emvs Search Results


  • Logo
  • About
  • News
  • Press Release
  • Team
  • Advisors
  • Partners
  • Contact
  • Bioz Stars
  • Bioz vStars
  • 99
    Thermo Fisher emv free dulbecco s phosphate buffered saline
    Emv Free Dulbecco S Phosphate Buffered Saline, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/emv free dulbecco s phosphate buffered saline/product/Thermo Fisher
    Average 99 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    emv free dulbecco s phosphate buffered saline - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Millipore emv free foetal bovine serum fbs
    Emv Free Foetal Bovine Serum Fbs, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/emv free foetal bovine serum fbs/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 6 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    emv free foetal bovine serum fbs - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    89
    Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation emv
    Emv, supplied by Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 15 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/emv/product/Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation
    Average 89 stars, based on 15 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    emv - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    89/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    90
    Biosignatures brain endothelial derived emvs
    Brain Endothelial Derived Emvs, supplied by Biosignatures, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/brain endothelial derived emvs/product/Biosignatures
    Average 90 stars, based on 5 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    brain endothelial derived emvs - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    88
    SMC Corp emvs
    Emvs, supplied by SMC Corp, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 8 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/emvs/product/SMC Corp
    Average 88 stars, based on 8 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    emvs - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    88/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    88
    Ricerca eb emv
    Eb Emv, supplied by Ricerca, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/eb emv/product/Ricerca
    Average 88 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    eb emv - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    88/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    88
    Exosome Diagnostics emv exosome and mv free rpmi 1640
    Emv Exosome And Mv Free Rpmi 1640, supplied by Exosome Diagnostics, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/emv exosome and mv free rpmi 1640/product/Exosome Diagnostics
    Average 88 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    emv exosome and mv free rpmi 1640 - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    88/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    99
    Millipore emv free fetal bovine serum
    Emv Free Fetal Bovine Serum, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/emv free fetal bovine serum/product/Millipore
    Average 99 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    emv free fetal bovine serum - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    99/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    93
    Microsoft emv holds stock
    Emv Holds Stock, supplied by Microsoft, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/emv holds stock/product/Microsoft
    Average 93 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    emv holds stock - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    95
    Millipore emv inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide i
    Pharmacological inhibition of <t>EMV</t> release from PC3 cells is highest with Cl-amidine, <t>bisindolylmaleimide-I,</t> and imipramine. ( A ) Using NTA, the most significant inhibition of EMV release from PC3 cells after 24 h was observed in the presence of Cl-amidine, bisindolylmaleimide-I, and imipramine. After 24 h, none of the inhibitors caused any significant reduction in cell viability, ( B ) except for d -pantethine. The experiments were repeated three times, and the data presented are mean ± SEM of the results. (* p ≤ 0.05; **** p ≤ 0.0001).
    Emv Inhibitors Bisindolylmaleimide I, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/emv inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide i/product/Millipore
    Average 95 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    emv inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide i - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    95/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    90
    Hornung emv isolation
