e. faecium strains Search Results


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  • 95
    Millipore e faecium l50 14
    E Faecium L50 14, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    89
    ATCC e faecium strains
    PCR-HRMA amplification curves of vancomycin-resistant (VRE) and -sensitive (VSE) E faecalis and E <t>faecium</t> . Amplification curves for VRE ( E faecium ATCC 19434, E faecalis ATCC 51299 and E faecalis ATCC 29212) and the VSE standard strains ( E faecalis NCTC 77 and E faecium NCIMB 2699). Each assay contained 250 pg of bacterial DNA. B fragilis was also included as the reference organism for generating VRE/VSE difference curves. B fragilis amplifies with the same efficiency as the Enterococcus strains. Nuclease-free water was used as a negative control (NC).
    E Faecium Strains, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 23 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    77
    BGI Shenzhen e faecium strain lct ef301
    PCR-HRMA amplification curves of vancomycin-resistant (VRE) and -sensitive (VSE) E faecalis and E <t>faecium</t> . Amplification curves for VRE ( E faecium ATCC 19434, E faecalis ATCC 51299 and E faecalis ATCC 29212) and the VSE standard strains ( E faecalis NCTC 77 and E faecium NCIMB 2699). Each assay contained 250 pg of bacterial DNA. B fragilis was also included as the reference organism for generating VRE/VSE difference curves. B fragilis amplifies with the same efficiency as the Enterococcus strains. Nuclease-free water was used as a negative control (NC).
    E Faecium Strain Lct Ef301, supplied by BGI Shenzhen, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 77/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    77
    DSMZ e faecium dsmz
    Dendrogram showing the similarity among RAPD ‐ PCR patterns of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 T (A), Enterococcus <t>faecium</t> <t>DSMZ</t> 20477T (B), (C) Saccharomyces cerevisiae S441 and Escherichia coli PQ 37 (D) after exposure to toxic compounds tested. Similarities were calculated using UPGMA . Arbitrary threshold 90% was used to identify new adducted biotypes. n.c.: negative control.
    E Faecium Dsmz, supplied by DSMZ, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 77/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    77
    DSM NV probiotic strain e faecium ncimb 10415
    Dendrogram showing the similarity among RAPD ‐ PCR patterns of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 T (A), Enterococcus <t>faecium</t> <t>DSMZ</t> 20477T (B), (C) Saccharomyces cerevisiae S441 and Escherichia coli PQ 37 (D) after exposure to toxic compounds tested. Similarities were calculated using UPGMA . Arbitrary threshold 90% was used to identify new adducted biotypes. n.c.: negative control.
    Probiotic Strain E Faecium Ncimb 10415, supplied by DSM NV, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 77/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    ATCC e faecium do
    PFGE analysis of E. <t>faecium</t> isolates evaluated in this study. Analysis was performed using BioNumerics software. Dendrograms were generated using the unweighted-pair group method using average linkages and band-based Dice similarity coefficients. The optimization parameter for this evaluation was set to 0.5 and band position tolerance to 1.0%. Isolate 5 results are not shown in this figure, but that isolate exhibited a restriction pattern identical to that of isolate 4.
    E Faecium Do, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 25 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    77
    ATCC vancomycin resistant e faecium vre strain atcc 2320
