e. faecium strains Search Results


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  • 99
    ATCC e faecium strains
    PCR-HRMA difference plots of VRE and VSE E faecalis and E <t>faecium</t> generated against B fragilis using V1 primer set. Difference curve plots for (A) VSE (NCTC 77, NCIMB 2699) and (B) vanA/B VRE (ATCC 19434, ATCC 51299, ATCC 29212) standard strains of E faecalis and E faecium . Each assay contained 250 pg of bacterial DNA. B fragilis was also included as the reference organism for generating VRE/VSE difference curves (plots). B fragilis amplifies with the same efficiency as the E faecalis and E faecium strains.
    E Faecium Strains, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 31 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore e faecium l50 14
    PCR-HRMA difference plots of VRE and VSE E faecalis and E <t>faecium</t> generated against B fragilis using V1 primer set. Difference curve plots for (A) VSE (NCTC 77, NCIMB 2699) and (B) vanA/B VRE (ATCC 19434, ATCC 51299, ATCC 29212) standard strains of E faecalis and E faecium . Each assay contained 250 pg of bacterial DNA. B fragilis was also included as the reference organism for generating VRE/VSE difference curves (plots). B fragilis amplifies with the same efficiency as the E faecalis and E faecium strains.
    E Faecium L50 14, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e faecium strains atcc 700221
    a 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Lactococcus lactis isolates S2 and S6 with the sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactic ATCC 19435 (upper and middle panels) and with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 (lower panel) (nucleotide differences are highlighted). b 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Enterococcus <t>faecium</t> isolate S11 with the sequence of Enterococcus faecium type strains ATCC 700221, ATCC 19434, CECT 410 T and DSM 20477 (nucleotide differences are highlighted)
    E Faecium Strains Atcc 700221, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 39 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e faecium strains ge 1
    a 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Lactococcus lactis isolates S2 and S6 with the sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactic ATCC 19435 (upper and middle panels) and with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 (lower panel) (nucleotide differences are highlighted). b 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Enterococcus <t>faecium</t> isolate S11 with the sequence of Enterococcus faecium type strains ATCC 700221, ATCC 19434, CECT 410 T and DSM 20477 (nucleotide differences are highlighted)
    E Faecium Strains Ge 1, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    BEI Resources e faecium strain 513
    a 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Lactococcus lactis isolates S2 and S6 with the sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactic ATCC 19435 (upper and middle panels) and with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 (lower panel) (nucleotide differences are highlighted). b 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Enterococcus <t>faecium</t> isolate S11 with the sequence of Enterococcus faecium type strains ATCC 700221, ATCC 19434, CECT 410 T and DSM 20477 (nucleotide differences are highlighted)
    E Faecium Strain 513, supplied by BEI Resources, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    BGI Shenzhen e faecium strain lct ef301
    a 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Lactococcus lactis isolates S2 and S6 with the sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactic ATCC 19435 (upper and middle panels) and with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 (lower panel) (nucleotide differences are highlighted). b 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Enterococcus <t>faecium</t> isolate S11 with the sequence of Enterococcus faecium type strains ATCC 700221, ATCC 19434, CECT 410 T and DSM 20477 (nucleotide differences are highlighted)
    E Faecium Strain Lct Ef301, supplied by BGI Shenzhen, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Roche probiotic strain e faecium ncimb 10415
    a 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Lactococcus lactis isolates S2 and S6 with the sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactic ATCC 19435 (upper and middle panels) and with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 (lower panel) (nucleotide differences are highlighted). b 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Enterococcus <t>faecium</t> isolate S11 with the sequence of Enterococcus faecium type strains ATCC 700221, ATCC 19434, CECT 410 T and DSM 20477 (nucleotide differences are highlighted)
    Probiotic Strain E Faecium Ncimb 10415, supplied by Roche, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 84/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    DSM NV probiotic strain e faecium ncimb 10415
    a 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Lactococcus lactis isolates S2 and S6 with the sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactic ATCC 19435 (upper and middle panels) and with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 (lower panel) (nucleotide differences are highlighted). b 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Enterococcus <t>faecium</t> isolate S11 with the sequence of Enterococcus faecium type strains ATCC 700221, ATCC 19434, CECT 410 T and DSM 20477 (nucleotide differences are highlighted)
    Probiotic Strain E Faecium Ncimb 10415, supplied by DSM NV, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    ATCC e faecium atcc 35667 strains
    Assessment of metabolic activity of biofilm cells by resazurin. Quantification of biofilm production of six bacterial strains, using three concentrations of resazurin solution (2, 4 and 8 μg/mL): ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus <t>faecium</t> ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, ( F ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated at 25 °C and 37 °C. Relative fluorescence measurements were taken at 20, 40, 60 and 80 min
    E Faecium Atcc 35667 Strains, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e faecium atcc 27270 strains
    Assessment of metabolic activity of biofilm cells by resazurin. Quantification of biofilm production of six bacterial strains, using three concentrations of resazurin solution (2, 4 and 8 μg/mL): ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus <t>faecium</t> ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, ( F ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated at 25 °C and 37 °C. Relative fluorescence measurements were taken at 20, 40, 60 and 80 min
    E Faecium Atcc 27270 Strains, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e faecium atcc 51559 strains
    Agarose gel electrophoresis of amplified <t>vanA</t> , vanB , vanC1 , vanC2 , E. faecalis -specific, E. <t>faecium</t> -specific, and rrs genes by the optimized multiplex PCR assay containing seven primer sets. Lanes: M, 100-bp DNA ladder (New England Biolabs); 1, an E. faecalis vanA isolate; 2, an E. faecalis vanB isolate; 3, an E. faecium vanA isolate; 4, an E. faecium vanB isolate; 5, an E. gallinarum vanC1 isolate; 6, an E. casseliflavus vanC2 isolate; 7, a Pediococcus isolate; 8, a Leuconostoc isolate.
    E Faecium Atcc 51559 Strains, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC antibiotic susceptible e faecium strain atcc 49624
    Agarose gel electrophoresis of amplified <t>vanA</t> , vanB , vanC1 , vanC2 , E. faecalis -specific, E. <t>faecium</t> -specific, and rrs genes by the optimized multiplex PCR assay containing seven primer sets. Lanes: M, 100-bp DNA ladder (New England Biolabs); 1, an E. faecalis vanA isolate; 2, an E. faecalis vanB isolate; 3, an E. faecium vanA isolate; 4, an E. faecium vanB isolate; 5, an E. gallinarum vanC1 isolate; 6, an E. casseliflavus vanC2 isolate; 7, a Pediococcus isolate; 8, a Leuconostoc isolate.
    Antibiotic Susceptible E Faecium Strain Atcc 49624, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 12 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC vancomycin susceptible e faecium vse strain atcc 19950
    Agarose gel electrophoresis of amplified <t>vanA</t> , vanB , vanC1 , vanC2 , E. faecalis -specific, E. <t>faecium</t> -specific, and rrs genes by the optimized multiplex PCR assay containing seven primer sets. Lanes: M, 100-bp DNA ladder (New England Biolabs); 1, an E. faecalis vanA isolate; 2, an E. faecalis vanB isolate; 3, an E. faecium vanA isolate; 4, an E. faecium vanB isolate; 5, an E. gallinarum vanC1 isolate; 6, an E. casseliflavus vanC2 isolate; 7, a Pediococcus isolate; 8, a Leuconostoc isolate.
    Vancomycin Susceptible E Faecium Vse Strain Atcc 19950, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 97/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    90
    DSMZ e faecium dsmz
    Dendrogram showing the similarity among RAPD ‐ PCR patterns of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 T (A), Enterococcus <t>faecium</t> <t>DSMZ</t> 20477T (B), (C) Saccharomyces cerevisiae S441 and Escherichia coli PQ 37 (D) after exposure to toxic compounds tested. Similarities were calculated using UPGMA . Arbitrary threshold 90% was used to identify new adducted biotypes. n.c.: negative control.
    E Faecium Dsmz, supplied by DSMZ, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Macrogen q d resistant e faecium isolate
    Dendrogram showing the similarity among RAPD ‐ PCR patterns of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 T (A), Enterococcus <t>faecium</t> <t>DSMZ</t> 20477T (B), (C) Saccharomyces cerevisiae S441 and Escherichia coli PQ 37 (D) after exposure to toxic compounds tested. Similarities were calculated using UPGMA . Arbitrary threshold 90% was used to identify new adducted biotypes. n.c.: negative control.
    Q D Resistant E Faecium Isolate, supplied by Macrogen, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 84/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC enterococcal strains
    Dendrogram showing the similarity among RAPD ‐ PCR patterns of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 T (A), Enterococcus <t>faecium</t> <t>DSMZ</t> 20477T (B), (C) Saccharomyces cerevisiae S441 and Escherichia coli PQ 37 (D) after exposure to toxic compounds tested. Similarities were calculated using UPGMA . Arbitrary threshold 90% was used to identify new adducted biotypes. n.c.: negative control.
    Enterococcal Strains, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 18 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e faecium baa 2316
    Dendrogram showing the similarity among RAPD ‐ PCR patterns of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 T (A), Enterococcus <t>faecium</t> <t>DSMZ</t> 20477T (B), (C) Saccharomyces cerevisiae S441 and Escherichia coli PQ 37 (D) after exposure to toxic compounds tested. Similarities were calculated using UPGMA . Arbitrary threshold 90% was used to identify new adducted biotypes. n.c.: negative control.
    E Faecium Baa 2316, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC vancomycin resistant strains
    Bacterial reduction ( BR ) vs. time of the Cu plate, Al plate and Cu-dotted oxide coating tested with (a) E. coli ATCC 25922, (b) MRSA ATCC 43300 and (c) E. <t>faecium</t> <t>ATCC</t> 51299 . The oxide coatings without Cu were also included in (b) and (c).
    Vancomycin Resistant Strains, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 10 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e faecium do
    PFGE analysis of E. <t>faecium</t> isolates evaluated in this study. Analysis was performed using BioNumerics software. Dendrograms were generated using the unweighted-pair group method using average linkages and band-based Dice similarity coefficients. The optimization parameter for this evaluation was set to 0.5 and band position tolerance to 1.0%. Isolate 5 results are not shown in this figure, but that isolate exhibited a restriction pattern identical to that of isolate 4.
    E Faecium Do, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 25 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e faecium atcc 49032
    PFGE analysis of E. <t>faecium</t> isolates evaluated in this study. Analysis was performed using BioNumerics software. Dendrograms were generated using the unweighted-pair group method using average linkages and band-based Dice similarity coefficients. The optimization parameter for this evaluation was set to 0.5 and band position tolerance to 1.0%. Isolate 5 results are not shown in this figure, but that isolate exhibited a restriction pattern identical to that of isolate 4.
    E Faecium Atcc 49032, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC e faecium atcc 19433
    PFGE analysis of E. <t>faecium</t> isolates evaluated in this study. Analysis was performed using BioNumerics software. Dendrograms were generated using the unweighted-pair group method using average linkages and band-based Dice similarity coefficients. The optimization parameter for this evaluation was set to 0.5 and band position tolerance to 1.0%. Isolate 5 results are not shown in this figure, but that isolate exhibited a restriction pattern identical to that of isolate 4.
    E Faecium Atcc 19433, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 17 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC vana vancomycin resistant e faecium
    Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of peptidoglycan precursor UDPMurNAc-pp ( 19 ) in <t>VanA</t> VRE ( E. <t>faecium</t> ATCC BAA-2317).
    Vana Vancomycin Resistant E Faecium, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC vancomycin susceptible strains
    Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of peptidoglycan precursor UDPMurNAc-pp ( 19 ) in <t>VanA</t> VRE ( E. <t>faecium</t> ATCC BAA-2317).
    Vancomycin Susceptible Strains, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    ATCC gram positive bacteria
    Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of peptidoglycan precursor UDPMurNAc-pp ( 19 ) in <t>VanA</t> VRE ( E. <t>faecium</t> ATCC BAA-2317).
    Gram Positive Bacteria, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1518 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    PCR-HRMA difference plots of VRE and VSE E faecalis and E faecium generated against B fragilis using V1 primer set. Difference curve plots for (A) VSE (NCTC 77, NCIMB 2699) and (B) vanA/B VRE (ATCC 19434, ATCC 51299, ATCC 29212) standard strains of E faecalis and E faecium . Each assay contained 250 pg of bacterial DNA. B fragilis was also included as the reference organism for generating VRE/VSE difference curves (plots). B fragilis amplifies with the same efficiency as the E faecalis and E faecium strains.