    Highly schematized representation of ( A ) the release of exosomes (EXs) and ( B ) the release and uptake of extracellular microvesicles (EMVs) in neural cells of the human central nervous system (CNS); both types of vesicular transport systems have been observed to operate in the brain between astroglial cells and neurons; ( A ) exosomes—when mature intracellular endosomes (also known as multi-vesicular bodies) containing intraluminal vesicles (ILVs; black outlined green spheres) fuse with the plasma membrane and empty their plasma membrane-encapsulated cargo, ILVs are released and, from being extracellular, they become exosomes (EX); these 30–100 nm diameter spheres contain various mixtures of proteins, lipids, proteolipids, cytokines, chemokines, microRNAs (miRNA), messenger RNAs (mRNA) and end-stage neurotoxic metabolic products, including 42 amino acid amyloid-beta (Aβ42) peptides, tau proteins and/or the lipid raft associated flotillin (Angelopoulou et al. 2020 [ 29 ]; Hornung et al., 2020 [ 30 ]); EXs appear to play a central role in the spread of Aβ42 pathology and amyloidogenesis (Mathews and Levy 2019 [ 15 ]; Arbo et al., 2020 [ 6 ]; Peng et al., 2020 [ 31 ]); ( B ) extracellular microvesicles (EMVs)—the exterior plasma membrane of activated microglia (AM) can release (R) 100–1000 nm diameter EMVs directly from the outward blebbing of the plasma membrane of microglias and astrocytes and carry intracellular contents from their cells of origin; this includes various complex mixtures of proteins, lipids, proteolipids, <t>miRNAs,</t> mRNAs, end-stage metabolic products and cytokines and chemokines; together these <t>EMV</t> contents may be pathogenic and cause the spread of pro-inflammatory signaling and inflammatory neurodegeneration (Prada et al., 2018 [ 21 ]; Serpente et al., 2020 [ 22 ]; Vanherle et al., 2020 [ 4 ]). Microvesicular trafficking and the extracellular microvesicle uptake (U) by neurons (N) via directed translocation mechanisms (dashed black lines with black arrowheads) may occur via the direct fusion of the EMV membrane with the neuronal cell plasma membrane or by endocytosis (Stahl et al., 2019 [ 5 ]; Arbo et al., 2020 [ 6 ]; Hornung et al., 2020 [ 30 ]; Peng et al., 2020 [ 32 ]; Song et al., 2020 [ 9 ]; Upadhya et al., 2020 [ 20 ]).
    Emv Isolation, supplied by Hornung, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/emv isolation/product/Hornung
    Average 90 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    emv isolation - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    90/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    91
    AstraZeneca emv
    Highly schematized representation of ( A ) the release of exosomes (EXs) and ( B ) the release and uptake of extracellular microvesicles (EMVs) in neural cells of the human central nervous system (CNS); both types of vesicular transport systems have been observed to operate in the brain between astroglial cells and neurons; ( A ) exosomes—when mature intracellular endosomes (also known as multi-vesicular bodies) containing intraluminal vesicles (ILVs; black outlined green spheres) fuse with the plasma membrane and empty their plasma membrane-encapsulated cargo, ILVs are released and, from being extracellular, they become exosomes (EX); these 30–100 nm diameter spheres contain various mixtures of proteins, lipids, proteolipids, cytokines, chemokines, microRNAs (miRNA), messenger RNAs (mRNA) and end-stage neurotoxic metabolic products, including 42 amino acid amyloid-beta (Aβ42) peptides, tau proteins and/or the lipid raft associated flotillin (Angelopoulou et al. 2020 [ 29 ]; Hornung et al., 2020 [ 30 ]); EXs appear to play a central role in the spread of Aβ42 pathology and amyloidogenesis (Mathews and Levy 2019 [ 15 ]; Arbo et al., 2020 [ 6 ]; Peng et al., 2020 [ 31 ]); ( B ) extracellular microvesicles (EMVs)—the exterior plasma membrane of activated microglia (AM) can release (R) 100–1000 nm diameter EMVs directly from the outward blebbing of the plasma membrane of microglias and astrocytes and carry intracellular contents from their cells of origin; this includes various complex mixtures of proteins, lipids, proteolipids, <t>miRNAs,</t> mRNAs, end-stage metabolic products and cytokines and chemokines; together these <t>EMV</t> contents may be pathogenic and cause the spread of pro-inflammatory signaling and inflammatory neurodegeneration (Prada et al., 2018 [ 21 ]; Serpente et al., 2020 [ 22 ]; Vanherle et al., 2020 [ 4 ]). Microvesicular trafficking and the extracellular microvesicle uptake (U) by neurons (N) via directed translocation mechanisms (dashed black lines with black arrowheads) may occur via the direct fusion of the EMV membrane with the neuronal cell plasma membrane or by endocytosis (Stahl et al., 2019 [ 5 ]; Arbo et al., 2020 [ 6 ]; Hornung et al., 2020 [ 30 ]; Peng et al., 2020 [ 32 ]; Song et al., 2020 [ 9 ]; Upadhya et al., 2020 [ 20 ]).
    Emv, supplied by AstraZeneca, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/emv/product/AstraZeneca
    Average 91 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    emv - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    91/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    89