    Photodynamic inactivation studies employing PAN-Por (+) . ( A ) Gram-positive species: methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) ATCC-2913 and the vancomycin-resistant E. <t>faecium</t> (VRE) <t>ATCC-2320</t> strain. ( B ) Gram-negative species: E. coli BL21-(Dε3)pLysS, K. pneumoniae ATCC-2146, and A. baumannii ATCC-19606. For both panels, displayed are the material-free (cells-only) dark control set to 100% (black), as well as the dark control of PAN-Por (+) (maroon) and the illuminated PAN-Por (+) (red) studies, both as the percent survival of the material-free (cells-only) dark control. For all bacteria, the illumination conditions were as follows: 30 min, 400–700 nm, 65 ± 5 mW/cm 2 (total fluence of 118 J/cm 2 ). As the plating technique employed to determine % survival did not allow for detection of survival rates of
    Vancomycin Resistant E Faecium Vre Strain Atcc 2320, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 77/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    95
    ATCC vancomycin resistant e faecium
    Interfacial tension and fluorescence qPCR inhibition of the IE model. ( A ) Protein concentrations of the aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valve sections excised from a porcine heart and ground using a micro–mortar and pestle. The total protein concentration of the tissue model is 1.6 ± 0.1 mg/ml. ( B ) The interfacial tensions (γ) of clean and contaminated PCR mixtures are 25.55 and 27.60 mN/m, respectively. ( C ) Free-body force diagram with the interfacial layer. The forces on the droplet include the interfacial tension force ( F γ ), the buoyancy force ( F B ), the weight of the droplet ( F mg ), and the thermocouple force ( F TC ). ( D ) Fluorescence qPCR amplification curves for 16 S rRNA hypervariable regions V1-V2 and vanA gene from intact vancomycin-resistant E. <t>faecium</t> (VRE) with and without tissue contamination. The C t values for 16 S rRNA V1-V2 without tissue, 16 S rRNA V1-V2 with tissue, vanA without tissue, and vanA with tissue are 28.4, 30.0, 34.0, and 39.4, respectively. The tissue contamination inhibits fluorescence qPCR, as seen by the upward shift of 1.6 cycles for the 16 S rRNA V1-V2 target and 5.4 cycles for the vanA target. Additionally, NTC samples for each primer set are plotted. ( E ) Protein diffusion to the interface is calculated on the basis of typical blood and tissue concentrations, using diffusivities from literature and Fick’s equation. For comparison, the diffusion of Taq polymerase to the interface is also calculated. ( F and G ) The porcine heart from which heart valves were excised, sectioned, inoculated, ground, and used as the PCR target.
    Vancomycin Resistant E Faecium, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 30 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    80
    ATCC vana vancomycin resistant e faecium
    Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of peptidoglycan precursor UDPMurNAc-pp ( 19 ) in <t>VanA</t> VRE ( E. <t>faecium</t> ATCC BAA-2317).
    Vana Vancomycin Resistant E Faecium, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 80/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    76
    Macrogen q d resistant e faecium isolate
    Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of peptidoglycan precursor UDPMurNAc-pp ( 19 ) in <t>VanA</t> VRE ( E. <t>faecium</t> ATCC BAA-2317).
    Q D Resistant E Faecium Isolate, supplied by Macrogen, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 76/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    PCR-HRMA amplification curves of vancomycin-resistant (VRE) and -sensitive (VSE) E faecalis and E faecium . Amplification curves for VRE ( E faecium ATCC 19434, E faecalis ATCC 51299 and E faecalis ATCC 29212) and the VSE standard strains ( E faecalis NCTC 77 and E faecium NCIMB 2699). Each assay contained 250 pg of bacterial DNA. B fragilis was also included as the reference organism for generating VRE/VSE difference curves. B fragilis amplifies with the same efficiency as the Enterococcus strains. Nuclease-free water was used as a negative control (NC).

