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  • 99
    Thermo Fisher dntp
    Amplification of local Alexandrium strains ACC01, ACC02 and ACC07 using species - specific primers; A. tamarense (lanes 1, 2 and 3) and A. catenella (lanes 4, 5 and 6). M = 100-bp <t>DNA</t> size marker. Species-specific amplification in the rDNA region using A. catenella and A. tamarense primers were carried out in a MaxiGene Gradiente thermocycler (Axygen) in 1× PCR buffer, 20–50 ng of genomic DNA template, 3 mM MgCl 2, 100 µM each <t>dNTP,</t> 0.1 µM each primer and 0.4 U of TopTaq DNA polymerase (Fermentas) in a 10-µL reaction volume. Five microlitres of each PCR product were analysed in a 2 % agarose gel. A Fermentas GeneRuller™ 100-bp DNA ladder was used for size estimation of amplified fragments.
    Dntp, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 43534 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 99 stars, based on 43534 article reviews
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    dntp - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    dntp  (TaKaRa)
    99
    TaKaRa dntp
    Gli1, cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA levels in blank, Lipofectamine, siRNA-Gli1, BCNU and combination groups. Semi-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed using SuperScript III One-Step RT-PCR kit (12574-018, Invitrogen, Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) on PCR thermo cycler (C1000, Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA). The 20 μl reaction system was formed by cDNA (5 μl), <t>10×</t> buffer (2 μl), 25 mmol/L MgCl 2 (0.8 μl), 2.5 mmol/L <t>dNTP</t> (2 μl), DNA polymerase (0.2 μl; Takara, Tokyo, Japan), and upstream and downstream primers (1 μl each). M, markers; 1, blank group; 2, Lipofectamine group; 3, BCNU group; 4, siRNA-Gli1 group; 5, combination group.
    Dntp, supplied by TaKaRa, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 16635 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dntp/product/TaKaRa
    Average 99 stars, based on 16635 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    dntp - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    93
    Bio-Rad dntps
    Incorporation of <t>Fc1-dUTP</t> into DNA by Klenow fragment and T4 DNA polymerase. The P18.1/T40.1 primer–template pair of Figure 3 was incubated with DNA polymerase and different sets of <t>dNTPs</t> as indicated. DNA fragment lengths in nucleotides are shown on the left.
    Dntps, supplied by Bio-Rad, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 796 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dntps/product/Bio-Rad
    Average 93 stars, based on 796 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    dntps - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    95
    Promega dntp
    In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. ( A ) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (‘A’) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (‘N’). TR is transcribed to produce TR- RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR- cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by ‘X’ in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR- cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. <t>bRT</t> is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. ( B ) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. ( C ) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and <t>dNTPs,</t> including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). ( D ) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . ( E ) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. ( F ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (–Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ∼580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ∼540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A 2-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than –Per samples.
    Dntp, supplied by Promega, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 95/100, based on 17019 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Average 95 stars, based on 17019 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    dntp - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    94
    Bio-Rad dntp mixtures
    In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. ( A ) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (‘A’) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (‘N’). TR is transcribed to produce TR- RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR- cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by ‘X’ in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR- cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. <t>bRT</t> is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. ( B ) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. ( C ) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and <t>dNTPs,</t> including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). ( D ) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . ( E ) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. ( F ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (–Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ∼580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ∼540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A 2-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than –Per samples.
    Dntp Mixtures, supplied by Bio-Rad, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 52 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dntp mixtures/product/Bio-Rad
    Average 94 stars, based on 52 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
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    99
    TaKaRa dntp mix
    In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. ( A ) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (‘A’) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (‘N’). TR is transcribed to produce TR- RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR- cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by ‘X’ in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR- cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. <t>bRT</t> is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. ( B ) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. ( C ) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and <t>dNTPs,</t> including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). ( D ) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . ( E ) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. ( F ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (–Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ∼580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ∼540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A 2-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than –Per samples.
    Dntp Mix, supplied by TaKaRa, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 3041 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dntp mix/product/TaKaRa
    Average 99 stars, based on 3041 article reviews
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    dntp mix - by Bioz Stars, 2020-07
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    Image Search Results