    Exosome Diagnostics emv
    CBD significantly inhibits total EMV, <t>exosome</t> and MV release from PC3 cells. Inhibitory effects of CBD alone and in combination with Cl-amidine on extracellular vesicle release from PC3 cancer cells are presented as histograms which are based on size exclusion analysis by Nanosight Tracking Analysis (NTA). <t>EMVs</t> represent all vesicles 0–900 nm (A) ; exosomes are vesicles
    Emv, supplied by Exosome Diagnostics, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/emv/product/Exosome Diagnostics
    Average 89 stars, based on 2 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    emv - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    89/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    89
    Faes Farma emv
    CBD significantly inhibits total EMV, <t>exosome</t> and MV release from PC3 cells. Inhibitory effects of CBD alone and in combination with Cl-amidine on extracellular vesicle release from PC3 cancer cells are presented as histograms which are based on size exclusion analysis by Nanosight Tracking Analysis (NTA). <t>EMVs</t> represent all vesicles 0–900 nm (A) ; exosomes are vesicles
    Emv, supplied by Faes Farma, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/emv/product/Faes Farma
    Average 89 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    emv - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    89/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    emv  (Syapse)
    93
    Syapse emv
    CBD significantly inhibits total EMV, <t>exosome</t> and MV release from PC3 cells. Inhibitory effects of CBD alone and in combination with Cl-amidine on extracellular vesicle release from PC3 cancer cells are presented as histograms which are based on size exclusion analysis by Nanosight Tracking Analysis (NTA). <t>EMVs</t> represent all vesicles 0–900 nm (A) ; exosomes are vesicles
    Emv, supplied by Syapse, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/emv/product/Syapse
    Average 93 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    emv - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    93/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    88
    Intercell emvs
    CBD significantly inhibits total EMV, <t>exosome</t> and MV release from PC3 cells. Inhibitory effects of CBD alone and in combination with Cl-amidine on extracellular vesicle release from PC3 cancer cells are presented as histograms which are based on size exclusion analysis by Nanosight Tracking Analysis (NTA). <t>EMVs</t> represent all vesicles 0–900 nm (A) ; exosomes are vesicles
    Emvs, supplied by Intercell, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/emvs/product/Intercell
    Average 88 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    emvs - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    88/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    88
    NanoSight emvs
    CBD significantly inhibits total EMV, <t>exosome</t> and MV release from PC3 cells. Inhibitory effects of CBD alone and in combination with Cl-amidine on extracellular vesicle release from PC3 cancer cells are presented as histograms which are based on size exclusion analysis by Nanosight Tracking Analysis (NTA). <t>EMVs</t> represent all vesicles 0–900 nm (A) ; exosomes are vesicles
    Emvs, supplied by NanoSight, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 88/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/emvs/product/NanoSight
    Average 88 stars, based on 6 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    emvs - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    88/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    86
    SMC Corp valves emv
    CBD significantly inhibits total EMV, <t>exosome</t> and MV release from PC3 cells. Inhibitory effects of CBD alone and in combination with Cl-amidine on extracellular vesicle release from PC3 cancer cells are presented as histograms which are based on size exclusion analysis by Nanosight Tracking Analysis (NTA). <t>EMVs</t> represent all vesicles 0–900 nm (A) ; exosomes are vesicles
    Valves Emv, supplied by SMC Corp, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/valves emv/product/SMC Corp
    Average 86 stars, based on 3 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    valves emv - by Bioz Stars, 2020-11
    86/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Pharmacological inhibition of EMV release from PC3 cells is highest with Cl-amidine, bisindolylmaleimide-I, and imipramine. ( A ) Using NTA, the most significant inhibition of EMV release from PC3 cells after 24 h was observed in the presence of Cl-amidine, bisindolylmaleimide-I, and imipramine. After 24 h, none of the inhibitors caused any significant reduction in cell viability, ( B ) except for d -pantethine. The experiments were repeated three times, and the data presented are mean ± SEM of the results. (* p ≤ 0.05; **** p ≤ 0.0001).

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Chloramidine/Bisindolylmaleimide-I-Mediated Inhibition of Exosome and Microvesicle Release and Enhanced Efficacy of Cancer Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.3390/ijms18051007

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pharmacological inhibition of EMV release from PC3 cells is highest with Cl-amidine, bisindolylmaleimide-I, and imipramine. ( A ) Using NTA, the most significant inhibition of EMV release from PC3 cells after 24 h was observed in the presence of Cl-amidine, bisindolylmaleimide-I, and imipramine. After 24 h, none of the inhibitors caused any significant reduction in cell viability, ( B ) except for d -pantethine. The experiments were repeated three times, and the data presented are mean ± SEM of the results. (* p ≤ 0.05; **** p ≤ 0.0001).

    Article Snippet: The Effect of EMV Inhibitors on 5-FU-Mediated Apoptosis of PC3 and MCF-7 Cells Combinations of EMV inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide-I and Cl-amidine were used to test for a synergistic enhancement of the anti-cancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; Sigma-Aldrich).

    Techniques: Inhibition

    Cl-amidine and bisindolylmaleimide-1-mediated inhibition of EMV release increases the apoptosis of PC3 and MCF-7 cells treated with 5-FU. The Guava Viacount Cell Death Assay shows that PC3 and MCF-7 cells that were given 5-FU together with Cl-amidine, bisindolylmaleimide-I, or with a combination of Cl-amidine and bisindolylmaleimide-I, had significantly reduced levels of cell viability within 24 h compared to PC3 and MCF-7 cells receiving no EMV inhibitors and given only 5-FU. Bisindolylmaleimide-I and Cl-amidine had no significant effect on cell viability on their own. Data presented are the mean ± SEM of three independent experiments performed in triplicate (** p ≤ 0.01; *** p ≤ 0.001; **** p ≤ 0.0001 were considered statistically significant compared to the drug-treated control in the absence of inhibitors).

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Chloramidine/Bisindolylmaleimide-I-Mediated Inhibition of Exosome and Microvesicle Release and Enhanced Efficacy of Cancer Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.3390/ijms18051007

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Cl-amidine and bisindolylmaleimide-1-mediated inhibition of EMV release increases the apoptosis of PC3 and MCF-7 cells treated with 5-FU. The Guava Viacount Cell Death Assay shows that PC3 and MCF-7 cells that were given 5-FU together with Cl-amidine, bisindolylmaleimide-I, or with a combination of Cl-amidine and bisindolylmaleimide-I, had significantly reduced levels of cell viability within 24 h compared to PC3 and MCF-7 cells receiving no EMV inhibitors and given only 5-FU. Bisindolylmaleimide-I and Cl-amidine had no significant effect on cell viability on their own. Data presented are the mean ± SEM of three independent experiments performed in triplicate (** p ≤ 0.01; *** p ≤ 0.001; **** p ≤ 0.0001 were considered statistically significant compared to the drug-treated control in the absence of inhibitors).

    Article Snippet: The Effect of EMV Inhibitors on 5-FU-Mediated Apoptosis of PC3 and MCF-7 Cells Combinations of EMV inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide-I and Cl-amidine were used to test for a synergistic enhancement of the anti-cancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; Sigma-Aldrich).

    Techniques: Inhibition

    Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) of exosomes and microvesicles (EMVs) released from PC3 cells in the presence of a range of EMV inhibitors. Plots presenting NTA analysis show the concentration of vesicles (0–900 nm in diameter) released from PC3 cells in the absence of any EMV inhibitors ( A ); In ( B ) the EMVs are shown to comprise exosomes and microvesicles (MVs) by electron microscopy, by Western blotting (for CD63 expression), and by the degree of phosphatidylserine (PS) exposition. NTA analysis for released EMVs from PC3 cells are presented in the presence of Cl-amidine ( C ); bisindolylmaleimide-I ( D ); and imipramine ( E ). Vesicles outside the size range of 0–900 nm were excluded to avoid including larger vesicles such as MV aggregates or apoptotic bodies. The experiment was repeated three times in total (error bars ± SEM, indicated in red).

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Chloramidine/Bisindolylmaleimide-I-Mediated Inhibition of Exosome and Microvesicle Release and Enhanced Efficacy of Cancer Chemotherapy

    doi: 10.3390/ijms18051007

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) of exosomes and microvesicles (EMVs) released from PC3 cells in the presence of a range of EMV inhibitors. Plots presenting NTA analysis show the concentration of vesicles (0–900 nm in diameter) released from PC3 cells in the absence of any EMV inhibitors ( A ); In ( B ) the EMVs are shown to comprise exosomes and microvesicles (MVs) by electron microscopy, by Western blotting (for CD63 expression), and by the degree of phosphatidylserine (PS) exposition. NTA analysis for released EMVs from PC3 cells are presented in the presence of Cl-amidine ( C ); bisindolylmaleimide-I ( D ); and imipramine ( E ). Vesicles outside the size range of 0–900 nm were excluded to avoid including larger vesicles such as MV aggregates or apoptotic bodies. The experiment was repeated three times in total (error bars ± SEM, indicated in red).