    Journal: Annals of Saudi Medicine

    Article Title: A novel high-resolution melting analysis approach for rapid detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci

    doi: 10.5144/0256-4947.2018.200

    Figure Lengend Snippet: PCR-HRMA amplification curves of vancomycin-resistant (VRE) and -sensitive (VSE) E faecalis and E faecium . Amplification curves for VRE ( E faecium ATCC 19434, E faecalis ATCC 51299 and E faecalis ATCC 29212) and the VSE standard strains ( E faecalis NCTC 77 and E faecium NCIMB 2699). Each assay contained 250 pg of bacterial DNA. B fragilis was also included as the reference organism for generating VRE/VSE difference curves. B fragilis amplifies with the same efficiency as the Enterococcus strains. Nuclease-free water was used as a negative control (NC).

    Article Snippet: This study was conducted on five reference strains that belong to two groups: vancomycin-resistant E faecalis and E faecium strains (E faecium ATCC 19434 (VRE), E faecalis ATCC 29212 (VRE) and E faecalis ATCC 51299 (VRE)), and vancomycin-sensitive E faecalis and E faecium strains (E faecalis NCTC 77 (VSE), E faecium NCIMB 2699 (VSE)).

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Negative Control

    PCR-HRMA difference plots of VRE and VSE E faecalis and E faecium generated against B fragilis using V1 primer set. Difference curve plots for (A) VSE (NCTC 77, NCIMB 2699) and (B) vanA/B VRE (ATCC 19434, ATCC 51299, ATCC 29212) standard strains of E faecalis and E faecium . Each assay contained 250 pg of bacterial DNA. B fragilis was also included as the reference organism for generating VRE/VSE difference curves (plots). B fragilis amplifies with the same efficiency as the E faecalis and E faecium strains.

    Journal: Annals of Saudi Medicine

    Article Title: A novel high-resolution melting analysis approach for rapid detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci

    doi: 10.5144/0256-4947.2018.200

    Figure Lengend Snippet: PCR-HRMA difference plots of VRE and VSE E faecalis and E faecium generated against B fragilis using V1 primer set. Difference curve plots for (A) VSE (NCTC 77, NCIMB 2699) and (B) vanA/B VRE (ATCC 19434, ATCC 51299, ATCC 29212) standard strains of E faecalis and E faecium . Each assay contained 250 pg of bacterial DNA. B fragilis was also included as the reference organism for generating VRE/VSE difference curves (plots). B fragilis amplifies with the same efficiency as the E faecalis and E faecium strains.

    Article Snippet: This study was conducted on five reference strains that belong to two groups: vancomycin-resistant E faecalis and E faecium strains (E faecium ATCC 19434 (VRE), E faecalis ATCC 29212 (VRE) and E faecalis ATCC 51299 (VRE)), and vancomycin-sensitive E faecalis and E faecium strains (E faecalis NCTC 77 (VSE), E faecium NCIMB 2699 (VSE)).

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Generated

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of genomic DNA of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from commercially available swine ( n = 9) and cattle ( n = 13) probiotics.

    Journal: Journal of Animal Science

    Article Title: Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from commercial probiotic products used in cattle and swine strains isolated from commercial probiotic products used in cattle and swine

    doi: 10.1093/jas/sky056

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of genomic DNA of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from commercially available swine ( n = 9) and cattle ( n = 13) probiotics.

    Article Snippet: The DNA was isolated by suspending a single colony in nuclease-free water with 5% Chelex 100 resin (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) and boiled for 10 min. An ATCC strain of E. faecium (ATCC 19434; American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA) was used as a positive control in the assay.

    Techniques: Pulsed-Field Gel, Electrophoresis, Isolation

    Dendrogram showing the similarity among RAPD ‐ PCR patterns of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 T (A), Enterococcus faecium DSMZ 20477T (B), (C) Saccharomyces cerevisiae S441 and Escherichia coli PQ 37 (D) after exposure to toxic compounds tested. Similarities were calculated using UPGMA . Arbitrary threshold 90% was used to identify new adducted biotypes. n.c.: negative control.

    Journal: Microbial Biotechnology

    Article Title: Food borne bacterial models for detection of benzo[a]pyrene‐ DNA adducts formation using RAPD‐ PCR

    doi: 10.1111/1751-7915.12355

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dendrogram showing the similarity among RAPD ‐ PCR patterns of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 T (A), Enterococcus faecium DSMZ 20477T (B), (C) Saccharomyces cerevisiae S441 and Escherichia coli PQ 37 (D) after exposure to toxic compounds tested. Similarities were calculated using UPGMA . Arbitrary threshold 90% was used to identify new adducted biotypes. n.c.: negative control.

    Article Snippet: Bacterial and yeast strains and growth conditions The strains used in this study were E. faecium DSMZ (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen) 20477T, L. plantarum ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) 14917T, E. coli PQ37 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae S441, belonging to the Culture Collection of Faculty of BioScience and Technology for Food, Agriculture and Environment (University of Teramo, Italy) and isolated from Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine producing area in Central Italy where the wine is produced based on spontaneous fermentation and without any commercial enzyme preparations.