    Amplification of local Alexandrium strains ACC01, ACC02 and ACC07 using species - specific primers; A. tamarense (lanes 1, 2 and 3) and A. catenella (lanes 4, 5 and 6). M = 100-bp DNA size marker. Species-specific amplification in the rDNA region using A. catenella and A. tamarense primers were carried out in a MaxiGene Gradiente thermocycler (Axygen) in 1× PCR buffer, 20–50 ng of genomic DNA template, 3 mM MgCl 2, 100 µM each dNTP, 0.1 µM each primer and 0.4 U of TopTaq DNA polymerase (Fermentas) in a 10-µL reaction volume. Five microlitres of each PCR product were analysed in a 2 % agarose gel. A Fermentas GeneRuller™ 100-bp DNA ladder was used for size estimation of amplified fragments.

    Journal: AoB Plants

    Article Title: Molecular detection and species identification ofAlexandrium (Dinophyceae) causing harmful algal blooms along the Chilean coastline

    doi: 10.1093/aobpla/pls033

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Amplification of local Alexandrium strains ACC01, ACC02 and ACC07 using species - specific primers; A. tamarense (lanes 1, 2 and 3) and A. catenella (lanes 4, 5 and 6). M = 100-bp DNA size marker. Species-specific amplification in the rDNA region using A. catenella and A. tamarense primers were carried out in a MaxiGene Gradiente thermocycler (Axygen) in 1× PCR buffer, 20–50 ng of genomic DNA template, 3 mM MgCl 2, 100 µM each dNTP, 0.1 µM each primer and 0.4 U of TopTaq DNA polymerase (Fermentas) in a 10-µL reaction volume. Five microlitres of each PCR product were analysed in a 2 % agarose gel. A Fermentas GeneRuller™ 100-bp DNA ladder was used for size estimation of amplified fragments.

    Article Snippet: All amplifications were carried out in duplicate with 1× PCR buffer, 20–50 ng of genomic DNA template, 3 mM MgCl2, 100 µM each dNTP, 0.1 µM each primer and 0.4 U of recombinant Taq DNA polymerase (MBI Fermentas, Vilnius, Lithuania) in a 10-µL reaction volume.

    Techniques: Amplification, Marker, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    Alexandrium tamarense microsatellite amplifications of the three local strains with (A) specific primers ATB8 (lanes 1, 2 and 3) and ATD8 (lanes 4, 5 and 6). Lanes 7 and 8 correspond to controls with primers ATB8 without DNA. (B) Specific amplification with primers ATB1 (lanes 1, 2 and 3) and ATF11 (lanes 6, 7 and 8). Lanes 4–5 and 9–10 are controls without DNA for primer sets ATB1 and ATF11, respectively. M = 100-bp DNA size marker. Species-specific microsatellite amplifications using A. catenella and A. tamarense primers were carried out in a MaxiGene Gradiente thermocycler (Axygen) in 1× PCR buffer, 20–50 ng of genomic DNA template, 3 mM MgCl 2, 100 µM each dNTP, 0.1 µM each primer and 0.4 U of TopTaq DNA polymerase (Fermentas) in a 10-µL reaction volume. Five microlitres of each PCR product were analysed in a 2 % agarose gel. A Fermentas GeneRuller TM 100-bp DNA ladder was used for size estimation of amplified fragments.

    Journal: AoB Plants

    Article Title: Molecular detection and species identification ofAlexandrium (Dinophyceae) causing harmful algal blooms along the Chilean coastline

    doi: 10.1093/aobpla/pls033

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Alexandrium tamarense microsatellite amplifications of the three local strains with (A) specific primers ATB8 (lanes 1, 2 and 3) and ATD8 (lanes 4, 5 and 6). Lanes 7 and 8 correspond to controls with primers ATB8 without DNA. (B) Specific amplification with primers ATB1 (lanes 1, 2 and 3) and ATF11 (lanes 6, 7 and 8). Lanes 4–5 and 9–10 are controls without DNA for primer sets ATB1 and ATF11, respectively. M = 100-bp DNA size marker. Species-specific microsatellite amplifications using A. catenella and A. tamarense primers were carried out in a MaxiGene Gradiente thermocycler (Axygen) in 1× PCR buffer, 20–50 ng of genomic DNA template, 3 mM MgCl 2, 100 µM each dNTP, 0.1 µM each primer and 0.4 U of TopTaq DNA polymerase (Fermentas) in a 10-µL reaction volume. Five microlitres of each PCR product were analysed in a 2 % agarose gel. A Fermentas GeneRuller TM 100-bp DNA ladder was used for size estimation of amplified fragments.

