dhps Search Results


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  • 99
    ATCC 50504 folb folk folp gene fusion xp 003887200
    Phylogeny of the Apusomonadida, Breviata, Opisthokonta, and Amoebozoa demonstrating variation in the <t>folB-folK-folP</t> fusion gene. Tree topology was calculated using a concatenated alignment of conserved genes identified in ( Torruella et al. 2012 ) and represents the best-known likelihood tree from 100 ML searches in RAxML (PROTCAT+LG) with 1,000 nonrapid bootstraps. ML-BS is an abbreviation of maximum likelihood bootstrap values, FolB-folK-folP fusion gene domain architecture of taxa included is listed down the right column, and fusion state is denoted by the presence/absence of connecting lines. Inferred gene/domain losses are shown as shadow domains. See key for guide to tree topology support values and character state changes. Domain duplication is indicated as (D) in a box of the appropriate domain colour, fission by domain loss events are denoted as (FL5–9) and specific fission events as (F1–4). Total losses of complete ORFs are not illustrated. Note that the putative folB of Trichoplax adhaerens and the putative folB-folK fusion of Nematostella vectensis were removed from phylogenetic analyses due to poor alignment of these sequences, as such their provenance and evolutionary ancestry remains questionable and are therefore indicated by a question mark at the relevant position.
    50504 Folb Folk Folp Gene Fusion Xp 003887200, supplied by ATCC, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    Millipore anti dhps
    <t>WDR83</t> also upregulated <t>DHPS</t> mRNA and protein expression. (A) Knockdown of WDR83 by siRNAs in MGC803 cells resulted in an 18.7% decrease in DHPS mRNA expression ( n ≥ 3, P = 0.0257). (B) Western blot analysis indicated that WDR83 downregulation
    Anti Dhps, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    99
    Abcam anti dhps
    Differential expression of elF5A, <t>Hypusinated</t> elF5A and <t>DHPS</t> in CD4 and CD8 T cells. (A) Western blot of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes isolated from pancreatic lymph nodes (LN) and spleen (S). All the bands present in male/female samples were extracted from the respective single blot with the same exposure time. (B) DHPS, Hypusine, and elF5A were less expressed in CD8 T cells of pancreatic lymph nodes whereas the expression of these proteins were higher at splenic CD8. Note: elF5A protein expression was significant (P
    Anti Dhps, supplied by Abcam, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 99/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    84
    3M Co dhps genes
    Effect of residual drug on reinfection rates and development of clinical malaria. The percentage of reinfections that were successful by wild-type parasites (WT/WT) and parasites with a double mutation in either the <t>DHFR</t> (2M/WT) or <t>DHPS</t> (WT/2M) gene following SP treatment is indicated by the solid, dotted, and dashed lines, respectively. The bars indicate the mean time until the appearance of symptoms requiring treatment following reinfections occurring between 2 and 32 days post-SP treatment.
    Dhps Genes, supplied by 3M Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 84/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    dhps  (Amazon)
    86
    Amazon dhps
    Geographic distribution of <t>dhfr</t> and <t>dhps</t> genotypes, 1990s. This figure shows the sites examined during the 1990s, noted with red stars, for dhfr . All sites were fixed for the 437G/540E/581G dhps allele, with the exception of one isolate in Itaituba carrying 437G/581G, and therefore these pie charts were omitted The color coding for dhfr appears in the bottom of the map. The data provided for Peixoto de Azevedo, noted by the blue star came from the work of others [45] .
    Dhps, supplied by Amazon, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Welichem Biotech dhps
    Geographic distribution of <t>dhfr</t> and <t>dhps</t> genotypes, 1990s. This figure shows the sites examined during the 1990s, noted with red stars, for dhfr . All sites were fixed for the 437G/540E/581G dhps allele, with the exception of one isolate in Itaituba carrying 437G/581G, and therefore these pie charts were omitted The color coding for dhfr appears in the bottom of the map. The data provided for Peixoto de Azevedo, noted by the blue star came from the work of others [45] .
    Dhps, supplied by Welichem Biotech, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    92
    Macrogen dhps fragments
    Geographic distribution of <t>dhfr</t> and <t>dhps</t> genotypes, 1990s. This figure shows the sites examined during the 1990s, noted with red stars, for dhfr . All sites were fixed for the 437G/540E/581G dhps allele, with the exception of one isolate in Itaituba carrying 437G/581G, and therefore these pie charts were omitted The color coding for dhfr appears in the bottom of the map. The data provided for Peixoto de Azevedo, noted by the blue star came from the work of others [45] .
    Dhps Fragments, supplied by Macrogen, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 92/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Novartis dihydropyridines dhps
    Geographic distribution of <t>dhfr</t> and <t>dhps</t> genotypes, 1990s. This figure shows the sites examined during the 1990s, noted with red stars, for dhfr . All sites were fixed for the 437G/540E/581G dhps allele, with the exception of one isolate in Itaituba carrying 437G/581G, and therefore these pie charts were omitted The color coding for dhfr appears in the bottom of the map. The data provided for Peixoto de Azevedo, noted by the blue star came from the work of others [45] .
    Dihydropyridines Dhps, supplied by Novartis, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    3M Co dhps inhibitor
    Structure-based alignment of <t>DHPS</t> amino acid sequences. The amino acid numbering is that of <t>FtHPPK-DHPS.</t> The most conserved and highly conserved residues are shaded in black and gray, respectively. The active-site loops are indicated by horizontal bars. The residues involved in binding of HPPP and p ABA are marked below the sequence alignment with ▲ and ▼, respectively. Residues within 4.5 Å of both substrates are marked with ◆. Sites of mutations that cause resistance to sulfa drugs are indicated by ● above the sequence alignment. Ft, F . tularensis ; Mt2, M. tuberculosis DHPS 2; Ec, E. coli ; Yp, Y. pestis ; Ba, B. anthracis ; Sa, S. aureus ; Mt1, M. tuberculosis DHPS 1; Sp, S. pneumoniae; Sc, S. cerevisiae .
    Dhps Inhibitor, supplied by 3M Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    GE Healthcare dhps
    Structure-based alignment of <t>DHPS</t> amino acid sequences. The amino acid numbering is that of <t>FtHPPK-DHPS.</t> The most conserved and highly conserved residues are shaded in black and gray, respectively. The active-site loops are indicated by horizontal bars. The residues involved in binding of HPPP and p ABA are marked below the sequence alignment with ▲ and ▼, respectively. Residues within 4.5 Å of both substrates are marked with ◆. Sites of mutations that cause resistance to sulfa drugs are indicated by ● above the sequence alignment. Ft, F . tularensis ; Mt2, M. tuberculosis DHPS 2; Ec, E. coli ; Yp, Y. pestis ; Ba, B. anthracis ; Sa, S. aureus ; Mt1, M. tuberculosis DHPS 1; Sp, S. pneumoniae; Sc, S. cerevisiae .
    Dhps, supplied by GE Healthcare, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    86
    Amazon dhps alleles
    AMOVA Results. Locus by locus AMOVAs were used to create this table. N denotes sample size. Haplotype group refers to a combination haplotype of the haplotypes seen around each of the four genes. ** Two apparently monomorphic markers were removed from analysis ( <t>dhfr</t> : 0.52 kb and <t>dhps</t> : 9.0 kb) due to poor amplification in clonet D.
    Dhps Alleles, supplied by Amazon, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    St. Jude Children's Research Hospital s aureus dhps
    2-F-PABA is an alternative substrate for tetrahydrofolate (THF) biosynthesis. PABA and F-PABA are substrates for <t>dihydropteroate</t> synthase <t>(DHPS)</t> in the THF biosynthesis pathway (only the terminal portion of the pathway is shown). The incorporation of PABA and PABA analogs F-PABA and PAS into dihydropteroate was quantified using a coupled assay that omitted DHFS from the reaction mixture and instead involved the direct reduction of dihydropteroate by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR).
    S Aureus Dhps, supplied by St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 12 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    GE Healthcare dhps double mutant
    2-F-PABA is an alternative substrate for tetrahydrofolate (THF) biosynthesis. PABA and F-PABA are substrates for <t>dihydropteroate</t> synthase <t>(DHPS)</t> in the THF biosynthesis pathway (only the terminal portion of the pathway is shown). The incorporation of PABA and PABA analogs F-PABA and PAS into dihydropteroate was quantified using a coupled assay that omitted DHFS from the reaction mixture and instead involved the direct reduction of dihydropteroate by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR).
    Dhps Double Mutant, supplied by GE Healthcare, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    84
    3M Co wild type dhps gene
    Effect of residual drug on reinfection rates and development of clinical malaria. The percentage of reinfections that were successful by wild-type parasites (WT/WT) and parasites with a double mutation in either the <t>DHFR</t> (2M/WT) or <t>DHPS</t> (WT/2M) gene following SP treatment is indicated by the solid, dotted, and dashed lines, respectively. The bars indicate the mean time until the appearance of symptoms requiring treatment following reinfections occurring between 2 and 32 days post-SP treatment.
    Wild Type Dhps Gene, supplied by 3M Co, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 84/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    OriGene mouse monoclonal antibody against human dhps
    Effect of residual drug on reinfection rates and development of clinical malaria. The percentage of reinfections that were successful by wild-type parasites (WT/WT) and parasites with a double mutation in either the <t>DHFR</t> (2M/WT) or <t>DHPS</t> (WT/2M) gene following SP treatment is indicated by the solid, dotted, and dashed lines, respectively. The bars indicate the mean time until the appearance of symptoms requiring treatment following reinfections occurring between 2 and 32 days post-SP treatment.
    Mouse Monoclonal Antibody Against Human Dhps, supplied by OriGene, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    87
    Millipore chemicals potassium 2 5 dihydroxyphenyl sulfonate dhps
    Effects of intraperitoneal injection of potassium <t>2,5-dihydroxyphenyl</t> sulfonate <t>(DHPS;</t> 100 mg/kg; eq. to 0.44 mmol/kg) or potassium 2,5-diacetoxyphenyl sulfonate (DAPS; 100 mg/kg; eq. to 0.32 mmol/kg) on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increase in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; A), interleukin-6 (IL-6; B) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß; C) concentrations in rat serum. Serum samples were obtained 6 h after LPS injection (5 mg/kg; i.p.) and the data are expressed as the mean ± SEM concentration of cytokine in pg/ml or ng/ml: * p
    Chemicals Potassium 2 5 Dihydroxyphenyl Sulfonate Dhps, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 87/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    GE Healthcare resistance conferring dhps double mutant allele
    Effects of intraperitoneal injection of potassium <t>2,5-dihydroxyphenyl</t> sulfonate <t>(DHPS;</t> 100 mg/kg; eq. to 0.44 mmol/kg) or potassium 2,5-diacetoxyphenyl sulfonate (DAPS; 100 mg/kg; eq. to 0.32 mmol/kg) on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increase in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; A), interleukin-6 (IL-6; B) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß; C) concentrations in rat serum. Serum samples were obtained 6 h after LPS injection (5 mg/kg; i.p.) and the data are expressed as the mean ± SEM concentration of cytokine in pg/ml or ng/ml: * p
    Resistance Conferring Dhps Double Mutant Allele, supplied by GE Healthcare, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Millipore dhp antagonist
    <t>E2</t> inhibited but <t>DHP</t> stimulated the expression of fshb and lhb, independently from E2 inhibition
    Dhp Antagonist, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    91
    Novartis dhp
    <t>E2</t> inhibited but <t>DHP</t> stimulated the expression of fshb and lhb, independently from E2 inhibition
    Dhp, supplied by Novartis, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 4 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    87
    Johnson & Johnson dhp
    <t>E2</t> inhibited but <t>DHP</t> stimulated the expression of fshb and lhb, independently from E2 inhibition
    Dhp, supplied by Johnson & Johnson, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 87/100, based on 2 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    87
    steraloids inc dhp
    <t>E2</t> inhibited but <t>DHP</t> stimulated the expression of fshb and lhb, independently from E2 inhibition
    Dhp, supplied by steraloids inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 87/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    dhp  (Tocris)
    91
    Tocris dhp
    <t>E2</t> inhibited but <t>DHP</t> stimulated the expression of fshb and lhb, independently from E2 inhibition
    Dhp, supplied by Tocris, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 91/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    SYNCHEM OHG 2 5 dhp
    Characterization of NaaD. The enzyme activity was measured according to the absorbance decrease at 320 nm. The reaction mixture contain NaaD, 250 μM <t>2,5-DHP,</t> and 5 μM FeSO 4 . ( a ) Negative control, 2,5-DHP; ( b ) reaction of NaaD (NaaD + 2,5-DHP); ( c ) reaction of NaaD (NaaD + 2,5-DHP + Fe 2+ ); ( d ) negative control, NaaD.
    2 5 Dhp, supplied by SYNCHEM OHG, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 6 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    94
    J&K Scientific dhp
    Characterization of NaaD. The enzyme activity was measured according to the absorbance decrease at 320 nm. The reaction mixture contain NaaD, 250 μM <t>2,5-DHP,</t> and 5 μM FeSO 4 . ( a ) Negative control, 2,5-DHP; ( b ) reaction of NaaD (NaaD + 2,5-DHP); ( c ) reaction of NaaD (NaaD + 2,5-DHP + Fe 2+ ); ( d ) negative control, NaaD.
    Dhp, supplied by J&K Scientific, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 94/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    SYNCHEM OHG dhp
    Characterization of NaaD. The enzyme activity was measured according to the absorbance decrease at 320 nm. The reaction mixture contain NaaD, 250 μM <t>2,5-DHP,</t> and 5 μM FeSO 4 . ( a ) Negative control, 2,5-DHP; ( b ) reaction of NaaD (NaaD + 2,5-DHP); ( c ) reaction of NaaD (NaaD + 2,5-DHP + Fe 2+ ); ( d ) negative control, NaaD.
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    Millipore 3α oh dhp
    Experimental induction of neurosteroid resistance at late pregnancy. A , Left , Average sIPSCs obtained in SON neurons at P20 showing a large <t>3α-OH-DHP</t> effect under endogenous conditions using unbuffered pipette medium. Right , Histogram of the sIPSC decay time constants of experiment shown on the left . B , Average sIPSCs in the absence and presence of 3α-OH-DHP and histogram showing that phosphatase inhibition prevents 3α-OH-DHP effect on sIPSC decay. C , Average sIPSCs in the absence and presence of 3α-OH-DHP and histogram showing that PKC activation also prevents 3α-OH-DHP effect on sIPSC decay. D , Summary graph illustrating the relative effects of 3α-OH-DHP on sIPSC decay time constants under the endogenous condition (to 196 ± 31% of control; p
    3α Oh Dhp, supplied by Millipore, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 7 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    Toray pmx dhp column
    Experimental induction of neurosteroid resistance at late pregnancy. A , Left , Average sIPSCs obtained in SON neurons at P20 showing a large <t>3α-OH-DHP</t> effect under endogenous conditions using unbuffered pipette medium. Right , Histogram of the sIPSC decay time constants of experiment shown on the left . B , Average sIPSCs in the absence and presence of 3α-OH-DHP and histogram showing that phosphatase inhibition prevents 3α-OH-DHP effect on sIPSC decay. C , Average sIPSCs in the absence and presence of 3α-OH-DHP and histogram showing that PKC activation also prevents 3α-OH-DHP effect on sIPSC decay. D , Summary graph illustrating the relative effects of 3α-OH-DHP on sIPSC decay time constants under the endogenous condition (to 196 ± 31% of control; p
    Pmx Dhp Column, supplied by Toray, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    93
    Microsoft dhp
    Experimental induction of neurosteroid resistance at late pregnancy. A , Left , Average sIPSCs obtained in SON neurons at P20 showing a large <t>3α-OH-DHP</t> effect under endogenous conditions using unbuffered pipette medium. Right , Histogram of the sIPSC decay time constants of experiment shown on the left . B , Average sIPSCs in the absence and presence of 3α-OH-DHP and histogram showing that phosphatase inhibition prevents 3α-OH-DHP effect on sIPSC decay. C , Average sIPSCs in the absence and presence of 3α-OH-DHP and histogram showing that PKC activation also prevents 3α-OH-DHP effect on sIPSC decay. D , Summary graph illustrating the relative effects of 3α-OH-DHP on sIPSC decay time constants under the endogenous condition (to 196 ± 31% of control; p
    Dhp, supplied by Microsoft, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 3 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Polymer Characterization SA dhp
    Experimental induction of neurosteroid resistance at late pregnancy. A , Left , Average sIPSCs obtained in SON neurons at P20 showing a large <t>3α-OH-DHP</t> effect under endogenous conditions using unbuffered pipette medium. Right , Histogram of the sIPSC decay time constants of experiment shown on the left . B , Average sIPSCs in the absence and presence of 3α-OH-DHP and histogram showing that phosphatase inhibition prevents 3α-OH-DHP effect on sIPSC decay. C , Average sIPSCs in the absence and presence of 3α-OH-DHP and histogram showing that PKC activation also prevents 3α-OH-DHP effect on sIPSC decay. D , Summary graph illustrating the relative effects of 3α-OH-DHP on sIPSC decay time constants under the endogenous condition (to 196 ± 31% of control; p
    Dhp, supplied by Polymer Characterization SA, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 85/100, based on 5 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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    85
    Pfizer Inc dhp isradipine
    Experimental induction of neurosteroid resistance at late pregnancy. A , Left , Average sIPSCs obtained in SON neurons at P20 showing a large <t>3α-OH-DHP</t> effect under endogenous conditions using unbuffered pipette medium. Right , Histogram of the sIPSC decay time constants of experiment shown on the left . B , Average sIPSCs in the absence and presence of 3α-OH-DHP and histogram showing that phosphatase inhibition prevents 3α-OH-DHP effect on sIPSC decay. C , Average sIPSCs in the absence and presence of 3α-OH-DHP and histogram showing that PKC activation also prevents 3α-OH-DHP effect on sIPSC decay. D , Summary graph illustrating the relative effects of 3α-OH-DHP on sIPSC decay time constants under the endogenous condition (to 196 ± 31% of control; p
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    Image Search Results


    Phylogeny of the Apusomonadida, Breviata, Opisthokonta, and Amoebozoa demonstrating variation in the folB-folK-folP fusion gene. Tree topology was calculated using a concatenated alignment of conserved genes identified in ( Torruella et al. 2012 ) and represents the best-known likelihood tree from 100 ML searches in RAxML (PROTCAT+LG) with 1,000 nonrapid bootstraps. ML-BS is an abbreviation of maximum likelihood bootstrap values, FolB-folK-folP fusion gene domain architecture of taxa included is listed down the right column, and fusion state is denoted by the presence/absence of connecting lines. Inferred gene/domain losses are shown as shadow domains. See key for guide to tree topology support values and character state changes. Domain duplication is indicated as (D) in a box of the appropriate domain colour, fission by domain loss events are denoted as (FL5–9) and specific fission events as (F1–4). Total losses of complete ORFs are not illustrated. Note that the putative folB of Trichoplax adhaerens and the putative folB-folK fusion of Nematostella vectensis were removed from phylogenetic analyses due to poor alignment of these sequences, as such their provenance and evolutionary ancestry remains questionable and are therefore indicated by a question mark at the relevant position.

    Journal: Genome Biology and Evolution

    Article Title: Complex Patterns of Gene Fission in the Eukaryotic Folate Biosynthesis Pathway

    doi: 10.1093/gbe/evu213

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Phylogeny of the Apusomonadida, Breviata, Opisthokonta, and Amoebozoa demonstrating variation in the folB-folK-folP fusion gene. Tree topology was calculated using a concatenated alignment of conserved genes identified in ( Torruella et al. 2012 ) and represents the best-known likelihood tree from 100 ML searches in RAxML (PROTCAT+LG) with 1,000 nonrapid bootstraps. ML-BS is an abbreviation of maximum likelihood bootstrap values, FolB-folK-folP fusion gene domain architecture of taxa included is listed down the right column, and fusion state is denoted by the presence/absence of connecting lines. Inferred gene/domain losses are shown as shadow domains. See key for guide to tree topology support values and character state changes. Domain duplication is indicated as (D) in a box of the appropriate domain colour, fission by domain loss events are denoted as (FL5–9) and specific fission events as (F1–4). Total losses of complete ORFs are not illustrated. Note that the putative folB of Trichoplax adhaerens and the putative folB-folK fusion of Nematostella vectensis were removed from phylogenetic analyses due to poor alignment of these sequences, as such their provenance and evolutionary ancestry remains questionable and are therefore indicated by a question mark at the relevant position.

    Article Snippet: Sequences shown to form long branches in the phylogenetic analysis were removed from the alignment to reduce the risk of long-branch attraction artifacts ( ; ), for example, the Microsporidian: Encephalitozoon hellem ATCC 50504 folB-folK-folP gene fusion—XP_003887200, and Plasmodium berghei folK-folP gene fusion—XP_15149005 from the folK alignment, and the analyses rerun.

    Techniques:

    WDR83 also upregulated DHPS mRNA and protein expression. (A) Knockdown of WDR83 by siRNAs in MGC803 cells resulted in an 18.7% decrease in DHPS mRNA expression ( n ≥ 3, P = 0.0257). (B) Western blot analysis indicated that WDR83 downregulation

    Journal: Cell Research

    Article Title: Bidirectional regulation between WDR83 and its natural antisense transcript DHPS in gastric cancer

    doi: 10.1038/cr.2012.57

    Figure Lengend Snippet: WDR83 also upregulated DHPS mRNA and protein expression. (A) Knockdown of WDR83 by siRNAs in MGC803 cells resulted in an 18.7% decrease in DHPS mRNA expression ( n ≥ 3, P = 0.0257). (B) Western blot analysis indicated that WDR83 downregulation

    Article Snippet: The slides were incubated with anti-WDR83 (1:500, Abcam, Cambridge, UK) or anti-DHPS (1:500, Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) antibody overnight at 4 °C.

    Techniques: Expressing, Western Blot

    DHPS and WDR83 formed RNA duplex and increased stability of each other. (A) RPA was performed on RNA samples from MGC803 cells. The plasmids of pIRES2- WDR83 -full length and pIRES2- DHPS -full length were cotransfected in the same reaction, and the plasmids

    Journal: Cell Research

    Article Title: Bidirectional regulation between WDR83 and its natural antisense transcript DHPS in gastric cancer

    doi: 10.1038/cr.2012.57

    Figure Lengend Snippet: DHPS and WDR83 formed RNA duplex and increased stability of each other. (A) RPA was performed on RNA samples from MGC803 cells. The plasmids of pIRES2- WDR83 -full length and pIRES2- DHPS -full length were cotransfected in the same reaction, and the plasmids

    Article Snippet: The slides were incubated with anti-WDR83 (1:500, Abcam, Cambridge, UK) or anti-DHPS (1:500, Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) antibody overnight at 4 °C.

    Techniques: Recombinase Polymerase Amplification

    Expression analysis and the subcellular location of WDR83 and DHPS in GC tissues and different cell lines. (A) WDR83 and DHPS mRNA levels were quantified by qPCR in 19 pairs of GC specimens and their matched normal tissues. WDR83 and DHPS expression were

    Journal: Cell Research

    Article Title: Bidirectional regulation between WDR83 and its natural antisense transcript DHPS in gastric cancer

    doi: 10.1038/cr.2012.57

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Expression analysis and the subcellular location of WDR83 and DHPS in GC tissues and different cell lines. (A) WDR83 and DHPS mRNA levels were quantified by qPCR in 19 pairs of GC specimens and their matched normal tissues. WDR83 and DHPS expression were

    Article Snippet: The slides were incubated with anti-WDR83 (1:500, Abcam, Cambridge, UK) or anti-DHPS (1:500, Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) antibody overnight at 4 °C.

    Techniques: Expressing, Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Positive correlations between WDR83 , DHPS , and E2F1 in other cancers. The expressions of WDR83 , DHPS , and E2F1 were analyzed in normal ( n = 7) and cancer ( n = 10) cell lines. Transcriptional profiles were derived from the ENCODE Transcriptome Project

    Journal: Cell Research

    Article Title: Bidirectional regulation between WDR83 and its natural antisense transcript DHPS in gastric cancer

    doi: 10.1038/cr.2012.57

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Positive correlations between WDR83 , DHPS , and E2F1 in other cancers. The expressions of WDR83 , DHPS , and E2F1 were analyzed in normal ( n = 7) and cancer ( n = 10) cell lines. Transcriptional profiles were derived from the ENCODE Transcriptome Project

    Article Snippet: The slides were incubated with anti-WDR83 (1:500, Abcam, Cambridge, UK) or anti-DHPS (1:500, Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) antibody overnight at 4 °C.

    Techniques: Derivative Assay

    DHPS upregulated WDR83 mRNA and protein expression through the 3′UTRs. (A) Knockdown of DHPS by siRNAs in MGC803 cells reduced WDR83 mRNA levels by 31.4% ( n ≥ 3, P = 0.0039). (B) Western blot analysis demonstrated that the siRNAs knockdown

    Journal: Cell Research

    Article Title: Bidirectional regulation between WDR83 and its natural antisense transcript DHPS in gastric cancer

    doi: 10.1038/cr.2012.57

    Figure Lengend Snippet: DHPS upregulated WDR83 mRNA and protein expression through the 3′UTRs. (A) Knockdown of DHPS by siRNAs in MGC803 cells reduced WDR83 mRNA levels by 31.4% ( n ≥ 3, P = 0.0039). (B) Western blot analysis demonstrated that the siRNAs knockdown

    Article Snippet: The slides were incubated with anti-WDR83 (1:500, Abcam, Cambridge, UK) or anti-DHPS (1:500, Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) antibody overnight at 4 °C.

    Techniques: Expressing, Western Blot

    Genomic organization of WDR83 and DHPS . DHPS and WDR83 are transcribed from opposite strands of the same region on chromosome 19. The coding regions and non-coding regions of WDR83 are marked with dark green and light green, respectively. The coding regions

    Journal: Cell Research

    Article Title: Bidirectional regulation between WDR83 and its natural antisense transcript DHPS in gastric cancer

    doi: 10.1038/cr.2012.57

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Genomic organization of WDR83 and DHPS . DHPS and WDR83 are transcribed from opposite strands of the same region on chromosome 19. The coding regions and non-coding regions of WDR83 are marked with dark green and light green, respectively. The coding regions

    Article Snippet: The slides were incubated with anti-WDR83 (1:500, Abcam, Cambridge, UK) or anti-DHPS (1:500, Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) antibody overnight at 4 °C.

    Techniques:

    WDR83 and DHPS were involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, and the downregulation of WDR83 or DHPS inhibited ERK1/2 activation and E2F1 expression in MGC803 cells. (A) The knockdown of either WDR83 or DHPS decreased PMA-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation

    Journal: Cell Research

    Article Title: Bidirectional regulation between WDR83 and its natural antisense transcript DHPS in gastric cancer

    doi: 10.1038/cr.2012.57

    Figure Lengend Snippet: WDR83 and DHPS were involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, and the downregulation of WDR83 or DHPS inhibited ERK1/2 activation and E2F1 expression in MGC803 cells. (A) The knockdown of either WDR83 or DHPS decreased PMA-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation

    Article Snippet: The slides were incubated with anti-WDR83 (1:500, Abcam, Cambridge, UK) or anti-DHPS (1:500, Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO, USA) antibody overnight at 4 °C.

    Techniques: Activation Assay, Expressing

    Differential expression of elF5A, Hypusinated elF5A and DHPS in CD4 and CD8 T cells. (A) Western blot of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes isolated from pancreatic lymph nodes (LN) and spleen (S). All the bands present in male/female samples were extracted from the respective single blot with the same exposure time. (B) DHPS, Hypusine, and elF5A were less expressed in CD8 T cells of pancreatic lymph nodes whereas the expression of these proteins were higher at splenic CD8. Note: elF5A protein expression was significant (P

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: eIF5A inhibition influences T cell dynamics in the pancreatic microenvironment of the humanized mouse model of Type 1 Diabetes

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-38341-5

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Differential expression of elF5A, Hypusinated elF5A and DHPS in CD4 and CD8 T cells. (A) Western blot of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes isolated from pancreatic lymph nodes (LN) and spleen (S). All the bands present in male/female samples were extracted from the respective single blot with the same exposure time. (B) DHPS, Hypusine, and elF5A were less expressed in CD8 T cells of pancreatic lymph nodes whereas the expression of these proteins were higher at splenic CD8. Note: elF5A protein expression was significant (P

    Article Snippet: The blot was blocked with 5% nonfat dry milk/3% bovine serum albumin (BSA) and further incubated with primary antibodies against mice DHPS (Cat#ab202133, Abcam, Cambridge, United Kingdom), Hypusinated elF5A (Cat#ABS1064, Millipore Sigma, Burlington, MA), elF5A (Cat#ab137561, Abcam, Cambridge, United Kingdom) and α/β-Tubulin (Cat#2148 S, Cell Signaling, Danvers, MA).

    Techniques: Expressing, Western Blot, Isolation

    Effect of residual drug on reinfection rates and development of clinical malaria. The percentage of reinfections that were successful by wild-type parasites (WT/WT) and parasites with a double mutation in either the DHFR (2M/WT) or DHPS (WT/2M) gene following SP treatment is indicated by the solid, dotted, and dashed lines, respectively. The bars indicate the mean time until the appearance of symptoms requiring treatment following reinfections occurring between 2 and 32 days post-SP treatment.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Evolution of Resistance to Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine in Plasmodium falciparum

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.48.6.2116-2123.2004

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of residual drug on reinfection rates and development of clinical malaria. The percentage of reinfections that were successful by wild-type parasites (WT/WT) and parasites with a double mutation in either the DHFR (2M/WT) or DHPS (WT/2M) gene following SP treatment is indicated by the solid, dotted, and dashed lines, respectively. The bars indicate the mean time until the appearance of symptoms requiring treatment following reinfections occurring between 2 and 32 days post-SP treatment.

    Article Snippet: Isobolograms for parasites containing triple mutations (3M) in both the DHFR and DHPS genes (3M/3M) and for parasites containing a triple mutation in DHFR and the wild-type DHPS gene (3M/WT) were digitized.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis

    Geographic distribution of dhfr and dhps genotypes, 1990s. This figure shows the sites examined during the 1990s, noted with red stars, for dhfr . All sites were fixed for the 437G/540E/581G dhps allele, with the exception of one isolate in Itaituba carrying 437G/581G, and therefore these pie charts were omitted The color coding for dhfr appears in the bottom of the map. The data provided for Peixoto de Azevedo, noted by the blue star came from the work of others [45] .

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Historical Shifts in Brazilian P. falciparum Population Structure and Drug Resistance Alleles

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058984

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Geographic distribution of dhfr and dhps genotypes, 1990s. This figure shows the sites examined during the 1990s, noted with red stars, for dhfr . All sites were fixed for the 437G/540E/581G dhps allele, with the exception of one isolate in Itaituba carrying 437G/581G, and therefore these pie charts were omitted The color coding for dhfr appears in the bottom of the map. The data provided for Peixoto de Azevedo, noted by the blue star came from the work of others [45] .

    Article Snippet: It has been previously argued that highly resistant alleles of dhfr and dhps spread from the southern Amazon based on the understanding that high levels of SP resistance had first developed on the border of Bolivia and Brazil , .

    Techniques:

    Geographic distribution of dhfr and dhps genotypes, 1980s. This figure shows the sites examined, noted with red stars, during the 1980s for dhfr and dhps genotypes. For each gene and site, there are two pie charts. The color coding for the alleles appears in the bottom of the map. Note that alleles with fewer mutations appear in the eastern portion of the country, while the 51I/108N/164L allele appears at a central and northeastern site.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: Historical Shifts in Brazilian P. falciparum Population Structure and Drug Resistance Alleles

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058984

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Geographic distribution of dhfr and dhps genotypes, 1980s. This figure shows the sites examined, noted with red stars, during the 1980s for dhfr and dhps genotypes. For each gene and site, there are two pie charts. The color coding for the alleles appears in the bottom of the map. Note that alleles with fewer mutations appear in the eastern portion of the country, while the 51I/108N/164L allele appears at a central and northeastern site.

    Article Snippet: It has been previously argued that highly resistant alleles of dhfr and dhps spread from the southern Amazon based on the understanding that high levels of SP resistance had first developed on the border of Bolivia and Brazil , .

    Techniques:

    Structure-based alignment of DHPS amino acid sequences. The amino acid numbering is that of FtHPPK-DHPS. The most conserved and highly conserved residues are shaded in black and gray, respectively. The active-site loops are indicated by horizontal bars. The residues involved in binding of HPPP and p ABA are marked below the sequence alignment with ▲ and ▼, respectively. Residues within 4.5 Å of both substrates are marked with ◆. Sites of mutations that cause resistance to sulfa drugs are indicated by ● above the sequence alignment. Ft, F . tularensis ; Mt2, M. tuberculosis DHPS 2; Ec, E. coli ; Yp, Y. pestis ; Ba, B. anthracis ; Sa, S. aureus ; Mt1, M. tuberculosis DHPS 1; Sp, S. pneumoniae; Sc, S. cerevisiae .

    Journal: The FEBS journal

    Article Title: Structural enzymology and inhibition of the bifunctional folate pathway enzyme HPPK-DHPS from the biowarfare agent Francisella tularensis

    doi: 10.1111/febs.12896

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Structure-based alignment of DHPS amino acid sequences. The amino acid numbering is that of FtHPPK-DHPS. The most conserved and highly conserved residues are shaded in black and gray, respectively. The active-site loops are indicated by horizontal bars. The residues involved in binding of HPPP and p ABA are marked below the sequence alignment with ▲ and ▼, respectively. Residues within 4.5 Å of both substrates are marked with ◆. Sites of mutations that cause resistance to sulfa drugs are indicated by ● above the sequence alignment. Ft, F . tularensis ; Mt2, M. tuberculosis DHPS 2; Ec, E. coli ; Yp, Y. pestis ; Ba, B. anthracis ; Sa, S. aureus ; Mt1, M. tuberculosis DHPS 1; Sp, S. pneumoniae; Sc, S. cerevisiae .

    Article Snippet: Holarctica (strain LVS, UniProtKB entry Q2A2W3), were reported: the apo-enzyme, a complex with HP, Mg2+ , and the non-hydrolysable ATP analog AMPCPP (FtHPPK-DHPS•HP•MgAMPCPP), and a complex with a DHPS inhibitor (PDB entries 3MCM, 3MCO, and 3MCN) [ ].

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Sequencing

    Structural features in the DHPS of FtHPPK-DHPS. (A) Superimposed FtHPPK-DHPS•HP-26 (C atoms in cyan, this work) and YpDHPS•Mg 2+ • p ABA•PP•XHP (C atoms in orange, PDB entry 3TYZ). Proteins are shown as ribbon diagrams. Selected ligands, including PP (pyrophosphate ion) and XHP [2–amino-6-metyhlidene-6,7-dihydropterindin-4(3H)-one], and side chains are shown as sticks. The hydrogen bond is indicated with a dashed line in red. (B) A zoomed-in view showing only the αloop7 in the two structures and the p ABA in YpDHPS•Mg 2+ • p ABA•PP•XHP. Indicated by a double-headed arrow is the distance between the S384 hydroxyl of FtHPPK-DHPS•HP-26 and the pABA of YpDHPS•Mg 2+ • p ABA•PP•XHP.

    Journal: The FEBS journal

    Article Title: Structural enzymology and inhibition of the bifunctional folate pathway enzyme HPPK-DHPS from the biowarfare agent Francisella tularensis

    doi: 10.1111/febs.12896

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Structural features in the DHPS of FtHPPK-DHPS. (A) Superimposed FtHPPK-DHPS•HP-26 (C atoms in cyan, this work) and YpDHPS•Mg 2+ • p ABA•PP•XHP (C atoms in orange, PDB entry 3TYZ). Proteins are shown as ribbon diagrams. Selected ligands, including PP (pyrophosphate ion) and XHP [2–amino-6-metyhlidene-6,7-dihydropterindin-4(3H)-one], and side chains are shown as sticks. The hydrogen bond is indicated with a dashed line in red. (B) A zoomed-in view showing only the αloop7 in the two structures and the p ABA in YpDHPS•Mg 2+ • p ABA•PP•XHP. Indicated by a double-headed arrow is the distance between the S384 hydroxyl of FtHPPK-DHPS•HP-26 and the pABA of YpDHPS•Mg 2+ • p ABA•PP•XHP.

    Article Snippet: Holarctica (strain LVS, UniProtKB entry Q2A2W3), were reported: the apo-enzyme, a complex with HP, Mg2+ , and the non-hydrolysable ATP analog AMPCPP (FtHPPK-DHPS•HP•MgAMPCPP), and a complex with a DHPS inhibitor (PDB entries 3MCM, 3MCO, and 3MCN) [ ].

    Techniques:

    Structure-based alignment of HPPK amino acid sequences. The amino acid numbering is that of FtHPPK-DHPS. The most conserved and highly conserved residues are shaded in black and gray, respectively.The active-site loops are indicated by horizontal bars. The residues involved in binding of HP and MgATP are marked below the sequence alignment with ▲ and ▼, respectively. Residues with 4.5 Å of both substrates are marked with ◆. Ft, F. tularensis ; Ec, E. coli ; Yp, Y. pestis ; Ba, B. anthracis ; Sa, S. aureus ; Mt, M. tuberculosis ; Sp, S. pneumoniae; Sc, S. cerevisiae .

    Journal: The FEBS journal

    Article Title: Structural enzymology and inhibition of the bifunctional folate pathway enzyme HPPK-DHPS from the biowarfare agent Francisella tularensis

    doi: 10.1111/febs.12896

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Structure-based alignment of HPPK amino acid sequences. The amino acid numbering is that of FtHPPK-DHPS. The most conserved and highly conserved residues are shaded in black and gray, respectively.The active-site loops are indicated by horizontal bars. The residues involved in binding of HP and MgATP are marked below the sequence alignment with ▲ and ▼, respectively. Residues with 4.5 Å of both substrates are marked with ◆. Ft, F. tularensis ; Ec, E. coli ; Yp, Y. pestis ; Ba, B. anthracis ; Sa, S. aureus ; Mt, M. tuberculosis ; Sp, S. pneumoniae; Sc, S. cerevisiae .

    Article Snippet: Holarctica (strain LVS, UniProtKB entry Q2A2W3), were reported: the apo-enzyme, a complex with HP, Mg2+ , and the non-hydrolysable ATP analog AMPCPP (FtHPPK-DHPS•HP•MgAMPCPP), and a complex with a DHPS inhibitor (PDB entries 3MCM, 3MCO, and 3MCN) [ ].

    Techniques: Binding Assay, Sequencing

    AMOVA Results. Locus by locus AMOVAs were used to create this table. N denotes sample size. Haplotype group refers to a combination haplotype of the haplotypes seen around each of the four genes. ** Two apparently monomorphic markers were removed from analysis ( dhfr : 0.52 kb and dhps : 9.0 kb) due to poor amplification in clonet D.

    Journal: PLoS ONE

    Article Title: South American Plasmodium falciparum after the Malaria Eradication Era: Clonal Population Expansion and Survival of the Fittest Hybrids

    doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023486

    Figure Lengend Snippet: AMOVA Results. Locus by locus AMOVAs were used to create this table. N denotes sample size. Haplotype group refers to a combination haplotype of the haplotypes seen around each of the four genes. ** Two apparently monomorphic markers were removed from analysis ( dhfr : 0.52 kb and dhps : 9.0 kb) due to poor amplification in clonet D.

    Article Snippet: Clonets A and B always had the Stct VMNT pfcrt allele associated with highly resistant dhfr and dhps alleles (noted in the Amazon by others as well ), along with the pfmdr1 α lineage.

    Techniques: Amplification

    2-F-PABA is an alternative substrate for tetrahydrofolate (THF) biosynthesis. PABA and F-PABA are substrates for dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) in the THF biosynthesis pathway (only the terminal portion of the pathway is shown). The incorporation of PABA and PABA analogs F-PABA and PAS into dihydropteroate was quantified using a coupled assay that omitted DHFS from the reaction mixture and instead involved the direct reduction of dihydropteroate by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR).

    Journal: ACS Infectious Diseases

    Article Title: Positron Emission Tomography Imaging with 2-[18F]F-p-Aminobenzoic Acid Detects Staphylococcus aureus Infections and Monitors Drug Response

    doi: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.8b00182

    Figure Lengend Snippet: 2-F-PABA is an alternative substrate for tetrahydrofolate (THF) biosynthesis. PABA and F-PABA are substrates for dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) in the THF biosynthesis pathway (only the terminal portion of the pathway is shown). The incorporation of PABA and PABA analogs F-PABA and PAS into dihydropteroate was quantified using a coupled assay that omitted DHFS from the reaction mixture and instead involved the direct reduction of dihydropteroate by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR).

    Article Snippet: Expression and Purification of Dihydropteroate Synthase (DHPS) A pET16b plasmid carrying the gene for S. aureus DHPS was generously provided by Dr. Richard E. Lee (St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital).

    Techniques:

    Effect of residual drug on reinfection rates and development of clinical malaria. The percentage of reinfections that were successful by wild-type parasites (WT/WT) and parasites with a double mutation in either the DHFR (2M/WT) or DHPS (WT/2M) gene following SP treatment is indicated by the solid, dotted, and dashed lines, respectively. The bars indicate the mean time until the appearance of symptoms requiring treatment following reinfections occurring between 2 and 32 days post-SP treatment.

    Journal: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy

    Article Title: Evolution of Resistance to Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine in Plasmodium falciparum

    doi: 10.1128/AAC.48.6.2116-2123.2004

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of residual drug on reinfection rates and development of clinical malaria. The percentage of reinfections that were successful by wild-type parasites (WT/WT) and parasites with a double mutation in either the DHFR (2M/WT) or DHPS (WT/2M) gene following SP treatment is indicated by the solid, dotted, and dashed lines, respectively. The bars indicate the mean time until the appearance of symptoms requiring treatment following reinfections occurring between 2 and 32 days post-SP treatment.

    Article Snippet: Isobolograms for parasites containing triple mutations (3M) in both the DHFR and DHPS genes (3M/3M) and for parasites containing a triple mutation in DHFR and the wild-type DHPS gene (3M/WT) were digitized.

    Techniques: Mutagenesis

    Effects of intraperitoneal injection of potassium 2,5-dihydroxyphenyl sulfonate (DHPS; 100 mg/kg; eq. to 0.44 mmol/kg) or potassium 2,5-diacetoxyphenyl sulfonate (DAPS; 100 mg/kg; eq. to 0.32 mmol/kg) on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increase in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; A), interleukin-6 (IL-6; B) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß; C) concentrations in rat serum. Serum samples were obtained 6 h after LPS injection (5 mg/kg; i.p.) and the data are expressed as the mean ± SEM concentration of cytokine in pg/ml or ng/ml: * p

    Journal: Journal of Translational Medicine

    Article Title: Diacetyloxyl derivatization of the fibroblast growth factor inhibitor dobesilate enhances its anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumoral activities

    doi: 10.1186/s12967-015-0413-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of intraperitoneal injection of potassium 2,5-dihydroxyphenyl sulfonate (DHPS; 100 mg/kg; eq. to 0.44 mmol/kg) or potassium 2,5-diacetoxyphenyl sulfonate (DAPS; 100 mg/kg; eq. to 0.32 mmol/kg) on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced increase in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; A), interleukin-6 (IL-6; B) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß; C) concentrations in rat serum. Serum samples were obtained 6 h after LPS injection (5 mg/kg; i.p.) and the data are expressed as the mean ± SEM concentration of cytokine in pg/ml or ng/ml: * p

    Article Snippet: Chemicals Potassium 2,5-dihydroxyphenyl sulfonate (DHPS) was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (Saint Louis, MO) and reagent-grade potassium 2,5-diacetoxyphenyl sulfonate (DAPS) was purchased from Aurigene (Bangalore, India).

    Techniques: Injection, Concentration Assay

    Representative histology showing the effects of topical treatment with 2,5-diacetoxyphenyl sulfonate (DAPS; 2.5% ; eq. to 0.08 mmol/ml) on benzalkonium chloride-induced dermatitis in the rat ear. The first row shows the macroscopic appearance of both ears of a rat treated with vehicle alone (glycerol: A ) and those of a rat treated with DAPS (B) , which evidently reduces the erythema caused by dermatitis. In the second row, the tissue edema on the ear of a rat with dermatitis treated only with glycerol (C) was not observed in DAPS-treated rats (D) . The third row shows the intense leukocyte infiltration in a glycerol-treated rat ear (E) , an effect that was clearly reduced by DAPS treatment (F) . Magnification of the boxed area in E and F reveals that in the capillaries of vehicle-treated rats, there are leukocytes adhered to the endothelial cells, which rolled and extravasated to infiltrate the surrounding tissue (G) , a feature not observed in the vessels of DAPS-treated rats (H) . The infiltration of leukocytes into the erector muscle of the ear in glycerol-treated rats (I) was also attenuated by DAPS treatment (J) . Magnifications: C - F , x100; G - H x400; I - J x200. Panel K shows the effects of topic treatment with 2,5-dihydroxyphenyl sulfonate (DHPS; 5%; eq. to 0.22 mmol/ml), DAPS (2.5%; eq. to 0.08 mmol/ml) or the vehicle alone (glycerol) on the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity associated with benzalkonium chloride-induced dermatitis on the rat ear. Dermatitis was not induced in the control group. MPO activity is expressed as the mean ± SEM of the absorbance at 460 nm normalized to the weight (mg) of the tissue of the corresponding ear. The numbers of animals used is shown in parentheses: **p

    Journal: Journal of Translational Medicine

    Article Title: Diacetyloxyl derivatization of the fibroblast growth factor inhibitor dobesilate enhances its anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumoral activities

    doi: 10.1186/s12967-015-0413-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Representative histology showing the effects of topical treatment with 2,5-diacetoxyphenyl sulfonate (DAPS; 2.5% ; eq. to 0.08 mmol/ml) on benzalkonium chloride-induced dermatitis in the rat ear. The first row shows the macroscopic appearance of both ears of a rat treated with vehicle alone (glycerol: A ) and those of a rat treated with DAPS (B) , which evidently reduces the erythema caused by dermatitis. In the second row, the tissue edema on the ear of a rat with dermatitis treated only with glycerol (C) was not observed in DAPS-treated rats (D) . The third row shows the intense leukocyte infiltration in a glycerol-treated rat ear (E) , an effect that was clearly reduced by DAPS treatment (F) . Magnification of the boxed area in E and F reveals that in the capillaries of vehicle-treated rats, there are leukocytes adhered to the endothelial cells, which rolled and extravasated to infiltrate the surrounding tissue (G) , a feature not observed in the vessels of DAPS-treated rats (H) . The infiltration of leukocytes into the erector muscle of the ear in glycerol-treated rats (I) was also attenuated by DAPS treatment (J) . Magnifications: C - F , x100; G - H x400; I - J x200. Panel K shows the effects of topic treatment with 2,5-dihydroxyphenyl sulfonate (DHPS; 5%; eq. to 0.22 mmol/ml), DAPS (2.5%; eq. to 0.08 mmol/ml) or the vehicle alone (glycerol) on the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity associated with benzalkonium chloride-induced dermatitis on the rat ear. Dermatitis was not induced in the control group. MPO activity is expressed as the mean ± SEM of the absorbance at 460 nm normalized to the weight (mg) of the tissue of the corresponding ear. The numbers of animals used is shown in parentheses: **p

    Article Snippet: Chemicals Potassium 2,5-dihydroxyphenyl sulfonate (DHPS) was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (Saint Louis, MO) and reagent-grade potassium 2,5-diacetoxyphenyl sulfonate (DAPS) was purchased from Aurigene (Bangalore, India).

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 1 to 100 μM), potassium 2,5-dihydroxyphenyl sulfonate (DHPS; 1 to 100 μM) and potassium 2,5-diacetoxyphenyl sulfonate (DAPS; 1 to 100 μM) on cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 (A) and COX-2 (B) activity. Data are expressed as the percentage of the total COX activity obtained in the absence of inhibitors and the results are the mean ± SEM of two independent experiments performed in duplicate. Panel C shows the effects of intravenously administered ASA (10 mg/kg; eq. to 0.05 mmol/kg), DHPS (10 mg/kg; eq. to 0.04 mmol/kg) and DAPS (10 mg/kg; eq. to 0.03 mmol/kg) on bleeding time (BT) in anesthetized rats. The data are expressed as the mean ± SEM of the percentage of increase in BT with respect to the basal determination for each animal. The numbers of rats used for the measurements are indicated in parentheses: *p

    Journal: Journal of Translational Medicine

    Article Title: Diacetyloxyl derivatization of the fibroblast growth factor inhibitor dobesilate enhances its anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumoral activities

    doi: 10.1186/s12967-015-0413-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 1 to 100 μM), potassium 2,5-dihydroxyphenyl sulfonate (DHPS; 1 to 100 μM) and potassium 2,5-diacetoxyphenyl sulfonate (DAPS; 1 to 100 μM) on cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 (A) and COX-2 (B) activity. Data are expressed as the percentage of the total COX activity obtained in the absence of inhibitors and the results are the mean ± SEM of two independent experiments performed in duplicate. Panel C shows the effects of intravenously administered ASA (10 mg/kg; eq. to 0.05 mmol/kg), DHPS (10 mg/kg; eq. to 0.04 mmol/kg) and DAPS (10 mg/kg; eq. to 0.03 mmol/kg) on bleeding time (BT) in anesthetized rats. The data are expressed as the mean ± SEM of the percentage of increase in BT with respect to the basal determination for each animal. The numbers of rats used for the measurements are indicated in parentheses: *p

    Article Snippet: Chemicals Potassium 2,5-dihydroxyphenyl sulfonate (DHPS) was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (Saint Louis, MO) and reagent-grade potassium 2,5-diacetoxyphenyl sulfonate (DAPS) was purchased from Aurigene (Bangalore, India).

    Techniques: Activity Assay

    Inhibition of FGF-1-induced mitogenesis in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo by potassium 2,5-dihydroxyphenyl sulfonate (DHPS) and potassium 2,5-diacetoxyphenyl sulfonate (DAPS). Panel A shows the inhibition of mitogenesis induced by fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1 in quiescent Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts treated with DHPS or DAPS. Representative microphotographs show how oral administration of the vehicle alone (VEH; tap water: B ), DHPS (300 mg/kg/day; eq. to 1.32 mmol/kg/d; C ) and DAPS (300 mg/kg/day; eq. to 0.96 mmol/kg/d; D ) affect FGF-1-induced angiogenesis in gelatin sponges subcutaneously implanted in rats for 7 days. In the same assay, intense leukocyte extravasation and infiltration can be observed in sponges containing FGF-1 when they are removed from vehicle-treated rats (E) but not from DAPS-treated rats (F) . The extent of neovascularization detected in phosphate buffered saline (PBS)- and FGF-1-containing sponges removed from rats treated with vehicle, DHPS or DAPS can be quantified (G) . In a separate assay (H) the dose-response relationship of the effects of orally administered DAPS is shown (20 to 300 mg/kg/day; eq. to 0.06 to 0.96 mmol/kg/d), expressing the data as the mean ± SEM number of functional vessels per field, determined in 6 randomly acquired fields per specimen. The number of rats used for each measurement is indicated in parentheses: ***p

    Journal: Journal of Translational Medicine

    Article Title: Diacetyloxyl derivatization of the fibroblast growth factor inhibitor dobesilate enhances its anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumoral activities

    doi: 10.1186/s12967-015-0413-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Inhibition of FGF-1-induced mitogenesis in vitro and angiogenesis in vivo by potassium 2,5-dihydroxyphenyl sulfonate (DHPS) and potassium 2,5-diacetoxyphenyl sulfonate (DAPS). Panel A shows the inhibition of mitogenesis induced by fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1 in quiescent Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts treated with DHPS or DAPS. Representative microphotographs show how oral administration of the vehicle alone (VEH; tap water: B ), DHPS (300 mg/kg/day; eq. to 1.32 mmol/kg/d; C ) and DAPS (300 mg/kg/day; eq. to 0.96 mmol/kg/d; D ) affect FGF-1-induced angiogenesis in gelatin sponges subcutaneously implanted in rats for 7 days. In the same assay, intense leukocyte extravasation and infiltration can be observed in sponges containing FGF-1 when they are removed from vehicle-treated rats (E) but not from DAPS-treated rats (F) . The extent of neovascularization detected in phosphate buffered saline (PBS)- and FGF-1-containing sponges removed from rats treated with vehicle, DHPS or DAPS can be quantified (G) . In a separate assay (H) the dose-response relationship of the effects of orally administered DAPS is shown (20 to 300 mg/kg/day; eq. to 0.06 to 0.96 mmol/kg/d), expressing the data as the mean ± SEM number of functional vessels per field, determined in 6 randomly acquired fields per specimen. The number of rats used for each measurement is indicated in parentheses: ***p

    Article Snippet: Chemicals Potassium 2,5-dihydroxyphenyl sulfonate (DHPS) was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (Saint Louis, MO) and reagent-grade potassium 2,5-diacetoxyphenyl sulfonate (DAPS) was purchased from Aurigene (Bangalore, India).

    Techniques: Inhibition, In Vitro, In Vivo, Expressing, Functional Assay

    Chemical structures of potassium 2,5-dihydroxyphenyl sulfonate (DHPS: A) and potassium 2,5-diacetoxyphenyl sulfonate (DAPS: B). Panels C and D show representative images illustrating the effects of DHPS (C) and DAPS (D) on dermatitis of rat ears induced by the application of benzalkonium chloride. After induction of dermatitis in both ears, the right ear was treated topically with DHPS (5% w/v; eq. to 0.22 mmol/ml) or DAPS (5% w/v; eq. to 0.16 mmol/ml), and the left ear with the vehicle alone (glycerol). The extent of dermatitis (vascular hyperpermeability) was revealed by intravenous injection of Evans blue dye. In panel E the inhibitory effects of DHPS (5%; eq. to 0.22 mmol/ml) and DAPS (2.5% and 5%; eq. to 0.08 and 0.16 mmol/ml) on dermatitis are quantified, expressing the data as the mean ± SEM of the percentage of blue-stained area relative to the total area of the ear. The number of animals used for each determination is shown in parentheses: ***p

    Journal: Journal of Translational Medicine

    Article Title: Diacetyloxyl derivatization of the fibroblast growth factor inhibitor dobesilate enhances its anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumoral activities

    doi: 10.1186/s12967-015-0413-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Chemical structures of potassium 2,5-dihydroxyphenyl sulfonate (DHPS: A) and potassium 2,5-diacetoxyphenyl sulfonate (DAPS: B). Panels C and D show representative images illustrating the effects of DHPS (C) and DAPS (D) on dermatitis of rat ears induced by the application of benzalkonium chloride. After induction of dermatitis in both ears, the right ear was treated topically with DHPS (5% w/v; eq. to 0.22 mmol/ml) or DAPS (5% w/v; eq. to 0.16 mmol/ml), and the left ear with the vehicle alone (glycerol). The extent of dermatitis (vascular hyperpermeability) was revealed by intravenous injection of Evans blue dye. In panel E the inhibitory effects of DHPS (5%; eq. to 0.22 mmol/ml) and DAPS (2.5% and 5%; eq. to 0.08 and 0.16 mmol/ml) on dermatitis are quantified, expressing the data as the mean ± SEM of the percentage of blue-stained area relative to the total area of the ear. The number of animals used for each determination is shown in parentheses: ***p

    Article Snippet: Chemicals Potassium 2,5-dihydroxyphenyl sulfonate (DHPS) was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (Saint Louis, MO) and reagent-grade potassium 2,5-diacetoxyphenyl sulfonate (DAPS) was purchased from Aurigene (Bangalore, India).

    Techniques: Injection, Expressing, Staining

    Effects of intraperitoneal administration of potassium 2,5-dihydroxyphenyl sulfonate (DHPS) and potassium 2,5-diacetoxyphenyl sulfonate (DAPS) on the progression of tumors established in rats by subcutaneous implantation of rat glioma C6 cells (5 × 10 5 cells). Photographs show tumors removed from rats treated with vehicle (0.9% NaCl; n = 11; A ), DHPS (100 mg/kg/d; eq. to 0.44 mmol/kg/d, i.p. for 10 days; n = 12; B ), or DAPS (100 mg/kg/d, eq. to 0.32 mmol/kg/d, i.p. for 10 days; n = 13; C ). Treatment began once the presence of a tumor was verified on the fifth day after glioma cell implantation. Tumors were removed after 10 days of treatment and the empty spaces in panel C correspond to tumors that had completely regressed after DAPS treatment (N.D., not detected). A 10 mm bar is displayed in each image. Panels D and E show the quantification and comparison of the volumes and weights, respectively, of the tumors developed in rats treated with vehicle (VEH), DHPS or DAPS. The data are expressed as the mean ± SEM. numbers of animals are shown in parenthesis. *p

    Journal: Journal of Translational Medicine

    Article Title: Diacetyloxyl derivatization of the fibroblast growth factor inhibitor dobesilate enhances its anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumoral activities

    doi: 10.1186/s12967-015-0413-4

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of intraperitoneal administration of potassium 2,5-dihydroxyphenyl sulfonate (DHPS) and potassium 2,5-diacetoxyphenyl sulfonate (DAPS) on the progression of tumors established in rats by subcutaneous implantation of rat glioma C6 cells (5 × 10 5 cells). Photographs show tumors removed from rats treated with vehicle (0.9% NaCl; n = 11; A ), DHPS (100 mg/kg/d; eq. to 0.44 mmol/kg/d, i.p. for 10 days; n = 12; B ), or DAPS (100 mg/kg/d, eq. to 0.32 mmol/kg/d, i.p. for 10 days; n = 13; C ). Treatment began once the presence of a tumor was verified on the fifth day after glioma cell implantation. Tumors were removed after 10 days of treatment and the empty spaces in panel C correspond to tumors that had completely regressed after DAPS treatment (N.D., not detected). A 10 mm bar is displayed in each image. Panels D and E show the quantification and comparison of the volumes and weights, respectively, of the tumors developed in rats treated with vehicle (VEH), DHPS or DAPS. The data are expressed as the mean ± SEM. numbers of animals are shown in parenthesis. *p

    Article Snippet: Chemicals Potassium 2,5-dihydroxyphenyl sulfonate (DHPS) was obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (Saint Louis, MO) and reagent-grade potassium 2,5-diacetoxyphenyl sulfonate (DAPS) was purchased from Aurigene (Bangalore, India).

    Techniques:

    E2 inhibited but DHP stimulated the expression of fshb and lhb, independently from E2 inhibition

    Journal: The Journal of endocrinology

    Article Title: Progestin Increases the Expression of Gonadotropins in Pituitaries of Male Zebrafish

    doi: 10.1530/JOE-16-0073

    Figure Lengend Snippet: E2 inhibited but DHP stimulated the expression of fshb and lhb, independently from E2 inhibition

    Article Snippet: Fish were then exposed again to 10 nM E2 either with or without 100 nM DHP (Sigma-Aldrich, China) for another 24 hr.

    Techniques: Expressing, Inhibition

    Characterization of NaaD. The enzyme activity was measured according to the absorbance decrease at 320 nm. The reaction mixture contain NaaD, 250 μM 2,5-DHP, and 5 μM FeSO 4 . ( a ) Negative control, 2,5-DHP; ( b ) reaction of NaaD (NaaD + 2,5-DHP); ( c ) reaction of NaaD (NaaD + 2,5-DHP + Fe 2+ ); ( d ) negative control, NaaD.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Microbial Degradation of Nicotinamide by a Strain Alcaligenes sp. P156

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-40199-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Characterization of NaaD. The enzyme activity was measured according to the absorbance decrease at 320 nm. The reaction mixture contain NaaD, 250 μM 2,5-DHP, and 5 μM FeSO 4 . ( a ) Negative control, 2,5-DHP; ( b ) reaction of NaaD (NaaD + 2,5-DHP); ( c ) reaction of NaaD (NaaD + 2,5-DHP + Fe 2+ ); ( d ) negative control, NaaD.

    Article Snippet: 2,5-DHP was purchased from SynChem OHG (Kassel Corp., Kassel, Germany).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Negative Control

    Characterization of NaaE and NaaF. ( a ) Enzymatic activity of NaaE. The enzyme activity was measured according to the absorbance change at 340 nm. N -formylmaleamic acid was produced by adding NaaD, 500 μM 2,5-DHP, and 5 μM FeSO 4 . NaaE activity was measured by adding NaaE to the NaaD catalyzed reaction mixture after 3 min. Formic acid was detected by adding 500 μM NAD + and 0.5 unit formic acid dehydrogenase to the NaaE catalyzed reaction mixture. ( b ) LC-MS analysis of NaaF catalyzed reaction. 2 mM maleamic acid was mixed with NaaF and incubated at 25 °C for 3 hours.

    Journal: Scientific Reports

    Article Title: Microbial Degradation of Nicotinamide by a Strain Alcaligenes sp. P156

    doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-40199-0

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Characterization of NaaE and NaaF. ( a ) Enzymatic activity of NaaE. The enzyme activity was measured according to the absorbance change at 340 nm. N -formylmaleamic acid was produced by adding NaaD, 500 μM 2,5-DHP, and 5 μM FeSO 4 . NaaE activity was measured by adding NaaE to the NaaD catalyzed reaction mixture after 3 min. Formic acid was detected by adding 500 μM NAD + and 0.5 unit formic acid dehydrogenase to the NaaE catalyzed reaction mixture. ( b ) LC-MS analysis of NaaF catalyzed reaction. 2 mM maleamic acid was mixed with NaaF and incubated at 25 °C for 3 hours.

    Article Snippet: 2,5-DHP was purchased from SynChem OHG (Kassel Corp., Kassel, Germany).

    Techniques: Activity Assay, Produced, Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectroscopy, Incubation

    Experimental induction of neurosteroid resistance at late pregnancy. A , Left , Average sIPSCs obtained in SON neurons at P20 showing a large 3α-OH-DHP effect under endogenous conditions using unbuffered pipette medium. Right , Histogram of the sIPSC decay time constants of experiment shown on the left . B , Average sIPSCs in the absence and presence of 3α-OH-DHP and histogram showing that phosphatase inhibition prevents 3α-OH-DHP effect on sIPSC decay. C , Average sIPSCs in the absence and presence of 3α-OH-DHP and histogram showing that PKC activation also prevents 3α-OH-DHP effect on sIPSC decay. D , Summary graph illustrating the relative effects of 3α-OH-DHP on sIPSC decay time constants under the endogenous condition (to 196 ± 31% of control; p

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: Oxytocin Regulates Neurosteroid Modulation of GABAAReceptors in Supraoptic Nucleus around Parturition

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.23-03-00788.2003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Experimental induction of neurosteroid resistance at late pregnancy. A , Left , Average sIPSCs obtained in SON neurons at P20 showing a large 3α-OH-DHP effect under endogenous conditions using unbuffered pipette medium. Right , Histogram of the sIPSC decay time constants of experiment shown on the left . B , Average sIPSCs in the absence and presence of 3α-OH-DHP and histogram showing that phosphatase inhibition prevents 3α-OH-DHP effect on sIPSC decay. C , Average sIPSCs in the absence and presence of 3α-OH-DHP and histogram showing that PKC activation also prevents 3α-OH-DHP effect on sIPSC decay. D , Summary graph illustrating the relative effects of 3α-OH-DHP on sIPSC decay time constants under the endogenous condition (to 196 ± 31% of control; p

    Article Snippet: 3α-OH-DHP was obtained from Research Biochemicals, dissolved in DMSO at 10 m m, and further diluted in external solution before application (10 μ m ).

    Techniques: Transferring, Inhibition, Activation Assay

    Effect of 3α-OH-DHP in transgenic mice lacking GABA A R α1 subunit. A , α subunit mRNA expression levels in the SON of α1 −/− animals, normalized for the expression of β-actin mRNA and plotted relative to the expression of the WT levels ( n = 4). None of the subunits in α1 −/− mice was significantly different from WT. B , Relative contribution of α1 to α6 to the total α subunit mRNA expression in α1 −/− and WT mice. C , Left , Average sIPSCs obtained in SON neurons from WT and α1 −/− mice. Traces are averages of 100 sIPSCs per recording. The decay of sIPSCs was fitted with a single-exponential function. Right , Histogram of the sIPSC decay time constants of experiments shown on the left . D , Averaged sIPSCs recorded from WT in the absence and presence of 3α-OH-DHP and decay time constant histogram showing a significant shift to the right in the presence of 3α-OH-DHP. E , Average sIPSCs in the absence and presence of 3α-OH-DHP and histogram of sIPSC decay from an α1 −/− recording showing a similarly large increase of decay by 3α-OH-DHP. F , Summary graph illustrating difference in sIPSC decay time constants between WT and α1 −/− mice (WT, 19.5 ± 1.1 msec, n = 14; α1 −/−, 26.3 ± 1.3 msec, n = 15; p

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: Oxytocin Regulates Neurosteroid Modulation of GABAAReceptors in Supraoptic Nucleus around Parturition

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.23-03-00788.2003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of 3α-OH-DHP in transgenic mice lacking GABA A R α1 subunit. A , α subunit mRNA expression levels in the SON of α1 −/− animals, normalized for the expression of β-actin mRNA and plotted relative to the expression of the WT levels ( n = 4). None of the subunits in α1 −/− mice was significantly different from WT. B , Relative contribution of α1 to α6 to the total α subunit mRNA expression in α1 −/− and WT mice. C , Left , Average sIPSCs obtained in SON neurons from WT and α1 −/− mice. Traces are averages of 100 sIPSCs per recording. The decay of sIPSCs was fitted with a single-exponential function. Right , Histogram of the sIPSC decay time constants of experiments shown on the left . D , Averaged sIPSCs recorded from WT in the absence and presence of 3α-OH-DHP and decay time constant histogram showing a significant shift to the right in the presence of 3α-OH-DHP. E , Average sIPSCs in the absence and presence of 3α-OH-DHP and histogram of sIPSC decay from an α1 −/− recording showing a similarly large increase of decay by 3α-OH-DHP. F , Summary graph illustrating difference in sIPSC decay time constants between WT and α1 −/− mice (WT, 19.5 ± 1.1 msec, n = 14; α1 −/−, 26.3 ± 1.3 msec, n = 15; p

    Article Snippet: 3α-OH-DHP was obtained from Research Biochemicals, dissolved in DMSO at 10 m m, and further diluted in external solution before application (10 μ m ).

    Techniques: Transgenic Assay, Mouse Assay, Expressing

    Oxytocin autoregulation renders GABA A Rs insensitive to neurosteroid. A , Left , Superimposed average sIPSCs before and after 3α-OH-DHP application obtained in SON neurons at P20 pretreated with OT. Right , Decay time constant histogram of this experiment. B , Average sIPSCs in the absence and presence of 3α-OH-DHP and decay time constant histogram showing large 3α-OH-DHP effect at PPD1 after block of oxytocin autoreceptors. C , Summary graph illustrating the dependence of the neurosteroid effect on oxytocin receptor activity. Decay plotted as percentage of controls. White bars , Control; gray bars , 3α-OH-DHP. Notice the differences with the endogenous condition at both stages. After OT pretreatment, 3α-OH-DHP did not affect sIPSC decay time constants (104 ± 5% compared with during OT pretreatment; p > 0.05; n = 6). OT by itself had a small but nonsignificant effect on sIPSC decay time constants (114 ± 7% of control; p > 0.05; n = 8). As expected, OT decreased sIPSC amplitudes (68 ± 13% of control; p

    Journal: The Journal of Neuroscience

    Article Title: Oxytocin Regulates Neurosteroid Modulation of GABAAReceptors in Supraoptic Nucleus around Parturition

    doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.23-03-00788.2003

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Oxytocin autoregulation renders GABA A Rs insensitive to neurosteroid. A , Left , Superimposed average sIPSCs before and after 3α-OH-DHP application obtained in SON neurons at P20 pretreated with OT. Right , Decay time constant histogram of this experiment. B , Average sIPSCs in the absence and presence of 3α-OH-DHP and decay time constant histogram showing large 3α-OH-DHP effect at PPD1 after block of oxytocin autoreceptors. C , Summary graph illustrating the dependence of the neurosteroid effect on oxytocin receptor activity. Decay plotted as percentage of controls. White bars , Control; gray bars , 3α-OH-DHP. Notice the differences with the endogenous condition at both stages. After OT pretreatment, 3α-OH-DHP did not affect sIPSC decay time constants (104 ± 5% compared with during OT pretreatment; p > 0.05; n = 6). OT by itself had a small but nonsignificant effect on sIPSC decay time constants (114 ± 7% of control; p > 0.05; n = 8). As expected, OT decreased sIPSC amplitudes (68 ± 13% of control; p

    Article Snippet: 3α-OH-DHP was obtained from Research Biochemicals, dissolved in DMSO at 10 m m, and further diluted in external solution before application (10 μ m ).

    Techniques: Blocking Assay, Activity Assay