Journal: Molecular cancer research : MCR
Article Title: 2,2-Bis(4-Chlorophenyl)-1,1-Dichloroethylene Stimulates Androgen Independence in Prostate Cancer Cells through Combinatorial Activation of Mutant Androgen Receptor and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathways
Figure Lengend Snippet: DDE induces proliferation in AR-T877A – expressing prostate cancer cells. 22Rv1 ( A ) or LNCaP ( B ) cells were cultured in the absence of steroid for 24 h. Then, either vehicle control (0.1% ethanol), 10 −10 mol/L DHT, or increasing doses of DDE (10 −11 , 10 −8 , or 10 −5 mol/L) were added for 24 h. Cells were labeled with BrdUrd for 16 h and BrdUrd incorporation was monitored via indirect immunofluorescence. Dotted line, the level of BrdUrd incorporation in the absence of ligand (vehicle control) for each cell type was set to 1. C. LNCaP cells were cultured in the absence of steroid for 24 h before the addition of ligand [ethanol control, 10 −10 mol/L DHT, or DDE (10 −11 , 10 −8 , or 10 −5 mol/L)] for the indicated times (24, 48, 72, 96, or 120 h) with fresh ligand added every 48 h. At each time point, cells were collected and cell number and viability were determined via trypan blue exclusion. Experiments were repeated with three biological replicates, each analyzed in triplicate. *, P
Article Snippet: DHT, DDT, DDE, resveratrol, coumestrol, and cadmium were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich.
Techniques: Expressing, Cell Culture, Labeling, Immunofluorescence