    Journal: Annals of Saudi Medicine

    Article Title: A novel high-resolution melting analysis approach for rapid detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci

    doi: 10.5144/0256-4947.2018.200

    Figure Lengend Snippet: PCR-HRMA difference plots of VRE and VSE E faecalis and E faecium generated against B fragilis using V1 primer set. Difference curve plots for (A) VSE (NCTC 77, NCIMB 2699) and (B) vanA/B VRE (ATCC 19434, ATCC 51299, ATCC 29212) standard strains of E faecalis and E faecium . Each assay contained 250 pg of bacterial DNA. B fragilis was also included as the reference organism for generating VRE/VSE difference curves (plots). B fragilis amplifies with the same efficiency as the E faecalis and E faecium strains.

    Article Snippet: This study was conducted on five reference strains that belong to two groups: vancomycin-resistant E faecalis and E faecium strains ( E faecium ATCC 19434 (VRE), E faecalis ATCC 29212 (VRE) and E faecalis ATCC 51299 (VRE)), and vancomycin-sensitive E faecalis and E faecium strains ( E faecalis NCTC 77 (VSE), E faecium NCIMB 2699 (VSE)).

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Generated

    PCR-HRMA amplification curves of vancomycin-resistant (VRE) and -sensitive (VSE) E faecalis and E faecium . Amplification curves for VRE ( E faecium ATCC 19434, E faecalis ATCC 51299 and E faecalis ATCC 29212) and the VSE standard strains ( E faecalis NCTC 77 and E faecium NCIMB 2699). Each assay contained 250 pg of bacterial DNA. B fragilis was also included as the reference organism for generating VRE/VSE difference curves. B fragilis amplifies with the same efficiency as the Enterococcus strains. Nuclease-free water was used as a negative control (NC).

    Journal: Annals of Saudi Medicine

    Article Title: A novel high-resolution melting analysis approach for rapid detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci

    doi: 10.5144/0256-4947.2018.200

    Figure Lengend Snippet: PCR-HRMA amplification curves of vancomycin-resistant (VRE) and -sensitive (VSE) E faecalis and E faecium . Amplification curves for VRE ( E faecium ATCC 19434, E faecalis ATCC 51299 and E faecalis ATCC 29212) and the VSE standard strains ( E faecalis NCTC 77 and E faecium NCIMB 2699). Each assay contained 250 pg of bacterial DNA. B fragilis was also included as the reference organism for generating VRE/VSE difference curves. B fragilis amplifies with the same efficiency as the Enterococcus strains. Nuclease-free water was used as a negative control (NC).

    Article Snippet: This study was conducted on five reference strains that belong to two groups: vancomycin-resistant E faecalis and E faecium strains ( E faecium ATCC 19434 (VRE), E faecalis ATCC 29212 (VRE) and E faecalis ATCC 51299 (VRE)), and vancomycin-sensitive E faecalis and E faecium strains ( E faecalis NCTC 77 (VSE), E faecium NCIMB 2699 (VSE)).

