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    Hospira dexmedetomidine
    Duration of motor block after intrathecal injection of <t>dexmedetomidine</t> (DEX), fentanyl (F) and Marcaine (M) Bupivacaine, as the control group; DEX was significantly higher than fentanyl and Marcaine groups.
    Dexmedetomidine, supplied by Hospira, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dexmedetomidine/product/Hospira
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    dexmedetomidine - by Bioz Stars, 2021-03
    86/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    86
    Pfizer Inc dexmedetomidine
    Effect of <t>dexmedetomidine</t> on BDNF and TrkB expression in the hippocampus. A: Evaluation of dose-dependent effects of dexmedetomidine on BDNF and TrkB expression ( n = 8). (a) Control group, (b) sleep deprivation group, (c) sleep deprivation and 5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (d) sleep deprivation and 10 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (e) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. B: Evaluation of effect of dexmedetomidine antagonist on BDNF and TrkB expression ( n = 8). (f) Control group, (g) sleep deprivation group, (h) sleep deprivation 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated group, (i) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (j) sleep deprivation and 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated with 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. * represents P
    Dexmedetomidine, supplied by Pfizer Inc, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dexmedetomidine/product/Pfizer Inc
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    dexmedetomidine - by Bioz Stars, 2021-03
    86/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    86
    Zoetis dexmedetomidine
    Effect of <t>dexmedetomidine</t> on BDNF and TrkB expression in the hippocampus. A: Evaluation of dose-dependent effects of dexmedetomidine on BDNF and TrkB expression ( n = 8). (a) Control group, (b) sleep deprivation group, (c) sleep deprivation and 5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (d) sleep deprivation and 10 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (e) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. B: Evaluation of effect of dexmedetomidine antagonist on BDNF and TrkB expression ( n = 8). (f) Control group, (g) sleep deprivation group, (h) sleep deprivation 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated group, (i) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (j) sleep deprivation and 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated with 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. * represents P
    Dexmedetomidine, supplied by Zoetis, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dexmedetomidine/product/Zoetis
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    dexmedetomidine - by Bioz Stars, 2021-03
    86/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    86
    Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine dexmedetomidine
    Changes in sleep latency, architecture, and EEG power density of NREM sleep produced by administration of <t>dexmedetomidine.</t> (A) Effect of different doses of dexmedetomidine on NREM sleep latency. Values are mean ± SEM ( n = 6). ∗ P
    Dexmedetomidine, supplied by Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 86/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
    https://www.bioz.com/result/dexmedetomidine/product/Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine
    Average 86 stars, based on 1 article reviews
    Price from $9.99 to $1999.99
    dexmedetomidine - by Bioz Stars, 2021-03
    86/100 stars
      Buy from Supplier

    Image Search Results


    Duration of motor block after intrathecal injection of dexmedetomidine (DEX), fentanyl (F) and Marcaine (M) Bupivacaine, as the control group; DEX was significantly higher than fentanyl and Marcaine groups.

    Journal: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

    Article Title: Intrathecal Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl as Adjuvant to Bupivacaine on Duration of Spinal Block in Addicted Patients

    doi: 10.5812/aapm.26714

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Duration of motor block after intrathecal injection of dexmedetomidine (DEX), fentanyl (F) and Marcaine (M) Bupivacaine, as the control group; DEX was significantly higher than fentanyl and Marcaine groups.

    Article Snippet: Patient Selection Patients were randomly allocated to receive dexmedetomidine (Precedex, Hospira, USA) 5 µg diluted in 0.5 mL normal saline added to 12.5 mg (2.5 mL) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (Mylan, Italy) (DEX group) or 25 µg (0.5 mL) fentanyl (Caspian Tamin, Iran) added to 12.5 mg (2.5 mL) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (F group).

    Techniques: Blocking Assay, Injection

    Onset of Sensory Block After Intrathecal Injection of Dexmedetomidine (DEX), or Fentanyl (F) and Marcaine (M), Marcaine (Bupivacaine) P value for DEX versus F and M groups is less than 0.05.

    Journal: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

    Article Title: Intrathecal Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl as Adjuvant to Bupivacaine on Duration of Spinal Block in Addicted Patients

    doi: 10.5812/aapm.26714

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Onset of Sensory Block After Intrathecal Injection of Dexmedetomidine (DEX), or Fentanyl (F) and Marcaine (M), Marcaine (Bupivacaine) P value for DEX versus F and M groups is less than 0.05.

    Article Snippet: Patient Selection Patients were randomly allocated to receive dexmedetomidine (Precedex, Hospira, USA) 5 µg diluted in 0.5 mL normal saline added to 12.5 mg (2.5 mL) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (Mylan, Italy) (DEX group) or 25 µg (0.5 mL) fentanyl (Caspian Tamin, Iran) added to 12.5 mg (2.5 mL) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (F group).

    Techniques: Blocking Assay, Injection

    Heart Rate and Mean Arterial Blood Pressure (MAP) and Arterial Oxygen Saturation (%) of Patients After Intrathecal Injection of Dexmedetomidine (DEX), Fentanyl (F) and Marcaine (M), Bupivacaine The Control Group P value for DEX versus F and M groups is less than 0.05.

    Journal: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

    Article Title: Intrathecal Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl as Adjuvant to Bupivacaine on Duration of Spinal Block in Addicted Patients

    doi: 10.5812/aapm.26714

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Heart Rate and Mean Arterial Blood Pressure (MAP) and Arterial Oxygen Saturation (%) of Patients After Intrathecal Injection of Dexmedetomidine (DEX), Fentanyl (F) and Marcaine (M), Bupivacaine The Control Group P value for DEX versus F and M groups is less than 0.05.

    Article Snippet: Patient Selection Patients were randomly allocated to receive dexmedetomidine (Precedex, Hospira, USA) 5 µg diluted in 0.5 mL normal saline added to 12.5 mg (2.5 mL) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (Mylan, Italy) (DEX group) or 25 µg (0.5 mL) fentanyl (Caspian Tamin, Iran) added to 12.5 mg (2.5 mL) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (F group).

    Techniques: Injection

    Duration of Sensory Block After Intrathecal Injection of Dexmedetomidine (DEX), Fentanyl (F) and Marcaine (M) P value for DEX versus F and M groups is less than 0.05.

    Journal: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

    Article Title: Intrathecal Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl as Adjuvant to Bupivacaine on Duration of Spinal Block in Addicted Patients

    doi: 10.5812/aapm.26714

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Duration of Sensory Block After Intrathecal Injection of Dexmedetomidine (DEX), Fentanyl (F) and Marcaine (M) P value for DEX versus F and M groups is less than 0.05.

    Article Snippet: Patient Selection Patients were randomly allocated to receive dexmedetomidine (Precedex, Hospira, USA) 5 µg diluted in 0.5 mL normal saline added to 12.5 mg (2.5 mL) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (Mylan, Italy) (DEX group) or 25 µg (0.5 mL) fentanyl (Caspian Tamin, Iran) added to 12.5 mg (2.5 mL) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (F group).

    Techniques: Blocking Assay, Injection

    Pain Score Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of Patients in Post-Operation Time After Intrathecal Injection of Dexmedetomidine (DEX), Fentanyl (F) and Marcaine (M) Bupivacaine as The Control Group P value for DEX versus F and M groups is less than 0.05.

    Journal: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

    Article Title: Intrathecal Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl as Adjuvant to Bupivacaine on Duration of Spinal Block in Addicted Patients

    doi: 10.5812/aapm.26714

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Pain Score Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of Patients in Post-Operation Time After Intrathecal Injection of Dexmedetomidine (DEX), Fentanyl (F) and Marcaine (M) Bupivacaine as The Control Group P value for DEX versus F and M groups is less than 0.05.

    Article Snippet: Patient Selection Patients were randomly allocated to receive dexmedetomidine (Precedex, Hospira, USA) 5 µg diluted in 0.5 mL normal saline added to 12.5 mg (2.5 mL) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (Mylan, Italy) (DEX group) or 25 µg (0.5 mL) fentanyl (Caspian Tamin, Iran) added to 12.5 mg (2.5 mL) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (F group).

    Techniques: Injection

    Onset of Motor Block After Intrathecal Injection of Dexmedetomidine (DEX), or Fentanyl (F) and Marcaine (M) Onset of motor block was significantly lower in the fentanyl and Marcaine groups; P value for DEX versus F and M groups is less than 0.05.