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Negative Control

    PFGE analysis of E. faecium isolates evaluated in this study. Analysis was performed using BioNumerics software. Dendrograms were generated using the unweighted-pair group method using average linkages and band-based Dice similarity coefficients. The optimization parameter for this evaluation was set to 0.5 and band position tolerance to 1.0%. Isolate 5 results are not shown in this figure, but that isolate exhibited a restriction pattern identical to that of isolate 4.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Mechanisms of Resistance to Daptomycin in Enterococcus faecium ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00774-07

    Figure Lengend Snippet: PFGE analysis of E. faecium isolates evaluated in this study. Analysis was performed using BioNumerics software. Dendrograms were generated using the unweighted-pair group method using average linkages and band-based Dice similarity coefficients. The optimization parameter for this evaluation was set to 0.5 and band position tolerance to 1.0%. Isolate 5 results are not shown in this figure, but that isolate exhibited a restriction pattern identical to that of isolate 4.

    Article Snippet: Sequences from these two strains were identical to each other and to the genome sequence of E. faecium DO (ATCC BAA-472), suggesting an alternative resistance mechanism.

    Techniques: Software, Generated

    Diameter of zone of inhibition as a function of incubation time with different E. faecium strains. No significant difference was observed between the strains tested and the control solution with daptomycin and tryptic soy broth. For isolate 1, the daptomycin MIC was 4 μg/ml; for isolate 8, the MIC was 16 μg/ml; and for E. faecium ATCC 35667, the MIC was 1 μg/ml).

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Mechanisms of Resistance to Daptomycin in Enterococcus faecium ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00774-07

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Diameter of zone of inhibition as a function of incubation time with different E. faecium strains. No significant difference was observed between the strains tested and the control solution with daptomycin and tryptic soy broth. For isolate 1, the daptomycin MIC was 4 μg/ml; for isolate 8, the MIC was 16 μg/ml; and for E. faecium ATCC 35667, the MIC was 1 μg/ml).

    Article Snippet: Sequences from these two strains were identical to each other and to the genome sequence of E. faecium DO (ATCC BAA-472), suggesting an alternative resistance mechanism.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Incubation

    Photodynamic inactivation studies employing PAN-Por (+) . ( A ) Gram-positive species: methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) ATCC-2913 and the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) ATCC-2320 strain. ( B ) Gram-negative species: E. coli BL21-(Dε3)pLysS, K. pneumoniae ATCC-2146, and A. baumannii ATCC-19606. For both panels, displayed are the material-free (cells-only) dark control set to 100% (black), as well as the dark control of PAN-Por (+) (maroon) and the illuminated PAN-Por (+) (red) studies, both as the percent survival of the material-free (cells-only) dark control. For all bacteria, the illumination conditions were as follows: 30 min, 400–700 nm, 65 ± 5 mW/cm 2 (total fluence of 118 J/cm 2 ). As the plating technique employed to determine % survival did not allow for detection of survival rates of

    Journal: Nanomaterials

    Article Title: Photosensitizer-Embedded Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers as Antimicrobial Non-Woven Textile

    doi: 10.3390/nano6040077

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Photodynamic inactivation studies employing PAN-Por (+) . ( A ) Gram-positive species: methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) ATCC-2913 and the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) ATCC-2320 strain. ( B ) Gram-negative species: E. coli BL21-(Dε3)pLysS, K. pneumoniae ATCC-2146, and A. baumannii ATCC-19606. For both panels, displayed are the material-free (cells-only) dark control set to 100% (black), as well as the dark control of PAN-Por (+) (maroon) and the illuminated PAN-Por (+) (red) studies, both as the percent survival of the material-free (cells-only) dark control. For all bacteria, the illumination conditions were as follows: 30 min, 400–700 nm, 65 ± 5 mW/cm 2 (total fluence of 118 J/cm 2 ). As the plating technique employed to determine % survival did not allow for detection of survival rates of

    Article Snippet: The two Gram-positive bacteria, S. aureus ATCC-2913 and the vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) strain ATCC-2320, were found to be highly susceptible to photodynamic inactivation with PAN-Por(+) : upon illumination, S. aureus was fully inactivated to the detection limit ( > 99.9999+%, 6 log units, p < 0.005; A, red), and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (ATCC-2320) was inactivated by 99.9998% (~5.9 log units, p < 0.005; A, red).

    Techniques:

    Interfacial tension and fluorescence qPCR inhibition of the IE model. ( A ) Protein concentrations of the aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valve sections excised from a porcine heart and ground using a micro–mortar and pestle. The total protein concentration of the tissue model is 1.6 ± 0.1 mg/ml. ( B ) The interfacial tensions (γ) of clean and contaminated PCR mixtures are 25.55 and 27.60 mN/m, respectively. ( C ) Free-body force diagram with the interfacial layer. The forces on the droplet include the interfacial tension force ( F γ ), the buoyancy force ( F B ), the weight of the droplet ( F mg ), and the thermocouple force ( F TC ). ( D ) Fluorescence qPCR amplification curves for 16 S rRNA hypervariable regions V1-V2 and vanA gene from intact vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) with and without tissue contamination. The C t values for 16 S rRNA V1-V2 without tissue, 16 S rRNA V1-V2 with tissue, vanA without tissue, and vanA with tissue are 28.4, 30.0, 34.0, and 39.4, respectively. The tissue contamination inhibits fluorescence qPCR, as seen by the upward shift of 1.6 cycles for the 16 S rRNA V1-V2 target and 5.4 cycles for the vanA target. Additionally, NTC samples for each primer set are plotted. ( E ) Protein diffusion to the interface is calculated on the basis of typical blood and tissue concentrations, using diffusivities from literature and Fick’s equation. For comparison, the diffusion of Taq polymerase to the interface is also calculated. ( F and G ) The porcine heart from which heart valves were excised, sectioned, inoculated, ground, and used as the PCR target.

    Journal: Science Advances

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief

    doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1400061

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Interfacial tension and fluorescence qPCR inhibition of the IE model. ( A ) Protein concentrations of the aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valve sections excised from a porcine heart and ground using a micro–mortar and pestle. The total protein concentration of the tissue model is 1.6 ± 0.1 mg/ml. ( B ) The interfacial tensions (γ) of clean and contaminated PCR mixtures are 25.55 and 27.60 mN/m, respectively. ( C ) Free-body force diagram with the interfacial layer. The forces on the droplet include the interfacial tension force ( F γ ), the buoyancy force ( F B ), the weight of the droplet ( F mg ), and the thermocouple force ( F TC ). ( D ) Fluorescence qPCR amplification curves for 16 S rRNA hypervariable regions V1-V2 and vanA gene from intact vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) with and without tissue contamination. The C t values for 16 S rRNA V1-V2 without tissue, 16 S rRNA V1-V2 with tissue, vanA without tissue, and vanA with tissue are 28.4, 30.0, 34.0, and 39.4, respectively. The tissue contamination inhibits fluorescence qPCR, as seen by the upward shift of 1.6 cycles for the 16 S rRNA V1-V2 target and 5.4 cycles for the vanA target. Additionally, NTC samples for each primer set are plotted. ( E ) Protein diffusion to the interface is calculated on the basis of typical blood and tissue concentrations, using diffusivities from literature and Fick’s equation. For comparison, the diffusion of Taq polymerase to the interface is also calculated. ( F and G ) The porcine heart from which heart valves were excised, sectioned, inoculated, ground, and used as the PCR target.

    Article Snippet: Vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE, ATCC 33186) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, Enterococcus ATCC 700221) were propagated, according to the procedure outlined in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) product sheet, to 108 CFU/ml, pelleted by centrifugation at 6000g for 10 min, resuspended in 100 μl of molecular grade water, and heat-killed at 95°C for 15 min. Purified K. pneumoniae strain Z026 genomic DNA was purchased from ZeptoMetrix.

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Inhibition, Protein Concentration, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Diffusion-based Assay

    Specificity, limit of detection, and speed of DOT thermocycling. ( A ) Gel electropherogram showing the differentiation of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) and vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE) by multiplexed amplification of the 377-bp vanA amplicon directly from bacterial culture. Simultaneous thermocycling was achieved by mounting three droplets on different thermocouples on the same motor arm. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, VRE; lane 3, VSE; lane 4, NTC; lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder. ( B ) Gel electropherogram showing the limit of detection at the sub-picogram level by amplification of the 196-bp 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon from 0.7 pg of K. pneumoniae genomic DNA (equivalent to 1.4 × 10 2 genomic copies) at a speed of 48 s/cycle. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, 0.7-pg genomic DNA. ( C ) Gel electropherogram showing rapid amplification of the 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon and vanA amplicon in the presence of tissue contaminants in 30 cycles. Lane 1, vanA amplified at 40 s/cycle (20 min) from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue (V3 amplified from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue); lane 2, at 40 s/cycle (20 min); lane 3, at 32 s/cycle (16 min); lane 4, at 28 s/cycle (14 min); lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder (see Fig. 2D for V3 NTC results).

    Journal: Science Advances

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief

    doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1400061

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Specificity, limit of detection, and speed of DOT thermocycling. ( A ) Gel electropherogram showing the differentiation of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) and vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE) by multiplexed amplification of the 377-bp vanA amplicon directly from bacterial culture. Simultaneous thermocycling was achieved by mounting three droplets on different thermocouples on the same motor arm. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, VRE; lane 3, VSE; lane 4, NTC; lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder. ( B ) Gel electropherogram showing the limit of detection at the sub-picogram level by amplification of the 196-bp 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon from 0.7 pg of K. pneumoniae genomic DNA (equivalent to 1.4 × 10 2 genomic copies) at a speed of 48 s/cycle. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, 0.7-pg genomic DNA. ( C ) Gel electropherogram showing rapid amplification of the 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon and vanA amplicon in the presence of tissue contaminants in 30 cycles. Lane 1, vanA amplified at 40 s/cycle (20 min) from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue (V3 amplified from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue); lane 2, at 40 s/cycle (20 min); lane 3, at 32 s/cycle (16 min); lane 4, at 28 s/cycle (14 min); lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder (see Fig. 2D for V3 NTC results).

    Article Snippet: Vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE, ATCC 33186) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, Enterococcus ATCC 700221) were propagated, according to the procedure outlined in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) product sheet, to 108 CFU/ml, pelleted by centrifugation at 6000g for 10 min, resuspended in 100 μl of molecular grade water, and heat-killed at 95°C for 15 min. Purified K. pneumoniae strain Z026 genomic DNA was purchased from ZeptoMetrix.

    Techniques: Amplification

    Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of peptidoglycan precursor UDPMurNAc-pp ( 19 ) in VanA VRE ( E. faecium ATCC BAA-2317).

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Peripheral modifications of [Ψ[CH2NH]Tpg4]vancomycin with added synergistic mechanisms of action provide durable and potent antibiotics

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1704125114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of peptidoglycan precursor UDPMurNAc-pp ( 19 ) in VanA VRE ( E. faecium ATCC BAA-2317).

    Article Snippet: Compound 18 also failed to produce bacterial cell membrane depolarization in the same VanA vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (ATCC BAA-2317) as measured by fluorescence of a released membrane imbedded dye (DiSC3 5,3,3′-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine iodide) ( ) ( ).

    Techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Examination of cell wall permeability induced by compounds 9 − 13 (10 μM added at 5 min) in VanA VRE ( E. faecium ATCC BAA-2317).

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Peripheral modifications of [Ψ[CH2NH]Tpg4]vancomycin with added synergistic mechanisms of action provide durable and potent antibiotics

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1704125114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Examination of cell wall permeability induced by compounds 9 − 13 (10 μM added at 5 min) in VanA VRE ( E. faecium ATCC BAA-2317).

    Article Snippet: Compound 18 also failed to produce bacterial cell membrane depolarization in the same VanA vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (ATCC BAA-2317) as measured by fluorescence of a released membrane imbedded dye (DiSC3 5,3,3′-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine iodide) ( ) ( ).

    Techniques: Permeability

    Examination of cell wall permeability induced by compounds 14 − 18 (10 μM added at 5 min) in VanA VRE ( E. faecium ATCC BAA-2317).

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Peripheral modifications of [Ψ[CH2NH]Tpg4]vancomycin with added synergistic mechanisms of action provide durable and potent antibiotics

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1704125114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Examination of cell wall permeability induced by compounds 14 − 18 (10 μM added at 5 min) in VanA VRE ( E. faecium ATCC BAA-2317).

    Article Snippet: Compound 18 also failed to produce bacterial cell membrane depolarization in the same VanA vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (ATCC BAA-2317) as measured by fluorescence of a released membrane imbedded dye (DiSC3 5,3,3′-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine iodide) ( ) ( ).

    Techniques: Permeability