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Negative Control

    E. faecium in the gut causes colitis in Il10 −/− mice. Fecal transplantation from selected subjects (HD55 and IBD36) and inoculation of E. faecium strain ATCC 19434 was performed in microbiota-depleted Il10 −/− mice. The control group was treated with antibiotics (VCM/DRPM) in the absence of transplantation. a Changes in body weight (%) throughout the course of the experiment and b on day 28. c Representative histological sections of the murine colon at the time of euthanasia. Bars, 100 μm. d Mean pathology scores for each group of mice. †, average pathology score of 0. e mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon as analyzed by real-time PCR. Values shown in a , b , d , and e are the mean ± SE. Statistical differences between two values were analyzed using a Mann-Whitney U test. * P

    Journal: Genome Biology

    Article Title: Gut-derived Enterococcus faecium from ulcerative colitis patients promotes colitis in a genetically susceptible mouse host

    doi: 10.1186/s13059-019-1879-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: E. faecium in the gut causes colitis in Il10 −/− mice. Fecal transplantation from selected subjects (HD55 and IBD36) and inoculation of E. faecium strain ATCC 19434 was performed in microbiota-depleted Il10 −/− mice. The control group was treated with antibiotics (VCM/DRPM) in the absence of transplantation. a Changes in body weight (%) throughout the course of the experiment and b on day 28. c Representative histological sections of the murine colon at the time of euthanasia. Bars, 100 μm. d Mean pathology scores for each group of mice. †, average pathology score of 0. e mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon as analyzed by real-time PCR. Values shown in a , b , d , and e are the mean ± SE. Statistical differences between two values were analyzed using a Mann-Whitney U test. * P

    Article Snippet: Unlike isolates derived from healthy donors, E. faecium isolates from the feces of UC patients, along with E. faecium strain ATCC 19434, promotes colitis and colonic cytokine expression.

    Techniques: Mouse Assay, Transplantation Assay, Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, MANN-WHITNEY

    Genome analysis of 10 E. faecium strains reveals inflammatory and probiotic clusters. a Three (HD26a, HD50a, and HD59a) and 4 (IB6a, IB18a, IB44a, and IB50a) E. faecium strains were isolated from the feces of HD subjects and UC patients, respectively. The genotypes of 10 E. faecium strains, including the 3 HD-derived and 4 UC-derived strains, inflammatory strain ATCC 19434, and probiotic strains NCIMB 11181 and SF68, were examined by sequencing. All 1683 identified genes (except for those coding for hypothetical proteins) were used for hierarchical clustering analysis of the 10 E. faecium strains. b LDA was performed using LEfSe to identify significant differences in KEGG-based metabolic pathways in the genomes of the 10 strains to compare between the inflammatory cluster in which ATCC 19434 was included and the probiotic cluster in which NCIMB 11181 and SF68 were included. Differentially abundant pathways for which the corresponding LDA scores indicate P

    Journal: Genome Biology

    Article Title: Gut-derived Enterococcus faecium from ulcerative colitis patients promotes colitis in a genetically susceptible mouse host

    doi: 10.1186/s13059-019-1879-9

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Genome analysis of 10 E. faecium strains reveals inflammatory and probiotic clusters. a Three (HD26a, HD50a, and HD59a) and 4 (IB6a, IB18a, IB44a, and IB50a) E. faecium strains were isolated from the feces of HD subjects and UC patients, respectively. The genotypes of 10 E. faecium strains, including the 3 HD-derived and 4 UC-derived strains, inflammatory strain ATCC 19434, and probiotic strains NCIMB 11181 and SF68, were examined by sequencing. All 1683 identified genes (except for those coding for hypothetical proteins) were used for hierarchical clustering analysis of the 10 E. faecium strains. b LDA was performed using LEfSe to identify significant differences in KEGG-based metabolic pathways in the genomes of the 10 strains to compare between the inflammatory cluster in which ATCC 19434 was included and the probiotic cluster in which NCIMB 11181 and SF68 were included. Differentially abundant pathways for which the corresponding LDA scores indicate P

    Article Snippet: Unlike isolates derived from healthy donors, E. faecium isolates from the feces of UC patients, along with E. faecium strain ATCC 19434, promotes colitis and colonic cytokine expression.

    Techniques: Isolation, Derivative Assay, Sequencing

    (a) Representative comparison of the average spectra of the vanB -positive E. faecium isolates (green) and the vanB -negative E. faecium isolates (isolates phenotypically suspected of being VRE yet PCR negative and control strain ATCC 19434) (red) between 5,916 Da and 6072 Da; (b) corresponding gel view representation (gray-scale color scheme) of the same region. vanB -positive E. faecium isolates (bottom) and vanB -negative E. faecium isolates (isolates phenotypically suspected of being VRE yet PCR negative and control strain ATCC 19434) (top). The peak with a mass of 5,945 Da is peak 28 used in the classification model. arb. u., arbitrary units; Sp. #, spectrum number.

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    Article Title: Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry To Identify Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci and Investigate the Epidemiology of an Outbreak

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.01000-12

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a) Representative comparison of the average spectra of the vanB -positive E. faecium isolates (green) and the vanB -negative E. faecium isolates (isolates phenotypically suspected of being VRE yet PCR negative and control strain ATCC 19434) (red) between 5,916 Da and 6072 Da; (b) corresponding gel view representation (gray-scale color scheme) of the same region. vanB -positive E. faecium isolates (bottom) and vanB -negative E. faecium isolates (isolates phenotypically suspected of being VRE yet PCR negative and control strain ATCC 19434) (top). The peak with a mass of 5,945 Da is peak 28 used in the classification model. arb. u., arbitrary units; Sp. #, spectrum number.

    Article Snippet: The VRE-negative E. faecium control strain ATCC 19434 was identified as Enterococcus faecium 11037_CHB 10 out of 11 times analyzed (91%) and as Enterococcus faecium 20218_1 CHB once (9%), with an average score of 2.40.

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction

    (a) Representative comparison of the average spectra of the vanB -positive E. faecium isolates (green) and the vanB -negative E. faecium isolates (isolates phenotypically suspected of being VRE yet PCR negative and control strain ATCC 19434) (red) between 2,160 Da and 2,720 Da; (b) corresponding gel view representation (rainbow-scale color scheme) of the same region. The peak with a mass of 2,211 Da is peak 2 used in the classification model. arb. u., arbitrary units; Sp. #, spectrum number.

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    Article Title: Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry To Identify Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci and Investigate the Epidemiology of an Outbreak

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.01000-12

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a) Representative comparison of the average spectra of the vanB -positive E. faecium isolates (green) and the vanB -negative E. faecium isolates (isolates phenotypically suspected of being VRE yet PCR negative and control strain ATCC 19434) (red) between 2,160 Da and 2,720 Da; (b) corresponding gel view representation (rainbow-scale color scheme) of the same region. The peak with a mass of 2,211 Da is peak 2 used in the classification model. arb. u., arbitrary units; Sp. #, spectrum number.

    Article Snippet: The VRE-negative E. faecium control strain ATCC 19434 was identified as Enterococcus faecium 11037_CHB 10 out of 11 times analyzed (91%) and as Enterococcus faecium 20218_1 CHB once (9%), with an average score of 2.40.

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction

    (a) Representative comparison of the average spectra of the vanB -positive E. faecium isolates (green) and the vanB -negative E. faecium isolates (isolates phenotypically suspected of being VRE yet PCR negative and control strain ATCC 19434) (red) between 5,000 Da and 5,240 Da; (b) corresponding gel view representation (blue-scale color scheme) of the same region. vanB -positive E. faecium isolates (bottom) and vanB -negative E. faecium isolates (isolates phenotypically suspected of being VRE yet PCR negative and control strain ATCC 19434) (top). The peak with a mass of 5,095 Da is peak 23 used in the classification model and is essentially not present in the control samples. arb. u., arbitrary units; Sp. #, spectrum number.

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    Article Title: Use of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry To Identify Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci and Investigate the Epidemiology of an Outbreak

    doi: 10.1128/JCM.01000-12

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (a) Representative comparison of the average spectra of the vanB -positive E. faecium isolates (green) and the vanB -negative E. faecium isolates (isolates phenotypically suspected of being VRE yet PCR negative and control strain ATCC 19434) (red) between 5,000 Da and 5,240 Da; (b) corresponding gel view representation (blue-scale color scheme) of the same region. vanB -positive E. faecium isolates (bottom) and vanB -negative E. faecium isolates (isolates phenotypically suspected of being VRE yet PCR negative and control strain ATCC 19434) (top). The peak with a mass of 5,095 Da is peak 23 used in the classification model and is essentially not present in the control samples. arb. u., arbitrary units; Sp. #, spectrum number.

    Article Snippet: The VRE-negative E. faecium control strain ATCC 19434 was identified as Enterococcus faecium 11037_CHB 10 out of 11 times analyzed (91%) and as Enterococcus faecium 20218_1 CHB once (9%), with an average score of 2.40.

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PCR-HRMA amplification curves of vancomycin-resistant (VRE) and -sensitive (VSE) E faecalis and E faecium . Amplification curves for VRE ( E faecium ATCC 19434, E faecalis ATCC 51299 and E faecalis ATCC 29212) and the VSE standard strains ( E faecalis NCTC 77 and E faecium NCIMB 2699). Each assay contained 250 pg of bacterial DNA. B fragilis was also included as the reference organism for generating VRE/VSE difference curves. B fragilis amplifies with the same efficiency as the Enterococcus strains. Nuclease-free water was used as a negative control (NC).

    Journal: Annals of Saudi Medicine

    Article Title: A novel high-resolution melting analysis approach for rapid detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci

    doi: 10.5144/0256-4947.2018.200

    Figure Lengend Snippet: PCR-HRMA amplification curves of vancomycin-resistant (VRE) and -sensitive (VSE) E faecalis and E faecium . Amplification curves for VRE ( E faecium ATCC 19434, E faecalis ATCC 51299 and E faecalis ATCC 29212) and the VSE standard strains ( E faecalis NCTC 77 and E faecium NCIMB 2699). Each assay contained 250 pg of bacterial DNA. B fragilis was also included as the reference organism for generating VRE/VSE difference curves. B fragilis amplifies with the same efficiency as the Enterococcus strains. Nuclease-free water was used as a negative control (NC).

    Article Snippet: These referenced bacterial strains were as follow: Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285, VSE strains (E. faecalis NCTC 77, E faecium NCIMB 2699) and VRE strains (E faecium ATCC 19434, E faecalis ATCC 29212, E faecalis ATCC 51299).

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Negative Control

    Concentration dependence of RT-PCR-HRMA using the V1 primer set: Amplification curves for different quantities of DNA from VRE E faecalis ATCC 29212 (250 fg to 250 ng) using the V1 primer pair.

    Journal: Annals of Saudi Medicine

    Article Title: A novel high-resolution melting analysis approach for rapid detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci

    doi: 10.5144/0256-4947.2018.200

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Concentration dependence of RT-PCR-HRMA using the V1 primer set: Amplification curves for different quantities of DNA from VRE E faecalis ATCC 29212 (250 fg to 250 ng) using the V1 primer pair.

    Article Snippet: These referenced bacterial strains were as follow: Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285, VSE strains (E. faecalis NCTC 77, E faecium NCIMB 2699) and VRE strains (E faecium ATCC 19434, E faecalis ATCC 29212, E faecalis ATCC 51299).

    Techniques: Concentration Assay, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification

    Analytical sensitivity of VRE PCR-HRMA assay using the V1 primer set. Data show that the characteristic difference curve shape for VRE (using DNA from VRE E faecalis strain ATCC 29212) is maintained over a 6-log concentration range (250 fg to 250 ng DNA).

    Journal: Annals of Saudi Medicine

    Article Title: A novel high-resolution melting analysis approach for rapid detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci

    doi: 10.5144/0256-4947.2018.200

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Analytical sensitivity of VRE PCR-HRMA assay using the V1 primer set. Data show that the characteristic difference curve shape for VRE (using DNA from VRE E faecalis strain ATCC 29212) is maintained over a 6-log concentration range (250 fg to 250 ng DNA).

    Article Snippet: These referenced bacterial strains were as follow: Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285, VSE strains (E. faecalis NCTC 77, E faecium NCIMB 2699) and VRE strains (E faecium ATCC 19434, E faecalis ATCC 29212, E faecalis ATCC 51299).

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Concentration Assay

    PCR-HRMA difference plots of VRE and VSE E faecalis and E faecium generated against B fragilis using V1 primer set. Difference curve plots for (A) VSE (NCTC 77, NCIMB 2699) and (B) vanA/B VRE (ATCC 19434, ATCC 51299, ATCC 29212) standard strains of E faecalis and E faecium . Each assay contained 250 pg of bacterial DNA. B fragilis was also included as the reference organism for generating VRE/VSE difference curves (plots). B fragilis amplifies with the same efficiency as the E faecalis and E faecium strains.

    Journal: Annals of Saudi Medicine

    Article Title: A novel high-resolution melting analysis approach for rapid detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci

    doi: 10.5144/0256-4947.2018.200

    Figure Lengend Snippet: PCR-HRMA difference plots of VRE and VSE E faecalis and E faecium generated against B fragilis using V1 primer set. Difference curve plots for (A) VSE (NCTC 77, NCIMB 2699) and (B) vanA/B VRE (ATCC 19434, ATCC 51299, ATCC 29212) standard strains of E faecalis and E faecium . Each assay contained 250 pg of bacterial DNA. B fragilis was also included as the reference organism for generating VRE/VSE difference curves (plots). B fragilis amplifies with the same efficiency as the E faecalis and E faecium strains.

    Article Snippet: These referenced bacterial strains were as follow: Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285, VSE strains (E. faecalis NCTC 77, E faecium NCIMB 2699) and VRE strains (E faecium ATCC 19434, E faecalis ATCC 29212, E faecalis ATCC 51299).

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Generated

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of genomic DNA of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from commercially available swine ( n = 9) and cattle ( n = 13) probiotics.

    Journal: Journal of Animal Science

    Article Title: Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from commercial probiotic products used in cattle and swine strains isolated from commercial probiotic products used in cattle and swine

    doi: 10.1093/jas/sky056

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of genomic DNA of Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from commercially available swine ( n = 9) and cattle ( n = 13) probiotics.

    Article Snippet: The DNA was isolated by suspending a single colony in nuclease-free water with 5% Chelex 100 resin (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Hercules, CA) and boiled for 10 min. An ATCC strain of E. faecium (ATCC 19434; American Type Culture Collection, Manassas, VA) was used as a positive control in the assay.

    Techniques: Pulsed-Field Gel, Electrophoresis, Isolation

    a 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Lactococcus lactis isolates S2 and S6 with the sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactic ATCC 19435 (upper and middle panels) and with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 (lower panel) (nucleotide differences are highlighted). b 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Enterococcus faecium isolate S11 with the sequence of Enterococcus faecium type strains ATCC 700221, ATCC 19434, CECT 410 T and DSM 20477 (nucleotide differences are highlighted)

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Diffusible substances from lactic acid bacterial cultures exert strong inhibitory effects on Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis in a co-culture model

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-017-0944-3

    Figure Lengend Snippet: a 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Lactococcus lactis isolates S2 and S6 with the sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactic ATCC 19435 (upper and middle panels) and with Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IL1403 (lower panel) (nucleotide differences are highlighted). b 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence alignment of Enterococcus faecium isolate S11 with the sequence of Enterococcus faecium type strains ATCC 700221, ATCC 19434, CECT 410 T and DSM 20477 (nucleotide differences are highlighted)

    Article Snippet: Its sequences showed 99% identity to the 16S rRNA gene sequences of E. faecium strains ATCC 700221, ATCC 19434, CECT410T and DSM 20477.

    Techniques: Sequencing

    Antimicrobial activity of sulfamethoxazole and Hybrid 1 towards Streptococcus uberis 19436 (A) , Enterococcus faecium 700221 (B) , and Enterococcus faecalis 29212 (C) using a protocol developed in our laboratory ( Rajamanickam et al., 2019a ). The concentrations of both sulfamethoxazole and Hybrid 1 range from 9.38 to 1,200 µg/ml. The experiment was carried out in triplicate and the data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey’s multiple comparison test using GraphPad Prism 5 (GraphPad Software, La Jolla, CA, USA). The significance was set at p ≤ 0.05 (* p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01).

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: A Novel Antimicrobial–Phytochemical Conjugate With Antimicrobial Activity Against Streptococcus uberis, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2019.01405

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Antimicrobial activity of sulfamethoxazole and Hybrid 1 towards Streptococcus uberis 19436 (A) , Enterococcus faecium 700221 (B) , and Enterococcus faecalis 29212 (C) using a protocol developed in our laboratory ( Rajamanickam et al., 2019a ). The concentrations of both sulfamethoxazole and Hybrid 1 range from 9.38 to 1,200 µg/ml. The experiment was carried out in triplicate and the data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey’s multiple comparison test using GraphPad Prism 5 (GraphPad Software, La Jolla, CA, USA). The significance was set at p ≤ 0.05 (* p ≤ 0.05, ** p ≤ 0.01).

    Article Snippet: Bacterial Strains, Culture Media, and Chemicals S. uberis 19436, E. faecium 700221, and E. faecalis 29212 were purchased from ATCC (Manassas, VA, USA).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Software

    a) Agarose gel electrophoresis of the amplified products by PCR for vanA (732 bp) and VanB (536 bp) genes. Ladder 100bp DNA ladder, A and B - positive control for vanA (E. faecium ATCC ® 700221 TM ) and VanB ( E. faecalis ATCC ® 51299 TM ), NC- Mili-Q water was used as negative control; b) Agarose gel electrophoresis of the amplified products by PCR for vanA (732 bp). Ladder 100bpDNA ladder,S1- clinical sample positive for vanA and S2 – faecal sample from same patient positive for vanA, PC- E. faecium ATCC ® 700221 TM was used as positive control for vanA; NC- Mili-Q water was used as negative control.

    Journal: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research : JCDR

    Article Title: Characterization of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci in Hospitalized Patients and Role of Gut Colonization

    doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2017/25988.10548

    Figure Lengend Snippet: a) Agarose gel electrophoresis of the amplified products by PCR for vanA (732 bp) and VanB (536 bp) genes. Ladder 100bp DNA ladder, A and B - positive control for vanA (E. faecium ATCC ® 700221 TM ) and VanB ( E. faecalis ATCC ® 51299 TM ), NC- Mili-Q water was used as negative control; b) Agarose gel electrophoresis of the amplified products by PCR for vanA (732 bp). Ladder 100bpDNA ladder,S1- clinical sample positive for vanA and S2 – faecal sample from same patient positive for vanA, PC- E. faecium ATCC ® 700221 TM was used as positive control for vanA; NC- Mili-Q water was used as negative control.

    Article Snippet: The quality control strains used were Staphylococcus aureus ATCC® 25923™ , E. faecalis ATCC® 29212™ , E. faecalis ATCC® 51299™ , E. faecium ATCC® 700221™ , E. faecium ATCC® 19434™ .

    Techniques: Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Amplification, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Positive Control, Negative Control

    Time-kill analysis of phenylthiazole compounds 1 , 2 , 3 , and linezolid (all tested at 4 × MIC) over a 24 hour incubation period at 37 °C against A) vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium ATCC 700221 and B) vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis HM-201. DMSO served as a negative control. The error bars represent standard deviation values obtained from triplicate samples used for each compound/antibiotic studied.

    Journal: Journal of medicinal chemistry

    Article Title: Phenylthiazole Antibacterial Agents Targeting Cell Wall Synthesis Exhibit Potent Activity In Vitro and In Vivo against Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci

    doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b01780

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Time-kill analysis of phenylthiazole compounds 1 , 2 , 3 , and linezolid (all tested at 4 × MIC) over a 24 hour incubation period at 37 °C against A) vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium ATCC 700221 and B) vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis HM-201. DMSO served as a negative control. The error bars represent standard deviation values obtained from triplicate samples used for each compound/antibiotic studied.

    Article Snippet: Phenylthiazole 1 was able to resensitize E. faecium ATCC 700221 to the effect of vancomycin —a 256-fold decrease in the MIC being observed ( ).

    Techniques: Incubation, Negative Control, Standard Deviation

    Interfacial tension and fluorescence qPCR inhibition of the IE model. ( A ) Protein concentrations of the aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valve sections excised from a porcine heart and ground using a micro–mortar and pestle. The total protein concentration of the tissue model is 1.6 ± 0.1 mg/ml. ( B ) The interfacial tensions (γ) of clean and contaminated PCR mixtures are 25.55 and 27.60 mN/m, respectively. ( C ) Free-body force diagram with the interfacial layer. The forces on the droplet include the interfacial tension force ( F γ ), the buoyancy force ( F B ), the weight of the droplet ( F mg ), and the thermocouple force ( F TC ). ( D ) Fluorescence qPCR amplification curves for 16 S rRNA hypervariable regions V1-V2 and vanA gene from intact vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) with and without tissue contamination. The C t values for 16 S rRNA V1-V2 without tissue, 16 S rRNA V1-V2 with tissue, vanA without tissue, and vanA with tissue are 28.4, 30.0, 34.0, and 39.4, respectively. The tissue contamination inhibits fluorescence qPCR, as seen by the upward shift of 1.6 cycles for the 16 S rRNA V1-V2 target and 5.4 cycles for the vanA target. Additionally, NTC samples for each primer set are plotted. ( E ) Protein diffusion to the interface is calculated on the basis of typical blood and tissue concentrations, using diffusivities from literature and Fick’s equation. For comparison, the diffusion of Taq polymerase to the interface is also calculated. ( F and G ) The porcine heart from which heart valves were excised, sectioned, inoculated, ground, and used as the PCR target.

    Journal: Science Advances

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief

    doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1400061

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Interfacial tension and fluorescence qPCR inhibition of the IE model. ( A ) Protein concentrations of the aortic, mitral, and tricuspid valve sections excised from a porcine heart and ground using a micro–mortar and pestle. The total protein concentration of the tissue model is 1.6 ± 0.1 mg/ml. ( B ) The interfacial tensions (γ) of clean and contaminated PCR mixtures are 25.55 and 27.60 mN/m, respectively. ( C ) Free-body force diagram with the interfacial layer. The forces on the droplet include the interfacial tension force ( F γ ), the buoyancy force ( F B ), the weight of the droplet ( F mg ), and the thermocouple force ( F TC ). ( D ) Fluorescence qPCR amplification curves for 16 S rRNA hypervariable regions V1-V2 and vanA gene from intact vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) with and without tissue contamination. The C t values for 16 S rRNA V1-V2 without tissue, 16 S rRNA V1-V2 with tissue, vanA without tissue, and vanA with tissue are 28.4, 30.0, 34.0, and 39.4, respectively. The tissue contamination inhibits fluorescence qPCR, as seen by the upward shift of 1.6 cycles for the 16 S rRNA V1-V2 target and 5.4 cycles for the vanA target. Additionally, NTC samples for each primer set are plotted. ( E ) Protein diffusion to the interface is calculated on the basis of typical blood and tissue concentrations, using diffusivities from literature and Fick’s equation. For comparison, the diffusion of Taq polymerase to the interface is also calculated. ( F and G ) The porcine heart from which heart valves were excised, sectioned, inoculated, ground, and used as the PCR target.

    Article Snippet: Vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE, ATCC 33186) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, Enterococcus ATCC 700221) were propagated, according to the procedure outlined in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) product sheet, to 108 CFU/ml, pelleted by centrifugation at 6000g for 10 min, resuspended in 100 μl of molecular grade water, and heat-killed at 95°C for 15 min. Purified K. pneumoniae strain Z026 genomic DNA was purchased from ZeptoMetrix.

    Techniques: Fluorescence, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Inhibition, Protein Concentration, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Diffusion-based Assay

    Specificity, limit of detection, and speed of DOT thermocycling. ( A ) Gel electropherogram showing the differentiation of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) and vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE) by multiplexed amplification of the 377-bp vanA amplicon directly from bacterial culture. Simultaneous thermocycling was achieved by mounting three droplets on different thermocouples on the same motor arm. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, VRE; lane 3, VSE; lane 4, NTC; lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder. ( B ) Gel electropherogram showing the limit of detection at the sub-picogram level by amplification of the 196-bp 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon from 0.7 pg of K. pneumoniae genomic DNA (equivalent to 1.4 × 10 2 genomic copies) at a speed of 48 s/cycle. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, 0.7-pg genomic DNA. ( C ) Gel electropherogram showing rapid amplification of the 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon and vanA amplicon in the presence of tissue contaminants in 30 cycles. Lane 1, vanA amplified at 40 s/cycle (20 min) from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue (V3 amplified from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue); lane 2, at 40 s/cycle (20 min); lane 3, at 32 s/cycle (16 min); lane 4, at 28 s/cycle (14 min); lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder (see Fig. 2D for V3 NTC results).

    Journal: Science Advances

    Article Title: Innovative qPCR using interfacial effects to enable low threshold cycle detection and inhibition relief

    doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1400061

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Specificity, limit of detection, and speed of DOT thermocycling. ( A ) Gel electropherogram showing the differentiation of vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE) and vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE) by multiplexed amplification of the 377-bp vanA amplicon directly from bacterial culture. Simultaneous thermocycling was achieved by mounting three droplets on different thermocouples on the same motor arm. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, VRE; lane 3, VSE; lane 4, NTC; lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder. ( B ) Gel electropherogram showing the limit of detection at the sub-picogram level by amplification of the 196-bp 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon from 0.7 pg of K. pneumoniae genomic DNA (equivalent to 1.4 × 10 2 genomic copies) at a speed of 48 s/cycle. Lane 1, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder; lane 2, 0.7-pg genomic DNA. ( C ) Gel electropherogram showing rapid amplification of the 16 S rRNA V3 amplicon and vanA amplicon in the presence of tissue contaminants in 30 cycles. Lane 1, vanA amplified at 40 s/cycle (20 min) from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue (V3 amplified from 7 × 10 5 CFU VRE inoculated to valve tissue); lane 2, at 40 s/cycle (20 min); lane 3, at 32 s/cycle (16 min); lane 4, at 28 s/cycle (14 min); lane 5, 1-kb Plus DNA Ladder (see Fig. 2D for V3 NTC results).

    Article Snippet: Vancomycin-sensitive E. faecalis (VSE, ATCC 33186) and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE, Enterococcus ATCC 700221) were propagated, according to the procedure outlined in the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) product sheet, to 108 CFU/ml, pelleted by centrifugation at 6000g for 10 min, resuspended in 100 μl of molecular grade water, and heat-killed at 95°C for 15 min. Purified K. pneumoniae strain Z026 genomic DNA was purchased from ZeptoMetrix.

    Techniques: Amplification

    Assessment of metabolic activity of biofilm cells by resazurin. Quantification of biofilm production of six bacterial strains, using three concentrations of resazurin solution (2, 4 and 8 μg/mL): ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, ( F ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated at 25 °C and 37 °C. Relative fluorescence measurements were taken at 20, 40, 60 and 80 min

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Defining conditions for biofilm inhibition and eradication assays for Gram-positive clinical reference strains

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-018-1321-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Assessment of metabolic activity of biofilm cells by resazurin. Quantification of biofilm production of six bacterial strains, using three concentrations of resazurin solution (2, 4 and 8 μg/mL): ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, ( F ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated at 25 °C and 37 °C. Relative fluorescence measurements were taken at 20, 40, 60 and 80 min

    Article Snippet: Both E. faecium strains had the lowest biofilm mass in MHB compared with other tested strains, with an average of 0.149 for E. faecium ATCC 35667 (Fig. ) and 0.109 for vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VRE) ATCC 700221 (Fig. ).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Incubation, Fluorescence

    Assessment of biofilm biomass by crystal violet staining and cell enumeration by colony count. Biofilm production analysis through crystal violet staining (OD 570 nm, bars) and cell enumeration (log 10 CFU/mL, lines) of six bacterial strains: ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and ( f ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated in six different media: Mueller Hinton (MH), Tryptic Soy (TS), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 1% glucose (TSG), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 2% glucose (TS2G), Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and Brain Heart Infusion supplemented with 1% glucose (BHIG). Error bars represent standard deviation of two independent experiments in triplicate. Lowercase letters indicate significant differences amongst media used for biofilm production. Similar letters denote no significant difference ( P > 0.05)

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Defining conditions for biofilm inhibition and eradication assays for Gram-positive clinical reference strains

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-018-1321-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Assessment of biofilm biomass by crystal violet staining and cell enumeration by colony count. Biofilm production analysis through crystal violet staining (OD 570 nm, bars) and cell enumeration (log 10 CFU/mL, lines) of six bacterial strains: ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and ( f ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated in six different media: Mueller Hinton (MH), Tryptic Soy (TS), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 1% glucose (TSG), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 2% glucose (TS2G), Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and Brain Heart Infusion supplemented with 1% glucose (BHIG). Error bars represent standard deviation of two independent experiments in triplicate. Lowercase letters indicate significant differences amongst media used for biofilm production. Similar letters denote no significant difference ( P > 0.05)

    Article Snippet: Both E. faecium strains had the lowest biofilm mass in MHB compared with other tested strains, with an average of 0.149 for E. faecium ATCC 35667 (Fig. ) and 0.109 for vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VRE) ATCC 700221 (Fig. ).

    Techniques: Staining, Incubation, Standard Deviation

    Adoptive transfer of bacterial consortia containing C. bolteae and B. producta prevents VRE colonization (A–B) Ampicillin-treated mice were orally gavaged with PBS or a mixture of C. bolteae , B. producta , Blautia_unclassified, E. dolichum , A. muciniphila , P. distasonis and B. sartorii (7-mix) for three consecutive days beginning on day 2 of antibiotic treatment. Mice were challenged with VRE the day following the third gavage and fecal samples were collected at the indicated time points. (A) VRE CFUs in stool samples 1, 3 and 6/8 days post inoculation (p.i.) (**** P

    Journal: Cell host & microbe

    Article Title: Cooperating commensals restore colonization resistance to vancomycin- resistant Enterococcus faecium

    doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2017.04.002

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Adoptive transfer of bacterial consortia containing C. bolteae and B. producta prevents VRE colonization (A–B) Ampicillin-treated mice were orally gavaged with PBS or a mixture of C. bolteae , B. producta , Blautia_unclassified, E. dolichum , A. muciniphila , P. distasonis and B. sartorii (7-mix) for three consecutive days beginning on day 2 of antibiotic treatment. Mice were challenged with VRE the day following the third gavage and fecal samples were collected at the indicated time points. (A) VRE CFUs in stool samples 1, 3 and 6/8 days post inoculation (p.i.) (**** P

    Article Snippet: For VRE challenge, 6–8 week old female C57BL/6 mice from Jackson Laboratories were treated with 0.5 g/L ampicillin (Fisher) in their drinking water and inoculated with 5x104 VRE CFUs ( E. faecium , ATCC 700221) in 200μl by gavage.

    Techniques: Adoptive Transfer Assay, Mouse Assay

    Assessment of metabolic activity of biofilm cells by resazurin. Quantification of biofilm production of six bacterial strains, using three concentrations of resazurin solution (2, 4 and 8 μg/mL): ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, ( F ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated at 25 °C and 37 °C. Relative fluorescence measurements were taken at 20, 40, 60 and 80 min

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Defining conditions for biofilm inhibition and eradication assays for Gram-positive clinical reference strains

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-018-1321-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Assessment of metabolic activity of biofilm cells by resazurin. Quantification of biofilm production of six bacterial strains, using three concentrations of resazurin solution (2, 4 and 8 μg/mL): ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, ( F ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated at 25 °C and 37 °C. Relative fluorescence measurements were taken at 20, 40, 60 and 80 min

    Article Snippet: It was observed that supplementing TS broth with glucose increased the biofilm production of S. aureus and E. faecium ATCC 35667 strains (Fig. ), although a significant difference was only observed for the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain (P < 0.05) (Fig. ).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Incubation, Fluorescence

    Assessment of biofilm biomass by crystal violet staining and cell enumeration by colony count. Biofilm production analysis through crystal violet staining (OD 570 nm, bars) and cell enumeration (log 10 CFU/mL, lines) of six bacterial strains: ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and ( f ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated in six different media: Mueller Hinton (MH), Tryptic Soy (TS), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 1% glucose (TSG), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 2% glucose (TS2G), Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and Brain Heart Infusion supplemented with 1% glucose (BHIG). Error bars represent standard deviation of two independent experiments in triplicate. Lowercase letters indicate significant differences amongst media used for biofilm production. Similar letters denote no significant difference ( P > 0.05)

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Defining conditions for biofilm inhibition and eradication assays for Gram-positive clinical reference strains

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-018-1321-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Assessment of biofilm biomass by crystal violet staining and cell enumeration by colony count. Biofilm production analysis through crystal violet staining (OD 570 nm, bars) and cell enumeration (log 10 CFU/mL, lines) of six bacterial strains: ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and ( f ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated in six different media: Mueller Hinton (MH), Tryptic Soy (TS), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 1% glucose (TSG), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 2% glucose (TS2G), Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and Brain Heart Infusion supplemented with 1% glucose (BHIG). Error bars represent standard deviation of two independent experiments in triplicate. Lowercase letters indicate significant differences amongst media used for biofilm production. Similar letters denote no significant difference ( P > 0.05)

    Article Snippet: It was observed that supplementing TS broth with glucose increased the biofilm production of S. aureus and E. faecium ATCC 35667 strains (Fig. ), although a significant difference was only observed for the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain (P < 0.05) (Fig. ).

    Techniques: Staining, Incubation, Standard Deviation

    Assessment of metabolic activity of biofilm cells by resazurin. Quantification of biofilm production of six bacterial strains, using three concentrations of resazurin solution (2, 4 and 8 μg/mL): ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, ( F ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated at 25 °C and 37 °C. Relative fluorescence measurements were taken at 20, 40, 60 and 80 min

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Defining conditions for biofilm inhibition and eradication assays for Gram-positive clinical reference strains

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-018-1321-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Assessment of metabolic activity of biofilm cells by resazurin. Quantification of biofilm production of six bacterial strains, using three concentrations of resazurin solution (2, 4 and 8 μg/mL): ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, ( F ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated at 25 °C and 37 °C. Relative fluorescence measurements were taken at 20, 40, 60 and 80 min

    Article Snippet: Both E. faecium strains had the lowest biofilm mass in MHB compared with other tested strains, with an average of 0.149 for E. faecium ATCC 35667 (Fig. ) and 0.109 for vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VRE) ATCC 700221 (Fig. ).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Incubation, Fluorescence

    Assessment of biofilm biomass by crystal violet staining and cell enumeration by colony count. Biofilm production analysis through crystal violet staining (OD 570 nm, bars) and cell enumeration (log 10 CFU/mL, lines) of six bacterial strains: ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and ( f ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated in six different media: Mueller Hinton (MH), Tryptic Soy (TS), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 1% glucose (TSG), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 2% glucose (TS2G), Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and Brain Heart Infusion supplemented with 1% glucose (BHIG). Error bars represent standard deviation of two independent experiments in triplicate. Lowercase letters indicate significant differences amongst media used for biofilm production. Similar letters denote no significant difference ( P > 0.05)

    Journal: BMC Microbiology

    Article Title: Defining conditions for biofilm inhibition and eradication assays for Gram-positive clinical reference strains

    doi: 10.1186/s12866-018-1321-6

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Assessment of biofilm biomass by crystal violet staining and cell enumeration by colony count. Biofilm production analysis through crystal violet staining (OD 570 nm, bars) and cell enumeration (log 10 CFU/mL, lines) of six bacterial strains: ( a ) Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, ( b ) Staphylococcus aureus MRSA ATCC 43300, ( c ) Enterococcus faecium ATCC 35667, ( d ) Enterococcus faecium VRE ATCC 700221, ( e ) Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and ( f ) Enterococcus faecalis VRE ATCC 51575, incubated in six different media: Mueller Hinton (MH), Tryptic Soy (TS), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 1% glucose (TSG), Tryptic Soy supplemented with 2% glucose (TS2G), Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) and Brain Heart Infusion supplemented with 1% glucose (BHIG). Error bars represent standard deviation of two independent experiments in triplicate. Lowercase letters indicate significant differences amongst media used for biofilm production. Similar letters denote no significant difference ( P > 0.05)

    Article Snippet: Both E. faecium strains had the lowest biofilm mass in MHB compared with other tested strains, with an average of 0.149 for E. faecium ATCC 35667 (Fig. ) and 0.109 for vancomycin resistant E. faecium (VRE) ATCC 700221 (Fig. ).

    Techniques: Staining, Incubation, Standard Deviation

    Agarose gel electrophoresis of amplified vanA , vanB , vanC1 , vanC2 , E. faecalis -specific, E. faecium -specific, and rrs genes by the optimized multiplex PCR assay containing seven primer sets. Lanes: M, 100-bp DNA ladder (New England Biolabs); 1, an E. faecalis vanA isolate; 2, an E. faecalis vanB isolate; 3, an E. faecium vanA isolate; 4, an E. faecium vanB isolate; 5, an E. gallinarum vanC1 isolate; 6, an E. casseliflavus vanC2 isolate; 7, a Pediococcus isolate; 8, a Leuconostoc isolate.

    Journal: Journal of Clinical Microbiology

    Article Title: Simple and Reliable Multiplex PCR Assay for Surveillance Isolates of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Agarose gel electrophoresis of amplified vanA , vanB , vanC1 , vanC2 , E. faecalis -specific, E. faecium -specific, and rrs genes by the optimized multiplex PCR assay containing seven primer sets. Lanes: M, 100-bp DNA ladder (New England Biolabs); 1, an E. faecalis vanA isolate; 2, an E. faecalis vanB isolate; 3, an E. faecium vanA isolate; 4, an E. faecium vanB isolate; 5, an E. gallinarum vanC1 isolate; 6, an E. casseliflavus vanC2 isolate; 7, a Pediococcus isolate; 8, a Leuconostoc isolate.

    Article Snippet: A vanA strain ( E. faecium ATCC 51559), a vanB strain ( E. faecalis ATCC 51299), a vanC1 strain ( E. gallinarum ATCC 49573), a vanC2 strain ( E. casseliflavus ATCC 25788), and a vancomycin-susceptible E. faecalis strain (ATCC 19433) were used as quality control strains.

    Techniques: Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Amplification, Multiplex Assay, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Dendrogram showing the similarity among RAPD ‐ PCR patterns of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 T (A), Enterococcus faecium DSMZ 20477T (B), (C) Saccharomyces cerevisiae S441 and Escherichia coli PQ 37 (D) after exposure to toxic compounds tested. Similarities were calculated using UPGMA . Arbitrary threshold 90% was used to identify new adducted biotypes. n.c.: negative control.

    Journal: Microbial Biotechnology

    Article Title: Food borne bacterial models for detection of benzo[a]pyrene‐ DNA adducts formation using RAPD‐ PCR

    doi: 10.1111/1751-7915.12355

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Dendrogram showing the similarity among RAPD ‐ PCR patterns of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917 T (A), Enterococcus faecium DSMZ 20477T (B), (C) Saccharomyces cerevisiae S441 and Escherichia coli PQ 37 (D) after exposure to toxic compounds tested. Similarities were calculated using UPGMA . Arbitrary threshold 90% was used to identify new adducted biotypes. n.c.: negative control.

    Article Snippet: Bacterial and yeast strains and growth conditions The strains used in this study were E. faecium DSMZ (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen) 20477T, L. plantarum ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) 14917T, E. coli PQ37 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae S441, belonging to the Culture Collection of Faculty of BioScience and Technology for Food, Agriculture and Environment (University of Teramo, Italy) and isolated from Montepulciano d'Abruzzo wine producing area in Central Italy where the wine is produced based on spontaneous fermentation and without any commercial enzyme preparations.

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Negative Control

    Bacterial reduction ( BR ) vs. time of the Cu plate, Al plate and Cu-dotted oxide coating tested with (a) E. coli ATCC 25922, (b) MRSA ATCC 43300 and (c) E. faecium ATCC 51299 . The oxide coatings without Cu were also included in (b) and (c).

    Journal: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials

    Article Title: Superhydrophilicity and antibacterial property of a Cu-dotted oxide coating surface

    doi: 10.1186/1476-0711-9-25

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Bacterial reduction ( BR ) vs. time of the Cu plate, Al plate and Cu-dotted oxide coating tested with (a) E. coli ATCC 25922, (b) MRSA ATCC 43300 and (c) E. faecium ATCC 51299 . The oxide coatings without Cu were also included in (b) and (c).

    Article Snippet: The bacteria tested included E. coli ATCC 25922, MRSA ATCC 43300, and E. faecium ATCC 51299 (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus ).

    Techniques:

    PFGE analysis of E. faecium isolates evaluated in this study. Analysis was performed using BioNumerics software. Dendrograms were generated using the unweighted-pair group method using average linkages and band-based Dice similarity coefficients. The optimization parameter for this evaluation was set to 0.5 and band position tolerance to 1.0%. Isolate 5 results are not shown in this figure, but that isolate exhibited a restriction pattern identical to that of isolate 4.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Mechanisms of Resistance to Daptomycin in Enterococcus faecium ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00774-07

    Figure Lengend Snippet: PFGE analysis of E. faecium isolates evaluated in this study. Analysis was performed using BioNumerics software. Dendrograms were generated using the unweighted-pair group method using average linkages and band-based Dice similarity coefficients. The optimization parameter for this evaluation was set to 0.5 and band position tolerance to 1.0%. Isolate 5 results are not shown in this figure, but that isolate exhibited a restriction pattern identical to that of isolate 4.

    Article Snippet: Sequences from these two strains were identical to each other and to the genome sequence of E. faecium DO (ATCC BAA-472), suggesting an alternative resistance mechanism.

    Techniques: Software, Generated

    Diameter of zone of inhibition as a function of incubation time with different E. faecium strains. No significant difference was observed between the strains tested and the control solution with daptomycin and tryptic soy broth. For isolate 1, the daptomycin MIC was 4 μg/ml; for isolate 8, the MIC was 16 μg/ml; and for E. faecium ATCC 35667, the MIC was 1 μg/ml).

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Mechanisms of Resistance to Daptomycin in Enterococcus faecium ▿

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.00774-07

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Diameter of zone of inhibition as a function of incubation time with different E. faecium strains. No significant difference was observed between the strains tested and the control solution with daptomycin and tryptic soy broth. For isolate 1, the daptomycin MIC was 4 μg/ml; for isolate 8, the MIC was 16 μg/ml; and for E. faecium ATCC 35667, the MIC was 1 μg/ml).

    Article Snippet: Sequences from these two strains were identical to each other and to the genome sequence of E. faecium DO (ATCC BAA-472), suggesting an alternative resistance mechanism.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Incubation

    Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of peptidoglycan precursor UDPMurNAc-pp ( 19 ) in VanA VRE ( E. faecium ATCC BAA-2317).

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Peripheral modifications of [Ψ[CH2NH]Tpg4]vancomycin with added synergistic mechanisms of action provide durable and potent antibiotics

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1704125114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of peptidoglycan precursor UDPMurNAc-pp ( 19 ) in VanA VRE ( E. faecium ATCC BAA-2317).

    Article Snippet: Compound 18 also failed to produce bacterial cell membrane depolarization in the same VanA vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (ATCC BAA-2317) as measured by fluorescence of a released membrane imbedded dye (DiSC3 5,3,3′-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine iodide) ( ) ( ).

    Techniques: High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Examination of cell wall permeability induced by compounds 9 − 13 (10 μM added at 5 min) in VanA VRE ( E. faecium ATCC BAA-2317).

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Peripheral modifications of [Ψ[CH2NH]Tpg4]vancomycin with added synergistic mechanisms of action provide durable and potent antibiotics

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1704125114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Examination of cell wall permeability induced by compounds 9 − 13 (10 μM added at 5 min) in VanA VRE ( E. faecium ATCC BAA-2317).

    Article Snippet: Compound 18 also failed to produce bacterial cell membrane depolarization in the same VanA vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (ATCC BAA-2317) as measured by fluorescence of a released membrane imbedded dye (DiSC3 5,3,3′-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine iodide) ( ) ( ).

    Techniques: Permeability

    Examination of cell wall permeability induced by compounds 14 − 18 (10 μM added at 5 min) in VanA VRE ( E. faecium ATCC BAA-2317).

    Journal: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

    Article Title: Peripheral modifications of [Ψ[CH2NH]Tpg4]vancomycin with added synergistic mechanisms of action provide durable and potent antibiotics

    doi: 10.1073/pnas.1704125114

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Examination of cell wall permeability induced by compounds 14 − 18 (10 μM added at 5 min) in VanA VRE ( E. faecium ATCC BAA-2317).

    Article Snippet: Compound 18 also failed to produce bacterial cell membrane depolarization in the same VanA vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (ATCC BAA-2317) as measured by fluorescence of a released membrane imbedded dye (DiSC3 5,3,3′-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine iodide) ( ) ( ).

    Techniques: Permeability