    Article Snippet: All amplifications were carried out in duplicate with 1× PCR buffer, 20–50 ng of genomic DNA template, 3 mM MgCl2, 100 µM each dNTP, 0.1 µM each primer and 0.4 U of recombinant Taq DNA polymerase (MBI Fermentas, Vilnius, Lithuania) in a 10-µL reaction volume.

    Techniques: Amplification, Marker, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    Fig. 6. Pol μ-catalysed misinsertion at the four template bases. The four template–primer structures used, which differ only in the first template base (outlined), are indicated on the left. The single-stranded oligonucleotide corresponding to the primer strand was assayed in parallel as a control of DNA-independent nucleotide insertion. Mg 2+ -activated nucleotide insertion on each 5′–labelled DNA substrate (3.2 nM) was analysed in the presence of either the complementary nucleotide (10 μM) or each of the three incorrect dNTPs (100 μM), as described in Materials and methods. Mn 2+ -activated nucleotide insertion was assayed with each of the four dNTPs (0.1 μM). After incubation for 15 min at 30°C in the presence of 20 ng of human Pol μ, extension of the 5′–labelled (*) strand was analysed by electrophoresis in an 8 M urea–20% polyacrylamide gel and autoradiography.

    Journal: The EMBO Journal

    Article Title: DNA polymerase mu (Pol ?), homologous to TdT, could act as a DNA mutator in eukaryotic cells

    doi: 10.1093/emboj/19.7.1731

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fig. 6. Pol μ-catalysed misinsertion at the four template bases. The four template–primer structures used, which differ only in the first template base (outlined), are indicated on the left. The single-stranded oligonucleotide corresponding to the primer strand was assayed in parallel as a control of DNA-independent nucleotide insertion. Mg 2+ -activated nucleotide insertion on each 5′–labelled DNA substrate (3.2 nM) was analysed in the presence of either the complementary nucleotide (10 μM) or each of the three incorrect dNTPs (100 μM), as described in Materials and methods. Mn 2+ -activated nucleotide insertion was assayed with each of the four dNTPs (0.1 μM). After incubation for 15 min at 30°C in the presence of 20 ng of human Pol μ, extension of the 5′–labelled (*) strand was analysed by electrophoresis in an 8 M urea–20% polyacrylamide gel and autoradiography.

    Article Snippet: The PCRs were performed in a total volume of 10 μl, using 25 ng of template, 5 μM primers h2MAPs and h2MAPas, 1.25 mM MgCl2 , 0.2 mM dNTPs and 0.025 U of Taq DNA polymerase (Gibco-BRL) in the buffer supplied by the manufacturer.

    Techniques: Incubation, Electrophoresis, Autoradiography

    Fig. 5. Inhibition of DNA-directed synthesis by non-complementary dNTPs. ( A ) Inhibition of [α– 32 P]dATP labelling of activated (gapped) DNA by addition of different concentrations of a mixture of dC, dG and dTTP, in the presence of 1 mM MnCl 2 (a scheme is depicted). Under the standard conditions described in Materials and methods, only dATP (13 nM) is used as substrate for this assay. After incubation for 15 min at 37°C in the presence of either TdT (2.5 U/41 ng), Klenow (1 U) or Pol μ (20 ng), and the concentration indicated of dNTPs, dAMP incorporation on activated DNA was expressed as a percentage of that obtained under standard assay conditions: 100% represents either 73 (TdT), 13 (Klenow) or 8 (Pol μ) fmol of incorporated dAMP. ( B ) A similar analysis was carried out, but using a poly(dT)/oligo(dA) hybrid to provide a homopolymeric template (dT)n. The assay was carried out in the presence of 1 mM MnCl 2 , 13 nM [α– 32 P]dATP as the correct nucleotide, either 20 ng of Pol μ (circles) or 1 U of Klenow (squares), and the concentration indicated (on the abscissa) of individual non-complementary dNTPs. After 5 min at 37°C, dAMP incorporation on poly(dT)/oligo(dA) was expressed as a percentage of that obtained when non-complementary nucleotides were added: 100% represents either 23 (Pol μ) or 127 (Klenow) fmol of incorporated dAMP.

    Journal: The EMBO Journal

    Article Title: DNA polymerase mu (Pol ?), homologous to TdT, could act as a DNA mutator in eukaryotic cells

    doi: 10.1093/emboj/19.7.1731

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Fig. 5. Inhibition of DNA-directed synthesis by non-complementary dNTPs. ( A ) Inhibition of [α– 32 P]dATP labelling of activated (gapped) DNA by addition of different concentrations of a mixture of dC, dG and dTTP, in the presence of 1 mM MnCl 2 (a scheme is depicted). Under the standard conditions described in Materials and methods, only dATP (13 nM) is used as substrate for this assay. After incubation for 15 min at 37°C in the presence of either TdT (2.5 U/41 ng), Klenow (1 U) or Pol μ (20 ng), and the concentration indicated of dNTPs, dAMP incorporation on activated DNA was expressed as a percentage of that obtained under standard assay conditions: 100% represents either 73 (TdT), 13 (Klenow) or 8 (Pol μ) fmol of incorporated dAMP. ( B ) A similar analysis was carried out, but using a poly(dT)/oligo(dA) hybrid to provide a homopolymeric template (dT)n. The assay was carried out in the presence of 1 mM MnCl 2 , 13 nM [α– 32 P]dATP as the correct nucleotide, either 20 ng of Pol μ (circles) or 1 U of Klenow (squares), and the concentration indicated (on the abscissa) of individual non-complementary dNTPs. After 5 min at 37°C, dAMP incorporation on poly(dT)/oligo(dA) was expressed as a percentage of that obtained when non-complementary nucleotides were added: 100% represents either 23 (Pol μ) or 127 (Klenow) fmol of incorporated dAMP.

    Article Snippet: The PCRs were performed in a total volume of 10 μl, using 25 ng of template, 5 μM primers h2MAPs and h2MAPas, 1.25 mM MgCl2 , 0.2 mM dNTPs and 0.025 U of Taq DNA polymerase (Gibco-BRL) in the buffer supplied by the manufacturer.

    Techniques: Inhibition, Incubation, Concentration Assay

    Gli1, cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA levels in blank, Lipofectamine, siRNA-Gli1, BCNU and combination groups. Semi-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed using SuperScript III One-Step RT-PCR kit (12574-018, Invitrogen, Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) on PCR thermo cycler (C1000, Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA). The 20 μl reaction system was formed by cDNA (5 μl), 10× buffer (2 μl), 25 mmol/L MgCl 2 (0.8 μl), 2.5 mmol/L dNTP (2 μl), DNA polymerase (0.2 μl; Takara, Tokyo, Japan), and upstream and downstream primers (1 μl each). M, markers; 1, blank group; 2, Lipofectamine group; 3, BCNU group; 4, siRNA-Gli1 group; 5, combination group.

    Journal: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology

    Article Title: Knockdown of Gli1 by small-interfering RNA enhances the effects of BCNU on the proliferation and apoptosis of glioma U251 cells

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Gli1, cyclin D1, Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA levels in blank, Lipofectamine, siRNA-Gli1, BCNU and combination groups. Semi-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed using SuperScript III One-Step RT-PCR kit (12574-018, Invitrogen, Thermo Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) on PCR thermo cycler (C1000, Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA). The 20 μl reaction system was formed by cDNA (5 μl), 10× buffer (2 μl), 25 mmol/L MgCl 2 (0.8 μl), 2.5 mmol/L dNTP (2 μl), DNA polymerase (0.2 μl; Takara, Tokyo, Japan), and upstream and downstream primers (1 μl each). M, markers; 1, blank group; 2, Lipofectamine group; 3, BCNU group; 4, siRNA-Gli1 group; 5, combination group.

    Article Snippet: The 20 μl reaction system was formed by cDNA (5 μl), 10× buffer (2 μl), 25 mmol/L MgCl2 (0.8 μl), 2.5 mmol/L dNTP (2 μl), DNA polymerase (0.2 μl; Takara, Tokyo, Japan), and upstream and downstream primers (1 μl each).

    Techniques: Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Primer extension from the CTNA-blocked termini by the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I, with or without its proofreading 3′–5′ exonuclease activity (KF + or KF − , respectively, from Takara Bio, Inc., Shiga, Japan), in the ( A ) presence or ( B ) absence of dNTPs. ( A ) The 32 P-labeled oligonucleotides, 32 P-d(TCCGTTGAAGCCTGCTTT)X, where X represents no added nucleoside (OH, lanes 1–3), 2’-deoxyadenosine (lanes 4–6), acyclovir (ACV, lanes 7–9), abacavir (ABC, lanes 10–12), carbovir (CBV, lanes 13–15) or lamivudine ((−)3TC, lanes 16–18), were hybridized with their complementary strands, d(CTCGTCAGCTANAAAGCAGGCTTCAACGGA), where N represents A (for ABC and an oligonucleotide without CTNAs), G (for A and (−)3TC) or C (for ACV and CBV). Each substrate was incubated at 37 °C for 10 min, in the absence (lanes 1, 4, 7, 10, 13 and 16) or presence of KF − (0.1 unit, lanes 2, 5, 8, 11, 14 and 17) or KF + (0.1 unit, lanes 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18), in 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.9) containing 50 mM NaCl, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 10 mM DTT and 100 µM dNTPs; ( B ) The 32 P-labeled substrates were incubated with KF + at 37 °C for the indicated incubation time, in the same reaction buffer without dNTPs.

    Journal: Molecules

    Article Title: Chemical Incorporation of Chain-Terminating Nucleoside Analogs as 3′-Blocking DNA Damage and Their Removal by Human ERCC1-XPF Endonuclease

    doi: 10.3390/molecules21060766

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Primer extension from the CTNA-blocked termini by the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I, with or without its proofreading 3′–5′ exonuclease activity (KF + or KF − , respectively, from Takara Bio, Inc., Shiga, Japan), in the ( A ) presence or ( B ) absence of dNTPs. ( A ) The 32 P-labeled oligonucleotides, 32 P-d(TCCGTTGAAGCCTGCTTT)X, where X represents no added nucleoside (OH, lanes 1–3), 2’-deoxyadenosine (lanes 4–6), acyclovir (ACV, lanes 7–9), abacavir (ABC, lanes 10–12), carbovir (CBV, lanes 13–15) or lamivudine ((−)3TC, lanes 16–18), were hybridized with their complementary strands, d(CTCGTCAGCTANAAAGCAGGCTTCAACGGA), where N represents A (for ABC and an oligonucleotide without CTNAs), G (for A and (−)3TC) or C (for ACV and CBV). Each substrate was incubated at 37 °C for 10 min, in the absence (lanes 1, 4, 7, 10, 13 and 16) or presence of KF − (0.1 unit, lanes 2, 5, 8, 11, 14 and 17) or KF + (0.1 unit, lanes 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18), in 10 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.9) containing 50 mM NaCl, 10 mM MgCl 2 , 10 mM DTT and 100 µM dNTPs; ( B ) The 32 P-labeled substrates were incubated with KF + at 37 °C for the indicated incubation time, in the same reaction buffer without dNTPs.

    Article Snippet: Resumption of DNA Synthesis by DNA Polymerase after the Removal of CTNAs The hybridized oligonucleotides (400 fmol) were first treated with ERCC1-XPF (230 fmol) in 10 µL of 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0), containing 2 mM MgCl2 , 0.5 mM DTT and 0.1 mg·mL−1 BSA, at 25 °C for 16 h. To the reaction mixture was added 5 µL of 30 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.9), containing 150 mM NaCl, 30 mM MgCl2 , 30 mM DTT, 300 µM dNTPs and the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I, lacking the 3′–5′ exonuclease activity (KF− , 0.1 unit, Takara Bio).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Labeling, Incubation

    Repair of the CTNA-containing oligonucleotides by human ERCC1-XPF endonuclease and DNA polymerase. Panels A and B represent the reaction scheme and the results, respectively. First, the 32 P-labeled substrates (400 fmol) were incubated at 25 °C for 16 h, in the absence (lanes 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 14, 17, 18, 21 and 22) or presence (the other lanes) of ERCC1-XPF (230 fmol), in 10 µL of 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0) containing 2 mM MgCl 2 , 0.5 mM DTT and 0.1 mg·mL −1 BSA. Then, a polymerase reaction mixture (5 µL, containing 30 mM Tris-HCl, (pH 7.9), 150 mM NaCl, 30 mM MgCl 2 , 30 mM DTT, 300 µM dNTPs and 0.1 unit of KF − for even lanes) or 5 mM EDTA (5 µL for odd lanes) was added to the reaction mixture, and the total reaction mixtures (15 µL) were incubated at 37 °C for 10 min. The cleavage sites observed with ERCC1-XPF are indicated by black triangles. The fully extended products were quantified, and the values are shown.

    Journal: Molecules

    Article Title: Chemical Incorporation of Chain-Terminating Nucleoside Analogs as 3′-Blocking DNA Damage and Their Removal by Human ERCC1-XPF Endonuclease

    doi: 10.3390/molecules21060766

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Repair of the CTNA-containing oligonucleotides by human ERCC1-XPF endonuclease and DNA polymerase. Panels A and B represent the reaction scheme and the results, respectively. First, the 32 P-labeled substrates (400 fmol) were incubated at 25 °C for 16 h, in the absence (lanes 1, 2, 5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 14, 17, 18, 21 and 22) or presence (the other lanes) of ERCC1-XPF (230 fmol), in 10 µL of 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0) containing 2 mM MgCl 2 , 0.5 mM DTT and 0.1 mg·mL −1 BSA. Then, a polymerase reaction mixture (5 µL, containing 30 mM Tris-HCl, (pH 7.9), 150 mM NaCl, 30 mM MgCl 2 , 30 mM DTT, 300 µM dNTPs and 0.1 unit of KF − for even lanes) or 5 mM EDTA (5 µL for odd lanes) was added to the reaction mixture, and the total reaction mixtures (15 µL) were incubated at 37 °C for 10 min. The cleavage sites observed with ERCC1-XPF are indicated by black triangles. The fully extended products were quantified, and the values are shown.

    Article Snippet: Resumption of DNA Synthesis by DNA Polymerase after the Removal of CTNAs The hybridized oligonucleotides (400 fmol) were first treated with ERCC1-XPF (230 fmol) in 10 µL of 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0), containing 2 mM MgCl2 , 0.5 mM DTT and 0.1 mg·mL−1 BSA, at 25 °C for 16 h. To the reaction mixture was added 5 µL of 30 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.9), containing 150 mM NaCl, 30 mM MgCl2 , 30 mM DTT, 300 µM dNTPs and the Klenow fragment of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase I, lacking the 3′–5′ exonuclease activity (KF− , 0.1 unit, Takara Bio).

    Techniques: Labeling, Incubation

    Incorporation of Fc1-dUTP into DNA by Klenow fragment and T4 DNA polymerase. The P18.1/T40.1 primer–template pair of Figure 3 was incubated with DNA polymerase and different sets of dNTPs as indicated. DNA fragment lengths in nucleotides are shown on the left.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Ferrocene conjugates of dUTP for enzymatic redox labelling of DNA

    doi:

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Incorporation of Fc1-dUTP into DNA by Klenow fragment and T4 DNA polymerase. The P18.1/T40.1 primer–template pair of Figure 3 was incubated with DNA polymerase and different sets of dNTPs as indicated. DNA fragment lengths in nucleotides are shown on the left.

    Article Snippet: To generate the duplex for HPLC–ECD, the P18.1 and T40.1 oligonucleotides (4 µM each) were annealed before incubation in 240 µl of reaction mixture containing 6.7 mM Tris–HCl pH 8.8, 6.6 mM MgCl2 , 1 mM DTT, 16.8 mM (NH4 )2 SO4 , 200 µM dNTPs (except dTTP), 200 µM Fc1-dUTP and 0.25 U/µl Klenow fragment at room temperature for 20 min. Low molecular weight components were removed with a Bio-Spin 30 chromatography column (Bio-Rad).

    Techniques: Incubation

    In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. ( A ) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (‘A’) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (‘N’). TR is transcribed to produce TR- RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR- cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by ‘X’ in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR- cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. ( B ) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. ( C ) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). ( D ) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . ( E ) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. ( F ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (–Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ∼580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ∼540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A 2-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than –Per samples.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gky620

    Figure Lengend Snippet: In vitro template-primed cDNA synthesis. ( A ) Bordetella bacteriophage DGR diversification of Mtd. mtd contains a variable region ( VR ), which encodes the receptor-binding site of the Mtd protein. Downstream of VR is the template region ( TR ). Adenines in TR (‘A’) are frequently replaced by another base in VR (‘N’). TR is transcribed to produce TR- RNA, which is then reverse transcribed to TR- cDNA. During this process, adenines in TR are mutagenized, as depicted by ‘X’ in TR -cDNA. Adenine-mutagenized TR- cDNA homes to and replaces VR , resulting in diversification of Mtd. bRT is the DGR reverse transcriptase, and avd the DGR accessory variability determinant. ( B ) Sequence elements of the 580 nt DGR RNA template used for reverse transcription reactions. ( C ) bRT-Avd, bRT, or Avd was incubated with the 580 nt DGR RNA and dNTPs, including [α- 32 P]dCTP, for 2h. Products resulting from the incubation were untreated (U), or treated with RNase (+R), DNase (+D), or both RNase and DNase (+R+D), and resolved by 8% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled 580 nt DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. The positions of the 580 nt band, and 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. Nuclease-treated samples were loaded at twice the amount as untreated samples, here and throughout unless otherwise indicated. Lane M here and throughout corresponds to radiolabeled, single-stranded DNA molecular mass markers (nt units). ( D ) DGR RNA templates containing internal truncations in TR . ( E ) Radiolabeled cDNA products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with intact (WT) or internally truncated 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Samples were treated with RNase and resolved by denaturing PAGE. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs produced from intact template are indicated by red and yellow circles, respectively, as are positions of the correspondingly shorter cDNAs produced from truncated RNA templates. ( F ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template. Prior to reverse transcription, the RNA template was mock-treated (–Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products of the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 4% (top) or 8% (bottom) denaturing PAGE. In the top gel, the red arrowhead indicates the ∼580 nt species, and the green arrowheads the several ∼540 nt species. In the bottom gel, the black arrowheads indicate the 120 and 90 nt cDNA products. The black vertical line within the gel indicates irrelevant lanes that were removed for display purposes. A 2-fold higher quantity was loaded for +Per samples than –Per samples.

    Article Snippet: Reactions were carried out in 20 μl containing 1.8 μM bRT-Avd, bRT or Avd, 100 ng/μl RNA template, 100 μM dNTPs (Promega) (or varying concentrations of certain dNTPs), 0.5 μCi/μl [α-32 P]dCTP, 20 units RNase inhibitor (NEB) in 75 mM KCl, 3 mM MgCl2 , 10 mM DTT, 50 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, 10% glycerol for 2 h at 37°C.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Binding Assay, Sequencing, Incubation, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Activity Assay, Produced

    Core DGR RNA. ( A ) Schematic of core DGR RNA. ( B ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. ( C ) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (–), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5′ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5′+dC) or cDNA (5′+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3′ fragment of the RNA are indicated. ( D ) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. ( E ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5′ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gky620

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Core DGR RNA. ( A ) Schematic of core DGR RNA. ( B ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the core DGR RNA as template. Prior to the reverse transcription reaction, the RNA template was untreated (-Per) or treated with periodate (+Per). Products from the reaction were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by 6% denaturing PAGE. Lane T corresponds to internally-labeled core DGR RNA as a marker for the size of the template. Red arrowheads indicate radiolabeled product bands that migrate at the same position or slower than the core DGR RNA, and green arrowheads ones that migrate faster. The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNA bands are indicated. The two panels are from the same gel, with the black line indicating that intermediate lanes were removed. ( C ) Internally-labeled core DGR RNA was not incubated (–), or incubated with bRT-Avd alone or bRT-Avd with 100 μM standard dNTPs (+dNTP), 100 μM dCTP (+CTP), 100 μM dNTPs excluding dCTP (+d(A,T,G)TP), or 100 μM nonhydrolyzeable analog of dCTP (+N-dCTP) for 2 h. Incubation products were resolved by denaturing PAGE. The band corresponding to the 5′ fragment of the cleaved core RNA containing either a deoxycytidine alone (5′+dC) or cDNA (5′+cDNA), and the band corresponding to the 3′ fragment of the RNA are indicated. ( D ) The core DGR RNA was biotinylated at its 3′ end (RNA-Bio), and either reacted with no protein or used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. The core DGR RNA in its unbiotinylated form (RNA) was also used as a template for reverse transcription with bRT-Avd. Samples were then purified using streptavidin beads, and the presence of TR -cDNA in the purified samples was assessed by PCR. Products from the PCR reaction were resolved on an agarose gel. ( E ) Radiolabeled products resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 12 h with core, hybrid core dA56, or hybrid core A56 DGR RNA as template. Products were untreated (U) or treated with RNase (+R), and resolved by denaturing PAGE. Separate samples of core dA56 and A56 were 5′ 32 P-labeled for visualization of inputs (I). The positions of the 120 and 90 nt cDNAs are indicated.

    Article Snippet: Reactions were carried out in 20 μl containing 1.8 μM bRT-Avd, bRT or Avd, 100 ng/μl RNA template, 100 μM dNTPs (Promega) (or varying concentrations of certain dNTPs), 0.5 μCi/μl [α-32 P]dCTP, 20 units RNase inhibitor (NEB) in 75 mM KCl, 3 mM MgCl2 , 10 mM DTT, 50 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, 10% glycerol for 2 h at 37°C.

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, Labeling, Marker, Incubation, Purification, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

    Adenine mutagenesis and template-priming. ( A ) Covalently-linked RNA–cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. ( B ) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (–), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. ( C ) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. ( D ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by ‘+’,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (–G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( E ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( F ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase- and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE.

    Journal: Nucleic Acids Research

    Article Title: Template-assisted synthesis of adenine-mutagenized cDNA by a retroelement protein complex

    doi: 10.1093/nar/gky620

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Adenine mutagenesis and template-priming. ( A ) Covalently-linked RNA–cDNA molecule. The linkage is to Sp A56 of the RNA, and the first nucleotide reverse transcribed is TR G117. The RT-PCR product resulting from primers 1 and 2 (blue arrows) is indicated by the dashed red line. ( B ) RT-PCR amplicons from 580 nt DGR RNA reacted with no protein (–), bRT, Avd, or bRT-Avd, separated on a 2% agarose gel and ethidium bromide-stained. The specific amplicon produced from reaction with bRT-Avd shown by the red arrowhead. ( C ) Percentage of substitutions in TR -cDNA determined by sequencing. ( D ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template for 2 h (left) or 12 h (right). Either standard dNTPs (dATP, dGTP, dCTP, TTP), as indicated by ‘+’,were present in the reaction, or standard dNTPs excluding dATP (-A), dGTP (–G), or TTP (-T) were present. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( E ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying TTP (top) or dUTP (bottom) concentrations. Products were treated with RNase, and resolved by denaturing PAGE. ( F ) Radiolabeled 120 and 90 nt cDNA products, indicated by arrowheads, resulting from bRT-Avd activity for 2 h with the 580 nt DGR RNA as template with varying dUTP concentrations. Products were either RNase-treated (top), or both RNase- and UDG-treated (bottom), and resolved by denaturing PAGE.

    Article Snippet: Reactions were carried out in 20 μl containing 1.8 μM bRT-Avd, bRT or Avd, 100 ng/μl RNA template, 100 μM dNTPs (Promega) (or varying concentrations of certain dNTPs), 0.5 μCi/μl [α-32 P]dCTP, 20 units RNase inhibitor (NEB) in 75 mM KCl, 3 mM MgCl2 , 10 mM DTT, 50 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, 10% glycerol for 2 h at 37°C.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction, Agarose Gel Electrophoresis, Staining, Amplification, Produced, Sequencing, Activity Assay, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis