tellurium nanoparticles synthesized by environmental microbial isolates efficaciously inhibit bacterial planktonic cultures and biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00584

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MBEC assays performed on the planktonic and biofilm population of E. coli JM109 (A), P. aeruginosa PAO1 (B), and S. aureus ATCC 25923 (C) exposed to increasing concentrations of SeNPs ( n = 3) .

    Article Snippet: Evaluation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of nanoparticles The susceptibility of E. coli JM109, P. aeruginosa PAO1 and S. aureus ATCC 25923 biofilm and planktonic population to the different biogenic NPs was evaluated.

    Techniques:

    MBEC assays performed on the planktonic and biofilm population of E. coli JM109 (A), P. aeruginosa PAO1 (B), and S. aureus ATCC 25923 (C) exposed to increasing concentrations of TeNPs ( n = 3) .

    Journal: Frontiers in Microbiology

    Article Title: Biogenic selenium and tellurium nanoparticles synthesized by environmental microbial isolates efficaciously inhibit bacterial planktonic cultures and biofilms

    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00584

    Figure Lengend Snippet: MBEC assays performed on the planktonic and biofilm population of E. coli JM109 (A), P. aeruginosa PAO1 (B), and S. aureus ATCC 25923 (C) exposed to increasing concentrations of TeNPs ( n = 3) .

    Article Snippet: Evaluation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of nanoparticles The susceptibility of E. coli JM109, P. aeruginosa PAO1 and S. aureus ATCC 25923 biofilm and planktonic population to the different biogenic NPs was evaluated.

    Techniques:

    Raman spectra of E. coli HF4714 and xylitol. (a) Averaged Raman spectrum from xylitol-exposed E. coli HF4714. (b) Difference in the xylitol-exposed spectra and the control E. coli HF4714 (black) and difference in the postexposure spectra and the control E. coli HF4714 (gray). Deviations from zero denote changes from the control bacteria and are observed consistently in the spectral regions located between the dashed lines in the xylitol-exposed minus control spectrum and also in the chase minus control spectrum. (c) Raman spectrum from dried, powdered, and compacted xylitol.

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Raman Spectroscopy of Xylitol Uptake and Metabolism in Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.01458-10

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Raman spectra of E. coli HF4714 and xylitol. (a) Averaged Raman spectrum from xylitol-exposed E. coli HF4714. (b) Difference in the xylitol-exposed spectra and the control E. coli HF4714 (black) and difference in the postexposure spectra and the control E. coli HF4714 (gray). Deviations from zero denote changes from the control bacteria and are observed consistently in the spectral regions located between the dashed lines in the xylitol-exposed minus control spectrum and also in the chase minus control spectrum. (c) Raman spectrum from dried, powdered, and compacted xylitol.

    Article Snippet: E. coli C was chosen because it possesses the xylitol operon in a repressed state, and E. coli HF4714 was chosen because it possesses the xylitol operon in a derepressed state (operator constitutive).

    Techniques:

    Slide agglutination assay of AP1 red blood cells and monovalent, free oligosaccharides. The top two panels show the agglutination of human red blood cells that express the P antigen (contained in the glycolipid globoside) in the presence of uropathogenic E. coli , as described in Materials and Methods. The lower panels show that the agglutination of red blood cells and uropathogenic E. coli JR1 could be prevented or reversed only by globotriose.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Soluble, Monovalent Globotriose on Bacterial Attachment and Colonization

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.49.9.3842-3846.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Slide agglutination assay of AP1 red blood cells and monovalent, free oligosaccharides. The top two panels show the agglutination of human red blood cells that express the P antigen (contained in the glycolipid globoside) in the presence of uropathogenic E. coli , as described in Materials and Methods. The lower panels show that the agglutination of red blood cells and uropathogenic E. coli JR1 could be prevented or reversed only by globotriose.

    Article Snippet: A standard agglutination assay was used to test the ability of globotriose to prevent and reverse P fimbria-mediated agglutination of E. coli JR1 with human AP1 red blood cells and HT29 cells as targets.

    Techniques: Agglutination

    Comparison of E. coli JR1 experimental infection in mice treated or not treated with globotriose. Mice that were intraurethrally inoculated with E. coli were given two i.v. doses of 333 mg/kg of globotriose, as indicated on the time line at the bottom of the figure. The bladders were excised after the mice were killed and were assayed for the numbers of CFU. Bladders from mice treated with globotriose showed a 1-log reduction in infection ( P = 0.0153).

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Soluble, Monovalent Globotriose on Bacterial Attachment and Colonization

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.49.9.3842-3846.2005

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of E. coli JR1 experimental infection in mice treated or not treated with globotriose. Mice that were intraurethrally inoculated with E. coli were given two i.v. doses of 333 mg/kg of globotriose, as indicated on the time line at the bottom of the figure. The bladders were excised after the mice were killed and were assayed for the numbers of CFU. Bladders from mice treated with globotriose showed a 1-log reduction in infection ( P = 0.0153).

    Article Snippet: A standard agglutination assay was used to test the ability of globotriose to prevent and reverse P fimbria-mediated agglutination of E. coli JR1 with human AP1 red blood cells and HT29 cells as targets.

    Techniques: Infection, Mouse Assay

    SDS–PAGE analysis of glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tagged recombinant Apl_avian β-defensin (Apl_AvBD) proteins expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. (A) total protein from BL21 containing Apl_AvBD1, 3, 5, 6, 16, and GST with IPTG induction, respectively; (B) inclusion bodies with Apl_AvBD1, 3, 5, 6, 16, and GST respectively; (C) purified proteins of Apl_AvBD1, 3, 5, 6, 16, and GST with IPTG induction, respectively. IPTG, isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Identification, Expression and Activity Analyses of Five Novel Duck Beta-Defensins

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047743

    Figure Lengend Snippet: SDS–PAGE analysis of glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-tagged recombinant Apl_avian β-defensin (Apl_AvBD) proteins expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. (A) total protein from BL21 containing Apl_AvBD1, 3, 5, 6, 16, and GST with IPTG induction, respectively; (B) inclusion bodies with Apl_AvBD1, 3, 5, 6, 16, and GST respectively; (C) purified proteins of Apl_AvBD1, 3, 5, 6, 16, and GST with IPTG induction, respectively. IPTG, isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside.

    Article Snippet: Antibacterial Activity Colony counting assays were performed according to the methods used in previous studies to investigate the antimicrobial activities of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the recombinant AvBDs (rAvBDs), and synthetic AvBDs (sAvBDs) from ducks against four strains of Gram-positive bacteria: Micrococcus tetragenus (ATCC2835), Lactobacillus (ATCC33222), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 29213), and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 9193); and eight strains of Gram-negative bacteria: Bordetella bronchiseptica (S80103), Proteus mirabilis (ATCC29245), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027), Pasteurella multocida (ATCC 6529), E. coli BL21 (DE3), Salmonella pullorum (C79-11-S11), Salmonella choleraesuis (CVCC 2140), and Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 3021).

    Techniques: SDS Page, Recombinant, Purification

    Quantification of the height and relative surface area of fluid domes. (A) A high-magnification micrograph ( x-z optical section) showing a fluid dome observed by DIC CLMS in a cell monolayer infected with E. coli AAEC185 (3 h). Arrows, measures of height

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Antisecretory Factor Peptide AF-16 Inhibits the Secreted Autotransporter Toxin-Stimulated Transcellular and Paracellular Passages of Fluid in Cultured Human Enterocyte-Like Cells

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.02759-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Quantification of the height and relative surface area of fluid domes. (A) A high-magnification micrograph ( x-z optical section) showing a fluid dome observed by DIC CLMS in a cell monolayer infected with E. coli AAEC185 (3 h). Arrows, measures of height

    Article Snippet: Broth filtrates (1,000 ml) of E. coli AAEC185, recombinant E. coli AAEC185psat , or C. difficile strain ATCC 9689 (optical density at 600 nm, 1) were used.

    Techniques: Infection

    Distribution of protein ZO-1 in uninfected control or recombinant E. coli AAEC185 ps at -infected, fully differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of peptide AF-16. Cells were indirectly immunostained

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Antisecretory Factor Peptide AF-16 Inhibits the Secreted Autotransporter Toxin-Stimulated Transcellular and Paracellular Passages of Fluid in Cultured Human Enterocyte-Like Cells

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.02759-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Distribution of protein ZO-1 in uninfected control or recombinant E. coli AAEC185 ps at -infected, fully differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of peptide AF-16. Cells were indirectly immunostained

    Article Snippet: Broth filtrates (1,000 ml) of E. coli AAEC185, recombinant E. coli AAEC185psat , or C. difficile strain ATCC 9689 (optical density at 600 nm, 1) were used.

    Techniques: Recombinant, Infection

    Effect of peptide AF-16 and scrambled peptide against the recombinant E. coli AAEC185 ps at -induced rearrangement of TJ-associated ZO-1 and occludin proteins in Caco-2/TC7 cells. The samples were analyzed by CLSM. (A) Quantification of cells showing normal

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Antisecretory Factor Peptide AF-16 Inhibits the Secreted Autotransporter Toxin-Stimulated Transcellular and Paracellular Passages of Fluid in Cultured Human Enterocyte-Like Cells

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.02759-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of peptide AF-16 and scrambled peptide against the recombinant E. coli AAEC185 ps at -induced rearrangement of TJ-associated ZO-1 and occludin proteins in Caco-2/TC7 cells. The samples were analyzed by CLSM. (A) Quantification of cells showing normal

    Article Snippet: Broth filtrates (1,000 ml) of E. coli AAEC185, recombinant E. coli AAEC185psat , or C. difficile strain ATCC 9689 (optical density at 600 nm, 1) were used.

    Techniques: Recombinant, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy

    Distribution of occludin protein in uninfected control or recombinant E. coli AAEC185 ps at -infected, fully differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of peptide AF-16. Cell monolayers were infected

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Antisecretory Factor Peptide AF-16 Inhibits the Secreted Autotransporter Toxin-Stimulated Transcellular and Paracellular Passages of Fluid in Cultured Human Enterocyte-Like Cells

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.02759-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Distribution of occludin protein in uninfected control or recombinant E. coli AAEC185 ps at -infected, fully differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers in the presence or absence of increasing concentrations of peptide AF-16. Cell monolayers were infected

    Article Snippet: Broth filtrates (1,000 ml) of E. coli AAEC185, recombinant E. coli AAEC185psat , or C. difficile strain ATCC 9689 (optical density at 600 nm, 1) were used.

    Techniques: Recombinant, Infection

    Effect of peptide AF-16 and scrambled peptide on the increase in the formation of fluid domes induced by wild-type IH11128, recombinant E. coli AAEC185 psat , or concentrated CFCS of recombinant E. coli AAEC185 psat (which contains Sat) in fully differentiated

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Antisecretory Factor Peptide AF-16 Inhibits the Secreted Autotransporter Toxin-Stimulated Transcellular and Paracellular Passages of Fluid in Cultured Human Enterocyte-Like Cells

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.02759-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of peptide AF-16 and scrambled peptide on the increase in the formation of fluid domes induced by wild-type IH11128, recombinant E. coli AAEC185 psat , or concentrated CFCS of recombinant E. coli AAEC185 psat (which contains Sat) in fully differentiated

    Article Snippet: Broth filtrates (1,000 ml) of E. coli AAEC185, recombinant E. coli AAEC185psat , or C. difficile strain ATCC 9689 (optical density at 600 nm, 1) were used.

    Techniques: Recombinant

    Investigation of the direct effect of peptide AF-16 on Sat production by recombinant E. coli AAEC185 psat and on the internalization of Sat into epithelial cells. (A) Quantification of fluid domes in Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers infected with AAEC185 psat

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Antisecretory Factor Peptide AF-16 Inhibits the Secreted Autotransporter Toxin-Stimulated Transcellular and Paracellular Passages of Fluid in Cultured Human Enterocyte-Like Cells

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.02759-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Investigation of the direct effect of peptide AF-16 on Sat production by recombinant E. coli AAEC185 psat and on the internalization of Sat into epithelial cells. (A) Quantification of fluid domes in Caco-2/TC7 cell monolayers infected with AAEC185 psat

    Article Snippet: Broth filtrates (1,000 ml) of E. coli AAEC185, recombinant E. coli AAEC185psat , or C. difficile strain ATCC 9689 (optical density at 600 nm, 1) were used.

    Techniques: Recombinant, Infection

    Summary of the concentration-dependent effects of peptide AF-16 on the recombinant E. coli AAEC185 psat -induced increase in the number of transcellular and paracellular passages. The number, height, and relative surface area of fluid domes are related

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Antisecretory Factor Peptide AF-16 Inhibits the Secreted Autotransporter Toxin-Stimulated Transcellular and Paracellular Passages of Fluid in Cultured Human Enterocyte-Like Cells

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.02759-14

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Summary of the concentration-dependent effects of peptide AF-16 on the recombinant E. coli AAEC185 psat -induced increase in the number of transcellular and paracellular passages. The number, height, and relative surface area of fluid domes are related

    Article Snippet: Broth filtrates (1,000 ml) of E. coli AAEC185, recombinant E. coli AAEC185psat , or C. difficile strain ATCC 9689 (optical density at 600 nm, 1) were used.

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Recombinant

    Genomic Xba I restriction patterns of subtracter strain NV110 (lane 2), subtracter strain NV183 (lane 3), target strain CH014 (lane 4), and reference strain EDL933 of serotype O157:H7 (lane 5) obtained by PFGE (A) and Southern hybridization (B) with S-14, S-21, and stx 2 as DNA probes. Lambda Ladder (Bio-Rad) was used as a DNA size marker (lane 1 in panel A).

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Genomic Subtraction To Identify and Characterize Sequences of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O91:H21

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.68.5.2316-2325.2002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Genomic Xba I restriction patterns of subtracter strain NV110 (lane 2), subtracter strain NV183 (lane 3), target strain CH014 (lane 4), and reference strain EDL933 of serotype O157:H7 (lane 5) obtained by PFGE (A) and Southern hybridization (B) with S-14, S-21, and stx 2 as DNA probes. Lambda Ladder (Bio-Rad) was used as a DNA size marker (lane 1 in panel A).

    Article Snippet: Five STEC strains of serotype O91:H21 and five of serotype O6:H10 were collected in the same geographic area (central France) between October 1997 and July 1998 from the feces of healthy cattle or from food products (beef or cheese); five human STEC isolates were obtained from sporadic cases of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in central France; and E. coli EDL933 (ATCC 43895) of serotype O157:H7, enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) E2348/69, and E. coli DH5α were used as reference strains.

    Techniques: Hybridization, Marker

    Representative locations of strain CH014 O91:H21-specific fragments on the E. coli EDL933 O157:H7 strain genome map. Open squares show the distribution of the 23 major EDL933-specific sequences compared to the E. coli K-12 genome that are missing in CH014. Filled squares show the distribution of the 10 additional CH014-specific sequences in the EDL933-specific regions. The size of each block is proportional to the size of the corresponding island described by Perna et al. (32).

    Journal: Applied and Environmental Microbiology

    Article Title: Genomic Subtraction To Identify and Characterize Sequences of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O91:H21

    doi: 10.1128/AEM.68.5.2316-2325.2002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Representative locations of strain CH014 O91:H21-specific fragments on the E. coli EDL933 O157:H7 strain genome map. Open squares show the distribution of the 23 major EDL933-specific sequences compared to the E. coli K-12 genome that are missing in CH014. Filled squares show the distribution of the 10 additional CH014-specific sequences in the EDL933-specific regions. The size of each block is proportional to the size of the corresponding island described by Perna et al. (32).

    Article Snippet: Five STEC strains of serotype O91:H21 and five of serotype O6:H10 were collected in the same geographic area (central France) between October 1997 and July 1998 from the feces of healthy cattle or from food products (beef or cheese); five human STEC isolates were obtained from sporadic cases of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in central France; and E. coli EDL933 (ATCC 43895) of serotype O157:H7, enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) E2348/69, and E. coli DH5α were used as reference strains.

    Techniques: Blocking Assay

    Occurrence of phages in clinical samples. Lysis plaques obtained from the suspension of antibiogram plates of urine cultures. 2.1 : Spot tests of suspensions of samples A-D in E. coli WG5 and E in P. aeruginosa . PBS control. 2.2 : Lysis plaques observed by the double agar layer method in E. coli WG5 in 10 −7 and 10 −8 dilutions of the suspension of plate A. 2.3 : Electron micrographs of phages from plates ( A–E ). Bar 100 nm.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Bacteriophages in clinical samples can interfere with microbiological diagnostic tools

    doi: 10.1038/srep33000

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Occurrence of phages in clinical samples. Lysis plaques obtained from the suspension of antibiogram plates of urine cultures. 2.1 : Spot tests of suspensions of samples A-D in E. coli WG5 and E in P. aeruginosa . PBS control. 2.2 : Lysis plaques observed by the double agar layer method in E. coli WG5 in 10 −7 and 10 −8 dilutions of the suspension of plate A. 2.3 : Electron micrographs of phages from plates ( A–E ). Bar 100 nm.

    Article Snippet: Infectivity of phages present in the samples Laboratory strains of E. coli WG5 (ATCC 700078) and a clinical isolate Shigella sonnei 866 were used as hosts for bacteriophage propagation.

    Techniques: Lysis

    Morphological types of phages observed in samples. ( A ) Podoviridae from an ascitic fluid sample after propagation in WG5. ( B ) Siphoviridae and C: Myoviridae from a urine sample. ( B,C ) correspond to the same urine sample, which when processed directly showed only B and when enriched showed both. Bar 100 nm.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Bacteriophages in clinical samples can interfere with microbiological diagnostic tools

    doi: 10.1038/srep33000

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Morphological types of phages observed in samples. ( A ) Podoviridae from an ascitic fluid sample after propagation in WG5. ( B ) Siphoviridae and C: Myoviridae from a urine sample. ( B,C ) correspond to the same urine sample, which when processed directly showed only B and when enriched showed both. Bar 100 nm.

    Article Snippet: Infectivity of phages present in the samples Laboratory strains of E. coli WG5 (ATCC 700078) and a clinical isolate Shigella sonnei 866 were used as hosts for bacteriophage propagation.

    Techniques: