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    Prepared from purified salmon testes DNA Code SDNA by mechanical shearing and heat denaturation to an average fragment size of 200 1000 base pairs To reverse any renaturation occurring during
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    Zymo Research zymoclean large fragment dna recovery kit
    Zymoclean Large Fragment Dna Recovery Kit, supplied by Zymo Research, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 286 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Millipore dna fragments
    Performance of various hgRNAs. ( A ) The sequence of seven different hgRNAs. Transcription start site (TSS), spacer sequence, and PAM are marked with grey, blue, and pink boxes, respectively. ( B,C,D ) Cas9 is induced in cell lines with the hgRNAs from panel A integrated genomically. <t>DNA</t> samples harvested before (t=0 days) and at various points after induction are characterized by high-throughput sequencing to quantify mutations, functionality, and generated diversity for each hgRNA. See also Supplementary table 1 . ( E ) Design of four longer variants of <t>hgRNA-A21.</t> Stuffer sequences of 5, 30, 55, or 80 base pairs were added upstream of a spacer very similar to the A21 spacer to obtain the four increasingly lengthy A’ variants. ( F,G,H ) Cas9 is induced in cell lines with the hgRNAs from panel E integrated genomically. DNA samples harvested before (t=0 days) and at various points after induction are characterized by high-throughput sequencing to quantify mutations and functionality of hgRNA loci. Data points represent duplicate experiments.
    Dna Fragments, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 6612 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    New England Biolabs klenow dna polymerase
    Performance of various hgRNAs. ( A ) The sequence of seven different hgRNAs. Transcription start site (TSS), spacer sequence, and PAM are marked with grey, blue, and pink boxes, respectively. ( B,C,D ) Cas9 is induced in cell lines with the hgRNAs from panel A integrated genomically. <t>DNA</t> samples harvested before (t=0 days) and at various points after induction are characterized by high-throughput sequencing to quantify mutations, functionality, and generated diversity for each hgRNA. See also Supplementary table 1 . ( E ) Design of four longer variants of <t>hgRNA-A21.</t> Stuffer sequences of 5, 30, 55, or 80 base pairs were added upstream of a spacer very similar to the A21 spacer to obtain the four increasingly lengthy A’ variants. ( F,G,H ) Cas9 is induced in cell lines with the hgRNAs from panel E integrated genomically. DNA samples harvested before (t=0 days) and at various points after induction are characterized by high-throughput sequencing to quantify mutations and functionality of hgRNA loci. Data points represent duplicate experiments.
    Klenow Dna Polymerase, supplied by New England Biolabs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1570 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher dna fragments
    (A-B) Schematics illustrating the procedure to generate the slo <t>E366G</t> and slo loxP alleles via ends-out homologous recombination (A) and method for molecular validation (B). The slo locus is shown. Grey boxes represent 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions, black boxes represent both constitutive and alternatively spliced coding exons. Region encompassed by targeting arms is denoted by the grey dashed box. Linearized recombinogenic arms (Arm 1 and Arm 2, separated by loxP and mini- white + sequences) were liberated from a genomic p[w25 . 2] insertion as described in Supplemental Ref. 2. Potential recombinants were initially identified by the presence of non-white eye colour due to the mini- white + marker, then validated through PCR via the strategy shown in (B). Validated recombinants are denoted by a PCR product of approximately 3.3 kb amplified from single-fly genomic <t>DNA</t> that was absent in non-recombinant control DNA (-ve control).
    Dna Fragments, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 25274 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Transgenomic wave dna fragment analysis system
    Mutation detection in the T4_promoter fragment. Three polymorphisms were detected by <t>dHPLC</t> in the T4_promoter fragment and were verified by <t>DNA</t> sequencing. The four dHPLC graphs correspond to the wild-type sequence (A), SNPs T-441C (B), SNP A-271G (C) and SNP G-259C (D). The wild-type pattern is visible in all dHPLC graphs as a 1 peak trace. SNP T-441C is identified by an unequal height 2 peak trace (B), SNP A-271G is identified by an equal height 2 peak trace (C) and SNP G-259C is identified by a 3 peak trace (D). The positions of the sequence variants in the T4_promoter fragment identified by dHPLC were determined by DNA sequencing. All SNPs were present in the heterozygous state.
    Wave Dna Fragment Analysis System, supplied by Transgenomic, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 90/100, based on 577 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    New England Biolabs hifi dna assembly
    Mutation detection in the T4_promoter fragment. Three polymorphisms were detected by <t>dHPLC</t> in the T4_promoter fragment and were verified by <t>DNA</t> sequencing. The four dHPLC graphs correspond to the wild-type sequence (A), SNPs T-441C (B), SNP A-271G (C) and SNP G-259C (D). The wild-type pattern is visible in all dHPLC graphs as a 1 peak trace. SNP T-441C is identified by an unequal height 2 peak trace (B), SNP A-271G is identified by an equal height 2 peak trace (C) and SNP G-259C is identified by a 3 peak trace (D). The positions of the sequence variants in the T4_promoter fragment identified by dHPLC were determined by DNA sequencing. All SNPs were present in the heterozygous state.
    Hifi Dna Assembly, supplied by New England Biolabs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 522 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    TaKaRa dna extraction kit
    IRF1 inhibits PGC1α expression via directly binding to its promoter region. a After being co-transfected with pRL-TK vector and pGL3-basic or recombinant reporter plasmids containing various fragments of PGC1α promoter region, <t>H9c2</t> cells were treated with control or HP and then harvested for dual-luciferase reporter assay. The firefly luciferase activity was normalized against Renilla activity. b H9c2 cells were co-transfected with pRL-TK vector and pGL3-PGC1α-P3 or pGL3-PGC1α-M3 (containing the mutant bases of pGL3-PGC1α-P3 underlined in the sequencing results), treated with control or HP and harvested for luciferase assay. c , d H9c2 cells were treated with control or HP for 24 h and harvested for ChIP assay. IRF1 antibody was immunoprecipitated with chromatin <t>DNA</t> fragments, taking IgG as a negative control. The precipitated DNA was amplified by PCR c and qPCR d using primers that cover the PGC1α promoter region (−709 to −511), taking primers that cover the region (−1711 to −1598) as a negative control. e , f qPCR and representative western blot analysis of IRF1 and PGC1α expressions in cells treated with siPit1, siPit2, or both in the presence or absence of HP. g , h H9c2 cells were treated with control or HP, and H3K9 acetylation was assayed using ChIP. i qPCR analysis of histone acetyltransferase genes expression in H9c2 cells treated with control or HP. j – l qPCR and western blot analysis of IRF1 and PGC1α expressions in cells treated with a P300/CBP inhibitor (C646, 10 μM) or a pan-histone acetyltransferase inhibitor (anacardic acid, AA,10 μM) in the presence or absence of HP. Data are shown as mean ± SD and were analyzed by a two-tailed unpaired t -test ( a – d , h , i ) or one-way ANOVA ( e , f , j , k ). n = 3 biologically independent experiments ( a , b , d – f , h – k ). * P
    Dna Extraction Kit, supplied by TaKaRa, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1182 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    New England Biolabs bst dna polymerase large fragment
    IRF1 inhibits PGC1α expression via directly binding to its promoter region. a After being co-transfected with pRL-TK vector and pGL3-basic or recombinant reporter plasmids containing various fragments of PGC1α promoter region, <t>H9c2</t> cells were treated with control or HP and then harvested for dual-luciferase reporter assay. The firefly luciferase activity was normalized against Renilla activity. b H9c2 cells were co-transfected with pRL-TK vector and pGL3-PGC1α-P3 or pGL3-PGC1α-M3 (containing the mutant bases of pGL3-PGC1α-P3 underlined in the sequencing results), treated with control or HP and harvested for luciferase assay. c , d H9c2 cells were treated with control or HP for 24 h and harvested for ChIP assay. IRF1 antibody was immunoprecipitated with chromatin <t>DNA</t> fragments, taking IgG as a negative control. The precipitated DNA was amplified by PCR c and qPCR d using primers that cover the PGC1α promoter region (−709 to −511), taking primers that cover the region (−1711 to −1598) as a negative control. e , f qPCR and representative western blot analysis of IRF1 and PGC1α expressions in cells treated with siPit1, siPit2, or both in the presence or absence of HP. g , h H9c2 cells were treated with control or HP, and H3K9 acetylation was assayed using ChIP. i qPCR analysis of histone acetyltransferase genes expression in H9c2 cells treated with control or HP. j – l qPCR and western blot analysis of IRF1 and PGC1α expressions in cells treated with a P300/CBP inhibitor (C646, 10 μM) or a pan-histone acetyltransferase inhibitor (anacardic acid, AA,10 μM) in the presence or absence of HP. Data are shown as mean ± SD and were analyzed by a two-tailed unpaired t -test ( a – d , h , i ) or one-way ANOVA ( e , f , j , k ). n = 3 biologically independent experiments ( a , b , d – f , h – k ). * P
    Bst Dna Polymerase Large Fragment, supplied by New England Biolabs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 330 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Valiant dna fragments
    IRF1 inhibits PGC1α expression via directly binding to its promoter region. a After being co-transfected with pRL-TK vector and pGL3-basic or recombinant reporter plasmids containing various fragments of PGC1α promoter region, <t>H9c2</t> cells were treated with control or HP and then harvested for dual-luciferase reporter assay. The firefly luciferase activity was normalized against Renilla activity. b H9c2 cells were co-transfected with pRL-TK vector and pGL3-PGC1α-P3 or pGL3-PGC1α-M3 (containing the mutant bases of pGL3-PGC1α-P3 underlined in the sequencing results), treated with control or HP and harvested for luciferase assay. c , d H9c2 cells were treated with control or HP for 24 h and harvested for ChIP assay. IRF1 antibody was immunoprecipitated with chromatin <t>DNA</t> fragments, taking IgG as a negative control. The precipitated DNA was amplified by PCR c and qPCR d using primers that cover the PGC1α promoter region (−709 to −511), taking primers that cover the region (−1711 to −1598) as a negative control. e , f qPCR and representative western blot analysis of IRF1 and PGC1α expressions in cells treated with siPit1, siPit2, or both in the presence or absence of HP. g , h H9c2 cells were treated with control or HP, and H3K9 acetylation was assayed using ChIP. i qPCR analysis of histone acetyltransferase genes expression in H9c2 cells treated with control or HP. j – l qPCR and western blot analysis of IRF1 and PGC1α expressions in cells treated with a P300/CBP inhibitor (C646, 10 μM) or a pan-histone acetyltransferase inhibitor (anacardic acid, AA,10 μM) in the presence or absence of HP. Data are shown as mean ± SD and were analyzed by a two-tailed unpaired t -test ( a – d , h , i ) or one-way ANOVA ( e , f , j , k ). n = 3 biologically independent experiments ( a , b , d – f , h – k ). * P
    Dna Fragments, supplied by Valiant, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 521 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    New England Biolabs klenow fragment dna polymerase
    IRF1 inhibits PGC1α expression via directly binding to its promoter region. a After being co-transfected with pRL-TK vector and pGL3-basic or recombinant reporter plasmids containing various fragments of PGC1α promoter region, <t>H9c2</t> cells were treated with control or HP and then harvested for dual-luciferase reporter assay. The firefly luciferase activity was normalized against Renilla activity. b H9c2 cells were co-transfected with pRL-TK vector and pGL3-PGC1α-P3 or pGL3-PGC1α-M3 (containing the mutant bases of pGL3-PGC1α-P3 underlined in the sequencing results), treated with control or HP and harvested for luciferase assay. c , d H9c2 cells were treated with control or HP for 24 h and harvested for ChIP assay. IRF1 antibody was immunoprecipitated with chromatin <t>DNA</t> fragments, taking IgG as a negative control. The precipitated DNA was amplified by PCR c and qPCR d using primers that cover the PGC1α promoter region (−709 to −511), taking primers that cover the region (−1711 to −1598) as a negative control. e , f qPCR and representative western blot analysis of IRF1 and PGC1α expressions in cells treated with siPit1, siPit2, or both in the presence or absence of HP. g , h H9c2 cells were treated with control or HP, and H3K9 acetylation was assayed using ChIP. i qPCR analysis of histone acetyltransferase genes expression in H9c2 cells treated with control or HP. j – l qPCR and western blot analysis of IRF1 and PGC1α expressions in cells treated with a P300/CBP inhibitor (C646, 10 μM) or a pan-histone acetyltransferase inhibitor (anacardic acid, AA,10 μM) in the presence or absence of HP. Data are shown as mean ± SD and were analyzed by a two-tailed unpaired t -test ( a – d , h , i ) or one-way ANOVA ( e , f , j , k ). n = 3 biologically independent experiments ( a , b , d – f , h – k ). * P
    Klenow Fragment Dna Polymerase, supplied by New England Biolabs, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 308 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Boehringer Mannheim dna fragmentation
    Effect of bcl-2 overexpression on <t>Cdt-induced</t> G 2 arrest and <t>DNA</t> fragmentation. Jurkat neo and Jurkat bcl-2 cells were incubated in the presence of medium alone (Ctl), 0.05 ng/ml Cdt, or 5 ng/ml Cdt for 18 h; the cells were then stained with propidium iodide and by TUNEL to measure cell cycle distribution (panels on the right) and DNA fragmentation (panels on the left), respectively. The percentages of cells in the phases of the cell cycle are indicated, as are the percentages of cells exhibiting DNA fragmentation. The results are representative of at least three experiments.
    Dna Fragmentation, supplied by Boehringer Mannheim, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 281 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Thermo Fisher pbr322 dna bsuri haeiii marker
    Effect of bcl-2 overexpression on <t>Cdt-induced</t> G 2 arrest and <t>DNA</t> fragmentation. Jurkat neo and Jurkat bcl-2 cells were incubated in the presence of medium alone (Ctl), 0.05 ng/ml Cdt, or 5 ng/ml Cdt for 18 h; the cells were then stained with propidium iodide and by TUNEL to measure cell cycle distribution (panels on the right) and DNA fragmentation (panels on the left), respectively. The percentages of cells in the phases of the cell cycle are indicated, as are the percentages of cells exhibiting DNA fragmentation. The results are representative of at least three experiments.
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    Thermo Fisher strings dna fragments
    Effect of bcl-2 overexpression on <t>Cdt-induced</t> G 2 arrest and <t>DNA</t> fragmentation. Jurkat neo and Jurkat bcl-2 cells were incubated in the presence of medium alone (Ctl), 0.05 ng/ml Cdt, or 5 ng/ml Cdt for 18 h; the cells were then stained with propidium iodide and by TUNEL to measure cell cycle distribution (panels on the right) and DNA fragmentation (panels on the left), respectively. The percentages of cells in the phases of the cell cycle are indicated, as are the percentages of cells exhibiting DNA fragmentation. The results are representative of at least three experiments.
    Strings Dna Fragments, supplied by Thermo Fisher, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 269 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Trevigen dna fragmentation
    The effects of CLK2 on radiation sensitivity of CCD-18Lu cells. Cells were transfected with either vacant vector or myc-CLK2 . At 24 h post-transfection, cells were exposed to 0.05–2 Gy of γ-rays and cell viability was assayed 48 h later. A , the overexpression of Myc-CLK2 at 72 h post-transfection. B , the cell viability of CLK2 overexpressing CCD-18Lu cells to ionizing radiation was determined by MTT assay. C , cell proliferation of CLK2 overexpressing cells after irradiation. D , effect of CLK2 overexpression on 2 Gy-induced <t>apoptosis.</t> <t>DNA</t> fragmentation was detected with HT TiterTACS Assay Kit for the quantification of apoptosis. B–D , data represent mean ± S.D. ( n = 3) and were analyzed by the t test. Data showed a significant difference compared with vector control at the indicated dose (*, p
    Dna Fragmentation, supplied by Trevigen, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 260 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Geneaid Biotech Ltd gel pcr dna fragments extraction kit
    Results of upgraded “Bruce- and Suis-ladder” PCRs of HUN-Bmi-01 strain. left side Bruce-ladder v2.0 <t>PCR</t> with 1682, 1071, 774, 587, 510, 450, 272, and 152 bp amplicons. M: 100 bp <t>DNA</t> marker, S: B. suis , C: B. canis , O: B. ovis , A: B. abortus . right side Suis-ladder PCR with 774 and 197 bp amplicons. M: 100 bp DNA marker, S1: B. suis biovar. 1, S2: B. suis biovar. 2
    Gel Pcr Dna Fragments Extraction Kit, supplied by Geneaid Biotech Ltd, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 89/100, based on 325 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Abcam in situ brdu red dna fragmentation tunel assay kit
    Results of upgraded “Bruce- and Suis-ladder” PCRs of HUN-Bmi-01 strain. left side Bruce-ladder v2.0 <t>PCR</t> with 1682, 1071, 774, 587, 510, 450, 272, and 152 bp amplicons. M: 100 bp <t>DNA</t> marker, S: B. suis , C: B. canis , O: B. ovis , A: B. abortus . right side Suis-ladder PCR with 774 and 197 bp amplicons. M: 100 bp DNA marker, S1: B. suis biovar. 1, S2: B. suis biovar. 2
    In Situ Brdu Red Dna Fragmentation Tunel Assay Kit, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 115 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Image Search Results


    Performance of various hgRNAs. ( A ) The sequence of seven different hgRNAs. Transcription start site (TSS), spacer sequence, and PAM are marked with grey, blue, and pink boxes, respectively. ( B,C,D ) Cas9 is induced in cell lines with the hgRNAs from panel A integrated genomically. DNA samples harvested before (t=0 days) and at various points after induction are characterized by high-throughput sequencing to quantify mutations, functionality, and generated diversity for each hgRNA. See also Supplementary table 1 . ( E ) Design of four longer variants of hgRNA-A21. Stuffer sequences of 5, 30, 55, or 80 base pairs were added upstream of a spacer very similar to the A21 spacer to obtain the four increasingly lengthy A’ variants. ( F,G,H ) Cas9 is induced in cell lines with the hgRNAs from panel E integrated genomically. DNA samples harvested before (t=0 days) and at various points after induction are characterized by high-throughput sequencing to quantify mutations and functionality of hgRNA loci. Data points represent duplicate experiments.

    Journal: Nature methods

    Article Title: Rapidly evolving homing CRISPR barcodes

    doi: 10.1038/nmeth.4108

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Performance of various hgRNAs. ( A ) The sequence of seven different hgRNAs. Transcription start site (TSS), spacer sequence, and PAM are marked with grey, blue, and pink boxes, respectively. ( B,C,D ) Cas9 is induced in cell lines with the hgRNAs from panel A integrated genomically. DNA samples harvested before (t=0 days) and at various points after induction are characterized by high-throughput sequencing to quantify mutations, functionality, and generated diversity for each hgRNA. See also Supplementary table 1 . ( E ) Design of four longer variants of hgRNA-A21. Stuffer sequences of 5, 30, 55, or 80 base pairs were added upstream of a spacer very similar to the A21 spacer to obtain the four increasingly lengthy A’ variants. ( F,G,H ) Cas9 is induced in cell lines with the hgRNAs from panel E integrated genomically. DNA samples harvested before (t=0 days) and at various points after induction are characterized by high-throughput sequencing to quantify mutations and functionality of hgRNA loci. Data points represent duplicate experiments.

    Article Snippet: The target locus of sgRNA-A21 and hgRNA-A21 were constructed by incorporating corresponding gBlock (IDT DNA) synthesized DNA fragment into the pLKO.1 lentiviral backbone (MISSION shRNA vectors via SIGMA) which was modified to carry Blasticidin resistance.

    Techniques: Sequencing, Next-Generation Sequencing, Generated

    ROS generation triggered by FPKc and ES. SW-480 (A) and HEK-293 (B) cells were treated with FPKc and ES, and the ROS levels were measured by flow cytometry after staining with DCFH-DA. SW-480 cells were pretreated with NAC (5 mM) for 1 h, then intracellular ROS generation (C), DNA damage (D), cell viability (E) and apoptosis (F) were detected.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Investigating Migration Inhibition and Apoptotic Effects of Fomitopsis pinicola Chloroform Extract on Human Colorectal Cancer SW-480 Cells

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101303

    Figure Lengend Snippet: ROS generation triggered by FPKc and ES. SW-480 (A) and HEK-293 (B) cells were treated with FPKc and ES, and the ROS levels were measured by flow cytometry after staining with DCFH-DA. SW-480 cells were pretreated with NAC (5 mM) for 1 h, then intracellular ROS generation (C), DNA damage (D), cell viability (E) and apoptosis (F) were detected.

    Article Snippet: Flow cytometry analysis of DNA fragmentation The method to analyze DNA fragmentation was flow fluorocytometric detection of DNA hypoploidy after adding propidium iodide (PI; Sigma, St. Louis, USA) to the dying cells and permeabilizing them by freeze-thawing .

    Techniques: Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Staining

    Effects of FPKc and ES on DNA fragmentation of SW-480 (A) and HEK-293 (B) cells. Both Cells were treated with FPKc and ES for 12(PI) and analyzed by flow cytometry.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Investigating Migration Inhibition and Apoptotic Effects of Fomitopsis pinicola Chloroform Extract on Human Colorectal Cancer SW-480 Cells

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101303

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of FPKc and ES on DNA fragmentation of SW-480 (A) and HEK-293 (B) cells. Both Cells were treated with FPKc and ES for 12(PI) and analyzed by flow cytometry.

    Article Snippet: Flow cytometry analysis of DNA fragmentation The method to analyze DNA fragmentation was flow fluorocytometric detection of DNA hypoploidy after adding propidium iodide (PI; Sigma, St. Louis, USA) to the dying cells and permeabilizing them by freeze-thawing .

    Techniques: Flow Cytometry, Cytometry

    (A-B) Schematics illustrating the procedure to generate the slo E366G and slo loxP alleles via ends-out homologous recombination (A) and method for molecular validation (B). The slo locus is shown. Grey boxes represent 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions, black boxes represent both constitutive and alternatively spliced coding exons. Region encompassed by targeting arms is denoted by the grey dashed box. Linearized recombinogenic arms (Arm 1 and Arm 2, separated by loxP and mini- white + sequences) were liberated from a genomic p[w25 . 2] insertion as described in Supplemental Ref. 2. Potential recombinants were initially identified by the presence of non-white eye colour due to the mini- white + marker, then validated through PCR via the strategy shown in (B). Validated recombinants are denoted by a PCR product of approximately 3.3 kb amplified from single-fly genomic DNA that was absent in non-recombinant control DNA (-ve control).

    Journal: bioRxiv

    Article Title: A knock-in Drosophila model supports a conserved link between potassium channelopathy and involuntary movement

    doi: 10.1101/2020.02.20.957571

    Figure Lengend Snippet: (A-B) Schematics illustrating the procedure to generate the slo E366G and slo loxP alleles via ends-out homologous recombination (A) and method for molecular validation (B). The slo locus is shown. Grey boxes represent 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions, black boxes represent both constitutive and alternatively spliced coding exons. Region encompassed by targeting arms is denoted by the grey dashed box. Linearized recombinogenic arms (Arm 1 and Arm 2, separated by loxP and mini- white + sequences) were liberated from a genomic p[w25 . 2] insertion as described in Supplemental Ref. 2. Potential recombinants were initially identified by the presence of non-white eye colour due to the mini- white + marker, then validated through PCR via the strategy shown in (B). Validated recombinants are denoted by a PCR product of approximately 3.3 kb amplified from single-fly genomic DNA that was absent in non-recombinant control DNA (-ve control).

    Article Snippet: The A1097G point mutation resulting in the E366G amino-acid change was introduced into Arm 2 via a customised DNA fragment (GeneArt Gene Synthesis, ThermoFi sher Scientific) that was used to replace the 5’ 722 bp of Arm 2.

    Techniques: Homologous Recombination, Marker, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Amplification, Recombinant

    Mutation detection in the T4_promoter fragment. Three polymorphisms were detected by dHPLC in the T4_promoter fragment and were verified by DNA sequencing. The four dHPLC graphs correspond to the wild-type sequence (A), SNPs T-441C (B), SNP A-271G (C) and SNP G-259C (D). The wild-type pattern is visible in all dHPLC graphs as a 1 peak trace. SNP T-441C is identified by an unequal height 2 peak trace (B), SNP A-271G is identified by an equal height 2 peak trace (C) and SNP G-259C is identified by a 3 peak trace (D). The positions of the sequence variants in the T4_promoter fragment identified by dHPLC were determined by DNA sequencing. All SNPs were present in the heterozygous state.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) and Typhoid Fever in Vietnam

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004800

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Mutation detection in the T4_promoter fragment. Three polymorphisms were detected by dHPLC in the T4_promoter fragment and were verified by DNA sequencing. The four dHPLC graphs correspond to the wild-type sequence (A), SNPs T-441C (B), SNP A-271G (C) and SNP G-259C (D). The wild-type pattern is visible in all dHPLC graphs as a 1 peak trace. SNP T-441C is identified by an unequal height 2 peak trace (B), SNP A-271G is identified by an equal height 2 peak trace (C) and SNP G-259C is identified by a 3 peak trace (D). The positions of the sequence variants in the T4_promoter fragment identified by dHPLC were determined by DNA sequencing. All SNPs were present in the heterozygous state.

    Article Snippet: Mutation Detection by dHPLC Primers and amplicons were designed to detect mutations in TLR4 by dHPLC according to the recommendations described by the manufacturer (Wave® DNA Fragment Analysis System, Transgenomic, USA) ( ).

    Techniques: Mutagenesis, DNA Sequencing, Sequencing

    IRF1 inhibits PGC1α expression via directly binding to its promoter region. a After being co-transfected with pRL-TK vector and pGL3-basic or recombinant reporter plasmids containing various fragments of PGC1α promoter region, H9c2 cells were treated with control or HP and then harvested for dual-luciferase reporter assay. The firefly luciferase activity was normalized against Renilla activity. b H9c2 cells were co-transfected with pRL-TK vector and pGL3-PGC1α-P3 or pGL3-PGC1α-M3 (containing the mutant bases of pGL3-PGC1α-P3 underlined in the sequencing results), treated with control or HP and harvested for luciferase assay. c , d H9c2 cells were treated with control or HP for 24 h and harvested for ChIP assay. IRF1 antibody was immunoprecipitated with chromatin DNA fragments, taking IgG as a negative control. The precipitated DNA was amplified by PCR c and qPCR d using primers that cover the PGC1α promoter region (−709 to −511), taking primers that cover the region (−1711 to −1598) as a negative control. e , f qPCR and representative western blot analysis of IRF1 and PGC1α expressions in cells treated with siPit1, siPit2, or both in the presence or absence of HP. g , h H9c2 cells were treated with control or HP, and H3K9 acetylation was assayed using ChIP. i qPCR analysis of histone acetyltransferase genes expression in H9c2 cells treated with control or HP. j – l qPCR and western blot analysis of IRF1 and PGC1α expressions in cells treated with a P300/CBP inhibitor (C646, 10 μM) or a pan-histone acetyltransferase inhibitor (anacardic acid, AA,10 μM) in the presence or absence of HP. Data are shown as mean ± SD and were analyzed by a two-tailed unpaired t -test ( a – d , h , i ) or one-way ANOVA ( e , f , j , k ). n = 3 biologically independent experiments ( a , b , d – f , h – k ). * P

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: IRF1-mediated downregulation of PGC1α contributes to cardiorenal syndrome type 4

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-18519-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: IRF1 inhibits PGC1α expression via directly binding to its promoter region. a After being co-transfected with pRL-TK vector and pGL3-basic or recombinant reporter plasmids containing various fragments of PGC1α promoter region, H9c2 cells were treated with control or HP and then harvested for dual-luciferase reporter assay. The firefly luciferase activity was normalized against Renilla activity. b H9c2 cells were co-transfected with pRL-TK vector and pGL3-PGC1α-P3 or pGL3-PGC1α-M3 (containing the mutant bases of pGL3-PGC1α-P3 underlined in the sequencing results), treated with control or HP and harvested for luciferase assay. c , d H9c2 cells were treated with control or HP for 24 h and harvested for ChIP assay. IRF1 antibody was immunoprecipitated with chromatin DNA fragments, taking IgG as a negative control. The precipitated DNA was amplified by PCR c and qPCR d using primers that cover the PGC1α promoter region (−709 to −511), taking primers that cover the region (−1711 to −1598) as a negative control. e , f qPCR and representative western blot analysis of IRF1 and PGC1α expressions in cells treated with siPit1, siPit2, or both in the presence or absence of HP. g , h H9c2 cells were treated with control or HP, and H3K9 acetylation was assayed using ChIP. i qPCR analysis of histone acetyltransferase genes expression in H9c2 cells treated with control or HP. j – l qPCR and western blot analysis of IRF1 and PGC1α expressions in cells treated with a P300/CBP inhibitor (C646, 10 μM) or a pan-histone acetyltransferase inhibitor (anacardic acid, AA,10 μM) in the presence or absence of HP. Data are shown as mean ± SD and were analyzed by a two-tailed unpaired t -test ( a – d , h , i ) or one-way ANOVA ( e , f , j , k ). n = 3 biologically independent experiments ( a , b , d – f , h – k ). * P

    Article Snippet: Mitochondrial DNA analysisTotal DNA, including chromosomal (B2M) and mitochondrial (D-loop) DNA, was extracted from H9c2 cells using a DNA extraction kit (Takara) following the manufacturer’s instructions.

    Techniques: Expressing, Binding Assay, Transfection, Plasmid Preparation, Recombinant, Luciferase, Reporter Assay, Activity Assay, Mutagenesis, Sequencing, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Immunoprecipitation, Negative Control, Amplification, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Western Blot, Two Tailed Test

    HP induces PGC1α reduction and mitochondrial energy metabolism dysfunction in vitro. a H9c2 cells were treated with urea (1.2 mg/ml), serum creatinine (Scr, 80 μg/ml), uric acid (UA, 80 μg/ml), parathyroid hormone (PTH, 90 ng/ml), trimethylamine- N -oxide (TMAO, 0.751 μg/ml), HP (84 μg/ml), FGF23 (20 ng/ml), β2-microglobulin (B2M, 20 μg/ml), indoxyl sulfate (IS, 125 μg/ml), p -cresyl sulfate (PCS, 47 μg/ml), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, 3.5 μg/ml), separately. mRNA was extracted for qPCR analysis of PGC1α expression. b , c qPCR and western blot analysis of PGC1α expression in H9c2 cells incubated with the serum of healthy donors or CKD patients for 24 h. d – g qPCR and representative western blot analysis of PGC1α expression in H9c2 cells treated with control, various doses of HP for 24 h or HP (8.4 mg/dl) for various durations. h – p Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) ( h ), relative ATP level ( i ), relative mRNA expression of FAO genes ( j ), relative mRNA expression of OXPHO genes ( k ), relative mRNA expression of glycolysis genes ( l ), relative mitochondrial DNA copy number ( m ), ROS production ( n ), and monomer and aggregate JC-1 ( o flow cytometry; p representative images of laser scanning confocal microscopy. Scale bar, 10 μm) in H9c2 cells treated with control or HP for 24 h. Data are shown as mean ± SD and were analyzed by a two-tailed unpaired t -test ( a – c , h – o ) or one-way ANOVA ( d – g ). n = 3 ( a – g , i – p ) or n = 4 ( h ) biologically independent experiments. * P

    Journal: Nature Communications

    Article Title: IRF1-mediated downregulation of PGC1α contributes to cardiorenal syndrome type 4

    doi: 10.1038/s41467-020-18519-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: HP induces PGC1α reduction and mitochondrial energy metabolism dysfunction in vitro. a H9c2 cells were treated with urea (1.2 mg/ml), serum creatinine (Scr, 80 μg/ml), uric acid (UA, 80 μg/ml), parathyroid hormone (PTH, 90 ng/ml), trimethylamine- N -oxide (TMAO, 0.751 μg/ml), HP (84 μg/ml), FGF23 (20 ng/ml), β2-microglobulin (B2M, 20 μg/ml), indoxyl sulfate (IS, 125 μg/ml), p -cresyl sulfate (PCS, 47 μg/ml), and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, 3.5 μg/ml), separately. mRNA was extracted for qPCR analysis of PGC1α expression. b , c qPCR and western blot analysis of PGC1α expression in H9c2 cells incubated with the serum of healthy donors or CKD patients for 24 h. d – g qPCR and representative western blot analysis of PGC1α expression in H9c2 cells treated with control, various doses of HP for 24 h or HP (8.4 mg/dl) for various durations. h – p Oxygen consumption rate (OCR) ( h ), relative ATP level ( i ), relative mRNA expression of FAO genes ( j ), relative mRNA expression of OXPHO genes ( k ), relative mRNA expression of glycolysis genes ( l ), relative mitochondrial DNA copy number ( m ), ROS production ( n ), and monomer and aggregate JC-1 ( o flow cytometry; p representative images of laser scanning confocal microscopy. Scale bar, 10 μm) in H9c2 cells treated with control or HP for 24 h. Data are shown as mean ± SD and were analyzed by a two-tailed unpaired t -test ( a – c , h – o ) or one-way ANOVA ( d – g ). n = 3 ( a – g , i – p ) or n = 4 ( h ) biologically independent experiments. * P

    Article Snippet: Mitochondrial DNA analysisTotal DNA, including chromosomal (B2M) and mitochondrial (D-loop) DNA, was extracted from H9c2 cells using a DNA extraction kit (Takara) following the manufacturer’s instructions.

    Techniques: In Vitro, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction, Expressing, Western Blot, Incubation, Flow Cytometry, Confocal Microscopy, Two Tailed Test

    Effect of bcl-2 overexpression on Cdt-induced G 2 arrest and DNA fragmentation. Jurkat neo and Jurkat bcl-2 cells were incubated in the presence of medium alone (Ctl), 0.05 ng/ml Cdt, or 5 ng/ml Cdt for 18 h; the cells were then stained with propidium iodide and by TUNEL to measure cell cycle distribution (panels on the right) and DNA fragmentation (panels on the left), respectively. The percentages of cells in the phases of the cell cycle are indicated, as are the percentages of cells exhibiting DNA fragmentation. The results are representative of at least three experiments.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Exposure of Lymphocytes to High Doses of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Cytolethal Distending Toxin Induces Rapid Onset of Apoptosis-Mediated DNA Fragmentation

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.74.4.2080-2092.2006

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of bcl-2 overexpression on Cdt-induced G 2 arrest and DNA fragmentation. Jurkat neo and Jurkat bcl-2 cells were incubated in the presence of medium alone (Ctl), 0.05 ng/ml Cdt, or 5 ng/ml Cdt for 18 h; the cells were then stained with propidium iodide and by TUNEL to measure cell cycle distribution (panels on the right) and DNA fragmentation (panels on the left), respectively. The percentages of cells in the phases of the cell cycle are indicated, as are the percentages of cells exhibiting DNA fragmentation. The results are representative of at least three experiments.

    Article Snippet: DNA fragmentation in Cdt-treated Jurkat cells was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay (in situ cell death detection kit; Boehringer Mannheim, Indianapolis, IN) in conjunction with Hoechst 33342 to measure cell cycle progression.

    Techniques: Over Expression, Incubation, CTL Assay, Staining, TUNEL Assay

    Comparison of the effects of Cdt on cell cycle arrest, BrdU incorporation, and DNA fragmentation. Jurkat cells were treated with medium (control) or a low dose (0.05 ng/ml) or high dose (5 ng/ml) of Cdt for 18 h. The cells were then analyzed by flow cytometry to determine the cell cycle distribution using propidium iodide (A) and BrdU incorporation in order to directly assess the percentage of cells in the S phase (B) and DNA fragmentation (TUNEL) along with the cell cycle (Hoechst fluorescence) (C). The percentages of cells in the phases of the cell cycle (based on propidium iodide fluorescence) are shown in panel A. The percentages of S-phase cells determined by BrdU incorporation are indicated in panel B; cells that exhibited fluorescence greater than the fluorescence observed in controls (indicated by a line) were considered to be positive. The percentages of cells exhibiting DNA fragmentation are indicated in panel C; fluorescence values greater than the fluorescence observed in cells treated with the control antibody (indicated by a line) were considered to be positive. The results are representative of at least three experiments.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Exposure of Lymphocytes to High Doses of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Cytolethal Distending Toxin Induces Rapid Onset of Apoptosis-Mediated DNA Fragmentation

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.74.4.2080-2092.2006

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Comparison of the effects of Cdt on cell cycle arrest, BrdU incorporation, and DNA fragmentation. Jurkat cells were treated with medium (control) or a low dose (0.05 ng/ml) or high dose (5 ng/ml) of Cdt for 18 h. The cells were then analyzed by flow cytometry to determine the cell cycle distribution using propidium iodide (A) and BrdU incorporation in order to directly assess the percentage of cells in the S phase (B) and DNA fragmentation (TUNEL) along with the cell cycle (Hoechst fluorescence) (C). The percentages of cells in the phases of the cell cycle (based on propidium iodide fluorescence) are shown in panel A. The percentages of S-phase cells determined by BrdU incorporation are indicated in panel B; cells that exhibited fluorescence greater than the fluorescence observed in controls (indicated by a line) were considered to be positive. The percentages of cells exhibiting DNA fragmentation are indicated in panel C; fluorescence values greater than the fluorescence observed in cells treated with the control antibody (indicated by a line) were considered to be positive. The results are representative of at least three experiments.

    Article Snippet: DNA fragmentation in Cdt-treated Jurkat cells was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay (in situ cell death detection kit; Boehringer Mannheim, Indianapolis, IN) in conjunction with Hoechst 33342 to measure cell cycle progression.

    Techniques: BrdU Incorporation Assay, Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, TUNEL Assay, Fluorescence

    Effect of zvad on Cdt-induced G 2 arrest and DNA fragmentation. Jurkat cells were pretreated with 50 μM zvad or medium for 30 min; this was followed by addition of either medium (Ctl) or Cdt. Cells were incubated for 18 h and then analyzed for DNA fragmentation (panels on the left) and cell cycle distribution (panels on the right) as described in Materials and Methods. The percentages of cells in the phases of the cell cycle are indicated, as are the percentages of cells exhibiting DNA fragmentation; the regions where there was positive dUTP-FITC fluorescence are indicated by the bars, and the results were based upon control samples.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Exposure of Lymphocytes to High Doses of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Cytolethal Distending Toxin Induces Rapid Onset of Apoptosis-Mediated DNA Fragmentation

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.74.4.2080-2092.2006

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of zvad on Cdt-induced G 2 arrest and DNA fragmentation. Jurkat cells were pretreated with 50 μM zvad or medium for 30 min; this was followed by addition of either medium (Ctl) or Cdt. Cells were incubated for 18 h and then analyzed for DNA fragmentation (panels on the left) and cell cycle distribution (panels on the right) as described in Materials and Methods. The percentages of cells in the phases of the cell cycle are indicated, as are the percentages of cells exhibiting DNA fragmentation; the regions where there was positive dUTP-FITC fluorescence are indicated by the bars, and the results were based upon control samples.

    Article Snippet: DNA fragmentation in Cdt-treated Jurkat cells was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay (in situ cell death detection kit; Boehringer Mannheim, Indianapolis, IN) in conjunction with Hoechst 33342 to measure cell cycle progression.

    Techniques: CTL Assay, Incubation, Fluorescence

    Effect of Cdt holotoxin on lymphocyte G 2 arrest and DNA fragmentation. Jurkat cells were treated with various concentrations of Cdt holotoxin for 18 h. The cells were then analyzed by flow cytometry to determine both the cell cycle distribution and the presence of DNA fragmentation as described in Methods and Materials. The percentage of G 2 cells (•) and the percentage of cells exhibiting DNA fragmentation (▪) are plotted versus Cdt concentration; the data are means ± standard deviations for three experiments. For control cells exposed to medium 9.1% of the cells were in the G 2 phase; 4.9% of the control cells exhibited DNA fragmentation.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Exposure of Lymphocytes to High Doses of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Cytolethal Distending Toxin Induces Rapid Onset of Apoptosis-Mediated DNA Fragmentation

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.74.4.2080-2092.2006

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of Cdt holotoxin on lymphocyte G 2 arrest and DNA fragmentation. Jurkat cells were treated with various concentrations of Cdt holotoxin for 18 h. The cells were then analyzed by flow cytometry to determine both the cell cycle distribution and the presence of DNA fragmentation as described in Methods and Materials. The percentage of G 2 cells (•) and the percentage of cells exhibiting DNA fragmentation (▪) are plotted versus Cdt concentration; the data are means ± standard deviations for three experiments. For control cells exposed to medium 9.1% of the cells were in the G 2 phase; 4.9% of the control cells exhibited DNA fragmentation.

    Article Snippet: DNA fragmentation in Cdt-treated Jurkat cells was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay (in situ cell death detection kit; Boehringer Mannheim, Indianapolis, IN) in conjunction with Hoechst 33342 to measure cell cycle progression.

    Techniques: Flow Cytometry, Cytometry, Concentration Assay

    Kinetics of Cdt-induced DNA degradation. Jurkat cells were treated with Cdt or medium for 24, 48, or 72 h. The cells were then assessed for DNA fragmentation using the TUNEL assay and FACS. The bars indicate regions where there was positive fluorescence; the percentages of cells in these regions that exhibited DNA fragmentation are indicated, and the degrees of fragmentation are indicated by the MCF values. The results are representative of three experiments.

    Journal: Infection and Immunity

    Article Title: Exposure of Lymphocytes to High Doses of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Cytolethal Distending Toxin Induces Rapid Onset of Apoptosis-Mediated DNA Fragmentation

    doi: 10.1128/IAI.74.4.2080-2092.2006

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Kinetics of Cdt-induced DNA degradation. Jurkat cells were treated with Cdt or medium for 24, 48, or 72 h. The cells were then assessed for DNA fragmentation using the TUNEL assay and FACS. The bars indicate regions where there was positive fluorescence; the percentages of cells in these regions that exhibited DNA fragmentation are indicated, and the degrees of fragmentation are indicated by the MCF values. The results are representative of three experiments.

    Article Snippet: DNA fragmentation in Cdt-treated Jurkat cells was measured using the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay (in situ cell death detection kit; Boehringer Mannheim, Indianapolis, IN) in conjunction with Hoechst 33342 to measure cell cycle progression.

    Techniques: TUNEL Assay, FACS, Fluorescence

    The effects of CLK2 on radiation sensitivity of CCD-18Lu cells. Cells were transfected with either vacant vector or myc-CLK2 . At 24 h post-transfection, cells were exposed to 0.05–2 Gy of γ-rays and cell viability was assayed 48 h later. A , the overexpression of Myc-CLK2 at 72 h post-transfection. B , the cell viability of CLK2 overexpressing CCD-18Lu cells to ionizing radiation was determined by MTT assay. C , cell proliferation of CLK2 overexpressing cells after irradiation. D , effect of CLK2 overexpression on 2 Gy-induced apoptosis. DNA fragmentation was detected with HT TiterTACS Assay Kit for the quantification of apoptosis. B–D , data represent mean ± S.D. ( n = 3) and were analyzed by the t test. Data showed a significant difference compared with vector control at the indicated dose (*, p

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Phosphorylation of CLK2 at Serine 34 and Threonine 127 by AKT Controls Cell Survival after Ionizing Radiation *

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.122044

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The effects of CLK2 on radiation sensitivity of CCD-18Lu cells. Cells were transfected with either vacant vector or myc-CLK2 . At 24 h post-transfection, cells were exposed to 0.05–2 Gy of γ-rays and cell viability was assayed 48 h later. A , the overexpression of Myc-CLK2 at 72 h post-transfection. B , the cell viability of CLK2 overexpressing CCD-18Lu cells to ionizing radiation was determined by MTT assay. C , cell proliferation of CLK2 overexpressing cells after irradiation. D , effect of CLK2 overexpression on 2 Gy-induced apoptosis. DNA fragmentation was detected with HT TiterTACS Assay Kit for the quantification of apoptosis. B–D , data represent mean ± S.D. ( n = 3) and were analyzed by the t test. Data showed a significant difference compared with vector control at the indicated dose (*, p

    Article Snippet: For the quantification of apoptosis, DNA fragmentation was detected using HT TiterTACS Assay Kit according to the manufacturer's instructions (Trevigen, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD).

    Techniques: Transfection, Plasmid Preparation, Over Expression, MTT Assay, Irradiation

    The regulation of the sensitivity of CCD-18Lu cells to ionizing radiation is dependent on CLK2 phosphorylation. A , CCD-18Lu cells were transfected with vacant vector, WT- CLK2 , or CLK2 mutants and the overexpressions of WT-CLK2 and CLK2 mutants were detected. B , the viabilities of vector, WT-CLK2, or mutant-CLK2 overexpressing cells were measured using MTT assays 48 h after 2 Gy of γ-ray. C , effect of CLK2 phosphorylation on 2 Gy-induced apoptosis. DNA fragmentation was detected with HT TiterTACS Assay Kit for the quantification of apoptosis. The absorbance (450 nm) of untreated vector control was 0.34. D , the viabilities of vacant vector, WT-CLK2, or mutant-CLK2 overexpressing cells after exposure to 0.05 Gy of γ-ray were measured by MTT assay. E , the cell proliferation after irradiation of 0.05 Gy in vacant vector, WT-CLK2, or mutant-CLK2 CCD-18Lu cells. Data represent mean ± S.D. ( n = 3) and were analyzed by Dunnett's test for multiple comparison in analysis of variance to irradiated vector control (*, p

    Journal: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

    Article Title: Phosphorylation of CLK2 at Serine 34 and Threonine 127 by AKT Controls Cell Survival after Ionizing Radiation *

    doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.122044

    Figure Lengend Snippet: The regulation of the sensitivity of CCD-18Lu cells to ionizing radiation is dependent on CLK2 phosphorylation. A , CCD-18Lu cells were transfected with vacant vector, WT- CLK2 , or CLK2 mutants and the overexpressions of WT-CLK2 and CLK2 mutants were detected. B , the viabilities of vector, WT-CLK2, or mutant-CLK2 overexpressing cells were measured using MTT assays 48 h after 2 Gy of γ-ray. C , effect of CLK2 phosphorylation on 2 Gy-induced apoptosis. DNA fragmentation was detected with HT TiterTACS Assay Kit for the quantification of apoptosis. The absorbance (450 nm) of untreated vector control was 0.34. D , the viabilities of vacant vector, WT-CLK2, or mutant-CLK2 overexpressing cells after exposure to 0.05 Gy of γ-ray were measured by MTT assay. E , the cell proliferation after irradiation of 0.05 Gy in vacant vector, WT-CLK2, or mutant-CLK2 CCD-18Lu cells. Data represent mean ± S.D. ( n = 3) and were analyzed by Dunnett's test for multiple comparison in analysis of variance to irradiated vector control (*, p

    Article Snippet: For the quantification of apoptosis, DNA fragmentation was detected using HT TiterTACS Assay Kit according to the manufacturer's instructions (Trevigen, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD).

    Techniques: Transfection, Plasmid Preparation, Mutagenesis, MTT Assay, Irradiation

    Results of upgraded “Bruce- and Suis-ladder” PCRs of HUN-Bmi-01 strain. left side Bruce-ladder v2.0 PCR with 1682, 1071, 774, 587, 510, 450, 272, and 152 bp amplicons. M: 100 bp DNA marker, S: B. suis , C: B. canis , O: B. ovis , A: B. abortus . right side Suis-ladder PCR with 774 and 197 bp amplicons. M: 100 bp DNA marker, S1: B. suis biovar. 1, S2: B. suis biovar. 2

    Journal: BMC Veterinary Research

    Article Title: First isolation and characterization of Brucella microti from wild boar

    doi: 10.1186/s12917-015-0456-z

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Results of upgraded “Bruce- and Suis-ladder” PCRs of HUN-Bmi-01 strain. left side Bruce-ladder v2.0 PCR with 1682, 1071, 774, 587, 510, 450, 272, and 152 bp amplicons. M: 100 bp DNA marker, S: B. suis , C: B. canis , O: B. ovis , A: B. abortus . right side Suis-ladder PCR with 774 and 197 bp amplicons. M: 100 bp DNA marker, S1: B. suis biovar. 1, S2: B. suis biovar. 2

    Article Snippet: The barcoded library DNA samples were column purified using the Gel/PCR DNA Fragments Extraction kit (Geneaid Biotech Ltd., Taipei, Taiwan).

    Techniques: Polymerase Chain Reaction, Marker