    Journal: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

    Article Title: Intrathecal Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl as Adjuvant to Bupivacaine on Duration of Spinal Block in Addicted Patients

    doi: 10.5812/aapm.26714

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Onset of Motor Block After Intrathecal Injection of Dexmedetomidine (DEX), or Fentanyl (F) and Marcaine (M) Onset of motor block was significantly lower in the fentanyl and Marcaine groups; P value for DEX versus F and M groups is less than 0.05.

    Article Snippet: Patient Selection Patients were randomly allocated to receive dexmedetomidine (Precedex, Hospira, USA) 5 µg diluted in 0.5 mL normal saline added to 12.5 mg (2.5 mL) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (Mylan, Italy) (DEX group) or 25 µg (0.5 mL) fentanyl (Caspian Tamin, Iran) added to 12.5 mg (2.5 mL) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (F group).

    Techniques: Blocking Assay, Injection

    Sedation scale (Ramsey scale) of Patients in Post-Operation Time After Intrathecal Injection of Dexmedetomidine (DEX), Fentanyl (F) and Marcaine (M) Bupivacaine The Control Group P value for DEX versus F and M groups is less than 0.05.

    Journal: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

    Article Title: Intrathecal Dexmedetomidine and Fentanyl as Adjuvant to Bupivacaine on Duration of Spinal Block in Addicted Patients

    doi: 10.5812/aapm.26714

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sedation scale (Ramsey scale) of Patients in Post-Operation Time After Intrathecal Injection of Dexmedetomidine (DEX), Fentanyl (F) and Marcaine (M) Bupivacaine The Control Group P value for DEX versus F and M groups is less than 0.05.

    Article Snippet: Patient Selection Patients were randomly allocated to receive dexmedetomidine (Precedex, Hospira, USA) 5 µg diluted in 0.5 mL normal saline added to 12.5 mg (2.5 mL) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (Mylan, Italy) (DEX group) or 25 µg (0.5 mL) fentanyl (Caspian Tamin, Iran) added to 12.5 mg (2.5 mL) of 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine (F group).

    Techniques: Injection

    Effect of dexmedetomidine on BDNF and TrkB expression in the hippocampus. A: Evaluation of dose-dependent effects of dexmedetomidine on BDNF and TrkB expression ( n = 8). (a) Control group, (b) sleep deprivation group, (c) sleep deprivation and 5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (d) sleep deprivation and 10 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (e) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. B: Evaluation of effect of dexmedetomidine antagonist on BDNF and TrkB expression ( n = 8). (f) Control group, (g) sleep deprivation group, (h) sleep deprivation 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated group, (i) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (j) sleep deprivation and 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated with 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. * represents P

    Journal: Animal Cells and Systems

    Article Title: Dexmedetomidine ameliorates memory impairment in sleep-deprived mice

    doi: 10.1080/19768354.2019.1688185

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of dexmedetomidine on BDNF and TrkB expression in the hippocampus. A: Evaluation of dose-dependent effects of dexmedetomidine on BDNF and TrkB expression ( n = 8). (a) Control group, (b) sleep deprivation group, (c) sleep deprivation and 5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (d) sleep deprivation and 10 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (e) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. B: Evaluation of effect of dexmedetomidine antagonist on BDNF and TrkB expression ( n = 8). (f) Control group, (g) sleep deprivation group, (h) sleep deprivation 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated group, (i) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (j) sleep deprivation and 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated with 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. * represents P

    Article Snippet: After one day of sleep deprivation, dexmedetomidine (Precedex, Pfizer, NY, USA) and α2- adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole (Antisedan, Orion Pharma, Espoo, Finland) were injected intraperitoneally into the mice, once a day for six days.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Effect of dexmedetomidine on the spatial learning ability. A: Evaluation of dose-dependent effects of dexmedetomidine on spatial learning ability ( n = 8). (a) Control group, (b) Sleep deprivation (SD)-induced group, (c) SD-induced and 5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (d) SD-induced and 10 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (e) SD-induced and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. B: Evaluation of effect of dexmedetomidine antagonist on spatial learning ability ( n = 8). (f) Control group, (g) sleep deprivation group, (h) sleep deprivation 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated group, (i) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (j) sleep deprivation and 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated with 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. * represents P

    Journal: Animal Cells and Systems

    Article Title: Dexmedetomidine ameliorates memory impairment in sleep-deprived mice

    doi: 10.1080/19768354.2019.1688185

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of dexmedetomidine on the spatial learning ability. A: Evaluation of dose-dependent effects of dexmedetomidine on spatial learning ability ( n = 8). (a) Control group, (b) Sleep deprivation (SD)-induced group, (c) SD-induced and 5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (d) SD-induced and 10 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (e) SD-induced and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. B: Evaluation of effect of dexmedetomidine antagonist on spatial learning ability ( n = 8). (f) Control group, (g) sleep deprivation group, (h) sleep deprivation 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated group, (i) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (j) sleep deprivation and 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated with 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. * represents P

    Article Snippet: After one day of sleep deprivation, dexmedetomidine (Precedex, Pfizer, NY, USA) and α2- adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole (Antisedan, Orion Pharma, Espoo, Finland) were injected intraperitoneally into the mice, once a day for six days.

    Techniques:

    Effect of dexmedetomidine on Ki-67 and GFAP expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. A: Evaluation of dose-dependent effects of dexmedetomidine on GFAP and Ki-67 expression ( n = 8). (a) Control group, (b) sleep deprivation group, (c) sleep deprivation and 5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (d) sleep deprivation and 10 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (e) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. B: Evaluation of effect of dexmedetomidine antagonist on GFAP expression and Ki-67 ( n = 8). (f) Control group, (g) sleep deprivation group, (h) sleep deprivation 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated group, (i) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (j) sleep deprivation and 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated with 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. Insets show Ki-67 and GFAP-positive expression. The scale bars represent 150 μm. Insets are higher magnification (scale bar: 50 μm). * represents P

    Journal: Animal Cells and Systems

    Article Title: Dexmedetomidine ameliorates memory impairment in sleep-deprived mice

    doi: 10.1080/19768354.2019.1688185

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of dexmedetomidine on Ki-67 and GFAP expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. A: Evaluation of dose-dependent effects of dexmedetomidine on GFAP and Ki-67 expression ( n = 8). (a) Control group, (b) sleep deprivation group, (c) sleep deprivation and 5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (d) sleep deprivation and 10 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (e) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. B: Evaluation of effect of dexmedetomidine antagonist on GFAP expression and Ki-67 ( n = 8). (f) Control group, (g) sleep deprivation group, (h) sleep deprivation 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated group, (i) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (j) sleep deprivation and 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated with 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. Insets show Ki-67 and GFAP-positive expression. The scale bars represent 150 μm. Insets are higher magnification (scale bar: 50 μm). * represents P

    Article Snippet: After one day of sleep deprivation, dexmedetomidine (Precedex, Pfizer, NY, USA) and α2- adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole (Antisedan, Orion Pharma, Espoo, Finland) were injected intraperitoneally into the mice, once a day for six days.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Structural formula of dexmedetomidine.

    Journal: Animal Cells and Systems

    Article Title: Dexmedetomidine ameliorates memory impairment in sleep-deprived mice

    doi: 10.1080/19768354.2019.1688185

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Structural formula of dexmedetomidine.

    Article Snippet: After one day of sleep deprivation, dexmedetomidine (Precedex, Pfizer, NY, USA) and α2- adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole (Antisedan, Orion Pharma, Espoo, Finland) were injected intraperitoneally into the mice, once a day for six days.

    Techniques:

    Effect of dexmedetomidine on short-term memory. A: Evaluation of dose-dependent effects of dexmedetomidine on short-term memory ( n = 8). (a) Control group, (b) sleep deprivation group, (c) sleep deprivation and 5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (d) sleep deprivation and 10 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (e) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. B: Evaluation of effect of dexmedetomedine antagonist on short-term memory ( n = 8). (f) Control group, (g) sleep deprivation group, (h) sleep deprivation 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated group, (i) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (j) sleep deprivation and 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated with 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. * represents P

    Journal: Animal Cells and Systems

    Article Title: Dexmedetomidine ameliorates memory impairment in sleep-deprived mice

    doi: 10.1080/19768354.2019.1688185

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of dexmedetomidine on short-term memory. A: Evaluation of dose-dependent effects of dexmedetomidine on short-term memory ( n = 8). (a) Control group, (b) sleep deprivation group, (c) sleep deprivation and 5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (d) sleep deprivation and 10 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (e) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. B: Evaluation of effect of dexmedetomedine antagonist on short-term memory ( n = 8). (f) Control group, (g) sleep deprivation group, (h) sleep deprivation 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated group, (i) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (j) sleep deprivation and 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated with 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. * represents P

    Article Snippet: After one day of sleep deprivation, dexmedetomidine (Precedex, Pfizer, NY, USA) and α2- adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole (Antisedan, Orion Pharma, Espoo, Finland) were injected intraperitoneally into the mice, once a day for six days.

    Techniques:

    Effect of dexmedetomidine on inflammatory mediators and Iba-1 expression in the hippocampus. A: Evaluation of dose-dependent effects of dexmedetomidine on inflammatory mediators ( n = 8). (a) Control group, (b) sleep deprivation group, (c) sleep deprivation and 5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (d) sleep deprivation and 10 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (e) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. B: Evaluation of effect of dexmedetomidine antagonist on inflammatory mediators ( n = 8). (f) Control group, (g) sleep deprivation group, (h) sleep deprivation 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated group, (i) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (j) sleep deprivation and 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated with 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. * represents P

    Journal: Animal Cells and Systems

    Article Title: Dexmedetomidine ameliorates memory impairment in sleep-deprived mice

    doi: 10.1080/19768354.2019.1688185

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effect of dexmedetomidine on inflammatory mediators and Iba-1 expression in the hippocampus. A: Evaluation of dose-dependent effects of dexmedetomidine on inflammatory mediators ( n = 8). (a) Control group, (b) sleep deprivation group, (c) sleep deprivation and 5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (d) sleep deprivation and 10 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (e) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. B: Evaluation of effect of dexmedetomidine antagonist on inflammatory mediators ( n = 8). (f) Control group, (g) sleep deprivation group, (h) sleep deprivation 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated group, (i) sleep deprivation and 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group, (j) sleep deprivation and 250 μg/kg atipamezole-treated with 20 μg/kg dexmedetomidine-treated group. * represents P

    Article Snippet: After one day of sleep deprivation, dexmedetomidine (Precedex, Pfizer, NY, USA) and α2- adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole (Antisedan, Orion Pharma, Espoo, Finland) were injected intraperitoneally into the mice, once a day for six days.

    Techniques: Expressing

    Changes in sleep latency, architecture, and EEG power density of NREM sleep produced by administration of dexmedetomidine. (A) Effect of different doses of dexmedetomidine on NREM sleep latency. Values are mean ± SEM ( n = 6). ∗ P

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: Oral Delivered Dexmedetomidine Promotes and Consolidates Non-rapid Eye Movement Sleep via Sleep–Wake Regulation Systems in Mice

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01196

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Changes in sleep latency, architecture, and EEG power density of NREM sleep produced by administration of dexmedetomidine. (A) Effect of different doses of dexmedetomidine on NREM sleep latency. Values are mean ± SEM ( n = 6). ∗ P

    Article Snippet: Dexmedetomidine was obtained from the Jiangsu HengRui Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. (Jiangsu, China).

    Techniques: Produced

    Effects of dexmedetomidine on sleep-wake profiles in mice during the dark phase. (A) Typical examples of compressed spectral array (0–25 Hz) EEG, EMG, and hypnograms over 8 h (19:00–03:00) following saline (upper panel) or dexmedetomidine 100 μg/kg (lower panel) administration. (B) Time course changes in NREM sleep, REM sleep, and wakefulness following saline (open circle) and dexmedetomidine (100 μg/kg, i.g.; closed red circle) administration during the dark phase. Each circle represents the hourly mean amount of each stage. The horizontal filled and open bars on the X -axes indicate the 12-h dark and 12-h light periods, respectively. Values are means ± SEM ( n = 6); ∗ P

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: Oral Delivered Dexmedetomidine Promotes and Consolidates Non-rapid Eye Movement Sleep via Sleep–Wake Regulation Systems in Mice

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01196

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of dexmedetomidine on sleep-wake profiles in mice during the dark phase. (A) Typical examples of compressed spectral array (0–25 Hz) EEG, EMG, and hypnograms over 8 h (19:00–03:00) following saline (upper panel) or dexmedetomidine 100 μg/kg (lower panel) administration. (B) Time course changes in NREM sleep, REM sleep, and wakefulness following saline (open circle) and dexmedetomidine (100 μg/kg, i.g.; closed red circle) administration during the dark phase. Each circle represents the hourly mean amount of each stage. The horizontal filled and open bars on the X -axes indicate the 12-h dark and 12-h light periods, respectively. Values are means ± SEM ( n = 6); ∗ P

    Article Snippet: Dexmedetomidine was obtained from the Jiangsu HengRui Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. (Jiangsu, China).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Changes in sleep latency, architecture, and EEG power density of NREM sleep produced by administration of dexmedetomidine during the light phase. (A) Effect of dexmedetomidine 100 μg/kg on NREM sleep latency. Values are mean ± SEM ( n = 6). ∗ P

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: Oral Delivered Dexmedetomidine Promotes and Consolidates Non-rapid Eye Movement Sleep via Sleep–Wake Regulation Systems in Mice

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01196

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Changes in sleep latency, architecture, and EEG power density of NREM sleep produced by administration of dexmedetomidine during the light phase. (A) Effect of dexmedetomidine 100 μg/kg on NREM sleep latency. Values are mean ± SEM ( n = 6). ∗ P

    Article Snippet: Dexmedetomidine was obtained from the Jiangsu HengRui Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. (Jiangsu, China).

    Techniques: Produced

    Sleep–wake profiles produced by administration of dexmedetomidine in mice during the light phase. (A) Typical examples of compressed spectral array (0–25 Hz) EEG, EMG, and hypnograms over 8 h (07:00–15:00) following saline (upper panel) and dexmedetomidine 100 μg/kg (lower panel) administration. (B) Time course changes in NREM sleep, REM sleep, and wakefulness following saline (open circle), dexmedetomidine i.g. (100 μg/kg; closed red circle), dexmedetomidine i.p. (100 μg/kg; closed rose red circle), and diazepam i.g. (6 mg/kg; closed green circle) administration during the light phase. The horizontal open and filled bars on the X -axes indicate the 12-h light and 12-h dark periods, respectively. Each circle represents the hourly mean ± SEM of NREM sleep, REM sleep, and wakefulness ( n = 6). ∗ P

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: Oral Delivered Dexmedetomidine Promotes and Consolidates Non-rapid Eye Movement Sleep via Sleep–Wake Regulation Systems in Mice

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01196

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Sleep–wake profiles produced by administration of dexmedetomidine in mice during the light phase. (A) Typical examples of compressed spectral array (0–25 Hz) EEG, EMG, and hypnograms over 8 h (07:00–15:00) following saline (upper panel) and dexmedetomidine 100 μg/kg (lower panel) administration. (B) Time course changes in NREM sleep, REM sleep, and wakefulness following saline (open circle), dexmedetomidine i.g. (100 μg/kg; closed red circle), dexmedetomidine i.p. (100 μg/kg; closed rose red circle), and diazepam i.g. (6 mg/kg; closed green circle) administration during the light phase. The horizontal open and filled bars on the X -axes indicate the 12-h light and 12-h dark periods, respectively. Each circle represents the hourly mean ± SEM of NREM sleep, REM sleep, and wakefulness ( n = 6). ∗ P

    Article Snippet: Dexmedetomidine was obtained from the Jiangsu HengRui Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. (Jiangsu, China).

    Techniques: Produced, Mouse Assay

    Effects of dexmedetomidine on c-Fos expression in the cerebral cortex during the dark phase. (A,a,B,b) Representative photomicrographs of c-Fos expression in the cerebral cortex after saline or dexmedetomidine treatment during the dark phase. (a,b) High-magnification views of the square areas marked in (a,b) from (A,B) ; the arrowheads indicate c-Fos positive cells in the cerebral cortex. Scale bars: left panel, 100 μm; right panel, 50 μm. (C) Amount of c-Fos positive cells in the square areas (200 × 200 μm) of the cerebral cortex 120 min after treatment with saline or dexmedetomidine 100 μg/kg during the dark phase. Values are expressed as means ± SEM ( n = 4), ∗∗ P

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: Oral Delivered Dexmedetomidine Promotes and Consolidates Non-rapid Eye Movement Sleep via Sleep–Wake Regulation Systems in Mice

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01196

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of dexmedetomidine on c-Fos expression in the cerebral cortex during the dark phase. (A,a,B,b) Representative photomicrographs of c-Fos expression in the cerebral cortex after saline or dexmedetomidine treatment during the dark phase. (a,b) High-magnification views of the square areas marked in (a,b) from (A,B) ; the arrowheads indicate c-Fos positive cells in the cerebral cortex. Scale bars: left panel, 100 μm; right panel, 50 μm. (C) Amount of c-Fos positive cells in the square areas (200 × 200 μm) of the cerebral cortex 120 min after treatment with saline or dexmedetomidine 100 μg/kg during the dark phase. Values are expressed as means ± SEM ( n = 4), ∗∗ P

    Article Snippet: Dexmedetomidine was obtained from the Jiangsu HengRui Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. (Jiangsu, China).

    Techniques: Expressing

    Effects of oral delivery dexmedetomidine on LMA in mice during the dark phase. (A–D) Time course changes in LMA following saline (open circle) or dexmedetomidine (25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/kg, i.g.; closed red circle) administration during the dark phase. Each circle represents the hourly mean amount of LMA. The horizontal filled and open bars on the X -axes indicate the 12-h dark and 12-h light periods, respectively. Values are means ± SEM ( n = 8), ∗ P

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: Oral Delivered Dexmedetomidine Promotes and Consolidates Non-rapid Eye Movement Sleep via Sleep–Wake Regulation Systems in Mice

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01196

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of oral delivery dexmedetomidine on LMA in mice during the dark phase. (A–D) Time course changes in LMA following saline (open circle) or dexmedetomidine (25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/kg, i.g.; closed red circle) administration during the dark phase. Each circle represents the hourly mean amount of LMA. The horizontal filled and open bars on the X -axes indicate the 12-h dark and 12-h light periods, respectively. Values are means ± SEM ( n = 8), ∗ P

    Article Snippet: Dexmedetomidine was obtained from the Jiangsu HengRui Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. (Jiangsu, China).

    Techniques: Mouse Assay

    Effects of dexmedetomidine on c-Fos expression in the VLPO and subcortical arousal systems in mice during the dark phase. (A–J) Representative photomicrographs of c-Fos expression in the VLPO, LH, TMN, LDT, MPB, LPB, and LC treated saline or dexmedetomidine 100 μg/kg. (a–j) High-magnification views of different brain areas treatment with saline or dexmedetomidine. (K) Amount of c-Fos positive cells after 120 min following treatment with saline or dexmedetomidine 100 μg/kg during the dark phase. Values are expressed as means ± SEM ( n = 4), ∗ P

    Journal: Frontiers in Pharmacology

    Article Title: Oral Delivered Dexmedetomidine Promotes and Consolidates Non-rapid Eye Movement Sleep via Sleep–Wake Regulation Systems in Mice

    doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01196

    Figure Lengend Snippet: Effects of dexmedetomidine on c-Fos expression in the VLPO and subcortical arousal systems in mice during the dark phase. (A–J) Representative photomicrographs of c-Fos expression in the VLPO, LH, TMN, LDT, MPB, LPB, and LC treated saline or dexmedetomidine 100 μg/kg. (a–j) High-magnification views of different brain areas treatment with saline or dexmedetomidine. (K) Amount of c-Fos positive cells after 120 min following treatment with saline or dexmedetomidine 100 μg/kg during the dark phase. Values are expressed as means ± SEM ( n = 4), ∗ P

    Article Snippet: Dexmedetomidine was obtained from the Jiangsu HengRui Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. (Jiangsu, China).

    Techniques: Expressing, Mouse Assay