Journal: Scientific Reports
Article Title: ATP Exhibits Antimicrobial Action by Inhibiting Bacterial Utilization of Ferric Ions
Figure Lengend Snippet: ATP's antimicrobial effect is attributable to its iron-chelating activity. (a) Blocking effects of MgCl 2 and FeCl 3 on ATP's anti- M. intracellulare antimicrobial activity. (b) Anti- M. intracellulare activities of ATP and various metal-chelating agents (pyrophosphate (PPi), EDTA, EGTA) and blocking effects of MgCl 2 . (c) Anti- S. aureus activities of ATP and various metal-chelating agents. (d) Ferric ion-chelating activities of ATP and EDTA measured by CAS assay. (e) Ferric ion-mediated reduction of antimicrobial effects of ATP and EDTA against M. intracellulare . (f) Ferric ion-mediated reduction of antimicrobial effects of ATP and EDTA against P. aeruginosa . (g) Siderophore production by ATP-resistant E. coli during the course of cultivation. (h) Siderophore production by two ATP-resistant K. pneumoniae strains during 48-h cultivation in the presence of ATP. (i) Siderophore production by ATP-susceptible S. aureus and ATP-resistant E. coli during 24-h cultivation in the presence of ATP (5 mM). (j) Siderophore production by ATP-susceptible and ATP-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa during 24-h cultivation.
Article Snippet: Special agents The following agents were used: ATP (Sigma Aldrich Co., St. Louis, MO; MP Biomedicals, Solon, OH, USA, Calbiochem Co., La Jolla, CA, and Roche Diagnostic Co., Indianapolis, IN), ADP (Sigma), AMP (Sigma), adenosine (Sigma), benzoylbenzoyl ATP (Sigma), oxidized ATP (Sigma), suramin (Wako, Tokyo, Japan), MIA (methyl isobutyl amiloride, Wako), DIDS (4,4′- Diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid, Sigma), EDTA (Dojindo, Tokyo, Japan), EGTA (Dojindo), dipyridyl (Sigma), CAS (Chrome Azurol S, Sigma), E. coli S17-1 and pK18mobSacB (kindly provided by Dr. F. Taguchi, Okayama University), Instagene matrix (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA), KOD-Plus (Toyobo, Osaka, Japan), Wizard SV Gel and PCR cleanup system (Promeg, Madison, WI), Ligation High (Toyobo), Protein Assay Rapid Kit (Wako), [14 C] isoleucine (Moravek Biochemicals, Inc, Brea, CA), [14 C]uracil (Moravek Biochemicals, Inc.), α-defensin-1 (Peptide institute, Inc, Osaka, Japan.), cathepsin G (Sigma), vancomycin (Wako), clarithromycin (Taisho-Toyama Pharmaceutical Co., Tokyo), rifampin (Daiichi Sankyo Co., Tokyo), and ethambutol (Sigma), gatifloxacin (Wako), FLUOS (Sigma), LB medium (Invitrogen, San Diego, CA), M9 medium (prepared by our laboratory), Heart infusion agar (Eiken Chemical Co., Tokyo, Japan), Middlebrook 7H9 medium (Becton Dickinson, Cockeysville, MD), and Middlebrook 7H11 medium (Becton Dickinson).
Techniques: Activity Assay, Blocking Assay