    Article Snippet: The Effect of EMV Inhibitors on 5-FU-Mediated Apoptosis of PC3 and MCF-7 Cells Combinations of EMV inhibitors bisindolylmaleimide-I and Cl-amidine were used to test for a synergistic enhancement of the anti-cancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; Sigma-Aldrich).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Electron Microscopy, Western Blot, Expressing

    Highly schematized representation of ( A ) the release of exosomes (EXs) and ( B ) the release and uptake of extracellular microvesicles (EMVs) in neural cells of the human central nervous system (CNS); both types of vesicular transport systems have been observed to operate in the brain between astroglial cells and neurons; ( A ) exosomes—when mature intracellular endosomes (also known as multi-vesicular bodies) containing intraluminal vesicles (ILVs; black outlined green spheres) fuse with the plasma membrane and empty their plasma membrane-encapsulated cargo, ILVs are released and, from being extracellular, they become exosomes (EX); these 30–100 nm diameter spheres contain various mixtures of proteins, lipids, proteolipids, cytokines, chemokines, microRNAs (miRNA), messenger RNAs (mRNA) and end-stage neurotoxic metabolic products, including 42 amino acid amyloid-beta (Aβ42) peptides, tau proteins and/or the lipid raft associated flotillin (Angelopoulou et al. 2020 [ 29 ]; Hornung et al., 2020 [ 30 ]); EXs appear to play a central role in the spread of Aβ42 pathology and amyloidogenesis (Mathews and Levy 2019 [ 15 ]; Arbo et al., 2020 [ 6 ]; Peng et al., 2020 [ 31 ]); ( B ) extracellular microvesicles (EMVs)—the exterior plasma membrane of activated microglia (AM) can release (R) 100–1000 nm diameter EMVs directly from the outward blebbing of the plasma membrane of microglias and astrocytes and carry intracellular contents from their cells of origin; this includes various complex mixtures of proteins, lipids, proteolipids, miRNAs, mRNAs, end-stage metabolic products and cytokines and chemokines; together these EMV contents may be pathogenic and cause the spread of pro-inflammatory signaling and inflammatory neurodegeneration (Prada et al., 2018 [ 21 ]; Serpente et al., 2020 [ 22 ]; Vanherle et al., 2020 [ 4 ]). Microvesicular trafficking and the extracellular microvesicle uptake (U) by neurons (N) via directed translocation mechanisms (dashed black lines with black arrowheads) may occur via the direct fusion of the EMV membrane with the neuronal cell plasma membrane or by endocytosis (Stahl et al., 2019 [ 5 ]; Arbo et al., 2020 [ 6 ]; Hornung et al., 2020 [ 30 ]; Peng et al., 2020 [ 32 ]; Song et al., 2020 [ 9 ]; Upadhya et al., 2020 [ 20 ]).

    Journal: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

    Article Title: Vesicular Transport of Encapsulated microRNA between Glial and Neuronal Cells

    doi: 10.3390/ijms21145078

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Highly schematized representation of ( A ) the release of exosomes (EXs) and ( B ) the release and uptake of extracellular microvesicles (EMVs) in neural cells of the human central nervous system (CNS); both types of vesicular transport systems have been observed to operate in the brain between astroglial cells and neurons; ( A ) exosomes—when mature intracellular endosomes (also known as multi-vesicular bodies) containing intraluminal vesicles (ILVs; black outlined green spheres) fuse with the plasma membrane and empty their plasma membrane-encapsulated cargo, ILVs are released and, from being extracellular, they become exosomes (EX); these 30–100 nm diameter spheres contain various mixtures of proteins, lipids, proteolipids, cytokines, chemokines, microRNAs (miRNA), messenger RNAs (mRNA) and end-stage neurotoxic metabolic products, including 42 amino acid amyloid-beta (Aβ42) peptides, tau proteins and/or the lipid raft associated flotillin (Angelopoulou et al. 2020 [ 29 ]; Hornung et al., 2020 [ 30 ]); EXs appear to play a central role in the spread of Aβ42 pathology and amyloidogenesis (Mathews and Levy 2019 [ 15 ]; Arbo et al., 2020 [ 6 ]; Peng et al., 2020 [ 31 ]); ( B ) extracellular microvesicles (EMVs)—the exterior plasma membrane of activated microglia (AM) can release (R) 100–1000 nm diameter EMVs directly from the outward blebbing of the plasma membrane of microglias and astrocytes and carry intracellular contents from their cells of origin; this includes various complex mixtures of proteins, lipids, proteolipids, miRNAs, mRNAs, end-stage metabolic products and cytokines and chemokines; together these EMV contents may be pathogenic and cause the spread of pro-inflammatory signaling and inflammatory neurodegeneration (Prada et al., 2018 [ 21 ]; Serpente et al., 2020 [ 22 ]; Vanherle et al., 2020 [ 4 ]). Microvesicular trafficking and the extracellular microvesicle uptake (U) by neurons (N) via directed translocation mechanisms (dashed black lines with black arrowheads) may occur via the direct fusion of the EMV membrane with the neuronal cell plasma membrane or by endocytosis (Stahl et al., 2019 [ 5 ]; Arbo et al., 2020 [ 6 ]; Hornung et al., 2020 [ 30 ]; Peng et al., 2020 [ 32 ]; Song et al., 2020 [ 9 ]; Upadhya et al., 2020 [ 20 ]).

    Article Snippet: There are practical challenges associated with the methodology of the extraction and characterization of CNS-derived blood, CSF and tissue EXs and EMVs, and subsequent analysis of their miRNAs and other intra-vesicular cargoes, however the methodologies for EX and EMV isolation and categorization are constantly improving (Hornung et al., 2020 [ ]; Serpente et al., 2020 [ ]).

    Techniques: Translocation Assay

    CBD significantly inhibits total EMV, exosome and MV release from PC3 cells. Inhibitory effects of CBD alone and in combination with Cl-amidine on extracellular vesicle release from PC3 cancer cells are presented as histograms which are based on size exclusion analysis by Nanosight Tracking Analysis (NTA). EMVs represent all vesicles 0–900 nm (A) ; exosomes are vesicles

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: Cannabidiol (CBD) Is a Novel Inhibitor for Exosome and Microvesicle (EMV) Release in Cancer

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00889

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CBD significantly inhibits total EMV, exosome and MV release from PC3 cells. Inhibitory effects of CBD alone and in combination with Cl-amidine on extracellular vesicle release from PC3 cancer cells are presented as histograms which are based on size exclusion analysis by Nanosight Tracking Analysis (NTA). EMVs represent all vesicles 0–900 nm (A) ; exosomes are vesicles

    Article Snippet: Isolation of EMVs Exosome and microvesicles were isolated from the CBD, Cl-amidine, and CBD plus Cl-amidine treated cell culture supernatants, as well as from the control treated cells (DMSO or PBS), by differential centrifugation as follows: First, whole cells were removed by spinning at 200 g /5 min at 4°C.

    Techniques:

    CBD significantly inhibits total EMV, exosome and MV release from HEPG2 cells. Inhibitory effects of CBD alone and in combination with Cl-amidine on extracellular vesicle release from HEPG2 cancer cells are presented as histograms which are based on size exclusion analysis by Nanosight Tracking Analysis (NTA). EMVs represent all vesicles 0–900 nm (A) ; exosomes are vesicles

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: Cannabidiol (CBD) Is a Novel Inhibitor for Exosome and Microvesicle (EMV) Release in Cancer

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00889

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CBD significantly inhibits total EMV, exosome and MV release from HEPG2 cells. Inhibitory effects of CBD alone and in combination with Cl-amidine on extracellular vesicle release from HEPG2 cancer cells are presented as histograms which are based on size exclusion analysis by Nanosight Tracking Analysis (NTA). EMVs represent all vesicles 0–900 nm (A) ; exosomes are vesicles

    Article Snippet: Isolation of EMVs Exosome and microvesicles were isolated from the CBD, Cl-amidine, and CBD plus Cl-amidine treated cell culture supernatants, as well as from the control treated cells (DMSO or PBS), by differential centrifugation as follows: First, whole cells were removed by spinning at 200 g /5 min at 4°C.

    Techniques:

    CBD significantly inhibits total EMV, exosome and MV release from MDA-MB-231 cells. Inhibitory effects of CBD alone and in combination with Cl-amidine on extracellular vesicle release from MDA-MB-231 cancer cells are presented as histograms which are based on size exclusion analysis by Nanosight Tracking Analysis (NTA). EMVs represent all vesicles 0–900 nm (A) ; exosomes are vesicles

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: Cannabidiol (CBD) Is a Novel Inhibitor for Exosome and Microvesicle (EMV) Release in Cancer

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.00889

    Figure Lengend Snippet: CBD significantly inhibits total EMV, exosome and MV release from MDA-MB-231 cells. Inhibitory effects of CBD alone and in combination with Cl-amidine on extracellular vesicle release from MDA-MB-231 cancer cells are presented as histograms which are based on size exclusion analysis by Nanosight Tracking Analysis (NTA). EMVs represent all vesicles 0–900 nm (A) ; exosomes are vesicles

    Article Snippet: Isolation of EMVs Exosome and microvesicles were isolated from the CBD, Cl-amidine, and CBD plus Cl-amidine treated cell culture supernatants, as well as from the control treated cells (DMSO or PBS), by differential centrifugation as follows: First, whole cells were removed by spinning at 200 g /5 min at 4°C.

    Techniques: Multiple Displacement Amplification